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Sample records for hydrogen sulfide sensors

  1. Hydrogen sensor (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen sensor Title: Hydrogen sensor A hydrogen sensor for detectingquantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites ...

  2. Hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  3. Thermochemical method for producing hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrington, D.R.

    1984-02-21

    Hydrogen is produced from hydrogen sulfide by a 3-step, thermochemical process comprising: (a) contacting hydrogen sulfide with carbon dioxide to form carbonyl sulfide and water, (b) contacting the carbonyl sulfide produced in (a) with oxygen to form carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, and (c) contacting the carbon monoxide produced in (b) with water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  4. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  5. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from gas-streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.H.; Lieder, C.A.

    1982-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide are removed from a gas stream in a staged procedure characterized by conversion of the hydrogen sulfide to produce sulfur in aqueous solution, hydrolysis of the carbonyl sulfide remaining in the gas stream to produce hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, and removal of the hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream.

  6. Selective Catalaytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived ... catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a sulfur contaminant, ...

  7. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L.; Gorski, Anthony J.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  8. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  9. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  10. Hydrogen Sensor Testing, Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    Factsheet describing the hydrogen sensor testing laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  11. Selective removal of carbonyl sulfide from a hydrogen sulfide containing gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souby, M.C.

    1990-12-25

    This patent describes a process for the selective removal of carbonyl sulfide from a gas mixture also comprising hydrogen sulfide. It comprises contacting the gas mixture with an absorbent comprising from about 35% w to about 55% w of a tertiary amine; from about 5% w to about 15% w of water, and the balance being a physical co-solvent; regenerating the loaded absorbent to remove substantially all of the carbonyl sulfide and most of the hydrogen sulfide to provide a lean absorbent containing hydrogen sulfide in an amount of 0.2% w to 2% w; and recycling the lean absorbent to the contacting step.

  12. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry Authors: Goncharov, Alexander F. ; Lobanov, Sergey S. ; Kruglov, Ivan ; Zhao, Xiao-Miao ; Chen, Xiao-Jia ; Oganov, ...

  14. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copeland, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  15. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  16. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  17. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  18. Hydrogen Sensor Workshop Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3a. The Agenda HYDROGEN SENSOR WORKSHOP AGENDA June 8 th , 2011  Chicago, IL 8:00 am - 8:30 am Registration Workshop will take place in a room at the Convention Center. Exact room 21. 8:30 am - 8:50 am Welcome Remarks William Buttner, NREL DOE Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Program; Role of Sensors 8:50 am - 9:00 am Scott McWorter, SRNL; DOE 9:00 am - 9:20 am 2007 Workshop Robert Glass/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 2011 Workshop Background and Objectives; Technology Update Robert Burgess,

  19. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  20. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  1. Protection by DIGAZFEN-I hydrogen-sulfide corrosion inhibitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voloshin, V.F.; Golosova, O.P.; Mazalevskaya, L.A.; Bakumenko, V.S.; Sheinkman, A.K.

    1988-07-01

    The performance of the new DIGAZFEN-I inhibitor for hydrogen sulfide corrosion in saline-hydrocarbon media, including the components (pyridine bases and fatty-acid aminoethers), was tested. Inhibition was determined gravimetrically on steel St3 in 3% NaCl solution and A-72 gasoline containing 1.5-2 g/liter hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogenation was determined indirectly from the plasticity changes in U9A steel strip specimens which were subsequently tested to failure. In parallel, potentiostatic measurements were made in 3% NaCl saturated with hydrogen sulfide with Armco iron. The inhibitor increased the hydrogen overvoltage and reduced the dissolution current while it also retarded both the anodic and cathodic processes.

  2. Microbial control of hydrogen sulfide production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, A.D.; Bhupathiraju, V.K.; Wofford, N.; McInerney, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    A sulfide-resistant strain of Thiobacillus denitrificans, strain F, prevented the accumulation of sulfide by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans when both organisms were grown in liquid medium. The wild-type strain of T. denitrificans did not prevent the accumulation of sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans. Strain F also prevented the accumulation of sulfide by a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria enriched from an oil field brine. Fermentation balances showed that strain F stoichiometrically oxidized the sulfide produced by D. desulfuricans and the oil field brine enrichment to sulfate. The ability of a strain F to control sulfide production in an experimental system of cores and formation water from the Redfield, Iowa, natural gas storage facility was also investigated. A stable, sulfide-producing biofilm was established in two separate core systems, one of which was inoculated with strain F while the other core system (control) was treated in an identical manner, but was not inoculated with strain F. When formation water with 10 mM acetate and 5 mM nitrate was injected into both core systems, the effluent sulfide concentrations in the control core system ranged from 200 to 460 {mu}M. In the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were lower, ranging from 70 to 110 {mu}M. In order to determine whether strain F could control sulfide production under optimal conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria, the electron donor was changed to lactate and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphate sources) were added to the formation water. When nutrient-supplemented formation water with 3.1 mM lactate and 10 mM nitrate was used, the effluent sulfide concentrations of the control core system initially increased to about 3,800 {mu}M, and then decreased to about 1,100 {mu}M after 5 weeks. However, in the test core system inoculated with strain F, the effluent sulfide concentrations were much lower, 160 to 330 {mu}M.

  3. Hydrogen Sensor Workshop Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensor Workshop Agenda Hydrogen Sensor Workshop Agenda Agenda for the Hydrogen Sensor Workshop held June 8, 2011, in Chicago, Illinois.The workshop was hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Hydrogen Sensor Workshop Agenda (570.09 KB) More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Codes and Standards and Permitting Hydrogen Safety Sensors 2012 Smart Grid Peer Review

  4. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  5. Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2010-08-03

    Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

  6. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  7. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-10-06

    An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

  8. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Bruce R.; Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

  9. Hydrogen Sensor Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensor Workshop Hydrogen Sensor Workshop On June 8, 2011, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a hydrogen sensors workshop to survey emerging fuel cell and hydrogen infrastructure applications that require or would benefit from hydrogen sensors. The workshop also served to identify deficiencies (i.e., technical gaps) of current sensor technologies and to evaluate sensor performance and specification targets for each application in order to meet the defined

  10. Hydrogen Safety Sensors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  11. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a metal boride, nitride, carbide and/or silicide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuiggan, M.F.; Kuch, P.L.

    1984-05-08

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a metal boride, carbide, nitride and/or silicide catalyst, such as titanium carbide, vanadium boride, manganese nitride or molybdenum silicide.

  12. Hydrogen Safety Sensors Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Safety Sensors Workshop Hydrogen Safety Sensors Workshop A DOE-sponsored workshop was held in Washington, DC on April 4, 2007 with approximately 50 experts from industry, government, national laboratories, and universities. The workshop included technical briefings on Today's Commercial Hydrogen Sensors, Standards Issues related to Hydrogen Gas Detection Systems, NFPA 52 Hydrogen Sensor Placement Requirements, and the Committee Draft of the ISO TC197 WG13 on Hydrogen Detectors. A panel of end

  13. Rate of reaction of hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures with fully calcined dolomite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, V.S.; Petrie, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic data are obtained by a gravimetric technique for rates of reaction of calcium oxide in fully calcined dolomite with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures. The data are presented as values for a factor k defined by d(CAO) = -k (CAO) dt. At 600, 700, and 800 degrees C with (H/sub 2/S) from 0.5% to 5.0% by volume and (H/sub 2/S)/(COS) = 20 for mixtures, expressions for k show apparent rate constants and the dependence on sulfurous gas concentration. For example, at 700 degrees C, k = 1.43 x 10/sup -4/ (h2s) 1.06/S and k = 1.70 x 10/sup -4/ (H/sub 2/S + COS) 1.00/s. Since the date show first-order dependence on calcium oxide, k's for H/sub 2/S alone as the sulfurous gas and h2s-cos mixtures can be obtained for the same sample, free from scatter due to variations from sample to sample. Addition of values for k from runs with H/sub 2/S as the only sulfurous gas and runs with COS as the only sulfurous gas are compared to measurements with actual mixtures. K's for the mixtures are approximately 30% higher than the sum of the appropriate separate values.

  14. Solid-State Sensors for Monitoring Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid-State Sensors for Monitoring Hydrogen Solid-State Sensors for Monitoring Hydrogen New Sensors Rapidly and Accurately Detect Hydrogen, Improving Industrial Safety and ...

  15. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum sulfide thin films using trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Soumyadeep; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-15

    Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide are used to deposit aluminum sulfide thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature ranging from 100 to 200?C. Growth rate of 1.3 per ALD cycle is achieved by in-situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements. It is found that the growth rate per ALD cycle is highly dependent on the purging time between the two precursors. Increased purge time results in higher growth rate. Surface limited chemistry during each ALD half cycle is studied by in-situ Fourier transformed infrared vibration spectroscopy. Time of flight secondary ion-mass spectroscopy measurement is used to confirm elemental composition of the deposited films.

  16. Near-continuous measurement of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide by an automatic gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The article describes an automatic gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) that samples and analyzes hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) at 30-sec intervals. Temperature programming was used to elute trace amounts of carbon disulfide (CS2) present in each injection from a Supelpak-S column in a single peak at the end of 15 min runs. The system was used to study the high-temperature fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of H2S and COS with injected calcium oxide (CaO) sorbent, necessitating the near continuous measurement of these gaseous sulfur species. The H2S concentration ranged from 300 to 3000 ppm, and the COS from 30 to 300 ppm. The system was also used to monitor sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels under fuel-lean conditions: results compared very closely with SO2 measurements made simultaneously with continuous ultraviolet (UV) SO2 instrumentation.

  17. Regenerable sorbent and method for removing hydrogen sulfide from hot gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrior, Jr., William L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is effectively removed from hot gaseous mixtures useful for industrial purposes by employing a solid absorbent consisting of silica-supported iron oxide in pellet form.

  18. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  19. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  20. Atomospheric monitoring for hydrogen sulfide by photorateometric analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.

    1981-08-01

    A new method for analysis of the hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) content of the atmosphere is by photorateometric measurement. This detection method consists of a surface chemically treated with lead acetate enclosed in the chamber. Reaction with H/sub 2/S causes a color change. A photocell response is produced by ''rate of change'' electronics, the output of which is proportional to the first derivative of the photocell output. This first derivative signal is a measure of H/sub 2/S concentration. An output linear with concentration is obtained. A range of measurement may be obtained in parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) with extreme accuracy. Response time using the rateometric technique is sufficiently fast to allow plume characterization using surface vehicle or aircraft mounted analyzers.

  1. A small, rugged and inexpensive hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, S.J.; Hughes, R.C.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a new generation hydrogen sensor developed at Sandia National laboratories that is smaller, faster, sturdier, and less expensive to manufacture.

  2. Hydrogen gas sensor and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the pressure of hydrogen gas in a nuclear reactor, and method of manufacturing the same. The sensor comprises an elongated tube of hydrogen permeable material which is connected to a pressure transducer through a feedthrough tube which passes through a wall at the boundary of the region in which hydrogen is present. The tube is pressurized and flushed with hydrogen gas at an elevated temperature during the manufacture of the sensor in order to remove all gasses other than hydrogen from the device.

  3. Development of chemiresponsive sensors for detection of common...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; ACTUATORS; AFFINITY; DETECTION; EXPLOSIVES; HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; POLYMERS; SENSORS; SULFIDES; ...

  4. Methods for producing hydrogen (BI) sulfide and/or removing metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Truex, Michael J [Richland, WA; Peyton, Brent M [Pullman, WA; Toth, James J [Kennewick, WA

    2002-05-14

    The present invention is a process wherein sulfide production by bacteria is efficiently turned on and off, using pH adjustment. The adjustment of pH impacts sulfide production by bacteria by altering the relative amounts of H.sub.2 S and HS-- in solution and thereby control the inhibition of the bacterial metabolism that produces sulfide. This process can be used to make a bioreactor produce sulfide "on-demand" so that the production of sulfide can be matched to its use as a metal precipitation reagent. The present invention is of significance because it enables the use of a biological reactor, a cost effective sulfide production system, by making the biological reactor produce hydrogen sulfide "on demand", and therefore responsive to production schedules, waste stream generation rate, and health and safety requirements/goals.

  5. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide by an enrichment from sour water coproduced with petroleum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, J.G.; Sublette, K.L.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    We have previously demonstrated that the chemoautotroph and facultative anaerobe Thiobacillus denitrificans may be readily cultured aerobically or anoxically in batch and continuous reactors on hydrogen sulfide under sulfide-limiting conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of T. denitrificans (strain F) was isolated by enrichment and recently used in a successful field test of a microbial process for the treatment of sour water coproduced with petroleum at an Amoco Production Co. site in Wyoming. Prior to the initiation of this field test, it was determined that the sour water at this site contained low concentrations of indigenous autotrophs, which could grow on thiosulfate as an energy source. Samples of this sour water have now been used to produce an enrichment culture for sulfide oxidizers. This enrichment has been characterized with respect to hydrogen sulfide oxidation, response to oxygen, pH and temperature optima, and sulfide tolerance. The enrichment was shown to be strictly aerobic and to grow on sulfide as an energy source with complete oxidation of sulfide to sulfate. The enrichment has a tolerance of sulfide comparable to that of T. denitrificans strain F. However, the enrichment has a higher optimum temperature (35{degrees}C) than strain F and was shown to oxidize sulfides over a much broader range of pH values.

  6. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Malley, Kathleen; Lopez, Hugo; Cairns, Julie; Wichert, Richard; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Buttner, William

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  7. MIS-based sensors with hydrogen selectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li; ,Dongmei; Medlin, J. William; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Bastasz, Robert J.

    2008-03-11

    The invention provides hydrogen selective metal-insulator-semiconductor sensors which include a layer of hydrogen selective material. The hydrogen selective material can be polyimide layer having a thickness between 200 and 800 nm. Suitable polyimide materials include reaction products of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride 4,4-oxydianiline m-phenylene diamine and other structurally similar materials.

  8. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

  9. Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a ... Title: Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using a Getter-Doped Polymer ...

  10. Conversion of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen by reaction with a sulfided catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for removing ammonia from the sour water stream of a coal gasification process. The basic steps comprise stripping the ammonia from the sour water; heating the stripped ammonia to a temperature from between 400.degree. to 1,000.degree. F; passing the gaseous ammonia through a reactor containing a sulfided catalyst to produce elemental hydrogen and nitrogen; and scrubbing the reaction product to obtain an ammonia-free gas. The residual equilibrium ammonia produced by the reactor is recycled into the stripper. The ammonia-free gas may be advantageously treated in a Claus process to recover elemental sulfur. Iron sulfide or cobalt molybdenum sulfide catalysts are used.

  11. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Safety Sensor Testing Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety Sensor Testing Laboratory The Safety Sensor Testing Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility aims to ensure that hydrogen sensor technology is available to meet end-user needs and to foster the proper use of sensors. Hydrogen sensors are an important enabling technology for the safe implementation of the emerging hydrogen infrastructure. Codes require hydrogen detectors (e.g., NFPA 2-Hydrogen Technologies Code), but currently provide little guidance on deployment. In

  12. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from waste treatment plant biogas using the apollo scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.W.; Burrowes, P.A.; Gupta, A.; Walton, P.S.; Meffe, S.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide and other sulphur compounds from anaerobic digester gas streams prior to their use as fuel for boilers, stationary engines, and cogeneration units minimizes corrosion problems and reduces sulfur emission loadings. A research program at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto in the 1980`s demonstrated the use of a modified flotation cell for the absorption of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream and its catalytic oxidation to sulfur. The essence of the technology was a proprietary gas liquid contactor which provided very high mass transfer rates at the interface. A bench scale contactor developed at the university achieved hydrogen sulfide removal efficiencies of over 99.9% at atmospheric pressure. A demonstration unit for digester gas scrubbing applications was designed, fabricated, and then installed and evaluated at the Metropolitan Toronto Works Department - Main Treatment Plant (MTP).

  13. Hydrogen sulfide selectivity with carbonyl sulfide removal to less than PPM levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, T.R.; Pearce, R.L.; Foster, W.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in market conditions and plant operating economics require examination of traditional processes and operating practices in gas treating applications for upgrading to more stringent standards of efficiency in order to remain competitive while returning a satisfactory operating profit margin to the company. Anticipated reduction in solvent usage, improvements in Claus sulfur recovery unit performance and lower energy costs induced Ashland's Catlettsburg refinery to convert its entire sulfur removal system from monoethanolamine to methyldiethanolamine. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide specifications. When the initial converted operations evidenced a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation which still achieved these objectives.

  14. Fast, Sensitive and Reliable Hydrogen Sensor | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast, Sensitive and Reliable Hydrogen Sensor Technology available for licensing Warm-up not required, and responds in less than 75 milliseconds in a 2% hydrogen atmosphere...

  15. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  16. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  17. Pd conductor for thick film hydrogen sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felten, J.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Cooperation between a materials developer and sensor designers has resulted in a palladium conductor used ro design and build a new hydrogen sensor that has superior performance characteristics and is also inexpensive to manufacture. Material characteristics give it faster response time and greater thermal/mechanical stability. The thick film palladium conductor paste, which can be fired at 850{degrees}C-950{degrees}C, has provided device designers a practical conductor paste with which to produce the improved sensor. The conductor uses a high surface area Pd powder combined with a binder glass that is chemically very inert, which combination produces a porous conductor that has good adhesion and chemical resistance. The current sensor design consists of three or four thick film Layers. Because of the flexibility of thick film techniques, the sensor element can be configured to any desired size and shape for specific instrument needs.

  18. Test Protocol Document, Hydrogen Safety Sensor Testing; Phase...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Protocol Document, Hydrogen Safety Sensor Testing Phase I: Non-Flammable Mixtures R. ... Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Test Protocol Document, Hydrogen Safety Sensor ...

  19. Test Protocol Document, Hydrogen Safety Sensor Testing; Phase...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Test Protocol Document, Hydrogen Safety Sensor Testing Phase I: Non-Flammable Mixtures R. ... DE-AC36-99-GO10337 Test Protocol Document, Hydrogen Safety Sensor Testing Phase I: ...

  20. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, Vinod M.; Frost, David G.

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  1. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  2. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  3. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  4. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  5. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide on Activated Carbons Impregnated with Sodium Hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Baskova, Svetlana [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Two activated carbons of different origin were impregnated with the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of various concentrations up to 10 wt %, and the effect of impregnation on the catalytic performance of the carbons was evaluated. The catalytic activity was analyzed in terms of the capacity of carbons for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conversion and removal from hydrogen-rich fuel streams and the emission times of H2S and the products of its oxidation [e.g., sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS)]. The results of impregnation showed a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of both carbons proportional to the amount of NaOH introduced. NaOH introduces hydroxyl groups (OH-) on the surface of the activated carbon that increase its surface reactivity and its interaction with sulfur-containing compounds.

  6. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  7. State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

  8. Reasons for high-temperature superconductivity in the electron–phonon system of hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degtyarenko, N. N.; Mazur, E. A.

    2015-08-15

    We have calculated the electron and phonon spectra, as well as the densities of the electron and phonon states, of the stable orthorhombic structure of hydrogen sulfide SH{sub 2} in the pressure interval 100–180 GPa. It is found that at a pressure of 175 GPa, a set of parallel planes of hydrogen atoms is formed due to a structural modification of the unit cell under pressure with complete accumulation of all hydrogen atoms in these planes. As a result, the electronic properties of the system become quasi-two-dimensional. We have also analyzed the collective synphase and antiphase vibrations of hydrogen atoms in these planes, leading to the occurrence of two high-energy peaks in the phonon density of states.

  9. Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research project has been undertaken to determine the suitability of the plasma process in natural gas processing applications. The experiments tested acid-gas compositions with 30--65% carbon dioxide, 0--7% water, and 0--0.2% of a standard mixture of pipeline gas. The balance gas in all cases was hydrogen sulfide. The reactor pressure for the experiments was 50 torr, and the microwave power was 1.0 kW. Conversions of hydrogen sulfide ranged from 80 to 100%, while 35--50% of the carbon dioxide was converted to carbon monoxide. This conversion of carbon dioxide resulted in a loss of hydrogen production and an energy loss from a hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment perspective. Tests of a direct natural gas treatment concept showed that hydrocarbon losses were unacceptably high; consequently, the concept would not be economically viable.

  10. ELECTROCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE FROM GAS MIXTURES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  11. Electrochemical separation and concentration of hydrogen sulfide from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  12. Laboratory Licenses Hydrogen Sensor Technology - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Licenses Hydrogen Sensor Technology Nuclear Filter Technology Awarded Licenses for Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensor February 23, 2006 Golden, Colo. - The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) today announced that Nuclear Filter Technology (NucFil) has been awarded licenses to manufacture Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensors. The licenses, together with a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), allow NucFil to work with scientists and engineers at

  13. Simulation of spray drying with reaction: Absorption of hydrogen sulfide in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, H.; Ghosh, P.K. ); Baveja, K.K.; Dhingra, S.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of hydrogen sulfide gas in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride is accompanied with an instantaneous chemical reaction forming zinc sulfide precipitates. Such reactions are most suited for operation of spray drying with reaction. A mathematical model for the system which incorporates chemical reaction, heat, mass and momentum transfer has been proposed. It is assumed that the gases and the spray is considered monodisperse for sake of simplicity. The differential equations derived for the model have been solved as an initial value problem using the Runge-Kutta method. The variations of temperature, humidity, droplet diameter, moisture content and concentrations of reactants are predicted along the length of the column and compared with experimental data.

  14. Round Robin Testing of Commercial Hydrogen Sensor Performance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Round Robin Testing of Commercial Hydrogen Sensor Performance-Observations and Results Preprint W. Buttner, R. Burgess, C. Rivkin, and M. Post National Renewable Energy Laboratory ...

  15. Standard Hydrogen Test Protocols for the NREL Sensor Testing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Test Protocols for the NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory December 2011 NREL is a ... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for ...

  16. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Process for manufacture of thick film hydrogen sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perdieu, Louisa H.

    2000-09-09

    A thick film process for producing hydrogen sensors capable of sensing down to a one percent concentration of hydrogen in carrier gasses such as argon, nitrogen, and air. The sensor is also suitable to detect hydrogen gas while immersed in transformer oil. The sensor includes a palladium resistance network thick film printed on a substrate, a portion of which network is coated with a protective hydrogen barrier. The process utilizes a sequence of printing of the requisite materials on a non-conductive substrate with firing temperatures at each step which are less than or equal to the temperature at the previous step.

  18. Hydrogen Leak Detection - Low-Cost Distributed Gas Sensors | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Leak Detection - Low-Cost Distributed Gas Sensors Hydrogen Leak Detection - Low-Cost Distributed Gas Sensors Download presentation slides from the April 3, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "America's Next Top Energy Innovator Runner-Up Presents Hydrogen Detection Technologies." America's Next Top Energy Innovator Runner-Up Presents Hydrogen Detection Technologies Webinar Slides (2.45 MB) More Documents & Publications DetecTape - A Localized Visual

  19. Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

    2000-02-01

    Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

  20. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiberoptic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences.

  1. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  2. Leak Detection and H2 Sensor Development for Hydrogen Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L.

    2012-07-10

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Develop a low cost, low power, durable, and reliable hydrogen safety sensor for a wide range of vehicle and infrastructure applications; (2) Continually advance test prototypes guided by materials selection, sensor design, electrochemical R&D investigation, fabrication, and rigorous life testing; (3) Disseminate packaged sensor prototypes and control systems to DOE Laboratories and commercial parties interested in testing and fielding advanced prototypes for cross-validation; (4) Evaluate manufacturing approaches for commercialization; and (5) Engage an industrial partner and execute technology transfer. Recent developments in the search for sustainable and renewable energy coupled with the advancements in fuel cell powered vehicles (FCVs) have augmented the demand for hydrogen safety sensors. There are several sensor technologies that have been developed to detect hydrogen, including deployed systems to detect leaks in manned space systems and hydrogen safety sensors for laboratory and industrial usage. Among the several sensing methods electrochemical devices that utilize high temperature-based ceramic electrolytes are largely unaffected by changes in humidity and are more resilient to electrode or electrolyte poisoning. The desired sensing technique should meet a detection threshold of 1% (10,000 ppm) H{sub 2} and response time of {approx_equal}1 min, which is a target for infrastructure and vehicular uses. Further, a review of electrochemical hydrogen sensors by Korotcenkov et.al and the report by Glass et.al suggest the need for inexpensive, low power, and compact sensors with long-term stability, minimal cross-sensitivity, and fast response. This view has been largely validated and supported by the fuel cell and hydrogen infrastructure industries by the NREL/DOE Hydrogen Sensor Workshop held on June 8, 2011. Many of the issues preventing widespread adoption of best-available hydrogen sensing technologies available today

  3. Hydrogen leak detection - low cost distributed gas sensors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen leak detection - low cost distributed gas sensors Bill Hoagland Element One, Inc. 7253 Siena Way Boulder, CO 80301 720.222-3214 www.elem1.com Summary * Company/technology background * Benefits of low-cost distributed sensors � * Technology, concepts and potential uses � * Technical challenges, status and plans Company Background * Incorporated in 2005, began R&D to begin development of low cost hydrogen indicators * 2005 - Collaborative agreement with U.S. National Renewable

  4. Round Robin Testing of Commercial Hydrogen Sensor Performance--Observations and Results: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Post, M.; Boon-Bret, L.; Black, G.; Harskamp, F.; Moretto, P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presented observations and results from round robin testing of commercial hydrogen sensor performance.

  5. Effective Hydrogen Generation from the Hydrogen Sulfide Solution by using Stratified Type Photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Tohji, K.

    2008-02-25

    Stratified type photocatalyst with the extremely higher photocatalytic activities can be synthesized by using the chemical reaction between the Na{sub 2}S solution and Cd(OH){sub 2} precursors. This type of photocatalyst has the specific morphology which constructed by the nano-sized and capsule like formed structure, and the metal concentration was gradually changed in its wall. The 'charge gradient' was formed at the metal sulfide and oxide/hydroxide junction in the wall, which favored for the separation of the photo excited electron-hole pair. Consequently, stratified type photocatalyst shows the high catalytic activity than the usual nano CdS particles. By the addition of sulfur compound into the bio reactor contained the sulfur reducing bacteria, the H{sub 2}S gas concentration can increased to about 1000 times enlarge than the usual condition. Therefore, we can conclude that the enhancement of the H{sub 2}S gas evolved from the bio reactor was successfully achievement, and we don't need to afraid the shortage risk of H{sub 2}S supply. These H{sub 2}S gas concentration can enlarged to 80% by using A type zeorite. Especially, Ca-A type zeorite is considered as the suitable material.

  6. Development of Low Cost Sensors for Hydrogen Safety Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Holmes, W., Jr.; Lauf, R.J.; Maxey, L.C.; Salter, C.; Walker, D.

    1999-04-07

    We are developing rugged and reliable hydrogen safety sensors that can be easily manufactured. Potential applications also require an inexpensive sensor that can be easily deployed. Automotive applications demand low cost, while personnel safety applications emphasize light-weight, battery-operated, and wearable sensors. Our current efforts involve developing and optimizing sensor materials for stability and compatibility with typical thick-film manufacturing processes. We are also tailoring the sensor design and size along with various packaging and communication schemes for optimal acceptance by end users.

  7. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored ... can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, ... QUANTITATIVE CHEMICAL ANALYSIS; HYDROGEN METERS; ...

  8. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components

  9. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components

  10. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of

  11. NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Experiments involving methane conversion reactions were conducted with a preliminary pulsed corona discharge reactor design in order to test and improve the reactor and membrane designs using a non-toxic reactant. This report details the direct methane conversion experiments to produce hydrogen, acetylene, and higher hydrocarbons utilizing a co-axial cylinder (CAC) corona discharge reactor, pulsed with a thyratron switch. The reactor was designed to accommodate relatively high flow rates (655 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s) representing a pilot scale easily converted to commercial scale. Parameters expected to influence methane conversion including pulse frequency, charge voltage, capacitance, residence time, and electrode material were investigated. Conversion, selectivity and energy consumption were measured or estimated. C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbon products were analyzed with a residual gas analyzer (RGA). In order to obtain quantitative results, the complex sample spectra were de-convoluted via a linear least squares method. Methane conversion as high as 51% was achieved. The products are typically 50%-60% acetylene, 20% propane, 10% ethane and ethylene, and 5% propylene. First Law thermodynamic energy efficiencies for the system (electrical and reactor) were estimated to range from 38% to 6%, with the highest efficiencies occurring at short residence time and low power input (low specific energy) where conversion is the lowest (less than 5%). The highest methane conversion of 51% occurred at a

  12. Additive for lubricants and hydrocarbon fuels comprising reaction products of olefins, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen containing polymeric compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horodysky, A.G.; Law, D.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for making an additive for lubricant compositions comprising co-reacting: a monoolefin selected from the group consisting of butenes, propenes, pentenes, and mixtures of two or more thereof; sulfur; hydrogen sulfide; polymeric nitrogen-containing compound selected from the group consisting of succinimides, amides, imides, polyoxyazoline polymers and alkyl imidazoline compounds; and a catalytic amount of an amine selected from the group consisting of polyethylene amines and hydroxyl-containing amines; at a temperature between about 130/sup 0/C and about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure of about 0 psig to about 900 psig, the reactants being reacted in a molar ratio of olefin, polymeric nitrogen-containing compound, and hydrogen sulfide to sulfur of 2 to 0.5, 0.001 to 0.4, and 0.5 to 0.7, respectively, and the concentration of amine being between 0.5 and 10 percent of the total weight of reactants.

  13. Effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on the SSC resistance of martensitic stainless steels and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, D.D.

    1999-11-01

    Centrifugal compressor applications require the use of martensitic stainless and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels at high hydrogen sulfide partial pressures. These materials do not perform well when tested with standard TM0177 test solutions. This paper describes the effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on their SSC resistance and explains their successful field operational experience. Environmental limits are determined for several materials and heat treat conditions.

  14. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  15. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  16. Selectivity and resistance to poisons of commercial hydrogen sensors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Palmisano, V.; Weidner, E.; Boon-Brett, L.; Bonato, C.; Harskamp, F.; Moretto, P.; Post, Matthew B.; Burgess, Robert; Rivkin, Carl; Buttner, William J.

    2015-03-20

    The resistance of several models of catalytic, workfunction-based metal-oxide-semiconductor and electrochemical hydrogen sensors to chemical contaminants such as SO2, H2S, NO2 and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) has been investigated. These sensor platforms are among the most commonly used for the detection of hydrogen. The evaluation protocols were based on the methods recommended in the ISO 26142:2010 standard. Permanent alteration of the sensor response to the target analyte (H2) following exposure to potential poisons at the concentrations specified in ISO 26142 was rarely observed. Although a shift in the baseline response was often observed during exposure to the potential poisons, only in amore » few cases did this shift persist after removal of the contaminants. Overall, the resistance of the sensors to poisoning was good. However, a change in sensitivity to hydrogen was observed in the electrochemical platform after exposure to NO2 and for a catalytic sensor during exposure to SO2. The siloxane resistance test prescribed in ISO 26142, based on exposure to 10 ppm HMDS, may possibly not properly reflect sensor robustness to siloxanes. In conclusion, further evaluation of the resistance of sensors to other Si-based contaminants and other exposure profiles (e.g., concentration, exposure times) is needed.« less

  17. Case report: Profound neurobehavioral deficits in an oil field worker overcome by hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilburn, K.H. )

    1993-11-01

    A 24-year-old oil well tester was rendered semiconscious by hydrogen sulfide (H2S). He received oxygen and was hospitalized but released in 30 minutes. The next day, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and incontinence of urine and stool led to rehospitalization. These problems and leg shaking, dizziness, sweating, trouble sleeping, and nightmares prevented his return to work. A physical examination, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests were normal 39 months after the episode but vibration sense was diminished. Two choice visual reaction times were delayed. Balance was highly abnormal (5 to 6 cm/sec) with eyes closed. Blink reflex latency was slow (R-1 17.5 msec versus normal 14.3 msec). Numbers written on finger tips were not recognized. Verbal and visual recall were impaired but overlearned memory was intact. Cognitive functions measured by Culture Fair, block design, and digit symbol were impaired. Perceptual motor was slow. Scores for confusion, tension-anxiety, depression, and fatigue were elevated and vigor was reduced. Forty-nine months after exposure his reaction time, sway speed, and color vision had not improved. His recall and his cognitive, constructional, and psychomotor speeds had improved but remained abnormal. These deficits are most likely due to H2S. Similar testing of other survivors is recommended.

  18. Flashback Detection Sensor for Hydrogen Augmented Natural Gas Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, J.D.; Chorpening, B.T.; Sidwell, T.; Strakey, P.A.; Huckaby, E.D.; Benson, K.J.

    2007-05-01

    The use of hydrogen augmented fuel is being investigated by various researchers as a method to extend the lean operating limit, and potentially reduce thermal NOx formation in natural gas fired lean premixed (LPM) combustion systems. The resulting increase in flame speed during hydrogen augmentation, however, increases the propensity for flashback in LPM systems. Real-time in-situ monitoring of flashback is important for the development of control strategies for use of hydrogen augmented fuel in state-of-the-art combustion systems, and for the development of advanced hydrogen combustion systems. The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Woodward Industrial Controls are developing a combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS), which has already been demonstrated as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff. Since CCADS is a flame ionization sensor technique, the low ion concentration produced in pure hydrogen combustion raises concerns of whether CCADS can be used to monitor flashback in hydrogen augmented combustion. This paper discusses CCADS tests conducted at 0.2-0.6 MPa (2-6 atm), demonstrating flashback detection with fuel compositions up to 80% hydrogen (by volume) mixed with natural gas. NETLs Simulation Validation (SimVal) combustor offers full optical access to pressurized combustion during these tests. The CCADS data and high-speed video show the reaction zone moves upstream into the nozzle as the hydrogen fuel concentration increases, as is expected with the increased flame speed of the mixture. The CCADS data and video also demonstrate the opportunity for using CCADS to provide the necessary in-situ monitor to control flashback and lean blowoff in hydrogen augmented combustion applications.

  19. Test Protocol Document, Hydrogen Safety Sensor Testing; Phase I: Non-Flammable Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, R.; Blake, C.; Tracy, C. E.

    2008-09-01

    This test protocol document includes an overview of hydrogen sensor technologies, test hardware requrements, and an outline of potential testing.

  20. A new principle for low-cost hydrogen sensors for fuel cell technology safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liess, Martin

    2014-03-24

    Hydrogen sensors are of paramount importance for the safety of hydrogen fuel cell technology as result of the high pressure necessary in fuel tanks and its low explosion limit. I present a novel sensor principle based on thermal conduction that is very sensitive to hydrogen, highly specific and can operate on low temperatures. As opposed to other thermal sensors it can be operated with low cost and low power driving electronics. On top of this, as sensor element a modified standard of-the shelf MEMS thermopile IR-sensor can be used. The sensor principle presented is thus suited for the future mass markets of hydrogen fuel cell technology.S.

  1. Structure of Palladium Nanoclusters for Hydrogen Gas Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, K.J.; Ingham, B.; Toney, M.F.; Brown, S.A.; Lassesson, A.; /SLAC, SSRL /Canterbury U.

    2009-05-11

    Palladium nanoclusters produced by inert gas aggregation/magnetron sputtering are used as building blocks for the construction of nano electronic devices with large surface to volume ratios that can be used as sensitive hydrogen gas sensors in fuel cells and in petrochemical plants. X-ray diffraction (XRD), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) have been used to characterize the structure, lattice constant, particle diameter and oxide thickness of the palladium nanoclusters in order to understand the operation of these sensors. Grazing incidence XRD (GIXRD) of heat treated Pd clusters has shown that the palladanite structure forms at elevated temperatures.

  2. Summary and Findings from the NREL/DOE Hydrogen Sensor Workshop (June 8, 2011)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.; Post, M.; Rivkin, C.

    2012-07-01

    On June 8, 2011, DOE/NREL hosted a hydrogen sensor workshop attended by nearly forty participants from private organizations, government facilities, and academic institutions . The workshop participants represented a cross section of stakeholders in the hydrogen community, including sensor developers, end users, site safety officials, and code and standards developers. The goals of the workshop were to identify critical applications for the emerging hydrogen infrastructure that require or would benefit from hydrogen sensors, to assign performance specifications for sensor deployed in each application, and to identify shortcomings or deficiencies (i.e., technical gaps) in the ability of current sensor technology to meet the assigned performance requirements.

  3. Development of a reliable, miniaturized hydrogen safety sensor prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekhar, Praveen K; Brosha, Eric L; Rangachary, Mukundan; Garzon, Fernando H; Williamson, Todd L

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the development and long-term testing of a hydrogen safety sensor for vehicle and infrastructure applications is presented. The working device is demonstrated through application of commercial and reproducible manufacturing methods and rigorous life testing results guided by materials selection, and sensor design. Fabricated using Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) as the sensing electrode, Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) as an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte and Platinum (Pt) as a pseudo-counter electrode, the device was subjected to interference studies, temperature cycling, and long-testing routine. The sensor responded in real time to varying concentrations of H{sub 2} (1000 to 20,000 ppm) monitored under a humidified condition. Among the interference gases tested such as nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), and propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}), the sensor showed cross-sensitivity to C{sub 3}H{sub 6}. Analyzing the overall device performance over 4000 hrs of testing for 5000 ppm of H{sub 2}, (a) the sensitivity varied {+-}21% compared to response recorded at 0 hrs, and (c) the response rise time fluctuated between 3 to 46 s. The salient features of the H{sub 2} sensor prototype designed and co-developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are (a) stable three phase interface (electrode/electrolyte/gas) leading to reliable sensor operation, (b) low power consumption, (b) compactness to fit into critical areas of application, (c) simple operation, (d) fast response, (e) a direct voltage read-out circumventing the need for any additional conditioning circuitry, and (f) conducive to commercialization.

  4. Standard Hydrogen Test Protocols for the NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Test Protocols for the NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory December 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Photo by Robert Burgess, NREL/PIX 18420 0 1 Standard Test Protocols for the NREL Hydrogen Sensor Test Laboratory Researchers at the NREL Hydrogen Safety Sensor Test Laboratory 1 developed a variety of test protocols to quantitatively assess critical

  5. Coupling reactions of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines mediated by a Ru(II) phenylvinylidene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, C.; Peruzzini, M.; Zanobini, F. [Istituto per lo Studio della Stereochimica ed Energetica dei Composti di Coordinazione, Florence (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Ru(II) fragment [(PNP)RuCl{sub 2}] assists the reaction of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines to give carbonyl, {eta}{sup 1}-benzylthioaldehyde, and isonitrile complexes, respectively [PNP = CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}){sub 2}]. In all of these processes, the reaction is initiated by the 1-alkyne to vinylidene tautomerization at the Ru(II) center, followed by attack of the H{sub 2}Z molecule (Z = O, S, NR) on the vinylidene ligand. The mechanisms which account for these transformations have been completely elucidated and several of the intermediates in these reactions have been isolated and fully characterized. The scope of these reactions in view of their potential applications in organic syntheses involving thioaldehydes and optically pure isonitriles will be briefly presented.

  6. Evaluation of Hydrogen Sensors: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-14-547

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buttner, William

    2015-10-01

    In preparation for the projected 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, KPA has been contracted by Toyota Motors to develop a hydrogen safety system for vehicle repair facilities. Repair facility safety designs will include hydrogen sensors. KPA will identify critical sensor specifications for vehicle repair facilities. In collaboration with NREL, KPA will select and purchase commercial hydrogen sensors that meet or nearly meet requirements for deployment in vehicle repair facility. A two-phase field deployment plan to verify sensor performance has been developed.

  7. Downhole geothermal well sensors comprising a hydrogen-resistant optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-02-08

    A new class of optical fiber based thermal sensors has been invented. The new sensors comprise hydrogen-resistant optical fibers which are able to withstand a hot, hydrogen-containing environment as is often found in the downhole well environment.

  8. Development of a Prototype Optical Hydrogen Gas Sensor Using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; 08 HYDROGEN; CATALYSTS; GETTERS; HYDROGEN; LASERS; MONITORING; OPTICAL FIBERS; PALLADIUM; POLYMERS; SILICONES; TRANSDUCERS

  9. PALLADIUM DOPED TIN OXIDE BASED HYDROGEN GAS SENSORS FOR SAFETY APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, Upendra; Nadig, D. S.

    2010-04-09

    Hydrogen is considered to be a hazardous gas since it forms a flammable mixture between 4 to 75% by volume in air. Hence, the safety aspects of handling hydrogen are quite important. For this, ideally, highly selective, fast response, small size, hydrogen sensors are needed. Although sensors based on different technologies may be used, thin-film sensors based on palladium (Pd) are preferred due to their compactness and fast response. They detect hydrogen by monitoring the changes to the electrical, mechanical or optical properties of the films. We report the development of Pd-doped tin-oxide based gas sensors prepared on thin ceramic substrates with screen printed platinum (Pt) contacts and integrated nicrome wire heaters. The sensors are tested for their performances using hydrogen-nitrogen gas mixtures to a maximum of 4%H{sub 2} in N{sub 2}. The sensors detect hydrogen and their response times are less than a few seconds. Also, the sensor performance is not altered by the presence of helium in the test gas mixtures. By the above desired performance characteristics, field trials of these sensors have been undertaken. The paper presents the details of the sensor fabrication, electronic circuits, experimental setup for evaluation and the test results.

  10. Kinetics of hydrolysis and oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium and application to carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewuyi, Y.G.; Carmichael, G.R.

    1987-02-01

    Kinetic studies of the oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium were made spectrophotometrically. The reaction of CS/sub 2/ with OH/sup -/ ion was found to be rate controlling and proceeded by the formation of a dithiocarbonate complex. The major reaction product was sulfate with sulfur occurring as colloidal suspensions only at pH values less than 8. The formation of sulfate increased exponentially with time and was also found to be dependent on the rate of hydrolysis of CS/sub 2/. In addition, the production of sulfate showed large induction periods, suggesting either a complex mechanism or formation by secondary reactions. The results obtained for carbon disulfide were extended to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) oxidation in alkaline solutions. The removal of OCS (acid gas) from mixtures of gases by alkaline liquid absorbents (e.g. NaOH) and oxidation of subsequent solutions to sulfate is an important industrial practice. 42 references, 14 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Development of a fiber-optic sensor for hydrogen leak detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1995-09-01

    The real and perceived risks of hydrogen fuel use, particularly in passenger vehicles, will require extensive safety precautions including hydrogen leak detection. Conventional hydrogen gas sensors require electrical wiring and may be too expensive for deployment in multiple locations within a vehicle. In this recently initiated project, we are attempting to develop a reversible, thin-film, chemochromic sensor that can be applied to the end of a polymer optical fiber. The presence of hydrogen gas causes the film to become darker. A light beam transmitted from a central instrument in the vehicle along the sensor fibers will be reflected from the ends of the fiber back to individual light detectors. A decrease in the reflected light signal will indicate the presence and concentration of hydrogen in the vicinity of the fiber sensor. The typical thin film sensor consists of a layer of transparent, amorphous tungsten oxide covered by a very thin reflective layer of palladium. When the sensor is exposed to hydrogen, a portion of the hydrogen is dissociated, diffuses through the palladium and reacts with the tungsten oxide to form a blue insertion compound, H{sub X}WO{sub 3}- When the hydrogen gas is no longer present, the hydrogen will diffuse out of the H{sub X}WO{sub 3} and oxidize at the palladium/air interface, restoring the tungsten oxide film and the light signal to normal. The principle of this detection scheme has already been demonstrated by scientists in Japan. However, the design of the sensor has not been optimized for speed of response nor tested for its hydrogen selectivity in the presence of hydrocarbon gases. The challenge of this project is to modify the basic sensor design to achieve the required rapid response and assure sufficient selectivity to avoid false readings.

  12. Effect of Morphology of CdS thin film on the Photocatalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, A.; Ishiyama, T.; Takahashi, H.; Sato, Y.; Jeyadevan, B.; Tohji, K.

    2007-03-20

    Photocatalytic activity of the CdS thin film depended very much on the film density, adhesion between the CdS and substrate, and whether effective electron path existed or not. We have proposed the formation of a bridging layer of Cd metal to improve the film density, adhesivity and the electron conduction path. Here, we report the results of the study undertaken to develop CdS/Cd (dendrite)/Ti film with enhanced photocatalytic property to decompose hydrogen sulphide. CdS/Cd (dendrite)/Ti photocatalyst showed the highest photocatalytic activity and photocurrent, which was 1.4 times higher than the traditional CdS/Ti photocatalyst.

  13. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  14. Development of Sensors and Sensing Technology for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, E L; Sekhar, P K; Mukundan, R; Williamson, T; Garzon, F H; Woo, L Y; Glass, R R

    2010-01-06

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features. Some of these devices (e.g. yaw sensors for dynamic stability control systems or tire presure warning RF-based devices) may be used on fuel cell vehicles without any modification. However the use of hydrogen as a fuel will dictate the development of completely new technologies for such requirements as the detection of hydrogen leaks, sensors and systems to continuously monitor hydrogen fuel purity and protect the fuel cell stack from poisoning, and for the important, yet often taken for granted, tasks such as determining the state of charge of the hydrogen fuel storage and delivery system. Two such sensors that rely on different transduction mechanisms will be highlighted in this presentation. The first is an electrochemical device for monitoring hydrogen levels in air. The other technology covered in this work, is an acoustic-based approach to determine the state of charge of a hydride storage system.

  15. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  16. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1987-01-06

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  17. Networks of ultrasmall Pd/Cr bilayer nanowires as high performance hydrogen sensors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, X.-Q.; Wang, Y.-L.; Deng, H.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z.-L.; Pearson, J.; Xu, T.; Wang, H.-H.; Welp, U.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W.-K.

    2011-01-01

    The newly developed hydrogen sensor, based on a network of ultrasmall pure palladium nanowires sputter-deposited on a filtration membrane, takes advantage of single palladium nanowires' characteristics of high speed and sensitivity while eliminating their nanofabrication obstacles. However, this new type of sensor, like the single palladium nanowires, cannot distinguish hydrogen concentrations above 3%, thus limiting the potential applications of the sensor. This study reports hydrogen sensors based on a network of ultrasmall Cr-buffered Pd (Pd/Cr) nanowires on a filtration membrane. These sensors not only are able to outperform their pure Pd counterparts in speed and durability but also allow hydrogen detection at concentrations up to 100%. The new networks consist of a thin layer of palladium deposited on top of a Cr adhesion layer 1-3 nm thick. Although the Cr layer is insensitive to hydrogen, it enables the formation of a network of continuous Pd/Cr nanowires with thicknesses of the Pd layer as thin as 2 nm. The improved performance of the Pd/Cr sensors can be attributed to the increased surface area to volume ratio and to the confinement-induced suppression of the phase transition from Pd/H solid solution ({alpha}-phase) to Pd hydride ({beta}-phase).

  18. Development of sensors and sensing technology for hydrogen fuel cell vehicle applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, Eric L; Sekhar, Praveen K; Mukundan, Rangchary; Williamson, Todd L; Barzon, Fernando H; Woo, Leta Y; Glass, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    One related area of hydrogen fuel cell vehicle (FCV) development that cannot be overlooked is the anticipated requirement for new sensors for both the monitoring and control of the fuel cell's systems and for those devices that will be required for safety. Present day automobiles have dozens of sensors on-board including those for IC engine management/control, sensors for state-of-health monitoring/control of emissions systems, sensors for control of active safety systems, sensors for triggering passive safety systems, and sensors for more mundane tasks such as fluids level monitoring to name the more obvious. The number of sensors continues to grow every few years as a result of safety mandates but also in response to consumer demands for new conveniences and safety features.

  19. Fiber Optic Hydrogen Sensor Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-05-00158

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringer, M.

    2010-07-01

    NREL and Nuclear Filter Technology collaborated to develop a prototype product for a hydrogen threshold sensor that was used to monitor hydrogen production in the transport of nuclear waste transport containers.

  20. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  1. Development of a Zirconia-Based Electrochemical Sensor for the Detection of Hydrogen in Air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosha, E; Mukundan, R; Lujan, R; Garzon, F; Woo, L; Worsley, M; Glass, B

    2008-07-16

    Mixed potential sensors utilizing a machined, dense indium-tin oxide working electrode (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:SnO{sub 2}; 90%:10%), a Pt wire counter electrode, and porous YSZ electrolyte were prepared using ceramic tape casting methods. The response of these devices to hydrogen concentrations up to 2% in air were studied from 600 to 740 C. The sensor response exhibited a reversible behavior and a fast response time with sensitivity increasing with decreasing temperature. GC analysis confirmed significant heterogeneous oxidation of the H{sub 2} on heated furnace tube wall surfaces thus driving sensor response at H{sub 2} concentrations greater than a few hundred ppm. The transition to a cold wall, miniature platform heater significantly reduced hydrogen oxidation although some flow rate dependence remains.

  2. Process for removing carbonyl sulfide from hydrocarbon feedstreams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, E.S.; Kosseim, A.J.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a process for removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from a feedstream containing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide and hydrocarbons. It comprises: contacting the feedstream in a hydrolysis zone with a first portion of a lean solution stream comprising an aqueous alkaline solution at an effective hydrolysis temperature to convert at least a portion of the carbonyl sulfide to carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, withdrawing a first effluent stream containing a reduced concentration of carbonyl sulfide relative to the feedstream, and withdrawing a first rich solution stream comprising the aqueous alkaline solution, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide; contacting the first effluent stream in an absorption zone with a second portion of the lean solution stream at an effective absorption temperature to absorb carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and withdrawing a second rich solution stream comprising the aqueous alkaline solution, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide; combining at least a portion of the first rich solution stream and the second rich solution stream and contacting the combined rich solution stream in a regeneration zone at effective conditions to desorb carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, withdrawing a vent gas stream comprising carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and withdrawing the lean solution stream; separating the lean solution stream into the first and second portions; and recycling the first portion of the lean solution stream to the hydrolysis zone and the second portion of the lean solution stream to the absorption zone.

  3. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  4. Hydrogen Sensor Based on Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Electrolyte and Tin-Doped Indium Oxide Sensing Electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, L P; Glass, R S

    2004-03-26

    A solid state electrochemical sensor has been developed for hydrogen leak detection in ambient air. The sensor uses an yttria-stabilized electrolyte with a tin-doped indium oxide sensing electrode and a Pt reference electrode. Excellent sensitivity, and response time of one second or less, are reported for hydrogen gas over the concentration range of 0.03 to 5.5% in air. Cross-sensitivity to relative humidity and to CO{sub 2} are shown to be low. The response to methane, a potentially significant source of interference for such a sensor, is significantly less than that for hydrogen. The sensor shows good reproducibility and was unaffected by thermal cycling over the course of this investigation. The effects of sensing electrode thickness and thermal aging are also reported, and the sensing mechanism is discussed. The sensor is intended for use in vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen internal combustion engines. Those vehicles will use and/or store significant quantities of hydrogen, and will require safety sensor for monitoring potential hydrogen leakage in order to ensure passenger safety.

  5. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levi, Dean H. (Lakewood, CO); Nelson, Art J. (Longmont, CO); Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  6. Corrosion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  7. Corrosion sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  8. Study of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors of carbon steel in chloride solution containing hydrogen sulfide using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solehudin, Agus; Nurdin, Isdiriayani

    2014-03-24

    Corrosion and inhibition studies on API 5LX65 carbon steel in chloride solution containing various concentrations of benzotriazole has been conducted at temperature of 70°C using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Corroded carbon steel surface with and without inhibitor have been observed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). The objectives of this research are to study the performance of benzotriazole as corrosion inhibitors. The experimental results of carbon steel corrosion in 3.5% NaCl solution containing 500 mg/l H{sub 2}S at different BTAH concentrations showed that corrosion rate of carbon steel decreases with increasing of BTAH concentrations from 0 to 10 mmol/l. The inhibition efficiency of BTAH was found to be affected by its concentration. The optimum efficiency obtained of BTAH is 93% at concentration of 5 mmol/l. The result of XRD and EDS analysis reveal the iron sulfide (FeS) formation on corroded carbon steel surface without inhibitor. The EDS spectrum show the Nitrogen (N) bond on carbon steel surface inhibited by BTAH.

  9. Temperature dependent dual hydrogen sensor response of Pd nanoparticle decorated Al doped ZnO surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, D.; Barman, P. B.; Hazra, S. K.; Dutta, D.; Kumar, M.; Som, T.

    2015-10-28

    Sputter deposited Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films exhibit a dual hydrogen sensing response in the temperature range 40 °C–150 °C after surface modifications with palladium nanoparticles. The unmodified AZO films showed no response in hydrogen in the temperature range 40 °C–150 °C. The operational temperature windows on the low and high temperature sides have been estimated by isolating the semiconductor-to-metal transition temperature zone of the sensor device. The gas response pattern was modeled by considering various adsorption isotherms, which revealed the dominance of heterogeneous adsorption characteristics. The Arrhenius adsorption barrier showed dual variation with change in hydrogen gas concentration on either side of the semiconductor-to-metal transition. A detailed analysis of the hydrogen gas response pattern by considering the changes in nano palladium due to hydrogen adsorption, and semiconductor-to-metal transition of nanocrystalline Al doped ZnO layer due to temperature, along with material characterization studies by glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, are presented.

  10. Summary and Findings from the NREL/DOE Hydrogen Sensor Workshop (June 8, 2011)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary and Findings from the NREL/DOE Hydrogen Sensor Workshop (June 8, 2011) W. Buttner, R. Burgess, M. Post, and C. Rivkin National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-55645 July 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov

  11. Decrease in carbonyl sulfide in the feed to Claus converters by shift catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gens, T.A. (BOC Group Technical Center, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    The principal reaction in the burner in a Claus plant is the combustion of part of the hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur dioxide, which can react with more hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur. Alumina or commercial shift catalysts were used downstream of a Claus burner to shift carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide before it could react to form carbonyl sulfide. The shift catalysts were effective in preventing formation of carbonyl sulfide, thereby decreasing sulfur losses.

  12. hydrogen

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  13. hydrogen

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  14. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levi, D.H.; Nelson, A.J.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1996-07-30

    A process is described for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness. 12 figs.

  15. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  16. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  17. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir; Anderson, Marc A.

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  18. Ultrafast and ultrasensitive hydrogen sensors based on self-assembly monolayer promoted 2-dimensional palladium nanoclusters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Tao (Darien, IL); Zach, Michael P. (Darien, IL); Xiao, Zhili (Naperville, IL)

    2008-06-24

    A device and method of making same. The device or hydrogen detector has a non-conducting substrate with a metal film capable of absorbing hydrogen to form a stable metal hydride. The metal film is on the threshold of percolation and is connected to mechanism for sensing a change in electrical resistance in response to the presence of hydrogen in contact with the metal film which causes an increase in conductivity.

  19. Ultrafast and ultrasensitive hydrogen sensors based on self-assembly monolayer promoted 2-dimensional palladium nanoclusters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Tao; Zach, Michael P.; Xiao, Zhili

    2007-02-06

    A device and method of making same. The device or hydrogen detector has a non-conducting substrate with a metal film capable of absorbing hydrogen to form a stable metal hydride. The metal film is being on the threshold of percolation and is connected to mechanism for sensing a change in electrical resistance in response to the presence of hydrogen in contact with the metal film which causes an increase in conductivity.

  20. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun; Yu, Qiquan; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  1. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.; Fuentes, Sergio; Torres, Brenda

    2007-05-29

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  2. Defect-free ZnO nanorods for low temperature hydrogen sensor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ranwa, Sapana; Kumar, Mahesh; Kulriya, Pawan K.; Sahu, Vikas Kumar; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-11-24

    Uniformly distributed and defect-free vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) with high aspect ratio are deposited on Si by sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction along with transmission electron microscopy studies confirmed the single crystalline wurtzite structure of ZnO. Absence of wide band emission in photoluminescence spectra showed defect-free growth of ZnO NRs which was further conformed by diamagnetic behavior of the NRs. H{sub 2} sensing mechanism based on the change in physical dimension of channel is proposed to explain the fast response (?21.6?s) and recovery times (?27?s) of ZnO NRs/Si/ZnO NRs sensors. Proposed H{sub 2} sensor operates at low temperature (?70?C) unlike the existing high temperature (>150?C) sensors.

  3. Carbonyl sulfide/carbon chemistry: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinckley, C.C.; Shiley, R.H.

    1986-10-01

    This study examined the effects of treating isotropic char, coal tar, and coal with carbonyl sulfide, OCS. The substrates were treated with moderate pressures of OCS at 400-550/sup 0/C for several hours. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that the autoclave gases contained CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, and unreacted OCS as the principal components after reaction. The predominant reaction was the decomposition of OCS to CO and S. Sulfur percentages for all of the treated substrates were increased by 10% or more. Polarized light reflectance microscopy showed that anisotropic carbon (mesopase) was present in coal samples treated with sulfur gases. The study demonstrates that OCS is a potent resulfurization agent for all of the substrates examined. Cabonyl sulfide and hydrogen sulfide, included in the study for comparison, facilitate the formation of mesophasic structures in the coal studied. 9 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Hydrogen Sensor Based on Pd/GeO{sub 2} Using a Low Cost Electrochemical Deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jawad, M. J.; Hashim, M. R.; Ali, N. K.

    2011-05-25

    This work reports on a synthesis of sub micron germanium dioxide (GeO{sub 2}) on porous silicon (PS) by electrochemical deposition. n-type Si (100) wafer was used to fabricate (PS) using conventional method of electrochemical etching in HF based solution. A GeCl{sub 4} was directly hydrolyzed by hydrogen peroxide to produce pure GeO{sub 2}, and then electrochemically deposited on PS. Followed by palladium (Pd) contact on GeO{sub 2} /PS was achieved by using RF sputtering technique. The grown GeO{sub 2} crystals were characterized using SEM and EDX. I-V characteristics of Pd/ GeO{sub 2} were recorded before and after hydrogen gas exposure as well as with different H{sub 2} concentrations and different applied temperatures. The sensitivity of Pd/ GeO{sub 2} also has been investigated it could be seen to increase significantly with increased hydrogen concentration while it decreased with increase temperature.

  5. Hydroconversion of heavy oil residues with sulfided additives of catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Perchec, P.; Fixari, B.; Vrinat, M.

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in Heavy oils conversion imply sulfur compounds. For medium conversion, side polycondensations and coke production were avoided by Hydrogen diluent donors (HDD), but conversions were partially inhibited. Sulfided radical activators used in association with HDD and H{sub 2} pressure overcome this effect by preventing coke formation up to 50-60% conversion into 500{degrees}C{sup -} light fractions with unchanged quality profile. Deeper conversions require dispersed sulfided catalyst. Phosphomolybdic acid or molybdenum naphtenate have been used as soluble precursors for such treatments. The state and fitness of sulfidation depend on the nature of precursors.

  6. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  7. Monitoring atmospheric emissions from petrochemical industries using low-level solid state sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szinyei, W.J.; Kimbell, C.L. (Tracor Atlas, Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    Low level solid state sensors provide an inexpensive alternative to monitoring part per billion levels of pollution over wide areas on a continuous basis. Solid state sensors such as those manufactured by Tracer Atlas for hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans are commonly applied in personnel protection applications, to monitor for and warn against high levels of certain toxic gases. Although these devices are not precision analytical instruments, with the proper configuration and electronics they can give reliable indication of the presence at the part per billion level of certain polluting gases. These sensors are sufficiently stable so that a general idea of pollutant level at any given time can be established. The configuration, operation and application of sensors sensitive to hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans are discussed in particular. Sensitivity, repeatability, and measurement range is also addressed. In low level applications, solid state sensors would be used as perimeter monitors around plants where there might be low level emissions of a pollutant gas that would need to be monitored on a continuous basis. Connecting a distributed group of sensors to an intelligent data gathering system such as a personal computer can allow spatial distributions in time and time weighted averages of pollutant levels to be calculated and charted.

  8. A hydrogen peroxide electrochemical sensor based on silver nanoparticles decorated three-dimensional graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, Beibei; Liu, Changbing; Shi, Huaxia; Li, Chen; Wang, Lianhui [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Wei, E-mail: iamxcdong@njtech.edu.cn, E-mail: iamwhuang@njtech.edu.cn; Dong, Xiaochen, E-mail: iamxcdong@njtech.edu.cn, E-mail: iamwhuang@njtech.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio-Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University, 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816 (China)

    2014-06-16

    A facile strategy has been developed to synthesize sliver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) decorated three-dimensional graphene (3DG) through hydrothermal process. The AgNPs-3DG composites are directly fabricated into a free standing sensing electrode for electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in phosphate buffered solutions. Various techniques equipments including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the morphology and structure of the as-prepared composite. The electrochemical experiments reveal the AgNPs-3DG based biosensor exhibits fast amperometric sensing, low detection limitation, wide linear responding range, and perfect selectivity for non-enzyme H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection, indicating the well synergistic effect of Ag NPs high electrocatalytic activity and 3DG high conductivity and large surface area.

  9. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Olson, Kenneth R.; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NOSH-aspirin is the first dual acting NO and H{sub 2}S releasing hybrid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its IC{sub 50} for cell growth inhibition is in the low nano-molar range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure-activity studies show that the sum of the parts does not equal the whole. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NOSH-aspirin reduced tumor growth by 85% in mice bearing a colon cancer xenograft. -- Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prototypical anti-cancer agents. However, their long-term use is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. Recognition that endogenous gaseous mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) can increase mucosal defense mechanisms has led to the development of NO- and H{sub 2}S-releasing NSAIDs with increased safety profiles. Here we report on a new hybrid, NOSH-aspirin, which is an NO- and H{sub 2}S-releasing agent. NOSH-aspirin inhibited HT-29 colon cancer growth with IC{sub 50}s of 45.5 {+-} 2.5, 19.7 {+-} 3.3, and 7.7 {+-} 2.2 nM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. This is the first NSAID based agent with such high degree of potency. NOSH-aspirin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle block. Reconstitution and structure-activity studies representing a fairly close approximation to the intact molecule showed that NOSH-aspirin was 9000-fold more potent than the sum of its parts towards growth inhibition. NOSH-aspirin inhibited ovine COX-1 more than ovine COX-2. NOSH-ASA treatment of mice bearing a human colon cancer xenograft caused a reduction in volume of 85%. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NOSH-aspirin has strong anti-cancer potential and merits further evaluation.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide conversion with nanophase titania

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, D.D.; Siegel, R.W.

    1996-08-20

    A process is described for disassociating H{sub 2}S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275 C with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 nanometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1-100 nm range. 5 figs.

  11. Hydrogen sulfide conversion with nanophase titania

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Donald D.; Siegel, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    A process for disassociating H.sub.2 S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275.degree. C. with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 nanometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1-100 nm range.

  12. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  13. Absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Ghawas, H.A.; Ruiz-Ibanez, G.; Sandall, O.C. (Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (US))

    1988-01-01

    The absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was studied over a range of temperatures and MDEA concentrations. MDEA is commonly used for selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of carbon dioxide. However, sulfur in the form of COS may also be present and it is necessary that estimates of absorption rates of this compound be made. The objective of this study is to determine the physiochemical properties needed to predict COS absorption rates in aqueous MDEA. Free gas solubility and the diffusivity of COS in MDEA solutions were measured over the temperature range 15 to 40{sup 0}C for MDEA concentrations up to 30 weight per cent using the nitrous oxide analogy method. Solubilities were measured volumetrically in an equilibrium cell and diffusivities were measured using a laminar liquid jet absorber. The kinetics of the reaction between COS and MDEA were studied by measuring absorption rates in a single wetted-sphere absorber.

  14. Steering Committee Progress Report on Hydrogen Sensor Performance Testing and Evaluation under the Memorandum of Agreement between NREL, U.S. DOE and JRC-IET, EC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steering Committee Progress Report on Hydrogen Sensor Performance Testing and Evaluation under the Memorandum of Agreement between NREL, U.S. DOE and JRC-IET, EC W. Buttner, M. Post, R. Burgess, and C. Rivkin National Renewable Energy Laboratory L. Boon-Brett, V. Palmisano, C. Bonato and F. Harskamp Joint Research Centre Institute for Energy and Transport Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-57207 December 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency

  15. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests Matthew B. Post, Robert Burgess, Carl Rivkin, and William Buttner National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kathleen O'Malley U.S. Department of Energy and Sentech Antonio Ruiz U.S. Department of Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-56177 September 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency &

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Sensors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Existing techniques for detecting hydrogen have numerous drawbacks: limited dynamic range; ... such as density and viscosity and to act as in situ chemical sensors for liquids. ...

  17. Mechanism of formation of the response of a hydrogen gas sensor based on a silicon MOS diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaman, V. I.; Balyuba, V. I.; Gritsyk, V. Yu.; Davydova, T. A.; Kalygina, V. M.

    2008-03-15

    Experimental data on the dependence of the flat-band voltage and relaxation time for the capacitance of the space-charge region in an MOS diode (Pd-SiO{sub 2}-n-Si) on the hydrogen concentration in a hydrogen/air gaseous mixture are discussed. It is assumed that variation in the flat-band voltage U{sub fb} in an MOS structure with the thickness d = 369 nm subjected to a hydrogen/air gaseous mixture can be accounted for by the formation of dipoles in the Pd-SiO{sub 2} gap due to polarization of hydrogen atoms (H{sub a}). An analytical expression describing the dependence of variation in the flat-band voltage {delta}U{sub fb} on the hydrogen concentration n{sub H2} was derived. In MOS structures with d {<=} 4 nm (or MOS diodes), the value of {delta}U{sub fb} is mainly controlled by passivation of the centers responsible for the presence of the surface acceptor-type centers at the SiO{sub 2}-n-Si interface by hydrogen atoms. Analytical expressions describing the dependences of {delta}U{sub fb} and the capacitance relaxation time in the space-charge region on n{sub H2} are derived. The values of the density of adsorption centers and the adsorption heat for hydrogen atoms at the Pd-SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}-n-Si interfaces are found.

  18. Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA Melissa Klingenberg, PhD Melissa Klingenberg, PhD Hydrogen Program Hydrogen Program Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) Hydrogen Separation Hydrogen Sensors Resource Dynamics Corporation (RDC) Tradeoff/Sensitivity Analyses of Hydrogen Delivery Approaches EDO Fiber Science High Pressure/High Strength Composite Material Development and Prototyping CTC * Program Management * Hydrogen

  19. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can organize sulfide nanoparticles into semiconductor nanowires. The research team used a series of imaging techniques and detectors to analyze aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide...

  20. Preparation, catalysis, and characterization of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalysts supported on a NaY zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Yasuaki; Katsuyama, Hiromoto [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)] [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The structure and dispersion of the molybdenum sulfides supported on a NaY zeolite were studied using XAFS techniques. It was found that molybdenum sulfide species prepared by sulfiding vapor deposited Mo(CO){sub 6} or by sulfiding molybdenum oxide dimer species encaged in the zeolite are highly dispersed and thermally stabilized against sintering or restructuring. These molybdenum species are formed via molybdenum sulfide dimer species as an intermediate. On the other hand, with the molybdenum sulfide catalysts prepared by an impregnation method, the sulfidation of molybdenum oxides was incomplete. The molybdenum oxide species are suggested to be mainly located in the zeolite cavities after calcination, forming isolated molybdenum oxides in tetrahedral configurations. The molybdenum sulfide species prepared from Mo(CO){sub 6} showed much higher catalytic activities for thiophene hydrodesulfurization and butadiene hydrogenation than the molybdenum sulfides prepared by the impregnation, in conformity with a higher dispersion and higher fraction of the molybdenum sulfide species. It is demonstrated that in combination with metal carbonyl techniques, zeolite supports are very suitable for the preparation of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfides at a high Mo loading.

  1. Mechanism of formation of the response of a hydrogen gas sensor based on a silicon MOS diode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaman, V. I.; Balyuba, V. I.; Gritsyk, V. Yu.; Davydova, T. A.; Kalygina, V. M.

    2008-03-15

    Experimental data on the dependence of the flat-band voltage and relaxation time for the capacitance of the space-charge region in an MOS diode (Pd-SiO{sub 2}-n-Si) on the hydrogen concentration in a hydrogen/air gaseous mixture are discussed. It is assumed that variation in the flat-band voltage U{sub fb} in an MOS structure with the thickness d = 369 nm subjected to a hydrogen/air gaseous mixture can be accounted for by the formation of dipoles in the Pd-SiO{sub 2} gap due to polarization of hydrogen atoms (H{sub a}). An analytical expression describing the dependence of variation in the flat-band voltage {Delta}U{sub fb} on the hydrogen concentration n{sub H{sub 2}} was derived. In MOS structures with d {<=} 4 nm (or MOS diodes), the value of {Delta}U{sub fb} is mainly controlled by passivation of the centers responsible for the presence of the surface acceptor-type centers at the SiO{sub 2}-n-Si interface by hydrogen atoms. Analytical expressions describing the dependences of {Delta}U{sub fb} and the capacitance relaxation time in the space-charge region on n{sub H{sub 2}} are derived. The values of the density of adsorption centers and the adsorption heat for hydrogen atoms at the Pd-SiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}-n-Si interfaces are found.

  2. Catalytic hydroprocessing of aromatic compounds: Effects of nickel and vanadium sulfide deposits on reactivities and reaction networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yumoto, Mitsugu |; Kukes, S.G.; Klein, M.T.; Gates, B.C. |

    1996-09-01

    Ni-Mo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydroprocessing catalysts enriched in nickel and vanadium by contacting with solutions of the respective metal naphthenates were sulfided and tested for hydroprocessing of naphthalene, dibenzothiophene, and quinoline in a batch reactor at 350 C and 165 atm. Approximately reaction networks were determined for each reactant, and the data showed the dependence of the pseudo-first-order rate constants on the catalyst nickel and vanadium contents. The nickel sulfide deposits only slightly affected the rate constants for hydrogenation, but the vanadium sulfide deposits led to decreases in the rate constants for hydrogenation reactions in the naphthalene network and to increases in those for hydrogenation reactions in the dibenzothiophene network. Nickel sulfide deposits led to almost no change in the rate constants for hydrogenolysis of dibenzothiophene, but vanadium sulfide deposits led to decreased rate constant for this reaction. The nickel sulfide deposits have little activity for reactions giving lower-molecular-weight (cracking) products, but the vanadium sulfide deposits have a relatively high activity for cracking, which suggests that they are acidic; the effects are reversed by the presence of the basic quinoline in the reactants. The results indicate a need for representing the nickel and vanadium sulfide deposits separately in process models for heavy oil hydroprocessing.

  3. H.sub.2O doped WO.sub.3, ultra-fast, high-sensitivity hydrogen sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee

    2011-03-22

    An ultra-fast response, high sensitivity structure for optical detection of low concentrations of hydrogen gas, comprising: a substrate; a water-doped WO.sub.3 layer coated on the substrate; and a palladium layer coated on the water-doped WO.sub.3 layer.

  4. Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1993-06-08

    Various hydrogen production and hydrogen sulfide decomposition processes are disclosed that utilize composite metal membranes that contain an intermetallic diffusion barrier separating a hydrogen-permeable base metal and a hydrogen-permeable coating metal. The barrier is a thermally stable inorganic proton conductor.

  5. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.

    1999-08-03

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

  6. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  7. A Specific Nucleophilic Ring-Opening Reaction of Aziridines as a Unique Platform for the Construction of Hydrogen Polysulfides Sensors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Wei; Rosser, Ethan W.; Zhang, Di; Shi, Wen; Li, Yilin; Dong, Wen-Ji; Ma, Huimin; Hu, Dehong; Xian, Ming

    2015-05-11

    Hydrogen polysulfides (H2Sn, n>1) have been recently suggested to be the actual signalling molecules that involved in sulfur-related redox biology. However the exact mechanisms of H2Sn are still poorly understood and a major hurdle in this field is the lack of reliable and convenient methods for H2Sn detection. In this work we report a unique ring-opening reaction of N-sulfonylaziridine by Na2S2 under mild conditions. Based on this reaction a novel H2Sn-specific fluorescent probe (AP) was developed. The probe showed high sensitivity and selectivity for H2Sn. Notably, the fluorescent turn-on product, i.e. compound 1, exhibited excellent two-photon photophysical properties and amore » large Stokes shift. Moreover, the high solid state luminescent efficiency of compound 1 makes it a potential candidate for organic emitters and solid-state lighting devices.« less

  8. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. [Poly(etherimide) and poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    During the last quarter several high performance membranes for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The heat-resistant resin poly(etherimide) has been selected as the polymer with the most outstanding properties for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Flat sheet and hollow fiber poly(etherimide) membranes have been prepared and evaluated with pure gases and gas mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Multilayer composite poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes were also developed. These membranes are useful for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide hydrogen. They have very high selectivities and extremely high normalized carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide fluxes. Separation of carbon dioxide/hydrogen streams is a key problem in hydrogen production from coal. The development of the two membranes now gives us two approaches to separate these gas streams, depending on the stream's composition. If the stream contains small quantities of hydrogen, the hydrogen- permeable poly(etherimide) membrane would be used to produce a hydrogen-enriched permeate. If the stream contains small quantities of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, the poly(ether-ester-amide) membrane would be used to produce a carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide-free, hydrogen-enriched residue stream. 6 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. Quarterly technical progress report for the period ending December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-31

    During the last quarter several high performance membranes for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The heat-resistant resin poly(etherimide) has been selected as the polymer with the most outstanding properties for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Flat sheet and hollow fiber poly(etherimide) membranes have been prepared and evaluated with pure gases and gas mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Multilayer composite poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes were also developed. These membranes are useful for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide hydrogen. They have very high selectivities and extremely high normalized carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide fluxes. Separation of carbon dioxide/hydrogen streams is a key problem in hydrogen production from coal. The development of the two membranes now gives us two approaches to separate these gas streams, depending on the stream`s composition. If the stream contains small quantities of hydrogen, the hydrogen- permeable poly(etherimide) membrane would be used to produce a hydrogen-enriched permeate. If the stream contains small quantities of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, the poly(ether-ester-amide) membrane would be used to produce a carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide-free, hydrogen-enriched residue stream. 6 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Monodispersed biocompatible silver sulfide nanoparticles: Facile...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; AMBIENT TEMPERATURE; BACILLUS; BIOSYNTHESIS; FABRICATION; LIGHT SCATTERING; LUNGS; MACROPHAGES; PRODUCTION; SHAPE; SILVER SULFIDES; SOLAR CELLS; ...

  11. Stable catalyst layers for hydrogen permeable composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas; Wolden, Colin A

    2014-01-07

    The present invention provides a hydrogen separation membrane based on nanoporous, composite metal carbide or metal sulfide coated membranes capable of high flux and permselectivity for hydrogen without platinum group metals. The present invention is capable of being operated over a broad temperature range, including at elevated temperatures, while maintaining hydrogen selectivity.

  12. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.; Iton, Lennox E.; Pasterczyk, James W.; Winterer, Markus; Krause, Theodore R.

    1994-01-01

    A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  13. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  14. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Safety, Codes, and Standards

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Codes, and Standards Photo of person working with scientific equipment in a laboratory setting. NREL researcher works on sensor testing apparatus in the Safety Sensor Testing Laboratory. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL's hydrogen safety, codes, and standards projects focus on ensuring safe operation, handling, and use of hydrogen and hydrogen systems through safety sensors and codes and standards for buildings and equipment. Safety Sensors To facilitate hydrogen safety, NREL is

  15. Hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide over alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polleck, R. E.; Ledley, R. E.; Scott, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction rate for the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in liquid petroleum hydrocarbons over alumina, such as propylene, is greatly increased by maintaining water in the hydrocarbons in an amount of one mole of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide to an upper limit of about ten moles of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide or about 30% of saturation of the hydrocarbons, whichever upper limit provides the lesser amount of water.

  16. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Wednesday, 26 September 2007 00:00 Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material

  17. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers...

  18. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing...

  19. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were...

  20. Preparation of amorphous sulfide sieves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siadati, Mohammad H.; Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2006-11-07

    The present invention involves methods and compositions for synthesizing catalysts/porous materials. In some embodiments, the resulting materials are amorphous sulfide sieves that can be mass-produced for a variety of uses. In some embodiments, methods of the invention concern any suitable precursor (such as thiomolybdate salt) that is exposed to a high pressure pre-compaction, if need be. For instance, in some cases the final bulk shape (but highly porous) may be same as the original bulk shape. The compacted/uncompacted precursor is then subjected to an open-flow hot isostatic pressing, which causes the precursor to decompose and convert to a highly porous material/catalyst.

  1. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Sulfide Nanoparticles Prepared in Dimethylsulfoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yuebin; Ma, Lun; Zhang, Xing; Joly, Alan G.; Liu, Zuli; Chen, Wei

    2008-11-01

    Many methods have been reported for the formation of sulfide nanoparticles by the reaction of metallic salts with sulfide chemical sources in aqueous solutions or organic solvents. Here, we report the formation of sulfide nanoparticles in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) by boiling metallic salts without sulfide sources. The sulfide sources are generated from the boiling of DMSO and react with metallic salts to form sulfide nanoparticles. In this method DMSO functions as a solvent and a sulfide source as well as a stabilizer for the formation of the nanoparticles. The recipe is simple and economical making sulfide nanoparticles formed in this way readily available for many potential applications.

  2. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Title Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors...

  3. Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation pm023_singh_2011_p.pdf (1.09 MB) More Documents & Publications Compact Potentiometric O2/NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx Sensor Compact Potentiometric NOx

  4. Sulfide stress cracking resistance of low-alloy nickel steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshino, Y.; Minozaki, Y.

    1986-04-01

    The sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of Ni-containing low-alloy steels was studied using laboratory and commercial heats over the range of 600 to 800 MPa yield strength (700 to 900 MPa tensile strength). The results were interpreted with regard to observations by metallurgical and electrochemical analyses. In steel containing 1% Cr and 0.5% Mo, the SSC resistance is not affected by up to 2% Ni. A commercial steel with 3.7% Ni-1.8% Cr-0.4% Mo exhibits the same K/sub ISSC/ and Ni-free steels. The cracking resistance begins to deteriorate when fresh martensite exceeds 5 vol%. The lattice diffusion of hydrogen is decreased by the additional Ni, whereas the subsurface hydrogen concentration remains constant in 5% NaCl solution and decreases in NACE TM-01-77 solution up to 5% Ni. Thus, nickel has no harmful effect in terms of hydrogen absorption and diffusion. However, nickel enhances the formation of surface trenches in acidified solutions. This is intensified in the anodically polarized slow extension rate test, which results in loss in elongation. Consequently, nickel per se has no effect on the propagation of SSC unless its addition results in the formation of fresh martensite. However, it may or may not enhance crack initiation, depending on a specific combination of solution and steel, by forming surface trenches that subsequently trigger hydrogen cracking from their bottom.

  5. Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GrantContract Number: FG02-94ER14466; AC02-98CH10086; AC02-06CH11357 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal ...

  6. Selective Catalaytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Figure 6 is a highly tentative roadmap for maturing this technology. Figure 6. Tentative roadmap for SCOHS process development. FY00 FY01 FY02 FY03 >FY04 Proof-of-Concept Catalyst ...

  7. Hydrogen sulfide at high pressure: Change in stoichiometry (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    B; Journal Volume: 93; Journal Issue: (17) ; 05, 2016 Research Org: Advanced Photon Source ... Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  8. Method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, G.

    1980-06-17

    A method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane under liquid-liquid contact conditions by mixing liquid propane containing carbonyl sulfide as an impurity with 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol as the principal agent for the carbonyl sulfide removal. The 2(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol is reclaimed and reused for further carbonyl sulfide removal. 5 claims.

  9. DetecTape - A Localized Visual Detector for Hydrogen Leaks Webinar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Leak Detection - Low-Cost Distributed Gas Sensors HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Proceedings of the 1998 U.S. DOE ...

  10. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-06-30

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card. 8 figs.

  11. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card.

  12. The tropospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide: A new source of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, I.; Becker, K.H.; Patroescu, I. [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany)] [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    The authors present the results of laboratory measurements of the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}) mediated by OH. They observe the formation of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and carbonyl sulfide. The latter branching ratio represents a previously unreported source of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). It is significant because OCS is the major reservoir of gaseous sulfur in the earth`s atmosphere.

  13. Hydrogen Safety R&D Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Activities » Hydrogen Safety R&D Projects Hydrogen Safety R&D Projects DOE's safety R&D activities are focused on developing hydrogen sensors for detecting hydrogen leaks, which pose a safety concern for hydrogen and fuel cell systems. The leak sensor must be sensitive enough to provide a safe and reliable alarm system that is rugged, easily manufactured, and priced reasonably. Automotive applications, which employ fuel cells in an enclosed environment, are especially critical

  14. Carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis in natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, F.; Caribotti, P.; Garofalo, N.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide may naturally occur in high H/sub 2/S - CO/sub 2/ content sour natural gases. Furthermore part of the H/sub 2/S present in natural gases may be converted into COS if molecular sieves are used as H/sub 2/S removal substances in natural gas desulphurization plants. Carbonyl sulfide might then hydrolize to H/sub 2/S in the gas storage fields and transmission lines. This paper illustrates experimental data relevant to the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction between carbonyl sulfide and water both at gas and gas/liquid phases. Results may suggest whether carbonyl sulfide should be included in natural gas quality specifications.

  15. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  16. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  17. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  18. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  19. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  20. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  1. Onboard Hydrogen/Helium Sensors in Support of the Global Technical Regulation: An Assessment of Performance in Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Crash Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, M. B.; Burgess, R.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; O'Malley, K.; Ruiz, A.

    2012-09-01

    Automobile manufacturers in North America, Europe, and Asia project a 2015 release of commercial hydrogen fuel cell powered light-duty road vehicles. These vehicles will be for general consumer applications, albeit initially in select markets but with much broader market penetration expected by 2025. To assure international harmony, North American, European, and Asian regulatory representatives are striving to base respective national regulations on an international safety standard, the Global Technical Regulation (GTR), Hydrogen Fueled Vehicle, which is part of an international agreement pertaining to wheeled vehicles and equipment for wheeled vehicles.

  2. Solvothermal synthesis of copper sulfide semiconductor micro/nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Covellite copper sulfide (CuS) micro/nanometer crystals in the shape of hierarchical doughnut-shaped, superstructured spheric-shaped and flowerlike architectures congregated from those nanoplates with the thickness of 20-100 nm have been prepared by a solvothermal method. The as-obtained CuS products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A systematic investigation has been carried out to understand the factors influencing the evolution of CuS particle morphology which found to be predominant by solvent, surfactant, sulfur resource and copper salt. The possible formation mechanism for the nanostructure formation was also discussed. These CuS products show potential applications in solar cell, photothermal conversion and chemical sensor.

  3. Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal sulfide-containing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal sulfide-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal sulfide taiulings, by coating the metal sulfide-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal sulfide-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.

  4. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Joseph [Encino, CA; Oberg, Carl L [Canoga Park, CA; Russell, Larry H [Agoura, CA

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

  5. Removal of carbonyl sulfide using activated carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, M.L.; Rosenberk, R.S. [University of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Wastewater treatment plant odors are caused by compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptans, and carbonyl sulfide (COS). One of the most efficient odor control processes is activated carbon adsorption; however, very few studies have been conducted on COS adsorption. COS is not only an odor causing compound but is also listed in the Clean Air Act as a hazardous air pollutant. Objectives of this study were to determine the following: (1) the adsorption capacity of 3 different carbons for COS removal; (2) the impact of relative humidity (RH) on COS adsorption; (3) the extent of competitive adsorption of COS in the presence of H{sub 2}S; and (4) whether ammonia injection would increase COS adsorption capacity. Vapor phase react (VPR; reactivated), BPL (bituminous coal-based), and Centaur (physically modified to enhance H{sub 2}S adsorption) carbons manufactured by Calgon Carbon Corp. were tested in three laboratory-scale columns. It was found that the adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon for COS was higher than the other two carbons, regardless of RH. As humidity increased, the percentage of decrease in adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon, however, was greater than the other two carbons. The carbon adsorption capacity for COS decreased in proportion to the percentage of H{sub 2}S in the gas stream. More adsorption sites appear to be available to H{sub 2}S, a smaller molecule. Ammonia, which has been found to increase H{sub 2}S adsorption capacity, did not increase the capacity for COS.

  6. Formation of selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide-sulfide films on metal or metal coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon

    2012-05-01

    A process and composition for preventing cracking in composite structures comprising a metal coated substrate and a selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide sulfide film. Specifically, cracking is prevented in the coating of molybdenum coated substrates upon which a copper, indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) film is deposited. Cracking is inhibited by adding a Se passivating amount of oxygen to the Mo and limiting the amount of Se deposited on the Mo coating.

  7. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  8. Hydrogen Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency » Vehicles » Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Watch this video to find out how fuel cell technology generates clean electricity from hydrogen to power our buildings and transportation-while emitting nothing but water. Learn more about hydrogen and fuel cell technology basics. Fuel cells produce electricity from a number of domestic fuels, including hydrogen and renewables, and can provide power for virtually any application -- from cars and buses to commercial

  9. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1996-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit.

  10. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1996-08-20

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit. 7 figs.

  11. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  12. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Guanguang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2016-06-14

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  13. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S.

    1992-05-12

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  14. Current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  15. Organusulfur Catalysis With Reduced Molybdenum Sulfides Containing the Mo6S8 Cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Jay Paskach

    2002-08-27

    Industrial synthesis of sulfur-containing organic chemicals basically focuses on the broad categories of mercaptans (thiols), alkylsulfides (thioethers), polysulfides, and thiophenes. Of the organo-sulfur compounds produced, by far the most important in terms of quantities produced is methyl mercaptan (methanethiol or MeSH), which is produced mainly for the downstream production of methionine and methanesulfonyl chloride. Higher thiols are also used in the manufacture of rubber and plastics as polymerization regulators, chain transfer agents, or initiators. Other important organosulfur chemicals are dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), both of which are used extensively for presulfiding of industrial hydroprocessing catalysts, and substituted thiophenes which are used as intermediates for production of agrochemicals, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Thiols are produced commercially at the rate of about 10{sup 4} ton/yr from hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and alcohols or olefins, using homogeneous free-radical synthesis, or heterogeneous catalysts based on solid acids or supported metal oxides and/or sulfides. Despite this large production rate, and the industrial importance of the organosulfur compounds, only limited research has been devoted to the development of new catalytic materials for their synthesis. Additionally, for most organosulfur catalytic reactions, only limited information exists about reaction mechanisms, active sites, adsorbed surface species, and especially the nature of the catalysts under reaction conditions.

  16. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  17. Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoma, Steven G.

    2011-05-31

    Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

  18. Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) Hydrogen fueled vehicles have multiple safety systems that detect and prevent the accidental release of hydrogen. There are sensors that detect leaks, a computer that monitors fuel flow, and an excess flow shut-off valve. Hydrogen tanks also have a pressure release device, much like those on natural gas water heaters in our homes. If a leak is

  19. Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

  20. Hydrogen Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on Hydrogen Analysis to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

  1. Hydrogen Safety

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

  2. Hydrogen Scenarios

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    OnLocation, Inc., Energy Systems Consulting 1 Hydrogen Scenarios Presentation to the Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting by Frances Wood OnLocation, Inc. Energy Systems Consulting May 9, 2007 OnLocation, Inc., Energy Systems Consulting 2 Outline * Brief summary of NEMS-H2 model * Representation of Hydrogen Delivery * Hydrogen Demand Sensitivities * Integration and Energy System Impacts - A Carbon Policy Scenario Example OnLocation, Inc., Energy Systems Consulting 3 NEMS-H2 Overview OnLocation,

  3. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2001-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  4. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  5. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    1999-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  6. Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-11-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well as the technical challenges and research goals for storing hydrogen on board a vehicle.

  7. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  8. Synthesis of actinide nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Sluys, William G.; Burns, Carol J.; Smith, David C.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing an actinide compound of the formula An.sub.x Z.sub.y wherein An is an actinide metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, x is selected from the group consisting of one, two or three, Z is a main group element atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulfur and y is selected from the group consisting of one, two, three or four, by admixing an actinide organometallic precursor wherein said actinide is selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, a suitable solvent and a protic Lewis base selected from the group consisting of ammonia, phosphine, hydrogen sulfide and water, at temperatures and for time sufficient to form an intermediate actinide complex, heating said intermediate actinide complex at temperatures and for time sufficient to form the actinide compound, and a process of depositing a thin film of such an actinide compound, e.g., uranium mononitride, by subliming an actinide organometallic precursor, e.g., a uranium amide precursor, in the presence of an effectgive amount of a protic Lewis base, e.g., ammonia, within a reactor at temperatures and for time sufficient to form a thin film of the actinide compound, are disclosed.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Analysis of Interfacial Water at Selected Sulfide Mineral Surfaces under Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we report on a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) study of the behavior of interfacial water at selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions. The study revealed the interfacial water structure and wetting characteristics of the pyrite (100) surface, galena (100) surface, chalcopyrite (012) surface, sphalerite (110) surface, and molybdenite surfaces (i.e., the face, armchair-edge, and zigzag-edge surfaces), including simulated contact angles, relative number density profiles, water dipole orientations, hydrogen-bonding, and residence times. For force fields of the metal and sulfur atoms in selected sulfide minerals used in the MDS, we used the universal force field (UFF) and another set of force fields optimized by quantum chemical calculations for interactions with interfacial water molecules at selected sulfide mineral surfaces. Simulation results for the structural and dynamic properties of interfacial water molecules indicate the natural hydrophobic character for the selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions as well as the relatively weak hydrophobicity for the sphalerite (110) surface and two molybdenite edge surfaces. Part of the financial support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Basic Science Grant No. DE-FG-03-93ER14315. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE, funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES. The authors are grateful to Professor Tsun-Mei Chang for valuable discussions.

  10. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  11. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

    1981-06-23

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

  12. Sensors and devices containing ultra-small nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Zhili

    2014-09-23

    A network of nanowires may be used for a sensor. The nanowires are metallic, each nanowire has a thickness of at most 20 nm, and each nanowire has a width of at most 20 nm. The sensor may include nanowires comprising Pd, and the sensor may sense a change in hydrogen concentration from 0 to 100%. A device may include the hydrogen sensor, such as a vehicle, a fuel cell, a hydrogen storage tank, a facility for manufacturing steel, or a facility for refining petroleum products.

  13. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilsenbeck, Shane J.; McCarley, Robert E.; Schrader, Glenn L.; Xie, Xiaobing

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (L.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M.sub.6 S.sub.8).sup.0 cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na.sub.2x (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 by disproportionation at 800.degree. C. and well-crystallized NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 at .gtoreq. 900.degree. C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M.sup.2+ and M.sup.3+ salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8+x (MeOH).sub.y ›MMOS! (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as "Chevrel phase-like" in that both contain Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8 cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst showed to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts.

  14. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilsenbeck, S.J.; McCarley, R.E.; Schrader, G.L.; Xie, X.B.

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(L{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M{sub 6}S{sub 8}){sup 0} cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na{sub 2x}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} by disproportionation at 800 C and well-crystallized NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} at {>=} 900 C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M{sup 2+} and M{sup 3+} salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8+x}(MeOH){sub y}[MMOS] (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as ``Chevrel phase-like`` in that both contain Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst is shown to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts. 9 figs.

  15. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilsenbeck, Shane J. (Ames, IA); McCarley, Robert E. (Ames, IA); Schrader, Glenn L. (Ames, IA); Xie, Xiaobing (College Station, TX)

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (L.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M.sub.6 S.sub.8).sup.0 cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na.sub.2x (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 by disproportionation at 800.degree. C. and well-crystallized NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 at .gtoreq. 900.degree. C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M.sup.2+ and M.sup.3+ salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8+x (MeOH).sub.y MMOS! (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as "Chevrel phase-like" in that both contain Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8 cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst showed to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts.

  16. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  17. Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

  18. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources. Fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal, can be converted to produce hydrogen, and the use of carbon capture, utilization, and storage can reduce the carbon footprint of these processes. Hydrogen can also be produced from low carbon and renewable resources, including biomass grown from non-food crops and splitting water using electricity from wind, solar, geothermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric. This diversity of potential

  19. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDaniel; Anthony H. , Medlin; J. Will , Bastasz; Robert J.

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  20. Hydrogen Liquefaction

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Equilibrium Liquid Hydrogen is 0.2% Ortho, 99.8% Para 3 Liquid Supply North America ... Forecourt: attributes & challenges (NFPA-55) Energy & Capital: LH2 will ...

  1. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Hydrogen Sector List of Hydrogen Incentives Hydrogen Energy Data Book Retrieved from...

  2. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM CONTAINING CARRIER PRECIPITATE BY CARBONATE METATHESIS AND SEPARATION OF SULFIDE IMPURITIES THEREFROM BY SULFIDE PRECIPITATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for recovering plutonium from foreign products wherein a carrier precipitate of lanthanum fluoride containing plutonium is obtained and includes the steps of dissolving the carrier precipitate in an alkali metal carbonate solution, adding a soluble sulfide, separating the sulfide precipitate, adding an alkali metal hydroxide, separating the resulting precipitate, washing, and dissolving in a strong acid.

  3. Make the most of catalytic hydrogenations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landert, J.P.; Scubla, T. [Biazzi S.A., Chailly-Montreux (Switzerland)

    1995-03-01

    Liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation is one of the most useful and versatile reactions available for organic synthesis. Because it is environmentally clean, it has replaced other reduction processes, such as the Bechamp reaction, and zinc and sulfide reductions. Moreover, the economics are favorable, provided that raw materials free of catalyst poisons are used. The hydrogenation reaction is very selective with appropriate catalysts and can often be carried out without a solvent. Applications include reduction of unsaturated carbon compounds to saturated derivatives (for example, in vegetable-oil processing), carbonyl compounds to alcohols (such as sorbitol), and nitrocompounds to amines. the reactions are usually run in batch reactors to rapidly reach complete conversion and allow quick change-over of products. The paper describes the basics of hydrogenation; steering clear of process hazards; scale-up and optimization; and system design in practice.

  4. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Assignee: Dept. of Energy SRS; SCA: 400102; 440600; PA: EDB-93:115619; NTS-93:022796; ERA-18:030401; SN: 93000998791 Patent Number(s): PATENTS-US--A7678520 Application Number: ON: ...

  5. Hydrogen Bibliography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  6. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide exchange in bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fried, A.; Klinger, L.F.; Erickson, D.J. III (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-01-22

    Measurements of Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) fluxes were carried out on bog microcosms using chamber sampling and tunable diode laser analysis. Intact bog microcosms (vascular plants, mosses, and peat) removed ambient levels of OCS in the light and dark with rates from [minus]2.4 to [minus]8.1 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2]. Peat and peat plus mosses emitted OCS in the light with rates of 17.4 and 10.9 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2], respectively. In the dark, the mosses apparently removed OCS at a rate equivalent to the peat emissions. A 3-D numerical tracer model using this data indicated that boreal bog ecosystems remove at most 1% of ambient OCS, not sufficient to account for an observed OCS depletion in boreal air masses. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Robust Nitrogen Oxide/Ammonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control Robust Nitrogen OxideAmmonia Sensors for Vehicle On-board Emissions Control 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  8. Anodic oxidation of sulfide ions in molten lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, C.L.; Gilbert, J.B. II . Applied Research Lab.)

    1994-10-01

    The study of sulfur and sulfide oxidation in molten salt systems is of current interest in high energy battery, and metallurgical applications. Cyclic voltammetry experiments have been performed on lithium sulfide in a lithium fluoride electrolyte at 1,161 K using a graphite working electrode and a platinum quasi-reference electrode. Two distinct oxidation mechanisms are observed for the sulfide ions. The first oxidation produces sulfur and at a higher potential a disulfide species is proposed to have formed. Both oxidations appear to be reversible and diffusion controlled.

  9. Process for removing carbonyl sulfide from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tellis, C.

    1981-11-10

    This invention relates to a process for reducing the carbonyl sulfide content of a gaseous stream which has a concentration of carbonyl sulfide of from at least 1 to about 100 parts per million, by volume, which comprises providing an absorbent bed wherein the absorbent comprises zinc oxide and contains no more than 5%, by weight, of an oxide of an alkli or alkaline earth metal, and contacting said process stream with said adsorbent bed at a temperature of from about ambient to 250/sup 0/ C. For a period of time sufficient to remove at least 90% of the carbonyl sulfide content of said gaseous stream.

  10. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.