National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydrogen sulfide carbon

  1. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  2. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  3. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a metal boride, nitride, carbide and/or silicide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuiggan, M.F.; Kuch, P.L.

    1984-05-08

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a metal boride, carbide, nitride and/or silicide catalyst, such as titanium carbide, vanadium boride, manganese nitride or molybdenum silicide.

  4. Thermochemical method for producing hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrington, D.R.

    1984-02-21

    Hydrogen is produced from hydrogen sulfide by a 3-step, thermochemical process comprising: (a) contacting hydrogen sulfide with carbon dioxide to form carbonyl sulfide and water, (b) contacting the carbonyl sulfide produced in (a) with oxygen to form carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, and (c) contacting the carbon monoxide produced in (b) with water to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

  5. Removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from gas-streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deal, C.H.; Lieder, C.A.

    1982-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide are removed from a gas stream in a staged procedure characterized by conversion of the hydrogen sulfide to produce sulfur in aqueous solution, hydrolysis of the carbonyl sulfide remaining in the gas stream to produce hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide, and removal of the hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream.

  6. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide on Activated Carbons Impregnated with Sodium Hydroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Viviane [ORNL; Baskova, Svetlana [ORNL; Armstrong, Timothy R. [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Two activated carbons of different origin were impregnated with the solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) of various concentrations up to 10 wt %, and the effect of impregnation on the catalytic performance of the carbons was evaluated. The catalytic activity was analyzed in terms of the capacity of carbons for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conversion and removal from hydrogen-rich fuel streams and the emission times of H2S and the products of its oxidation [e.g., sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbonyl sulfide (COS)]. The results of impregnation showed a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of both carbons proportional to the amount of NaOH introduced. NaOH introduces hydroxyl groups (OH-) on the surface of the activated carbon that increase its surface reactivity and its interaction with sulfur-containing compounds.

  7. Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

    2000-02-01

    Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

  8. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  9. Kinetics of hydrolysis and oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium and application to carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewuyi, Y.G.; Carmichael, G.R.

    1987-02-01

    Kinetic studies of the oxidation of carbon disulfide by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline medium were made spectrophotometrically. The reaction of CS/sub 2/ with OH/sup -/ ion was found to be rate controlling and proceeded by the formation of a dithiocarbonate complex. The major reaction product was sulfate with sulfur occurring as colloidal suspensions only at pH values less than 8. The formation of sulfate increased exponentially with time and was also found to be dependent on the rate of hydrolysis of CS/sub 2/. In addition, the production of sulfate showed large induction periods, suggesting either a complex mechanism or formation by secondary reactions. The results obtained for carbon disulfide were extended to carbonyl sulfide (OCS) oxidation in alkaline solutions. The removal of OCS (acid gas) from mixtures of gases by alkaline liquid absorbents (e.g. NaOH) and oxidation of subsequent solutions to sulfate is an important industrial practice. 42 references, 14 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Corrosion effects of hydrogen sulfide on coiled tubing and carbon steel in hydrochloric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    Coiled tubing is commonly used in oilwell drilling and stimulation. It has been reported to be less susceptible to acid attack than carbon steel in acidizing. Corrosion problems are frequently reported from field activities and include corrosion/erosion, galvanic attack, brine/oxygen/acid attack, and HCl/H{sub 2}S attack. In this study, coiled tubing was exposed to inhibited HCl acid in the presence and absence of H{sub 2}S. Four HCl inhibitors and one H{sub 2}S inhibitor were evaluated, and the corrosion rates of coiled tubing, carbon steel (J-55), and carburized steel were compared. Tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure for temperatures less than and equal to 200 F. At temperatures greater than 200 F; tests were conducted at 4,000 psi.

  11. Carbonyl sulfide/carbon chemistry: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinckley, C.C.; Shiley, R.H.

    1986-10-01

    This study examined the effects of treating isotropic char, coal tar, and coal with carbonyl sulfide, OCS. The substrates were treated with moderate pressures of OCS at 400-550/sup 0/C for several hours. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that the autoclave gases contained CO, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S, and unreacted OCS as the principal components after reaction. The predominant reaction was the decomposition of OCS to CO and S. Sulfur percentages for all of the treated substrates were increased by 10% or more. Polarized light reflectance microscopy showed that anisotropic carbon (mesopase) was present in coal samples treated with sulfur gases. The study demonstrates that OCS is a potent resulfurization agent for all of the substrates examined. Cabonyl sulfide and hydrogen sulfide, included in the study for comparison, facilitate the formation of mesophasic structures in the coal studied. 9 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  13. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  14. Selective removal of carbonyl sulfide from a hydrogen sulfide containing gas mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souby, M.C.

    1990-12-25

    This patent describes a process for the selective removal of carbonyl sulfide from a gas mixture also comprising hydrogen sulfide. It comprises contacting the gas mixture with an absorbent comprising from about 35% w to about 55% w of a tertiary amine; from about 5% w to about 15% w of water, and the balance being a physical co-solvent; regenerating the loaded absorbent to remove substantially all of the carbonyl sulfide and most of the hydrogen sulfide to provide a lean absorbent containing hydrogen sulfide in an amount of 0.2% w to 2% w; and recycling the lean absorbent to the contacting step.

  15. Near-continuous measurement of hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide by an automatic gas chromatograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Pershing, D.W.; Kirchgessner, D.A.; Drehmel, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    The article describes an automatic gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) that samples and analyzes hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) at 30-sec intervals. Temperature programming was used to elute trace amounts of carbon disulfide (CS2) present in each injection from a Supelpak-S column in a single peak at the end of 15 min runs. The system was used to study the high-temperature fuel-rich sulfur capture reactions of H2S and COS with injected calcium oxide (CaO) sorbent, necessitating the near continuous measurement of these gaseous sulfur species. The H2S concentration ranged from 300 to 3000 ppm, and the COS from 30 to 300 ppm. The system was also used to monitor sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels under fuel-lean conditions: results compared very closely with SO2 measurements made simultaneously with continuous ultraviolet (UV) SO2 instrumentation.

  16. High temperature regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copeland, Robert J. (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    1993-01-01

    A system for high temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases using regenerable sorbents. One sorbent is stannic oxide (tin oxide, SnO.sub.2), the other sorbent is a metal oxide or mixed metal oxide such as zinc ferrite (ZnFe.sub.2 O.sub.4). Certain otherwise undesirable by-products, including hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) and sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) are reused by the system, and elemental sulfur is produced in the regeneration reaction. A system for refabricating the sorbent pellets is also described.

  17. Method of removing hydrogen sulfide from gases utilizing a zinc oxide sorbent and regenerating the sorbent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jalan, Vinod M.; Frost, David G.

    1984-01-01

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500.degree. C. to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent.

  18. Plasma-chemical treatment of hydrogen sulfide in natural gas processing. Final report, May 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A new process for the treatment of hydrogen sulfide waste that uses microwave plasma-chemical technology has been under development in Russia and the United States. Whereas the present waste-treatment technology, at best, only recovers sulfur, this novel process recovers both hydrogen and sulfur by dissociating hydrogen sulfide in a plasma by means of a microwave or radio-frequency reactor. A research project has been undertaken to determine the suitability of the plasma process in natural gas processing applications. The experiments tested acid-gas compositions with 30--65% carbon dioxide, 0--7% water, and 0--0.2% of a standard mixture of pipeline gas. The balance gas in all cases was hydrogen sulfide. The reactor pressure for the experiments was 50 torr, and the microwave power was 1.0 kW. Conversions of hydrogen sulfide ranged from 80 to 100%, while 35--50% of the carbon dioxide was converted to carbon monoxide. This conversion of carbon dioxide resulted in a loss of hydrogen production and an energy loss from a hydrogen sulfide waste-treatment perspective. Tests of a direct natural gas treatment concept showed that hydrocarbon losses were unacceptably high; consequently, the concept would not be economically viable.

  19. Removal of carbonyl sulfide using activated carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, M.L.; Rosenberk, R.S. [University of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Wastewater treatment plant odors are caused by compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptans, and carbonyl sulfide (COS). One of the most efficient odor control processes is activated carbon adsorption; however, very few studies have been conducted on COS adsorption. COS is not only an odor causing compound but is also listed in the Clean Air Act as a hazardous air pollutant. Objectives of this study were to determine the following: (1) the adsorption capacity of 3 different carbons for COS removal; (2) the impact of relative humidity (RH) on COS adsorption; (3) the extent of competitive adsorption of COS in the presence of H{sub 2}S; and (4) whether ammonia injection would increase COS adsorption capacity. Vapor phase react (VPR; reactivated), BPL (bituminous coal-based), and Centaur (physically modified to enhance H{sub 2}S adsorption) carbons manufactured by Calgon Carbon Corp. were tested in three laboratory-scale columns. It was found that the adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon for COS was higher than the other two carbons, regardless of RH. As humidity increased, the percentage of decrease in adsorption capacity of Centaur carbon, however, was greater than the other two carbons. The carbon adsorption capacity for COS decreased in proportion to the percentage of H{sub 2}S in the gas stream. More adsorption sites appear to be available to H{sub 2}S, a smaller molecule. Ammonia, which has been found to increase H{sub 2}S adsorption capacity, did not increase the capacity for COS.

  20. Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani (Morgantown, WV)

    2010-08-03

    Regenerable hydrogen chloride removal sorbent and regenerable multi-functional hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen chloride removal sorbent for high temperature gas streams

  1. Rate of reaction of hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures with fully calcined dolomite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, V.S.; Petrie, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic data are obtained by a gravimetric technique for rates of reaction of calcium oxide in fully calcined dolomite with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures. The data are presented as values for a factor k defined by d(CAO) = -k (CAO) dt. At 600, 700, and 800 degrees C with (H/sub 2/S) from 0.5% to 5.0% by volume and (H/sub 2/S)/(COS) = 20 for mixtures, expressions for k show apparent rate constants and the dependence on sulfurous gas concentration. For example, at 700 degrees C, k = 1.43 x 10/sup -4/ (h2s) 1.06/S and k = 1.70 x 10/sup -4/ (H/sub 2/S + COS) 1.00/s. Since the date show first-order dependence on calcium oxide, k's for H/sub 2/S alone as the sulfurous gas and h2s-cos mixtures can be obtained for the same sample, free from scatter due to variations from sample to sample. Addition of values for k from runs with H/sub 2/S as the only sulfurous gas and runs with COS as the only sulfurous gas are compared to measurements with actual mixtures. K's for the mixtures are approximately 30% higher than the sum of the appropriate separate values.

  2. Atomic layer deposition of aluminum sulfide thin films using trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinha, Soumyadeep; Sarkar, Shaibal K.; Mahuli, Neha

    2015-01-15

    Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum and hydrogen sulfide are used to deposit aluminum sulfide thin films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in the temperature ranging from 100 to 200?C. Growth rate of 1.3 per ALD cycle is achieved by in-situ quartz crystal microbalance measurements. It is found that the growth rate per ALD cycle is highly dependent on the purging time between the two precursors. Increased purge time results in higher growth rate. Surface limited chemistry during each ALD half cycle is studied by in-situ Fourier transformed infrared vibration spectroscopy. Time of flight secondary ion-mass spectroscopy measurement is used to confirm elemental composition of the deposited films.

  3. Regenerable sorbent and method for removing hydrogen sulfide from hot gaseous mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farrior, Jr., William L. (Morgantown, WV)

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is effectively removed from hot gaseous mixtures useful for industrial purposes by employing a solid absorbent consisting of silica-supported iron oxide in pellet form.

  4. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  5. Atomospheric monitoring for hydrogen sulfide by photorateometric analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimbell, C.L.

    1981-08-01

    A new method for analysis of the hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) content of the atmosphere is by photorateometric measurement. This detection method consists of a surface chemically treated with lead acetate enclosed in the chamber. Reaction with H/sub 2/S causes a color change. A photocell response is produced by ''rate of change'' electronics, the output of which is proportional to the first derivative of the photocell output. This first derivative signal is a measure of H/sub 2/S concentration. An output linear with concentration is obtained. A range of measurement may be obtained in parts per million (ppm) and parts per billion (ppb) with extreme accuracy. Response time using the rateometric technique is sufficiently fast to allow plume characterization using surface vehicle or aircraft mounted analyzers.

  6. Methods for producing hydrogen (BI) sulfide and/or removing metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Truex, Michael J [Richland, WA; Peyton, Brent M [Pullman, WA; Toth, James J [Kennewick, WA

    2002-05-14

    The present invention is a process wherein sulfide production by bacteria is efficiently turned on and off, using pH adjustment. The adjustment of pH impacts sulfide production by bacteria by altering the relative amounts of H.sub.2 S and HS-- in solution and thereby control the inhibition of the bacterial metabolism that produces sulfide. This process can be used to make a bioreactor produce sulfide "on-demand" so that the production of sulfide can be matched to its use as a metal precipitation reagent. The present invention is of significance because it enables the use of a biological reactor, a cost effective sulfide production system, by making the biological reactor produce hydrogen sulfide "on demand", and therefore responsive to production schedules, waste stream generation rate, and health and safety requirements/goals.

  7. Method of treating alkali metal sulfide and carbonate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kohl, Arthur L. (Woodland Hills, CA); Rennick, Robert D. (Thousand Oaks, CA); Savinsky, Martin W. (Thousand Oaks, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A method of removing and preferably recovering sulfur values from an alkali metal sulfide and carbonate mixture comprising the steps of (1) introducing the mixture in an aqueous medium into a first carbonation zone and reacting the mixture with a gas containing a major amount of CO.sub.2 and a minor amount of H.sub.2 S; (2) introducing the resultant product from step 1 into a stripping zone maintained at subatmospheric pressure, and contacting this product with steam to produce a gaseous mixture, comprising H.sub.2 S and water vapor, and a liquor of reduced sulfide content; (3) introducing the liquor of reduced sulfide content into a second carbonation zone, and reacting the liquor with substantially pure gaseous CO.sub.2 in an amount sufficient to precipitate bicarbonate crystals and produce an offgas containing CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S for use in step 1; (4) recovering the bicarbonate crystals from step 3, and thermally decomposing the crystals to produce an alkaline metal carbonate product and a substantially pure CO.sub.2 offgas for use in step 3.

  8. Process for removing carbonyl sulfide from hydrocarbon feedstreams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, E.S.; Kosseim, A.J.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a process for removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from a feedstream containing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide and hydrocarbons. It comprises: contacting the feedstream in a hydrolysis zone with a first portion of a lean solution stream comprising an aqueous alkaline solution at an effective hydrolysis temperature to convert at least a portion of the carbonyl sulfide to carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, withdrawing a first effluent stream containing a reduced concentration of carbonyl sulfide relative to the feedstream, and withdrawing a first rich solution stream comprising the aqueous alkaline solution, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide; contacting the first effluent stream in an absorption zone with a second portion of the lean solution stream at an effective absorption temperature to absorb carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and withdrawing a second rich solution stream comprising the aqueous alkaline solution, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide; combining at least a portion of the first rich solution stream and the second rich solution stream and contacting the combined rich solution stream in a regeneration zone at effective conditions to desorb carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, withdrawing a vent gas stream comprising carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and withdrawing the lean solution stream; separating the lean solution stream into the first and second portions; and recycling the first portion of the lean solution stream to the hydrolysis zone and the second portion of the lean solution stream to the absorption zone.

  9. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

  10. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  11. Airborne measurements of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide by isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandy, A.R.; Thornton, D.C.; Driedger, A.R. III [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer is described for determining atmospheric sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbonyl sulfide from aircraft and ship platforms. Isotopically labelled variants of each analyte were used as internal standards to achieve high precision. The lower limit of detection for each species for an integration time of 3 min was 1 pptv for sulfur dioxide and dimethyl sulfide and 0.2 pptv for carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide. All four species were simultaneously determined with a sample frequency of one sample per 6 min or greater. When only one or two species were determined, a frequency of one sample per 4 min was achieved. Because a calibration is included in each sample, no separate calibration sequence was needed. Instrument warmup was only a few minutes. The instrument was very robust in field deployments, requiring little maintenance.

  12. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.E.; Bates, T.S. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  13. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from waste treatment plant biogas using the apollo scrubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.W.; Burrowes, P.A.; Gupta, A.; Walton, P.S.; Meffe, S.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide and other sulphur compounds from anaerobic digester gas streams prior to their use as fuel for boilers, stationary engines, and cogeneration units minimizes corrosion problems and reduces sulfur emission loadings. A research program at the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto in the 1980`s demonstrated the use of a modified flotation cell for the absorption of hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream and its catalytic oxidation to sulfur. The essence of the technology was a proprietary gas liquid contactor which provided very high mass transfer rates at the interface. A bench scale contactor developed at the university achieved hydrogen sulfide removal efficiencies of over 99.9% at atmospheric pressure. A demonstration unit for digester gas scrubbing applications was designed, fabricated, and then installed and evaluated at the Metropolitan Toronto Works Department - Main Treatment Plant (MTP).

  14. Hydrogen sulfide selectivity with carbonyl sulfide removal to less than PPM levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, T.R.; Pearce, R.L.; Foster, W.R. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in market conditions and plant operating economics require examination of traditional processes and operating practices in gas treating applications for upgrading to more stringent standards of efficiency in order to remain competitive while returning a satisfactory operating profit margin to the company. Anticipated reduction in solvent usage, improvements in Claus sulfur recovery unit performance and lower energy costs induced Ashland's Catlettsburg refinery to convert its entire sulfur removal system from monoethanolamine to methyldiethanolamine. One of the seven product streams being treated required extremely low carbonyl sulfide specifications. When the initial converted operations evidenced a need to improve the carbonyl sulfide removal, GAS/SPEC Tech Service produced an innovative solution which allowed for efficient operation which still achieved these objectives.

  15. Reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen in the presence of sulfite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weres, O.; Tsao, L.

    1983-01-14

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emission from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. We studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDTA are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use. 33 figures, 9 tables.

  16. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Oxygen in the Presence ofSulfite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weres, Oleh; Tsao, Leon

    1983-01-01

    Commonly, abatement of hydrogen sulfide emissions from a geothermal powerplant requires that hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the cooling water be eliminated by chemical reaction. Oxidation by atmospheric oxygen is the preferred reaction, but requires a suitable catalyst. Nickel is the most potent and thereby cheapest catalyst for this purpose. One Mg/L nickel in the cooling water would allow 99% removal of hydrogen sulfide to be attained. A major drawback of catalytic air oxidation is that colloidal sulfur is a major reaction product; this causes rapid sludge accumulation and deposition of sulfur scale. The authors studied the kinetics and product distribution of the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with oxygen, catalyzed by nickel. Adding sodium sulfite to the solution completely suppresses formation of colloidal sulfur by converting it to thiosulfate. The oxidation reaction is an autocatalytic, free radical chain reaction. A rate expression for this reaction and a detailed reaction mechanism were developed. Nickel catalyzes the chain initiation step, and polysulfidoradical ions propagate the chains. Several complexes of iron and cobalt were also studied. Iron citrate and iron N-hydroxyEDT are the most effective iron based catalysts. Uncomplexed cobalt is as effective as nickel, but forms a precipitate of cobalt oxysulfide and is too expensive for practical use.

  17. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  18. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

  19. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

  20. Carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide from the eruptions of Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, R.A.; Khalil, M.A.K.; Dalluge, R.W.; Penkett, S.A.; Jones, B.

    1982-01-01

    Ash from the massive 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens readily gave off large amounts of carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide gases at room temperature. These findings suggest that the sulfur that enhances the Junge sulfate layer in the stratosphere after volcanic eruptions could be carried directly to the upper atmosphere as carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide adsorbed on ash particles from major volcanic eruptions.

  1. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    1999-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  2. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1999-02-02

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form, usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  3. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, R.V.

    1997-12-30

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  4. Durable regenerable sorbent pellets for removal of hydrogen sulfide from coal gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    1997-01-01

    Pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a coal gasification stream at an elevated temperature are prepared in durable form usable over repeated cycles of absorption and regeneration. The pellets include a material reactive with hydrogen sulfide, in particular zinc oxide, a binder, and an inert material, in particular calcium sulfate (drierite), having a particle size substantially larger than other components of the pellets. A second inert material and a promoter may also be included. Preparation of the pellets may be carried out by dry, solid-state mixing of components, moistening the mixture, and agglomerating it into pellets, followed by drying and calcining. Pellet size is selected, depending on the type of reaction bed for which the pellets are intended. The use of inert material with a large particle size provides a stable pellet structure with increased porosity, enabling effective gas contact and prolonged mechanical durability.

  5. Aqueous process for recovering sulfur from hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basu, Arunabha

    2015-05-05

    A process for recovering sulfur from a hydrogen sulfide-bearing gas utilizes an aqueous reaction medium, a temperature of about 110-150.degree. C., and a high enough pressure to maintain the aqueous reaction medium in a liquid state. The process reduces material and equipment costs and addresses the environmental disadvantages associated with known processes that rely on high boiling point organic solvents.

  6. Decrease in carbonyl sulfide in the feed to Claus converters by shift catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gens, T.A. (BOC Group Technical Center, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1994-07-01

    The principal reaction in the burner in a Claus plant is the combustion of part of the hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur dioxide, which can react with more hydrogen sulfide to form sulfur. Alumina or commercial shift catalysts were used downstream of a Claus burner to shift carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide before it could react to form carbonyl sulfide. The shift catalysts were effective in preventing formation of carbonyl sulfide, thereby decreasing sulfur losses.

  7. State-of-the-art hydrogen sulfide control for geothermal energy systems: 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephens, F.B.; Hill, J.H.; Phelps, P.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Existing state-of-the-art technologies for removal of hydrogen sulfide are discussed along with a comparative assessment of their efficiencies, reliabilities and costs. Other related topics include the characteristics of vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated resources, energy conversion systems, and the sources of hydrogen sulfide emissions. It is indicated that upstream control technologies are preferred over downsteam technologies primarily because upstream removal of hydrogen sulfide inherently controls all downstream emissions including steam-stacking. Two upstream processes for vapor-dominated resources appear promising; the copper sulfate (EIC) process, and the steam converter (Coury) process combined with an off-gas abatement system such as a Stretford unit. For liquid-dominated systems that produce steam, the process where the non-condensible gases are scrubbed with spent geothermal fluid appears to be promising. An efficient downstream technology is the Stretford process for non-condensible gas removal. In this case, partitioning in the surface condenser will determine the overall abatement efficiency. Recommendations for future environmental control technology programs are included.

  8. Electrochemical separation and concentration of hydrogen sulfide from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winnick, Jack; Sather, Norman F.; Huang, Hann S.

    1984-10-30

    A method of removing sulfur oxides of H.sub.2 S from high temperature gas mixtures (150.degree.-1000.degree. C.) is the subject of the present invention. An electrochemical cell is employed. The cell is provided with inert electrodes and an electrolyte which will provide anions compatible with the sulfur containing anions formed at the anode. The electrolyte is also selected to provide inert stable cations at the temperatures encountered. The gas mixture is passed by the cathode where the sulfur gases are converted to SO.sub.4 -- or, in the case of H.sub.2 S, to S--. The anions migrate to the anode where they are converted to a stable gaseous form at much greater concentration levels (>10X). Current flow may be effected by utilizing an external source of electrical energy or by passing a reducing gas such as hydrogen past the anode.

  9. Simulation of spray drying with reaction: Absorption of hydrogen sulfide in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, H.; Ghosh, P.K. ); Baveja, K.K.; Dhingra, S.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Absorption of hydrogen sulfide gas in ammoniacal solution of zinc chloride is accompanied with an instantaneous chemical reaction forming zinc sulfide precipitates. Such reactions are most suited for operation of spray drying with reaction. A mathematical model for the system which incorporates chemical reaction, heat, mass and momentum transfer has been proposed. It is assumed that the gases and the spray is considered monodisperse for sake of simplicity. The differential equations derived for the model have been solved as an initial value problem using the Runge-Kutta method. The variations of temperature, humidity, droplet diameter, moisture content and concentrations of reactants are predicted along the length of the column and compared with experimental data.

  10. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  11. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  12. Effective Hydrogen Generation from the Hydrogen Sulfide Solution by using Stratified Type Photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, H.; Yokoyama, S.; Baba, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Tohji, K.

    2008-02-25

    Stratified type photocatalyst with the extremely higher photocatalytic activities can be synthesized by using the chemical reaction between the Na{sub 2}S solution and Cd(OH){sub 2} precursors. This type of photocatalyst has the specific morphology which constructed by the nano-sized and capsule like formed structure, and the metal concentration was gradually changed in its wall. The 'charge gradient' was formed at the metal sulfide and oxide/hydroxide junction in the wall, which favored for the separation of the photo excited electron-hole pair. Consequently, stratified type photocatalyst shows the high catalytic activity than the usual nano CdS particles. By the addition of sulfur compound into the bio reactor contained the sulfur reducing bacteria, the H{sub 2}S gas concentration can increased to about 1000 times enlarge than the usual condition. Therefore, we can conclude that the enhancement of the H{sub 2}S gas evolved from the bio reactor was successfully achievement, and we don't need to afraid the shortage risk of H{sub 2}S supply. These H{sub 2}S gas concentration can enlarged to 80% by using A type zeorite. Especially, Ca-A type zeorite is considered as the suitable material.

  13. Interdisciplinary neurotoxicity inhalation studies: Carbon disulfide and carbonyl sulfide research in F344 rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sills, Robert C. [Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 Alexander Drive, South Campus, MD B3-08, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)]. E-mail: sills@niehs.nih.gov; Harry, G. Jean [Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 Alexander Drive, South Campus, PO Box 12233, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Valentine, William M. [Department of Pathology and Center in Molecular Toxicology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Morgan, Daniel L. [Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Inhalation studies were conducted on the hazardous air pollutants, carbon disulfide, which targets the central nervous system (spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system (distal portions of long myelinated axons), and carbonyl sulfide, which targets the central nervous system (brain). The objectives were to investigate the neurotoxicity of these compounds by a comprehensive evaluation of function, structure, and mechanisms of disease. Through interdisciplinary research, the major finding in the carbon disulfide inhalation studies was that carbon disulfide produced intra- and intermolecular protein cross-linking in vivo. The observation of dose-dependent covalent cross-linking in neurofilament proteins prior to the onset of lesions is consistent with this process contributing to the development of the neurofilamentous axonal swellings characteristic of carbon disulfide neurotoxicity. Of significance is that valine-lysine thiourea cross-linking on rat globin and lysine-lysine thiourea cross-linking on erythrocyte spectrin reflect cross-linking events occurring within the axon and could potentially serve as biomarkers of carbon disulfide exposure and effect. In the carbonyl sulfide studies, using magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), we determined that carbonyl sulfide targets the auditory pathway in the brain. MRM allowed the examination of 200 brain slices and made it possible to identify the most vulnerable sites of neurotoxicity, which would have been missed in our traditional neuropathology evaluations. Electrophysiological studies were focused on the auditory system and demonstrated decreases in auditory brain stem evoked responses. Similarly, mechanistic studies focused on evaluating cytochrome oxidase activity in the posterior colliculus and parietal cortex. A decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity was considered to be a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of carbonyl sulfide neurotoxicity.

  14. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

  15. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

    1985-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  16. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  17. Carbonyl sulfide/carbon chemistry: Interim report, July 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinckley, C.C.; Shiley, R.H.

    1986-05-01

    This interim report describes work performed during the first eight months of a continuing project, including descriptions of sample preparations and analyses. The objective of the study is to determine the effects of carbonyl sulfide, a product of the carbon monoxide/ethanol desulfurization process, on coal. A coal is first treated with carbon monoxide to reduce pyrite, and is then reacted with OCS and N/sub 2/ under various conditions. OCS is a potent resulfurization agent and appears to affect the formation of mesophase in chars derived from the coal. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  18. NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Experiments involving methane conversion reactions were conducted with a preliminary pulsed corona discharge reactor design in order to test and improve the reactor and membrane designs using a non-toxic reactant. This report details the direct methane conversion experiments to produce hydrogen, acetylene, and higher hydrocarbons utilizing a co-axial cylinder (CAC) corona discharge reactor, pulsed with a thyratron switch. The reactor was designed to accommodate relatively high flow rates (655 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s) representing a pilot scale easily converted to commercial scale. Parameters expected to influence methane conversion including pulse frequency, charge voltage, capacitance, residence time, and electrode material were investigated. Conversion, selectivity and energy consumption were measured or estimated. C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbon products were analyzed with a residual gas analyzer (RGA). In order to obtain quantitative results, the complex sample spectra were de-convoluted via a linear least squares method. Methane conversion as high as 51% was achieved. The products are typically 50%-60% acetylene, 20% propane, 10% ethane and ethylene, and 5% propylene. First Law thermodynamic energy efficiencies for the system (electrical and reactor) were estimated to range from 38% to 6%, with the highest efficiencies occurring at short residence time and low power input (low specific energy) where conversion is the lowest (less than 5%). The highest methane conversion of 51% occurred at a residence time of 18.8 s with a flow rate of 39.4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s (5 ft{sup 3}/h) and a specific energy of 13,000 J/l using niobium and platinum coated stainless steel tubes as cathodes. Under these conditions, the First Law efficiency for the system was 8%. Under similar reaction conditions, methane conversions were {approx}50% higher with niobium and platinum coated stainless steel cathodes than with a stainless steel cathode.

  19. Additive for lubricants and hydrocarbon fuels comprising reaction products of olefins, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen containing polymeric compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horodysky, A.G.; Law, D.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for making an additive for lubricant compositions comprising co-reacting: a monoolefin selected from the group consisting of butenes, propenes, pentenes, and mixtures of two or more thereof; sulfur; hydrogen sulfide; polymeric nitrogen-containing compound selected from the group consisting of succinimides, amides, imides, polyoxyazoline polymers and alkyl imidazoline compounds; and a catalytic amount of an amine selected from the group consisting of polyethylene amines and hydroxyl-containing amines; at a temperature between about 130/sup 0/C and about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure of about 0 psig to about 900 psig, the reactants being reacted in a molar ratio of olefin, polymeric nitrogen-containing compound, and hydrogen sulfide to sulfur of 2 to 0.5, 0.001 to 0.4, and 0.5 to 0.7, respectively, and the concentration of amine being between 0.5 and 10 percent of the total weight of reactants.

  20. Effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on the SSC resistance of martensitic stainless steels and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, D.D.

    1999-11-01

    Centrifugal compressor applications require the use of martensitic stainless and martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steels at high hydrogen sulfide partial pressures. These materials do not perform well when tested with standard TM0177 test solutions. This paper describes the effect of hydrogen sulfide partial pressure, pH, and chloride content on their SSC resistance and explains their successful field operational experience. Environmental limits are determined for several materials and heat treat conditions.

  1. Case report: Profound neurobehavioral deficits in an oil field worker overcome by hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kilburn, K.H. )

    1993-11-01

    A 24-year-old oil well tester was rendered semiconscious by hydrogen sulfide (H2S). He received oxygen and was hospitalized but released in 30 minutes. The next day, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and incontinence of urine and stool led to rehospitalization. These problems and leg shaking, dizziness, sweating, trouble sleeping, and nightmares prevented his return to work. A physical examination, chest x-ray, and pulmonary function tests were normal 39 months after the episode but vibration sense was diminished. Two choice visual reaction times were delayed. Balance was highly abnormal (5 to 6 cm/sec) with eyes closed. Blink reflex latency was slow (R-1 17.5 msec versus normal 14.3 msec). Numbers written on finger tips were not recognized. Verbal and visual recall were impaired but overlearned memory was intact. Cognitive functions measured by Culture Fair, block design, and digit symbol were impaired. Perceptual motor was slow. Scores for confusion, tension-anxiety, depression, and fatigue were elevated and vigor was reduced. Forty-nine months after exposure his reaction time, sway speed, and color vision had not improved. His recall and his cognitive, constructional, and psychomotor speeds had improved but remained abnormal. These deficits are most likely due to H2S. Similar testing of other survivors is recommended.

  2. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  3. Synthesis of hydrogen-carbon clathrate material and hydrogen evolution therefrom at moderate temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lueking, Angela (State College, PA); Narayanan, Deepa (Redmond, WA)

    2011-03-08

    A process for making a hydrogenated carbon material is provided which includes forming a mixture of a carbon source, particularly a carbonaceous material, and a hydrogen source. The mixture is reacted under reaction conditions such that hydrogen is generated and/or released from the hydrogen source, an amorphous diamond-like carbon is formed, and at least a portion of the generated and/or released hydrogen associates with the amorphous diamond-like carbon, thereby forming a hydrogenated carbon material. A hydrogenated carbon material including a hydrogen carbon clathrate is characterized by evolution of molecular hydrogen at room temperature at atmospheric pressure in particular embodiments of methods and compositions according to the present invention.

  4. Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

  5. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  6. SISGR - Hydrogen Caged in Carbon-Exploration of Novel Carbon-Hydrogen Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lueking, Angela; Badding, John; Crespi, Vinent

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen trapped in a carbon cage, captured through repulsive interactions, is a novel concept in hydrogen storage. Trapping hydrogen via repulsive interactions borrows an idea from macroscale hydrogen storage (i.e. compressed gas storage tanks) and reapplies these concepts on the nanoscale in specially designed molecular containers. Under extreme conditions of pressure, hydrogen solubility in carbon materials is expected to increase and carbon is expected to restructure to minimize volume via a mixed sp2/sp3 hydrogenated state. Thermodynamics dictate that pre-formed C-H structures will rearrange with increased pressure, yet the final carbon-hydrogen interactions may be dependent upon the mechanism by which hydrogen is introduced. Gas trapping is meant to denote gas present in a solid in a high density, adsorbed-like state, when the external pressure is much less than that necessary to provide a comparable fluid density. Trapping thus denotes a kinetically metastable state rather than thermodynamic equilibrium. This project probed mechanochemical means to polymerize select hydrocarbons in the presence of gases, in an attempt to form localized carbon cages that trap gases via repulsive interactions. Aromatic, polyaromatic, and hydroaromatic molecules expected to undergo cyclo-addition reactions were polymerized at high (~GPa) pressures to form extended hydrogenated amorphous carbon networks. Notably, aromatics with a pre-existing internal free volume (such as Triptycene) appeared to retain an internal porosity upon application of pressure. However, a high photoluminescence background after polymerization precluded in situ identification of trapped gases. No spectroscopic evidence was found after depressurization that would be indicative of pockets of trapped gases in a localized high-pressure environment. Control studies suggested this measurement may be insensitive to gases at low pressure. Similarly, no spectral fingerprint was found for gas-imbued spherical carbon nanoshells, even after chemical capping of the gas-imbued nanoshells to limit gas diffusivity. Subsequently, spectral probes of gas vibrational modes adsorbed in various carbon nanostructures (including activated carbons, single-wall carbon nanotubes, polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), and UV-irradiated PIMs with decreased pore size) were found only at high pressure. The vibrational mode of the adsorbed film became perturbed in high density films, and the perturbation was sensitive to surface functional groups, pore size, and pore dimension. Experimental results were corroborated with first-principle modeling using density functional theory. Development of semi-empirical correlations that relate the spectral features to pore dimension, geometry, and chemical potential of the adsorbed film are on-going.

  7. Hydrogenation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogenation of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes A. Nikitin1), H. Ogasawara1) D. Mann2), R. Denecke1)*, Z. Zhang3), H. Dai2), KJ Cho3), A. Nilsson1,4) 1Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA 2Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA 4FYSIKUM, Stockholm University, Albanova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden In the next 20

  8. California Regulations on Renewble Hydrogen and Low Carbon Technologies |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Regulations on Renewble Hydrogen and Low Carbon Technologies California Regulations on Renewble Hydrogen and Low Carbon Technologies Presentation at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_achtelik.pdf More Documents & Publications Transportation and Stationary Power Integration Workshop: A California Perspective Vision for Rollout of Fuel Cell Vehicles and Hydrogen Fuel Stations State of the

  9. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Elliott; Whelan, Mary; Seibt, U.; Smith, Steven J.; Berry, Joe; Hilton, Timothy W.

    2015-04-28

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has recently emerged as an atmospheric tracer of gross primary production. All modeling studies of COS air-monitoring data rely on a climatological anthropogenic inventory that does not reflect present conditions or support interpretation of ice core and firn trends. Here we develop a global anthropogenic inventory for the years 1850 to 2013 based on new emission measurements and material-specific data. By applying methods from a recent regional inventory to global data, we find that the anthropogenic source is similar in magnitude to the plant sink, confounding carbon cycle applications. However, a material-specific approach results in a current anthropogenic source that is only one-third of plant uptake and is concentrated in Asia, supporting carbon cycle applications of global air-monitoring data. Furthermore, the source alone cannot explain the century-scale mixing ratio growth, which suggests that ice and firn data may provide the first global history of gross primary production.

  10. High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search High Pressure Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Hydrogen storage for transportation is one of the most important problems faced in implementing a "hydrogen economy". Hydrogen can be produced in many ways, but then must be stored for use by fuel cells. The U.S. Department of Energy's

  11. California Regulations on Renewble Hydrogen and Low Carbon Technologie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Technologies Presentation at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon renewablehydrogenworkshopnov16achtelik.pdf More Documents &...

  12. Confinement of hydrogen at high pressure in carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lassila, David H. (Aptos, CA); Bonner, Brian P. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-12-13

    A high pressure hydrogen confinement apparatus according to one embodiment includes carbon nanotubes capped at one or both ends thereof with a hydrogen-permeable membrane to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough. A hydrogen confinement apparatus according to another embodiment includes an array of multi-walled carbon nanotubes each having first and second ends, the second ends being capped with palladium (Pd) to enable the high pressure confinement of hydrogen and release of the hydrogen therethrough as a function of palladium temperature, wherein the array of carbon nanotubes is capable of storing hydrogen gas at a pressure of at least 1 GPa for greater than 24 hours. Additional apparatuses and methods are also presented.

  13. Carbonate thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Dole, Leslie R (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Ferrada, Juan J (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Forsberg, Charles W (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Haire, Marvin J (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Hunt, Rodney D (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Lewis Jr., Benjamin E (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Wymer, Raymond G (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-02-23

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  14. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.E.; Whelan, Mary; Seibt, U.; Smith, Steven J.; Berry, J.A.; Hilton, Timothy W.

    2015-04-28

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has recently emerged as an atmospheric tracer of gross primary production. All modeling studies of COS air-monitoring data rely on a climatological anthropogenic inventory that does not reflect present conditions or support interpretation of ice core and firn trends. Here we develop a global anthropogenic inventory for the years 1850 to 2013 based on new emission measurements and material-specific data. By applying methods from a recent regional inventory to global data, we find that the anthropogenic source is similar in magnitude to the plant sink, confounding carbon cycle applications. However, a material-specific approach results in a current anthropogenic source that is only one third of plant uptake and is concentrated in Asia, supporting carbon cycle applications of global air-monitoring data. Furthermore, changes in the anthropogenic source alone cannot explain the century-scale mixing ratio growth, which suggests that ice and firn data may provide the first global history of gross primary production.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angela D. Lueking; Qixiu Li; John V. Badding; Dania Fonseca; Humerto Gutierrez; Apurba Sakti; Kofi Adu; Michael Schimmel

    2010-03-31

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  16. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J. (Naperville, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  17. Coupling reactions of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines mediated by a Ru(II) phenylvinylidene complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bianchini, C.; Peruzzini, M.; Zanobini, F. [Istituto per lo Studio della Stereochimica ed Energetica dei Composti di Coordinazione, Florence (Italy)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Ru(II) fragment [(PNP)RuCl{sub 2}] assists the reaction of phenylacetylene with water, hydrogen sulfide and primary amines to give carbonyl, {eta}{sup 1}-benzylthioaldehyde, and isonitrile complexes, respectively [PNP = CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PPh{sub 2}){sub 2}]. In all of these processes, the reaction is initiated by the 1-alkyne to vinylidene tautomerization at the Ru(II) center, followed by attack of the H{sub 2}Z molecule (Z = O, S, NR) on the vinylidene ligand. The mechanisms which account for these transformations have been completely elucidated and several of the intermediates in these reactions have been isolated and fully characterized. The scope of these reactions in view of their potential applications in organic syntheses involving thioaldehydes and optically pure isonitriles will be briefly presented.

  18. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  19. Detection of Hydrogen Spillover in Palladium-Modified Activated Carbon Fibers During Hydrogen Adsorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; Brown, Craig; Liu, Yun; Bhat, Vinay V; Gallego, Nidia C

    2009-01-01

    Palladium-modified activated carbon fibers (Pd-ACF) are being evaluated for adsorptive hydrogen storage at near-ambient conditions because of their enhanced hydrogen uptake in comparison to Pd-free activated carbon fibers (ACF). The net uptake enhancement (at room temperature and 20 bar) is in excess of the amount corresponding to formation of Pd hydride, and is usually attributed to hydrogen spillover. In this paper, inelastic neutron scattering was used to demonstrate the formation of new C-H bonds in Pd-containing activated carbon fibers after exposure to hydrogen at 20 oC and 1.6 MPa, at the expense of physisorbed H2. This finding is a post-factum proof of the atomic nature of H species formed in presence of a Pd catalyst, and of their subsequent spillover and binding to the carbon support. Chemisorption of hydrogen may explain the reduction in hydrogen uptake from first to second adsorption cycle.

  20. Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VA at www.ntis.gov. This effort is focused on the design of new nanostructured carbon-based materials that meet the DOE 2010 targets for on-board vehicle hydrogen...

  1. Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-07-28

    OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

  2. Metal-Containing Organic and Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satcher, Jr., J H; Baumann, T F; Herberg, J L

    2005-01-10

    This document and the accompanying manuscript summarize the technical accomplishments of our one-year LDRD-ER effort. Hydrogen storage and hydrogen fuel cells are important components of the 2003 Hydrogen Fuel Initiative focused on the reduction of America's dependence on oil. To compete with oil as an energy source, however, one must be able to transport and utilize hydrogen at or above the target set by DOE (6 wt.% H{sub 2}) for the transportation sector. Other than liquid hydrogen, current technology falls well short of this DOE target. As a result, a variety of materials have recently been investigated to address this issue. Carbon nanostructures have received significant attention as hydrogen storage materials due to their low molecular weight, tunable microporosity and high specific surface areas. For example, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) achieved 5 to 10 wt.% H{sub 2} storage using metal-doped carbon nanotubes. That study showed that the intimate mix of metal nanoparticles with graphitic carbon resulted in the unanticipated hydrogen adsorption at near ambient conditions. The focus of our LDRD effort was the investigation of metal-doped carbon aerogels (MDCAs) as hydrogen storage materials. In addition to their low mass densities, continuous porosities and high surface areas, these materials are promising candidates for hydrogen storage because MDCAs contain a nanometric mix of metal nanoparticles and graphitic nanostructures. For FY04, our goals were to: (1) prepare a variety of metal-doped CAs (where the metal is cobalt, nickel or iron) at different densities and carbonization temperatures, (2) characterize the microstructure of these materials and (3) initiate hydrogen adsorption/desorption studies to determine H2 storage properties of these materials. Since the start of this effort, we have successfully prepared and characterized Ni- and Co-doped carbon aerogels at different densities and carbonization temperatures. The bulk of this work is described in the attached manuscript entitled 'Formation of Carbon Nanostructures in Cobalt- and Nickel- Doped Carbon Aerogels'. This one-year effort has lead to our incorporation into the DOE Carbon-based Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence at NREL, with funding from DOE's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Program starting in FY05.

  3. On the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst: A study by XPS and TPR/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, N.T.; Fang, M. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center

    1998-10-25

    Both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reaction, coupled with mass spectrometry (TPR/MS), are used to study the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst. It was found that the lattice sulfur of the oxysulfide is released and reacts with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide when the oxysulfide is heated. The oxysulfide is postulated to form sulfur vacancies at a temperature lower than that for the formation of carbonyl sulfide and atomic sulfur is released in the process. The atomic sulfur can either enter the gas phase and leave the oxysulfide catalyst or react with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide.

  4. TENSILE TESTING OF CARBON STEEL IN HIGH PRESSURE HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, A; Thad Adams, T; Ps Lam, P

    2007-05-02

    An infrastructure of new and existing pipelines and systems will be required to carry and to deliver hydrogen as an alternative energy source under the hydrogen economy. Carbon and low alloy steels of moderate strength are currently used in hydrogen delivery systems as well as in the existing natural gas systems. It is critical to understand the material response of these standard pipeline materials when they are subjected to pressurized hydrogen environments. The methods and results from a testing program to quantify hydrogen effects on mechanical properties of carbon steel pipeline and pipeline weld materials are provided. Tensile properties of one type of steel (A106 Grade B) in base metal, welded and heat affected zone conditions were tested at room temperature in air and high pressure (10.34 MPa or 1500 psig) hydrogen. A general reduction in the materials ability to plastically deform was noted in this material when specimens were tested in hydrogen. Furthermore, the primary mode of fracture was changed from ductile rupture in air to cleavage with secondary tearing in hydrogen. The mechanical test results will be applied in future analyses to evaluate service life of the pipelines. The results are also envisioned to be part of the bases for construction codes and structural integrity demonstrations for hydrogen service pipeline and vessels.

  5. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Few-Layer Graphene | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most remarkable physical properties of any material in terms of hardness, stiffness, thermal conductivity, transparency and chemical inertness1. Graphite, which is the most thermodynamically stable form of carbon at room temperature and at ambient

  6. Molybdenum sulfide/carbide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alonso, Gabriel (Chihuahua, MX); Chianelli, Russell R. (El Paso, TX); Fuentes, Sergio (Ensenada, MX); Torres, Brenda (El Paso, TX)

    2007-05-29

    The present invention provides methods of synthesizing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2) and carbon-containing molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2-xC.sub.x) catalysts that exhibit improved catalytic activity for hydrotreating reactions involving hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrogenation. The present invention also concerns the resulting catalysts. Furthermore, the invention concerns the promotion of these catalysts with Co, Ni, Fe, and/or Ru sulfides to create catalysts with greater activity, for hydrotreating reactions, than conventional catalysts such as cobalt molybdate on alumina support.

  7. Effect of Morphology of CdS thin film on the Photocatalytic Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, A.; Ishiyama, T.; Takahashi, H.; Sato, Y.; Jeyadevan, B.; Tohji, K.

    2007-03-20

    Photocatalytic activity of the CdS thin film depended very much on the film density, adhesion between the CdS and substrate, and whether effective electron path existed or not. We have proposed the formation of a bridging layer of Cd metal to improve the film density, adhesivity and the electron conduction path. Here, we report the results of the study undertaken to develop CdS/Cd (dendrite)/Ti film with enhanced photocatalytic property to decompose hydrogen sulphide. CdS/Cd (dendrite)/Ti photocatalyst showed the highest photocatalytic activity and photocurrent, which was 1.4 times higher than the traditional CdS/Ti photocatalyst.

  8. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  9. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  10. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1987-01-06

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  11. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spurlin, Stanford R. (Ames, IA); Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA)

    1987-01-01

    A method of chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction.

  12. Palladium-doped Nanoporous Carbon Fibers for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I; Bhat, Vinay V; van Benthem, Klaus; Tekinalp, Halil; Edie, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Pd-free and Pd-containing activated carbon fibers (Pd-ACF) were synthesized from isotropic pitch as a carbon precursor. The source of Pd was a palladium salt that was premixed with pitch before carbonization. Hydrogen adsorption was measured at near-ambient temperatures (5 to 80 oC) and moderate pressures (up to 20 bar). It was found that adsorption on Pd-ACF is always higher than that on corresponding ACF, and in excess of what it would be expected based solely on formation of Pd hydride. This fact can be explained based on the mechanism of hydrogen spillover. It was also found that temperature and pressure have opposite effects on physisorption and spillover. It was hypothesized that a narrow temperature range exists, where the kinetic advantage of H2 spillover in Pd-ACF overlaps synergistically with the thermodynamic advantage of physisorption, thus contributing to enhanced uptakes compared with the Pd-free carbons.

  13. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Two of...

  14. Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage This effort is focused on the design of new nanostructured carbon-based materials that meet the DOE 2010 targets for on-board vehicle hydrogen storage. Carbon aerogels (CAs) are a unique class of porous materials that possess a number of desirable structural features for the storage of hydrogen, including high surface areas (over 3000 m{sup 2}/g), continuous and

  15. Mechanism of enhanced hydrogen adsorption on palladium-doped nanoporous carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Wu, Xianxian; Tekinalp, Halil; Edie, Dan; Thies, Mark C; Baker, Frederick S

    2007-01-01

    Recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was directed towards adsorptive storage of hydrogen in nanoporous carbon fibers in which palladium was incorporated prior to spinning and carbonization/activation of the fibers. Palladium doped carbon fibers exhibited enhanced hydrogen uptake compared to the corresponding palladium-free nanoporous carbon fibers (at room temperature and 2 MPa pressure). However, the mechanism responsible for the enhanced hydrogen uptake is not fully understood. New findings are presented in this paper in support of a mechanism that encompasses both hydrogen spillover on palladium metal sites and hydrogen physisorption on nanostructured carbon sites.

  16. Hydrogenated 5-carbon compound and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, D.C.; Frye, J.G.

    1999-03-16

    The present invention is based upon the surprising discovery that a 5-carbon compound selected from the group of 4-oxopentanoic acid, at least one lactone of 4-oxopentanoic acid, and combinations thereof, may be hydrogenated with a bimetallic catalyst of a noble metal in combination with a second metal and preserve the pendant methyl group. It was further unexpectedly discovered that the same conditions of bimetallic catalyst in the presence of hydrogen are useful for catalyzing the different intermediate reactions, for example, angelicalactone to gamma-valerolactone and gamma-valerolactone to 1,4-pentanediol. Finally, it was surprising that levulinic acid could be converted to 2-methyltetrahydrofuran with heating in the presence of the bimetallic catalyst and hydrogen in a single process vessel. The method of the present invention unexpectedly produced a fuel or fuel component having 2-methyltetrahydrofuran either in a yield greater than 4.5 mol % or in combination with alcohols. 8 figs.

  17. Hydrogenated 5-carbon compound and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA); Frye, John G. (Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is based upon the surprising discovery that a 5-carbon compound selected from the group of 4-oxopentanoic acid, at least one lactone of 4-oxopentanoic acid, and combinations thereof, may be hydrogenated with a bimetallic catalyst of a noble metal in combination with a second metal and preserve the pendant methyl group. It was further unexpectedly discovered that the same conditions of bimetallic catalyst in the presence of hydrogen are useful for catalyzing the different intermediate reactions for example angelicalactone to gamma-valerolactone and gamma-valerolactone to 1,4-pentanediol. Finally, it was surprising that levulinic acid could be converted to 2-methyltetrahydrofuran with heating in the presence of the bimetallic catalyst and hydrogen in a single process vessel. The method of the present invention unexpectedly produced a fuel or fuel component having 2-methyltetrahydrofuran either in a yield greater than 4.5 mol % or in combination with alcohols.

  18. Optimization of Nano-Carbon Materials for Hydrogen Sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yakobson, Boris I

    2013-08-02

    Research undertaken has added to the understanding of several critical areas, by providing both negative answers (and therefore eliminating expensive further studies of unfeasible paths) and positive feasible options for storage. Theoretical evaluation of the early hypothesis of storage on pure carbon single wall nanotubes (SWNT) has been scrutinized with the use of comprehensive computational methods (and experimental tests by the Center partners), and demonstrated that the fundamentally weak binding energy of hydrogen is not sufficiently enhanced by the SWNT curvature or even defects, which renders carbon nanotubes not practical media. More promising direction taken was towards 3-dimensional architectures of high porosity where concurrent attraction of H2 molecule to surrounding walls of nano-scale cavities can double or even triple the binding energy and therefore make hydrogen storage feasible even at ambient or somewhat lower temperatures. An efficient computational tool has been developed for the rapid capacity assessment combining (i) carbon-foam structure generation, (ii) accurate empirical force fields, with quantum corrections for the lightweight H2, and (iii) grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation. This made it possible to suggest optimal designs for carbon nanofoams, obtainable via welding techniques from SWNT or by growth on template-zeolites. As a precursor for 3D-foams, we have investigated experimentally the synthesis of VANTA (Vertically Aligned NanoTube Arrays). This can be used for producing nano-foams. On the other hand, fluorination of VANTA did not show promising increase of hydrogen sorption in several tests and may require further investigation and improvements. Another significant result of this project was in developing a fundamental understanding of the elements of hydrogen spillover mechanisms. The benefit of developed models is the ability to foresee possible directions for further improvement of the spillover mechanism.

  19. Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar

    1984-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

  20. Absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Ghawas, H.A.; Ruiz-Ibanez, G.; Sandall, O.C. (Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (US))

    1988-01-01

    The absorption of carbonyl sulfide in aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) was studied over a range of temperatures and MDEA concentrations. MDEA is commonly used for selective absorption of hydrogen sulfide in the presence of carbon dioxide. However, sulfur in the form of COS may also be present and it is necessary that estimates of absorption rates of this compound be made. The objective of this study is to determine the physiochemical properties needed to predict COS absorption rates in aqueous MDEA. Free gas solubility and the diffusivity of COS in MDEA solutions were measured over the temperature range 15 to 40{sup 0}C for MDEA concentrations up to 30 weight per cent using the nitrous oxide analogy method. Solubilities were measured volumetrically in an equilibrium cell and diffusivities were measured using a laminar liquid jet absorber. The kinetics of the reaction between COS and MDEA were studied by measuring absorption rates in a single wetted-sphere absorber.

  1. Quantum yield for carbon monoxide production in the 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Z.; Stickel, R.E.; Wine, P.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been coupled with excimer laser flash photolysis to measure the quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) relative to the well known quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photolysis of phosgene (Cl{sub 2}CO). The temporal resolution of the experiments was sufficient to distinguish CO formed directly by photodissociation from that formed by subsequent S({sup 3}P{sub j}) reaction with OCS. Under the experimental conditions employed, CO formation via the fast S({sup 1}D{sub 2})+OCS reaction was minimal. Measurements at 297K and total pressures from 4 to 100 Torr N{sub 2}+N{sub 2}O show the CO yield to be greater than 0.95 and most likely unity. This result suggests that the contribution of OCS as a precursor to the lower stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is somewhat larger than previously thought. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Kinetic effect of Pd additions on the hydrogen uptake of chemically activated, ultramicroporous carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2010-01-01

    The effect of mixing chemically-activated ultramicroporous carbon (UMC) with Pd nanopowder is investigated. Results show that Pd addition doubles the rate of hydrogen uptake, but does not enhance the hydrogen capacity or improve desorption kinetics. The effect of Pd on the rate of hydrogen adsorption supports the occurrence of the hydrogen spillover mechanism in the Pd - UMC system.

  3. Sorbents and Carbon-Based Materials for Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's research and development on sorbents and carbon-based materials for hydrogen storage targets breakthrough concepts for storing hydrogen in high-surface-area sorbents...

  4. Simulating Geologic Co-sequestration of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide in a Basalt Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Ramanathan, Ramya; Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-01-15

    Co-sequestered CO2 with H2S impurities could affect geologic storage, causing changes in pH and oxidation state that affect mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions and the mobility of metals present in the reservoir rocks. We have developed a variable component, non-isothermal simulator, STOMP-COMP (Water, Multiple Components, Salt and Energy), which simulates multiphase flow gas mixtures in deep saline reservoirs, and the resulting reactions with reservoir minerals. We use this simulator to model the co-injection of CO2 and H2S into brecciated basalt flow top. A 1000 metric ton injection of these supercritical fluids, with 99% CO2 and 1% H2S, is sequestered rapidly by solubility and mineral trapping. CO2 is trapped mainly as calcite within a few decades and H2S is trapped as pyrite within several years.

  5. Go No-Go Decision: Pure, Undoped, Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This document provides information about the go/no-go decision on pure, undoped single walled carbon nanotubes for vehicular hydrogen storage.

  6. Membrane-based systems for carbon capture and hydrogen purification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berchtold, Kathryn A

    2010-11-24

    This presentation describes the activities being conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop carbon capture technologies for power systems. This work is aimed at continued development and demonstration of a membrane based pre- and post-combustion carbon capture technology and separation schemes. Our primary work entails the development and demonstration of an innovative membrane technology for pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide that operates over a broad range of conditions relevant to the power industry while meeting the US DOE's Carbon Sequestration Program goals of 90% CO{sub 2} capture at less than a 10% increase in the cost of energy services. Separating and capturing carbon dioxide from mixed gas streams is a first and critical step in carbon sequestration. To be technically and economically viable, a successful separation method must be applicable to industrially relevant gas streams at realistic temperatures and pressures as well as be compatible with large gas volumes. Our project team is developing polymer membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) chemistries that can purify hydrogen and capture CO{sub 2} at industrially relevant temperatures. Our primary objectives are to develop and demonstrate polymer-based membrane chemistries, structures, deployment platforms, and sealing technologies that achieve the critical combination of high selectivity, high permeability, chemical stability, and mechanical stability all at elevated temperatures (> 150 C) and packaged in a scalable, economically viable, high area density system amenable to incorporation into an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) plant for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. Stability requirements are focused on tolerance to the primary synthesis gas components and impurities at various locations in the IGCC process. Since the process stream compositions and conditions (temperature and pressure) vary throughout the IGCC process, the project is focused on the optimization of a technology that could be positioned upstream or downstream of one or more of the water-gas-shift reactors (WGSRs) or integrated with a WGSR.

  7. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levi, Dean H. (Lakewood, CO); Nelson, Art J. (Longmont, CO); Ahrenkiel, Richard K. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A process for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness.

  8. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-23

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  9. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Farris, Thomas Stephen (Bethlehem, PA)

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  10. Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2006-08-29

    A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  11. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  12. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  13. Effect of metal Additions on the Hydrogen Uptake of Microporous Carbon at Near-Ambient Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C; Bhat, Vinay V

    2010-01-01

    Enhancing the hydrogen sorption capacity of microporous carbon materials at near-ambient temperature continue to be a challenge and the subject of intense research. Physisorption alone on microporous carbons is not strong enough to provide the desired levels of hydrogen uptake. Modifying carbons with small amounts of metals has been proven effective to increase the amounts adsorbed. However, very different mechanisms may be involved when the promoters are transition metals or alkali metals. In this presentation we compare the effect of additions of palladium and/or alkali metals on the hydrogen uptake of microporous carbons, in an attempt to differentiate between the possible mechanisms leading to enhanced hydrogen capacity and fast kinetics.

  14. Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-03

    This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

  15. Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  16. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store

  17. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis IX. Photosynthesis, Photoreduction, and the Hydrogen-Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Dark Reaction

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Badin, E. J.; Calvin, M.

    1950-02-01

    A comparison of the rates of fixation of Carbon 14 dioxide in algae for the processes of photosynthesis, photoreduction and the hydrogen-oxygen-carbon dioxide dark reaction has been made. For the same series of experiments, rates of incorporation of tracer carbon into the separate soluble components using the radiogram method have been determined. The mechanism of carbon dioxide uptake has been shown to occur via two distinct paths. In all cases studied, essentially the same compounds appear radioactive. The distribution with time, however, differs markedly.

  18. Carbide-Derived Carbons with Tunable Porosity Optimized for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, John E.; Gogotsi, Yury; Yildirim, Taner

    2010-01-07

    On-board hydrogen storage is a key requirement for fuel cell-powered cars and trucks. Porous carbon-based materials can in principle adsorb more hydrogen per unit weight at room temperature than liquid hydrogen at -176 oC. Achieving this goal requires interconnected pores with very high internal surface area, and binding energies between hydrogen and carbon significantly enhanced relative to H2 on graphite. In this project a systematic study of carbide-derived carbons, a novel form of porous carbon, was carried out to discover a high-performance hydrogen sorption material to meet the goal. In the event we were unable to improve on the state of the art in terms of stored hydrogen per unit weight, having encountered the same fundamental limit of all porous carbons: the very weak interaction between H2 and the carbon surface. On the other hand we did discover several strategies to improve storage capacity on a volume basis, which should be applicable to other forms of porous carbon. Further discoveries with potentially broader impacts include Proof that storage performance is not directly related to pore surface area, as had been previously claimed. Small pores (< 1.5 nm) are much more effective in storing hydrogen than larger ones, such that many materials with large total surface areas are sub-par performers. Established that the distribution of pore sizes can be controlled during CDC synthesis, which opens the possibility of developing high performance materials within a common family while targeting widely disparate applications. Examples being actively pursued with other funding sources include methane storage, electrode materials for batteries and supercapacitors with record high specific capacitance, and perm-selective membranes which bind cytokines for control of infections and possibly hemodialysis filters.

  19. Conversion of alkali metal sulfate to the carbonate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheth, Atul C. (Woodridge, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting potassium sulfate to potassium carbonate in which a mixture of potassium sulfate and calcium oxide are reacted at a temperature in the range of between about 700.degree. C. and about 800.degree. C. with a gaseous mixture having a minor amount of hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide in a diluent with the calcium oxide being present in an amount not greater than about 20 percent by weight of the potassium sulfate to produce an aqueous mixture of potassium sulfide, potassium bisulfide, potassium hydroxide and calcium sulfide and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The potassium and calcium salts are quenched to produce an aqueous slurry of soluble potassium salts and insoluble calcium salts and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The insoluble calcium salts are then separated from the aqueous solution of soluble potassium salts. The calcium salts are dried to produce calcium sulfide, calcium bisulfide and steam, and then, the calcium sulfide and calcium bisulfide are converted to the oxide and recycled. The soluble potassium salts are carbonated to produce potassium carbonate which is concentrated and the precipitated crystals separated. The sulfur-containing compounds are further treated.

  20. High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Chun; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yu E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com; Wang, Yu; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Kershaw, Stephen V.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W. E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com

    2014-06-30

    In a line with most recent trends in developing non-toxic fluorescent nanomaterials, we combined blue emissive carbon dots with green and red emissive zinc copper indium sulfide (ZCIS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to achieve white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high color rendering index of 93. This indicates that ZCIS QDs, with their broad emission bands, can be employed to effectively make up the emission of carbon dots in the yellow and red regions to produce WLEDs in the wide region of color temperature by tuning the volume ratio of these constituting luminophores. Their electroluminescence characteristics including color rendering index, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates, and color temperatures were evaluated as a function of forward current. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates of the as-prepared WLEDs, exhibiting good stability, were slightly shifted from (0.321, 0.312) at 10?mA to (0.351, 0.322) at 30?mA, which was mainly caused by the different thermal quenching coefficients of carbon dots and ZCIS QDs.

  1. Effects of Microstructure of Carbon Nanofibers for Amperometric Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhizhou; Cui, Xiaoli; Zheng, Junsheng; Wang, Qingfei; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-08-10

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with different microstructures, including platelet-carbon nanofibers (PCNFs), fish-bone-carbon nanofibers (FCNFs), and tube-carbon nanofibers (TCNFs), were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide. The CNFs studied here can show several microstructures in which various stacked morphologies and their sizes and graphite-layer ordering can be well controlled. Glassy carbon (GC) electrodes modified by CNFs were fabricated and compared for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. Sensors of PCNFs/GC, FCNFs/GC, and TCNFs/GC were used in the amperometric detection of H2O2 in a solution of 0.05 M phosphate buffered saline solution (pH 7.4).

  2. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A. (Naperville, IL); Iton, Lennox E. (Downers Grove, IL); Pasterczyk, James W. (Westmont, IL); Winterer, Markus (Westmont, IL); Krause, Theodore R. (Lisle, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A zeolite based catalyst for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C.sub.2 + hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  3. Transition metal sulfide loaded catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, V.A.; Iton, L.E.; Pasterczyk, J.W.; Winterer, M.; Krause, T.R.

    1994-04-26

    A zeolite-based catalyst is described for activation and conversion of methane. A zeolite support includes a transition metal (Mo, Cr or W) sulfide disposed within the micropores of the zeolite. The catalyst allows activation and conversion of methane to C[sub 2]+ hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere, thereby avoiding formation of oxides of carbon.

  4. New clean fuel from coal -- Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, T.; Ono, M.; Mizuguchi, M.; Tomura, K.; Shikada, T.; Ohono, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME), which has similar physical properties to propane and is easily liquefied at low pressure, has a significant possibility as a clean and non-toxic fuel from coal or coal bed methane. Equilibrium calculation also shows a big advantage of high carbon monoxide conversion of DME synthesis compared to methanol synthesis. By using a 50 kg/day DME bench scale test plant, direct synthesis of DME from hydrogen and carbon monoxide has been studied with newly developed catalysts which are very fine particles. This test plant features a high pressure three-phase slurry reactor and low temperature DME separator. DME is synthesized at temperatures around 533--553 K and at pressures around 3--5 MPa. According to the reaction stoichiometry, the same amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide react to DME and carbon dioxide. Carbon conversion to DME is one third and the rest of carbon is converted to carbon dioxide. As a result of the experiments, make-up CO conversion is 35--50% on an once-through basis, which is extremely high compared to that of methanol synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. DME selectivity is around 60 c-mol %. Most of the by-product is CO{sub 2} with a small amount of methanol and water. No heavy by-products have been recognized. Effluent from the reactor is finally cooled to 233--253 K in a DME separator and liquid DME is recovered as a product.

  5. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C. (Congers, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  6. Single Pd atoms in activated carbon fibers and their contribution to hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contescu, Cristian I; van Benthem, Klaus; Li, Sa; Bonifacio, Cecile S; Pennycook, Stephen J; Jena, Puru; Gallego, Nidia C

    2011-01-01

    Palladium-modified activated carbon fibers (Pd-ACF) were synthesized by meltspinning, carbonization and activation of an isotropic pitch carbon precursor premixed with an organometallic Pd compound. The hydrogen uptake at 25 oC and 20 bar on Pd- ACF exceeded the expected capacity based solely on Pd hydride formation and hydrogen physisorption on the microporous carbon support. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with sub- ngstrom spatial resolution provided unambiguous identification of isolated Pd atoms occurring in the carbon matrix that coexist with larger Pd particles. First principles calculations revealed that each single Pd atom can form Kubas-type complexes by binding up to three H2 molecules in the pressure range of adsorption measurements. Based on Pd atom concentration determined from STEM images, the contribution of various mechanisms to the excess hydrogen uptake measured experimentally was evaluated. With consideration of Kubas binding as a viable mechanism (along with hydride formation and physisorption to carbon support) the role of hydrogen spillover in this system may be smaller than previously thought.

  7. Hydrogenolysis Of 5-Carbon Sugars, Sugar Alcohols And Compositions For Reactions Involving Hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A. (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA); Miller, Dennis J. (Okemos, MI)

    2004-01-13

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  8. Hydrogenolysis of 5-carbon sugars, sugar alcohols, and other methods and compositions for reactions involving hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werpy, Todd A [West Richland, WA; Zacher, Alan H [Kennewick, WA

    2002-11-12

    Methods and compositions for reactions of hydrogen over a Re-containing catalyst with compositions containing a 5-carbon sugar, sugar alcohol, or lactic acid are described. It has been surprisingly discovered that reaction with hydrogen over a Re-containing multimetallic catalyst resulted in superior conversion and selectivity to desired products such as propylene glycol. A process for the synthesis of PG from lactate or lactic acid is also described.

  9. Corrosion morphology of A516 carbon steel in H[sub 2]S solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H.H.; Tsai, W.T.; Lee, J.T. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    Various types of corrosion, including hydrogen sulfide corrosion, sulfide stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen-induced cracking, of carbon steel in an H[sub 2]S solution are of great concern in the oil and gas industry; many investigations have been undertaken to better understand the mechanism. Generally speaking, the formation of iron sulfide film on the metal surface appears to play an important role in the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in an H[sub 2]S solution. Several reports are available regarding the sulfide film formation of carbon steel in the H[sub 2]S solution. For instance, Petelot et al. reported that a film of iron sulfide does not cover the whole metal surface during the early stages of immersion, whereas the sample surface is wholly covered with iron sulfide film during the later stages of immersion. At the initial stage of immersion, iron sulfide film grows continuously; after longer immersion, a steady state is reached where the growth rate of sulfide film equals its dissolution rate. On the other hand, according to Tewari and Campbell, a smooth black film of iron sulfide is first obtained on the steel surface with a preferred orientation, whereas cracks develop on the surface. Lifting and peeling off of the film from the surface is found after exposure to the H[sub 2]S solution as brief as 6--8 h. A sulfide film deposited on carbon steel continues to grow even after a 48 h immersion in an H[sub 2]S solution. Current studies on the corrosion of carbon steel in an H[sub 2]S solution are based on the overall surface process. In this study, the local corrosion cell reaction between dissimilar phases and morphology of the local surface of A516 carbon steel in an H[sub 2]S solution were investigated.

  10. LITERATURE SURVEY OF GASEOUS HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P; Robert Sindelar, R; Thad Adams, T

    2007-04-18

    Literature survey has been performed for a compendium of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following hydrogen exposure. The property sets include yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, reduction of area, threshold stress intensity factor, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth. These properties are drawn from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. However, the collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results in test method is sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a thorough test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).

  11. LITERATURE SURVEY OF GASEOUS HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P; Andrew Duncan, A; Robert Sindelar, R; Thad Adams, T

    2009-04-27

    Literature survey has been performed for a compendium of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following hydrogen exposure. The property sets include yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, uniform elongation, reduction of area, threshold stress intensity factor, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth. These properties are drawn from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. However, the collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results in test method is sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a thorough test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).

  12. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  13. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  14. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  15. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  16. Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and

  17. New Pathways and Metrics for Enhanced, Reversible Hydrogen Storage in Boron-Doped Carbon Nanospaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifer, Peter; Wexler, Carlos; Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Lee, Mark W.; Jalistegi, Satish S.

    2014-08-14

    This project, since its start in 2007entitled Networks of boron-doped carbon nanopores for low-pressure reversible hydrogen storage (2007-10) and New pathways and metrics for enhanced, reversible hydrogen storage in boron-doped carbon nanospaces (2010-13)is in support of the DOE's National Hydrogen Storage Project, as part of the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Programs comprehensive efforts to enable the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in diverse sectors of the economy. Hydrogen storage is widely recognized as a critical enabling technology for the successful commercialization and market acceptance of hydrogen powered vehicles. Storing sufficient hydrogen on board a wide range of vehicle platforms, at energy densities comparable to gasoline, without compromising passenger or cargo space, remains an outstanding technical challenge. Of the main three thrust areas in 2007metal hydrides, chemical hydrogen storage, and sorption-based hydrogen storagesorption-based storage, i.e., storage of molecular hydrogen by adsorption on high-surface-area materials (carbons, metal-organic frameworks, and other porous organic networks), has emerged as the most promising path toward achieving the 2017 DOE storage targets of 0.055 kg H2/kg system (5.5 wt%) and 0.040 kg H2/liter system. The objective of the project is to develop high-surface-area carbon materials that are boron-doped by incorporation of boron into the carbon lattice at the outset, i.e., during the synthesis of the material. The rationale for boron-doping is the prediction that boron atoms in carbon will raise the binding energy of hydro- gen from 4-5 kJ/mol on the undoped surface to 10-14 kJ/mol on a doped surface, and accordingly the hydro- gen storage capacity of the material. The mechanism for the increase in binding energy is electron donation from H2 to electron-deficient B atoms, in the form of sp2 boron-carbon bonds. Our team is proud to have demonstrated the predicted increase in binding energy experimentally, currently at ~10 kJ/mol. The synthetic route for incorporation of boron at the outset is to create appropriately designed copoly- mers, with a boron-free and a boron-carrying monomer, followed by pyrolysis of the polymer, yielding a bo- ron-substituted carbon scaffold in which boron atoms are bonded to carbon atoms by synthesis. This is in contrast to a second route (funded by DE-FG36-08GO18142) in which first high-surface area carbon is cre- ated and doped by surface vapor deposition of boron, with incorporation of the boron into the lattice the final step of the fabrication. The challenge in the first route is to create high surface areas without compromising sp2 boron-carbon bonds. The challenge in the second route is to create sp2 boron-carbon bonds without com- promising high surface areas.

  18. System and method for controlling hydrogen elimination during carbon nanotube synthesis from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-03-23

    A system and method for producing carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition includes a catalyst support having first and second surfaces. The catalyst support is capable of hydrogen transport from the first to the second surface. A catalyst is provided on the first surface of the catalyst support. The catalyst is selected to catalyze the chemical vapor deposition formation of carbon nanotubes. A fuel source is provided for supplying fuel to the catalyst.

  19. High Efficiency Direct Carbon and Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Fossil Fuel Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M; Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N

    2002-01-02

    Hydrogen he1 cells have been under development for a number of years and are now nearing commercial applications. Direct carbon fuel cells, heretofore, have not reached practical stages of development because of problems in fuel reactivity and cell configuration. The carbon/air fuel cell reaction (C + O{sub 2} = CO{sub 2}) has the advantage of having a nearly zero entropy change. This allows a theoretical efficiency of 100 % at 700-800 C. The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product do not change during consumption of the fuel. Consequently, the EMF is invariant; this raises the possibility of 100% fuel utilization in a single pass. (In contrast, the high-temperature hydrogen fuel cell has a theoretical efficiency of and changes in fuel activity limit practical utilizations to 75-85%.) A direct carbon fuel cell is currently being developed that utilizes reactive carbon particulates wetted by a molten carbonate electrolyte. Pure COZ is evolved at the anode and oxygen from air is consumed at the cathode. Electrochemical data is reported here for the carbon/air cell utilizing carbons derived from he1 oil pyrolysis, purified coal, purified bio-char and petroleum coke. At 800 O C, a voltage efficiency of 80% was measured at power densities of 0.5-1 kW/m2. Carbon and hydrogen fuels may be produced simultaneously at lugh efficiency from: (1) natural gas, by thermal decomposition, (2) petroleum, by coking or pyrolysis of distillates, (3) coal, by sequential hydrogasification to methane and thermal pyrolysis of the methane, with recycle of the hydrogen, and (4) biomass, similarly by sequential hydrogenation and thermal pyrolysis. Fuel production data may be combined with direct C and H2 fuel cell operating data for power cycle estimates. Thermal to electric efficiencies indicate 80% HHV [85% LHV] for petroleum, 75.5% HHV [83.4% LHV] for natural gas and 68.3% HHV [70.8% LHV] for lignite coal. Possible benefits of integrated carbon and hydrogen fuel cell power generation cycles are: (1) increased efficiency by a factor of up to 2 over many conventional fossil fuel steam plants, (2) reduced power generation cost, especially for increasing fossil fuel cost, (3) reduced CO2 emission per kWh, and (4) direct sequestration or reuse (e.g., in enhanced oil or NG recovery) of the CO{sub 2} product.

  20. Process for producing cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levi, D.H.; Nelson, A.J.; Ahrenkiel, R.K.

    1996-07-30

    A process is described for producing a layer of cadmium sulfide on a cadmium telluride surface to be employed in a photovoltaic device. The process comprises providing a cadmium telluride surface which is exposed to a hydrogen sulfide plasma at an exposure flow rate, an exposure time and an exposure temperature sufficient to permit reaction between the hydrogen sulfide and cadmium telluride to thereby form a cadmium sulfide layer on the cadmium telluride surface and accomplish passivation. In addition to passivation, a heterojunction at the interface of the cadmium sulfide and the cadmium telluride can be formed when the layer of cadmium sulfide formed on the cadmium telluride is of sufficient thickness. 12 figs.

  1. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  2. Process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulphide and carbonyl sulfide from light hydrocarbon gases containing carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, W.V.

    1988-06-07

    A process for the selective removal of H/sub 2/S and COS from a gas containing light hydrocarbons, H/sub 2/S, COS and CO/sub 2/, is described which comprises in a one step absorption, at treatment conditions, contacting the gas stream with a solvent stream consisting essentially of: (i) water, (ii) a bridgehead amine comprising a bicyclo tertiary amine or a bicyclo amidine to selectively hydrolyze the COS to H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, (iii) a tertiary amine to selectively absorb the H/sub 2/S and to selectively exclude from absorption the CO/sub 2/ in the gas stream and the CO/sub 2/ produced by the hydrolysis of the COS, and (iv) a physical solvent acceptable for COS absorption wherein two streams are formed comprising: (1) a light hydrocarbon and CO/sub 2/-containing stream having 1 ppm to about 200 ppm H/sub 2/S and having 1 ppm COS to about 10 ppm COS and (2) a solvent stream rich in H/sub 2/S, water, tertiary amine and the bridgehead amine.

  3. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  4. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolan, Paul S. (North Canton, OH); Downs, William (Alliance, OH); Bailey, Ralph T. (Uniontown, OH); Vecci, Stanley J. (Alliance, OH)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  5. Toward New Candidates for Hydrogen Storage: High Surface Area Carbon Aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabbour, H; Baumann, T F; Satcher, J H; Saulnier, A; Ahn, C C

    2007-02-05

    We report the hydrogen surface excess sorption saturation value of 5.3 wt% at 30 bar pressure at 77 K, from an activated carbon aerogel with a surface area of 3200 m{sup 2}/g as measured by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. This sorption value is one of the highest we have measured in a material of this type, comparable to values obtained in high surface area activated carbons. We also report, for the first time, the surface area dependence of hydrogen surface excess sorption isotherms of carbon aerogels at 77 K. Activated carbon aerogels with surface areas ranging from 1460 to 3200 m{sup 2}/g are evaluated and we find a linear dependence of the saturation of the gravimetric density with BET surface area for carbon aerogels up to 2550 m{sup 2}/g, in agreement with data from other types of carbons reported in the literature. Our measurements show these materials to have a differential enthalpy of adsorption at zero coverage of {approx}5 to 7 kJ/mole. We also show that the introduction of metal nanoparticles of nickel improves the sorption capacity while cobalt additions have no effect.

  6. The role of destabilization of palladium hydride on the hydrogen uptake of Pd-containing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on differences in stability of Pd hydride phases in palladium particles with various degrees of contact with microporous carbon supports. A sample containing Pd embedded in activated carbon fiber (Pd-ACF; 2 wt% Pd) was compared with commercial Pd nanoparticles deposited on microporous activated carbon (Pd-catalyst, 3 wt% Pd) and with support-free nanocrystalline palladium (Pd-black). The morphology of materials was characterized by electron microscopy, and the phase transformations were analyzed over a large range of hydrogen partial pressures (0.003 - 10 bar) and at several temperatures using in-situ X-ray diffraction. The results were verified with volumetric hydrogen uptake measurements. Results indicate that higher degree of Pd-carbon contacts for Pd particles embedded in a microporous carbon matrix induce efficient pumping of hydrogen out of -PdHx. It was also found that thermal cleaning of carbon surface groups prior to exposure to hydrogen further enhances the hydrogen pumping power of the microporous carbon support. In brief, this study highlights that the stability of -PdHx phase supported on carbon depends on the degree of contact between Pd-carbon and the nature of the carbon surface.

  7. hydrogen

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  8. hydrogen

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  9. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1991-10-22

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  10. Cadmium sulfide membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spanhel, Lubomir (Madison, WI); Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI)

    1992-07-07

    A method is described for the creation of novel q-effect cadmium sulfide membranes. The membranes are made by first creating a dilute cadmium sulfide colloid in aqueous suspension and then removing the water and excess salts therefrom. The cadmium sulfide membrane thus produced is luminescent at room temperature and may have application in laser fabrication.

  11. Lanthanum-hexaboride carbon composition for use in corrosive hydrogen-fluorine environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.; Taylor, A.J.

    1980-01-22

    The present invention relates to a structural composition useful in corrosive hydrogen-fluorine environments at temperatures in excess of 1400/sup 0/K. The composition is formed of a isostatically pressed and sintered or a hot-pressed mixture of lanthanum hexaboride particles and about 10 to 30 vol% carbon. The lanthanum-hexaboride reacts with the high-temperature fluorine-containing gases to form an adherent layer of corrosion-inhibiting lanthanum trifluoride on exposed surfaces of the composition. The carbon in the composite significantly strengthens the composite, enhances thermal shock resistance, and significantly facilitates the machining of the composition.

  12. Photo-oxidation of polymer-like amorphous hydrogenated carbon under visible light illumination

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baxamusa, Salmaan; Laurence, Ted; Worthington, Matthew; Ehrmann, Paul

    2015-11-10

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H), a polymer-like network typically synthesized by plasma chemical vapor deposition, has long been understood to exhibit optical absorption of visible light (λ > 400 nm). In this report we explain that this absorption is accompanied by rapid photo-oxidation (within minutes) that behaves in most respects like classic polymer photo-oxidation with the exception that it occurs under visible light illumination rather than ultraviolet illumination.

  13. Catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons to hydrogen and high-value carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Naresh; Panjala, Devadas; Huffman, Gerald P.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention provides novel catalysts for accomplishing catalytic decomposition of undiluted light hydrocarbons to a hydrogen product, and methods for preparing such catalysts. In one aspect, a method is provided for preparing a catalyst by admixing an aqueous solution of an iron salt, at least one additional catalyst metal salt, and a suitable oxide substrate support, and precipitating metal oxyhydroxides onto the substrate support. An incipient wetness method, comprising addition of aqueous solutions of metal salts to a dry oxide substrate support, extruding the resulting paste to pellet form, and calcining the pellets in air is also discloses. In yet another aspect, a process is provided for producing hydrogen from an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant, comprising contacting the hydrocarbon reactant with a catalyst as described above in a reactor, and recovering a substantially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen product stream. In still yet another aspect, a process is provided for catalytic decomposition of an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant to obtain hydrogen and a valuable multi-walled carbon nanotube coproduct.

  14. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanofibers as being studied by Northeastern University. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-06-01

    As part of the current technical evaluation effort, the author was tasked with going to Northeastern, interviewing Dr. Baker and his team, seeing a demonstration of the storage process, and making an assessment of the validity of the claim and the soundness of the research. Dr. Baker and his group have a process that, if proven to work, could be the breakthrough that is needed in the area of on-board hydrogen storage. One of the biggest problems may be the fact that the results look so good, that even if they are real, they will be viewed with skepticism by many. The chemisorption value of 5.8 liters of hydrogen per gram of carbon that Dr. Baker claimed at the time of his proposal has now been surpassed many times. Dr. Baker has reported reproducible hydrogen take-up levels as high as 30 liters per gram, depending on fiber structure. The fibers are loaded with hydrogen at ambient temperature using a pressurized feed at levels of about 600--900 psi. The hydrogen will be retained at pressure, but can apparently be essentially totally recovered upon pressure release. This paper reports the findings from the trip to Northeastern.

  15. GASEOUS HYDROGEN EFFECTS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON AND LOW ALLOY STEELS (U)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P

    2006-06-08

    This report is a compendium of sets of mechanical properties of carbon and low alloy steels following the short-term effects of hydrogen exposure. The property sets include the following: Yield Strength; Ultimate Tensile Strength; Uniform Elongation; Reduction of Area; Threshold Cracking, K{sub H} or K{sub th}; Fracture Toughness (K{sub IC}, J{sub IC}, and/or J-R Curve); and Fatigue Crack Growth (da/dN). These properties are drawn from literature sources under a variety of test methods and conditions. However, the collection of literature data is by no means complete, but the diversity of data and dependency of results in test method is sufficient to warrant a design and implementation of a thorough test program. The program would be needed to enable a defensible demonstration of structural integrity of a pressurized hydrogen system. It is essential that the environmental variables be well-defined (e.g., the applicable hydrogen gas pressure range and the test strain rate) and the specimen preparation be realistically consistent (such as the techniques to charge hydrogen and to maintain the hydrogen concentration in the specimens).

  16. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-12

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  17. Nickel supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst in alkaline electrolyte

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhuang, Zhongbin; Giles, Stephen A.; Zheng, Jie; Jenness, Glen R.; Caratzoulas, Stavros; Vlachos, Dionisios G.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-01-14

    The development of a low-cost, high-performance platinum-group-metal-free hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cell is hindered by the lack of a hydrogen oxidation reaction catalyst at the anode. Here we report that a composite catalyst, nickel nanoparticles supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes, has hydrogen oxidation activity similar to platinum-group metals in alkaline electrolyte. Although nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes are a very poor hydrogen oxidation catalyst, as a support, it increases the catalytic performance of nickel nanoparticles by a factor of 33 (mass activity) or 21 (exchange current density) relative to unsupported nickel nanoparticles. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the nitrogen-doped support stabilizesmore » the nanoparticle against reconstruction, while nitrogen located at the edge of the nanoparticle tunes local adsorption sites by affecting the d-orbitals of nickel. Here, owing to its high activity and low cost, our catalyst shows significant potential for use in low-cost, high-performance fuel cells.« less

  18. Decorating multi-walled carbon nanotubes with nickel nanoparticles for selective hydrogenation of citral

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang Yuechao; Yang Dong; Qin Feng; Hu Jianhua; Wang Changchun; Xu Hualong

    2009-08-15

    The nanocomposites of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) decorated with nickel nanoparticles were conveniently prepared by a chemical reduction of nickel salt in the present of poly(acrylic acid) grafted MWNTs (PAA-g-MWNTs). Due to the strong interaction between Ni{sup 2+} and -COOH, PAA-g-MWNTs became an excellent supporting material for Ni nanoparticles. The morphology and distribution of Ni nanoparticles on the surface of MWNTs were greatly influenced by the reduction temperatures, the experimental results also showed that the distribution of Ni nanoparticles was greatly improved while the MWNTs were modified by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The hydrogenation activity and selectivity of MWNTs decorated with Ni nanoparticles (Ni-MWNTs) for alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde (citral) were also studied, and the experimental results showed that the citronellal, an important raw material for flavoring and perfumery industries, is the favorable product with a percentage as high as 86.9%, which is 7 times higher than that of catalyst by Ni-supported active carbon (Ni-AC). - Abstract: Nickel nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWNTs) nanocomposites were conveniently prepared by a chemical reduction of nickel salt in the present of poly(acrylic acid) grafted MWNTs (PAA-g-MWNTs). These nanocomposites possessed excellent catalytic activity and selectivity for hydrogenation of citral.

  19. Carbon quantum dots coated BiVO{sub 4} inverse opals for enhanced photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nan, Feng; Shen, Mingrong; Fang, Liang E-mail: lfang@suda.edu.cn; Kang, Zhenhui E-mail: lfang@suda.edu.cn; Wang, Junling

    2015-04-13

    Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) coated BiVO{sub 4} inverse opal (io-BiVO{sub 4}) structure that shows dramatic improvement of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation has been fabricated using electrodeposition with a template. The io-BiVO{sub 4} maximizes photon trapping through slow light effect, while maintaining adequate surface area for effective redox reactions. CQDs are then incorporated to the io-BiVO{sub 4} to further improve the photoconversion efficiency. Due to the strong visible light absorption property of CQDs and enhanced separation of the photoexcited electrons, the CQDs coated io-BiVO{sub 4} exhibit a maximum photo-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 0.35%, which is 6 times higher than that of the pure BiVO{sub 4} thin films. This work is a good example of designing composite photoelectrode by combining quantum dots and photonic crystal.

  20. Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture in an iron-based sodalite-type

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metal-organic framework (Fe-BTT) discovered via high-throughput methods | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide capture in an iron-based sodalite-type metal-organic framework (Fe-BTT) discovered via high-throughput methods Previous Next List Kenji Sumida, Satoshi Horike, Steven S. Kaye, Zoey R. Herm, Wendy L. Queen, Craig M. Brown, Fernande Grandjean, Gary J. Long, Anne Dailly and Jeffrey R. Long, Chem. Sci.,

  1. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  2. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  3. Carbon nanotubes for hydrogen storage as being studied by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Technical evaluation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skolnik, E.G.

    1997-08-01

    On June 17--18, the author met with Dr. Mike Heben of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to discuss his research on the development of carbon nanotubes to be used for the storage of hydrogen on-board a vehicle. Dr. Heben has been working for the past several years on a project that will develop single walled nanotubes (SWNTs) composed of carbon for storage of hydrogen. Dr. Heben has spent much time trying to develop a method by which he could produce SWNTs in sufficient quantity, and then demonstrate the adsorption and desorption of hydrogen from these nanotubes at room temperature. While Dr. Heben was able to show hydrogen adsorption levels of up to 10% on a SWNT basis, generation of SWNTs from an arc-discharge was only about 0.05% of the total soot formation. Therefore, increasing SWNT concentration was a key consideration. Findings from the meeting with Dr. Heben are presented.

  4. Hydroconversion of heavy oil residues with sulfided additives of catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Le Perchec, P.; Fixari, B.; Vrinat, M.

    1995-12-31

    Improvements in Heavy oils conversion imply sulfur compounds. For medium conversion, side polycondensations and coke production were avoided by Hydrogen diluent donors (HDD), but conversions were partially inhibited. Sulfided radical activators used in association with HDD and H{sub 2} pressure overcome this effect by preventing coke formation up to 50-60% conversion into 500{degrees}C{sup -} light fractions with unchanged quality profile. Deeper conversions require dispersed sulfided catalyst. Phosphomolybdic acid or molybdenum naphtenate have been used as soluble precursors for such treatments. The state and fitness of sulfidation depend on the nature of precursors.

  5. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-07-11

    In support of DOE/EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE), UNC conducted Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that contributed spectroscopic information as well as quantitative analysis of adsorption processes. While NMR based Langmuir isotherms produce reliable H2 capacity measurements, the most astute contribution to the center is provided by information on dihydrogen adsorption on the scale of nanometers, including the molecular dynamics of hydrogen in micropores, and the diffusion of dihydrogen between macro and micro pores. A new method to assess the pore width using H2 as probe of the pore geometry was developed and is based on the variation of the observed chemical shift of adsorbed dihydrogen as function of H2 pressure. Adsorbents designed and synthesized by the Center were assessed for their H2 capacity, the binding energy of the adsorption site, their pore structure and their ability to release H2. Feedback to the materials groups was provided to improve the materials properties. To enable in situ NMR measurements as a function of H2 pressure and temperature, a unique, specialized NMR system was designed and built. Pressure can be varied between 10-4 and 107 Pa while the temperature can be controlled between 77K and room temperature. In addition to the 1H investigation of the H2 adsorption process, NMR was implemented to measure the atomic content of substituted elements, e.g. boron in boron substituted graphitic material as well as to determine the local environment and symmetry of these substituted nuclei. The primary findings by UNC are the following: Boron substituted for carbon in graphitic material in the planar BC3 configuration enhances the binding energy for adsorbed hydrogen. Arrested kinetics of H2 was observed below 130K in the same boron substituted carbon samples that combine enhanced binding energy with micropore structure. Hydrogen storage material made from activated PEEK is well suited for hydrogen storage due to its controlled microporous structure and large surface area. A new porosimetry method for evaluating the pore landscape using H2 as a probe was developed. 1H NMR can probe the nanoscale pore structure of synthesized material and can assess the pore dimension over a range covering 1.2 nm to 2.5 nm, the size that is desired for H2 adsorption. Analysis of 1H NMR spectra in conjunction with the characterization of the bonding structure of the adsorbent by 13C NMR distinguishes between a heterogeneous and homogeneous pore structure as evidenced by the work on AX21 and activated PEEK. Most of the sorbents studied are suited to hydrogen storage at low temperature (T < 100K). Of the materials investigated, only boron substituted graphite has the potential to work at higher temperatures if the boron content in the favorable planar BC3 configuration that actively contributes to adsorption can be increased.

  6. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Liu

    2012-05-01

    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a ??one-box? process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactor??s behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and fabricated a full-scale CMS membrane and module for the proposed application. This full-scale membrane element is a 3" diameter with 30"L, composed of ~85 single CMS membrane tubes. The membrane tubes and bundles have demonstrated satisfactory thermal, hydrothermal, thermal cycling and chemical stabilities under an environment simulating the temperature, pressure and contaminant levels encountered in our proposed process. More importantly, the membrane module packed with the CMS bundle was tested for over 30 pressure cycles between ambient pressure and >300 -600 psi at 200 to 300°C without mechanical degradation. Finally, internal baffles have been designed and installed to improve flow distribution within the module, which delivered ?90% separation efficiency in comparison with the efficiency achieved with single membrane tubes. In summary, the full-scale CMS membrane element and module have been successfully developed and tested satisfactorily for our proposed one-box application; a test quantity of elements/modules have been fabricated for field testing. Multiple field tests have been performed under this project at National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The separation efficiency and performance stability of our full-scale membrane elements have been verified in testing conducted for times ranging from 100 to >250 hours of continuous exposure to coal/biomass gasifier off-gas for hydrogen enrichment with no gas pre-treatment for contaminants removal. In particular, "tar-like" contaminants were effectively rejected by the membrane with no evidence of fouling. In addition, testing was conducted using a hybrid membrane system, i.e., the CMS membrane in conjunction with the palladium membrane, to demonstrate that 99+% H{sub 2} purity and a high degree of CO{sub 2} capture could be achieved. In summary, the stability and performance of the full-scale hydrogen selective CMS membrane/module has been verified in multiple field tests in the presence of coal/biomass gasifier off-gas under this project. A promi

  7. Make the most of catalytic hydrogenations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landert, J.P.; Scubla, T. [Biazzi S.A., Chailly-Montreux (Switzerland)

    1995-03-01

    Liquid-phase catalytic hydrogenation is one of the most useful and versatile reactions available for organic synthesis. Because it is environmentally clean, it has replaced other reduction processes, such as the Bechamp reaction, and zinc and sulfide reductions. Moreover, the economics are favorable, provided that raw materials free of catalyst poisons are used. The hydrogenation reaction is very selective with appropriate catalysts and can often be carried out without a solvent. Applications include reduction of unsaturated carbon compounds to saturated derivatives (for example, in vegetable-oil processing), carbonyl compounds to alcohols (such as sorbitol), and nitrocompounds to amines. the reactions are usually run in batch reactors to rapidly reach complete conversion and allow quick change-over of products. The paper describes the basics of hydrogenation; steering clear of process hazards; scale-up and optimization; and system design in practice.

  8. Hydrogen sulfide conversion with nanophase titania

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Donald D. (Rochester Hills, MI); Siegel, Richard W. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process for disassociating H.sub.2 S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275.degree. C. with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 nanometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1-100 nm range.

  9. Hydrogen sulfide conversion with nanophase titania

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, D.D.; Siegel, R.W.

    1996-08-20

    A process is described for disassociating H{sub 2}S in a gaseous feed using an improved catalytic material in which the feed is contacted at a temperature of at least about 275 C with a catalyst of rutile nanocrystalline titania having grain sizes in the range of from about 1 to about 100 nanometers. Other transition metal catalysts are disclosed, each of nanocrystalline material with grain sizes in the 1-100 nm range. 5 figs.

  10. Tunneling effects in the kinetics of helium and hydrogen isotopes desorption from single-walled carbon nanotube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danilchenko, B. A. Yaskovets, I. I.; Uvarova, I. Y.; Dolbin, A. V.; Esel'son, V. B.; Basnukaeva, R. M.; Vinnikov, N. A.

    2014-04-28

    The kinetics of desorption both helium isotopes and molecules of hydrogen and deuterium from open-ended or ?-irradiated single-walled carbon nanotube bundles was investigated in temperature range of 10300?K. The gases desorption rates obey the Arrhenius law at high temperatures, deviate from it with temperature reduction and become constant at low temperatures. These results indicate the quantum nature of gas outflow from carbon nanotube bundles. We had deduced the crossover temperature below which the quantum corrections to the effective activation energy of desorption become significant. This temperature follows linear dependence against the inverse mass of gas molecule and is consistent with theoretical prediction.

  11. DOE Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence: Synthesis and Processing of Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Hydrogen Storage and Catalyst Supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Geohegan; Hui Hu; Mina Yoon; Alex A. Puretzky; Christopher M. Rouleau; Norbert Thonnard; Gerd Duscher; Karren More

    2011-05-24

    The objective of the project was to exploit the unique morphology, tunable porosity and excellent metal supportability of single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) to optimize hydrogen uptake and binding energy through an understanding of metal-carbon interactions and nanoscale confinement. SWNHs provided a unique material to understand these effects because they are carbon nanomaterials which are synthesized from the 'bottom-up' with well-defined, sub-nm pores and consist of single-layer graphene, rolled up into closed, conical, horn-shaped units which form ball-shaped aggregates of {approx}100-nm diameter. SWNHs were synthesized without metal catalysts by the high-temperature vaporization of solid carbon, so they can be used to explore metal-free hydrogen storage. However, SWNHs can also be decorated with metal nanoparticles or coatings in post-processing treatments to understand how metals augment hydrogen storage. The project first explored how the synthesis and processing of SWNHs could be modified to tailor pore sizes to optimal size ranges. Nanohorns were rapidly synthesized at 20g/hr rates by high-power laser vaporization enabling studies such as neutron scattering with gram quantities. Diagnostics of the synthesis process including high-speed videography, fast pyrometry of the graphite target, and differential mobility analysis monitoring of particle size distributions were applied in this project to provide in situ process control of SWNH morphology, and to understand the conditions for different pore sizes. We conclude that the high-temperature carbon-vaporization process to synthesize SWNHs is scalable, and can be performed by electric arc or other similar techniques as economically as carbon can be vaporized. However, the laser vaporization approach was utilized in this project to permit the precise tuning of the synthesis process through adjustment of the laser pulse width and repetition rate. A result of this processing control in the project was to eliminate the large (2-3 nm) internal pores of typical SWNHs which were found not to store hydrogen effectively. Post processing treatments of the as-synthesized SWNHs focused on pore size, surface area, and metal decoration in order to understand the effects of each on measured hydrogen uptake. Wet chemistry and gas-phase oxidation treatments were developed throughout the life of the project to adjust the interstitial and slit pore sizes of the as-produced SWNHs, and increase the surface area to a maximum value of 2200 m2/g. In addition, wet chemistry approaches were used to develop methods to decorate the nanohorns with small Pt and Pd nanoparticles for metal-assisted hydrogen storage. Finally, oxygen-free decoration of SWNHs with alkaline earth metals (Ca) was developed using pulsed laser deposition and vacuum evaporation in order to produce surface coatings with high static electric fields sufficient to polarize and bind dihydrogen. Decoration of SWNHs with Pt and Pd nanoparticles resulted in enhanced binding energy (NREL, 36 kJ/mol), as well as enhancement in the room temperature uptake of 0.6 wt.% (for undecorated, oxidized, pure-C SWNHs at 20 bar), to 1.6 wt% for Pt- and Pd-decorated SWNHs at 100 bar, comparable to MOF-177 materials. NIST neutron scattering on gram quantity Pt- and Pd-decorated SWNHs showed clear evidence for 'spillover' type losses of molecular hydrogen and determined the onset temperature for this effect to be between 150K < T < 298K.High (2142 m2/g) surface area SWNH materials with variable pore sizes and metal-decorated SWNHs were demonstrated with metals (Pt, Pd) resulting in increased excess storage (3.5 wt. % at 77K). Compression results in bulk SWNH samples with density 1.03 g/cm3, and 30 g/L volumetric capacity. In summary, SWNHs were found to be unique carbon nanomaterials which can be produced continuously at high rates from vaporization of pure carbon. Their inherent pore structure exhibits significant room temperature hydrogen storage in sub-nm pores, and their morphology serves as an excellent metal catalyst support for

  12. Carbonyl sulfide: No remedy for global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taubman, S.J.; Kasting, J.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The authors look at the possibility of counteracting global warming forces by the injection of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) into the stratosphere at levels high enough to balance the impact say of a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations, which are projected to result in a global 3{degrees} C warming. OCS injections at densities to provide such cooling will result a 30 percent impact of global ozone, whereas the carbon dioxide only made a 5% impact. In addition levels which would be found on the earths surface would be in the range 10 ppmv which is questionable as a safe exposure limit for humans, in addition to its impact on the ph of rainwater.

  13. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source-hydrogen stores and delivers energy in a usable form, but it must be produced from hydrogen- containing compounds. Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources including fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal (preferentially with carbon capture, utilization, and storage); biomass grown from renewable, non-food crops; or using nuclear energy and renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and

  14. Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Amanda; Zhao, Hongbin; Hopkins, Scott

    2014-09-30

    This report summarizes the work completed under the U.S. Department of Energy Project Award No.: DE-FE0001181 titled “Designing and Validating Ternary Pd Alloys for Optimum Sulfur/Carbon Resistance in Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Capture Membrane Systems Using High-Throughput Combinatorial Methods.” The project started in October 1, 2009 and was finished September 30, 2014. Pall Corporation worked with Cornell University to sputter and test palladium-based ternary alloys onto silicon wafers to examine many alloys at once. With the specialized equipment at Georgia Institute of Technology that analyzed the wafers for adsorbed carbon and sulfur species six compositions were identified to have resistance to carbon and sulfur species. These compositions were deposited on Pall AccuSep® supports by Colorado School of Mines and then tested in simulated synthetic coal gas at the Pall Corporation. Two of the six alloys were chosen for further investigations based on their performance. Alloy reproducibility and long-term testing of PdAuAg and PdZrAu provided insight to the ability to manufacture these compositions for testing. PdAuAg is the most promising alloy found in this work based on the fabrication reproducibility and resistance to carbon and sulfur. Although PdZrAu had great initial resistance to carbon and sulfur species, the alloy composition has a very narrow range that hindered testing reproducibility.

  15. Nano Structured Activated Carbon for Hydrogen Storge. Project Final Technical Report (May 2, 2005-Dec. 31, 2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabasso, Israel; Yuan, Youxin

    2013-02-27

    Development of a nanostructured synthetic carbons materials that have been synthesized by thermal-decomposition of aromatic rich polyether such as poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) is reported. These polymers based nanostructured carbons efficacious for gas adsorption and storage and have Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of more than 3000 m2/g, and with average pore diameter of < 2nm. Surface-area, pore characteristics, and other critical variables for selecting porous materials of high gas adsorption capacities are presented. Analysis of the fragments evolved under various carbonization temperatures, and the correlation between the activation and carbonization temperatures provides a mechanistic perspective of the pore evolution during activation. Correlations between gas (N2 and H2) adsorption capacity and porous texture of the materials have been established. The materials possess excellent hydrogen storage properties, with hydrogen storage capacity up to 7.4 wt% (gravimetric) and ~ 45 g H2 L-1 (volumetric) at -196oC and 6.0 MPa.

  16. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  17. DOE Carbon-based Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence: Center Highlights and NREL Activities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackburn, J. L.; Curtis, C.; Davis, M.; Dillon, A. C.; Engtrakul, C.; Gennett, T.; Heben, M. J.; Jones, K. M.; Kim, Y.-H.; Parilla, P. A.; Simpson, L. J.; Whitney, E. S.; Zhang, S. B.; Zhao, Y.

    2006-05-01

    Presented at the 2006 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Merit Review in Washington, D.C., May 16-19, 2006.

  18. Kinetic and Mechanistic Studies of Carbon-to-Metal Hydrogen Atom Transfer Involving Os-Centered Radicals: Evidence for Tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewandowska-Androlojc, Anna; Grills, David C.; Zhang, Jie; Bullock, R. Morris; Miyazawa, Akira; Kawanishi, Yuji; Fujita, Etsuko

    2014-03-05

    We have investigated the kinetics of novel carbon-to-metal hydrogen atom transfer reactions, in which homolytic cleavage of a C-H bond is accomplished by a single metal-centered radical. Studies by means of time-resolved IR spectroscopic measurements revealed efficient hydrogen atom transfer from xanthene, 9,10-dihydroanthracene and 1,4-cyclohexadiene to Cp(CO)2Os and (n5-iPr4C5H)(CO)2Os radicals, formed by photoinduced homolysis of the corresponding osmium dimers. The rate constants for hydrogen abstraction from these hydrocarbons were found to be in the range 1.54 105 M 1 s 1 -1.73 107 M 1 s-1 at 25 C. For the first time, kinetic isotope effects for carbon-to-metal hydrogen atom transfer were determined. Large primary kinetic isotope effects of 13.4 1.0 and 16.6 1.4 were observed for the hydrogen abstraction from xanthene to form Cp(CO)2OsH and (n5-iPr4C5H)(CO)2OsH, respectively, at 25 C. Temperature-dependent measurements of the kinetic isotope effects over a 60 -C temperature range were carried out to obtain the difference in activation energies and the pre-exponential factor ratio. For hydrogen atom transfer from xanthene to (n5-iPr4C5H)(CO)2Os, the (ED - EH) = 3.25 0.20 kcal/mol and AH/AD = 0.056 0.018 values are greater than the semi-classical limits and thus suggest a quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism. The work at BNL was carried out under contract DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy and supported by its Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. RMB also thanks the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences for support. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Effects of roughness and temperature on low-energy hydrogen positive and negative ion reflection from silicon and carbon surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, N.; Kato, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Wada, M.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kenmotsu, T.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Yamaoka, H.

    2014-02-15

    Angle-resolved energy distribution functions of positive and negative hydrogen ions produced from a rough-finished Si surface under 1 keV proton irradiation have been measured. The corresponding distribution from a crystalline surface and a carbon surface are also measured for comparison. Intensities of positive and negative ions from the rough-finished Si are substantially smaller than those from crystalline Si. The angular distributions of these species are broader for rough surface than the crystalline surface. No significant temperature dependence for positive and negative ion intensities is observed for all samples in the temperature range from 300 to 400 K.

  20. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    can organize sulfide nanoparticles into semiconductor nanowires. The research team used a series of imaging techniques and detectors to analyze aggregates of biogenic zinc sulfide...

  1. Preparation, catalysis, and characterization of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfide catalysts supported on a NaY zeolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Yasuaki; Katsuyama, Hiromoto [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)] [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The structure and dispersion of the molybdenum sulfides supported on a NaY zeolite were studied using XAFS techniques. It was found that molybdenum sulfide species prepared by sulfiding vapor deposited Mo(CO){sub 6} or by sulfiding molybdenum oxide dimer species encaged in the zeolite are highly dispersed and thermally stabilized against sintering or restructuring. These molybdenum species are formed via molybdenum sulfide dimer species as an intermediate. On the other hand, with the molybdenum sulfide catalysts prepared by an impregnation method, the sulfidation of molybdenum oxides was incomplete. The molybdenum oxide species are suggested to be mainly located in the zeolite cavities after calcination, forming isolated molybdenum oxides in tetrahedral configurations. The molybdenum sulfide species prepared from Mo(CO){sub 6} showed much higher catalytic activities for thiophene hydrodesulfurization and butadiene hydrogenation than the molybdenum sulfides prepared by the impregnation, in conformity with a higher dispersion and higher fraction of the molybdenum sulfide species. It is demonstrated that in combination with metal carbonyl techniques, zeolite supports are very suitable for the preparation of highly dispersed molybdenum sulfides at a high Mo loading.

  2. New Carbon-Based Porous Materials with Increased Heats of Adsorption for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snurr, Randall Q.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.

    2014-11-03

    Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles are a promising alternative to internal combustion engines that burn gasoline. A significant challenge in developing fuel cell vehicles is to store enough hydrogen on-board to allow the same driving range as current vehicles. One option for storing hydrogen on vehicles is to use tanks filled with porous materials that act as sponges to take up large quantities of hydrogen without the need for extremely high pressures. The materials must meet many requirements to make this possible. This project aimed to develop two related classes of porous materials to meet these requirements. All materials were synthesized from molecular constituents in a building-block approach, which allows for the creation of an incredibly wide variety of materials in a tailorable fashion. The materials have extremely high surface areas, to provide many locations for hydrogen to adsorb. In addition, they were designed to contain cations that create large electric fields to bind hydrogen strongly but not too strongly. Molecular modeling played a key role as a guide to experiment throughout the project. A major accomplishment of the project was the development of a material with record hydrogen uptake at cryogenic temperatures. Although the ultimate goal was materials that adsorb large quantities of hydrogen at room temperature, this achievement at cryogenic temperatures is an important step in the right direction. In addition, there is significant interest in applications at these temperatures. The hydrogen uptake, measured independently at NREL was 8.0 wt %. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest validated excess hydrogen uptake reported to date at 77 K. This material was originally sketched on paper based on a hypothesis that extended framework struts would yield materials with excellent hydrogen storage properties. However, before starting the synthesis, we used molecular modeling to assess the performance of the material for hydrogen uptake. Only after modeling suggested record-breaking hydrogen uptake at 77 K did we proceed to synthesize, characterize, and test the material, ultimately yielding experimental results that agreed closely with predictions that were made before the material was synthesized. We also synthesized, characterized, and computationally simulated the behavior of two new materials displaying the highest experimental Brunauer?Emmett?Teller (BET) surface areas of any porous materials reported to date (?7000 m2/g). Key to evacuating the initially solvent-filled materials without pore collapse, and thereby accessing the ultrahigh areas, was the use of a supercritical CO2 activation technique developed by our team. In our efforts to increase the hydrogen binding energy, we developed the first examples of zwitterionic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The two structures feature zwitterionic characteristics arising from N-heterocyclic azolium groups in the linkers and negatively charged Zn2(CO2)5 nodes. These groups interact strongly with the H2 quadrupole. High initial isosteric heats of adsorption for hydrogen were measured at low H2 loading. Simulations were used to determine the H2 binding sites, and results were compared with inelastic neutron scattering. In addition to MOFs, the project produced a variety of related materials known as porous organic frameworks (POFs), including robust catechol-functionalized POFs with tunable porosities and degrees of functionalization. Post-synthesis metalation was readily carried out with a wide range of metal precursors (CuII, MgII, and MnII salts and complexes), resulting in metalated POFs with enhanced heats of hydrogen adsorption compared to the starting nonmetalated materials. Isosteric heats of adsorption as high as 9.6 kJ/mol were observed, compared to typical values around 5 kJ/mol in unfunctionalized MOFs and POFs. Modeling played an important role throughout the project. For example, we used molecular simulations to determine that the optimal isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) for maximum hydrogen delivery using MOFs is approximately 20 kJ/mol. If the heat of adsorption is too low, little hydrogen is adsorbed. If the heat of adsorption is too high, it is difficult to recover the hydrogen at the desorption pressure. The results supported the major premise of this project that increasing Qst for MOFs with large surface areas is required to attain current hydrogen storage targets in terms of deliverable capacity.

  3. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yildirim, Taner

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well defined and ordered pores. Here the main challenge is to find a chemically stable MOF required for regeneration of the AB-spent fuel. Finally, for carbon capture application of MOFs, we investigate the performance of a number of metal–organic frameworks with particular focus on their behavior at the low pressures commonly used in swing adsorption. This comparison clearly shows that it is the process that determines which MOF is optimal rather than there being one best MOF, though MOFs that possess enhanced binding at open metal sites generally perform better than those with high surface area. References: 1. Y. Peng, V. Krungleviciute, J. T. Hupp, O. K. Farha, and T. Yildirim, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 11887 (2013). 2. G. Srinivas, V. Krungleviciute, Z. Guo, and T. Yildirim, Ener. Environ. Sci. 7, 335 (2014). 3. G. Burres, and T. Yildirim, Ener. Environ. Sci. 5, 6453 (2012). 4. G. Srinivas, W. Travis, J. Ford, H. Wu, Z. X. Guo, and T. Yildirim, J. Mat. Chem.1, 4167 (2013). 5. For details, please see http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/staff/taner

  4. Fabrication of Carbon-Platinum Interdigitated Array Electrodes and Their Application for Investigating Homogeneous Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fei; Divan, Ralu; Parkinson, Bruce A.

    2015-06-29

    Carbon interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes have been applied to study the homogeneous hydrogen evolution electrocatalyst [Ni(PPh2NBn2)2]2+ (where PPh2NBn2 is 1,5-dibenzyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane). The existence of reaction intermediates in the catalytic cycle is inferred from the electrochemical behavior of a glassy carbon disk electrodes and carbon IDA electrodes. The currents on IDA electrodes for an EC (electron transfer reaction followed by a catalytic reaction) mechanism are derived from the number of redox cycles and the contribution of non-catalytic currents. The catalytic reaction rate constant was then extracted from the IDA current equations. Applying the IDA current and kinetic equations to the electrochemical response of the [Ni(PPh2NBn2)2]2+ catalyst yielded a rate constant of 0.10 s-1 for the hydrogen evolution reaction that agrees with the literature value. The quantitative analysis of IDA cyclic voltammetry can be used as a simple and straightforward method for determining rate constants in other catalytic systems. This work was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  5. Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

  6. Hydrogen Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Energy Place: Surrey, England, United Kingdom Zip: KT13 0NY Sector: Carbon, Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Surrey-based BP subsidiary...

  7. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinskey, Anthony J.; Worden, Robert Mark; Brigham, Christopher; Lu, Jingnan; Quimby, John Westlake; Gai, Claudia; Speth, Daan; Elliott, Sean; Fei, John Qiang; Bernardi, Amanda; Li, Sophia; Grunwald, Stephan; Grousseau, Estelle; Maiti, Soumen; Liu, Chole

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation CalvinBensonBassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  8. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  9. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  10. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica"Rocasolano"C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L'Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-28

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  11. Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.

    1993-06-08

    Various hydrogen production and hydrogen sulfide decomposition processes are disclosed that utilize composite metal membranes that contain an intermetallic diffusion barrier separating a hydrogen-permeable base metal and a hydrogen-permeable coating metal. The barrier is a thermally stable inorganic proton conductor.

  12. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO? separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H? selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H?/CO? separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO? separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H?/CO? separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commercially attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H?/CO? separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.

  13. High Temperature Polybenzimidazole Hollow Fiber Membranes for Hydrogen Separation and Carbon Dioxide Capture from Synthesis Gas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Singh, Rajinder P.; Dahe, Ganpat J.; Dudeck, Kevin W.; Welch, Cynthia F.; Berchtold, Kathryn A.

    2014-12-31

    Sustainable reliance on hydrocarbon feedstocks for energy generation requires CO₂ separation technology development for energy efficient carbon capture from industrial mixed gas streams. High temperature H₂ selective glassy polymer membranes are an attractive option for energy efficient H₂/CO₂ separations in advanced power production schemes with integrated carbon capture. They enable high overall process efficiencies by providing energy efficient CO₂ separations at process relevant operating conditions and correspondingly, minimized parasitic energy losses. Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based materials have demonstrated commercially attractive H₂/CO₂ separation characteristics and exceptional tolerance to hydrocarbon fuel derived synthesis (syngas) gas operating conditions and chemical environments. To realize a commerciallymore » attractive carbon capture technology based on these PBI materials, development of high performance, robust PBI hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) is required. In this work, we discuss outcomes of our recent efforts to demonstrate and optimize the fabrication and performance of PBI HFMs for use in pre-combustion carbon capture schemes. These efforts have resulted in PBI HFMs with commercially attractive fabrication protocols, defect minimized structures, and commercially attractive permselectivity characteristics at IGCC syngas process relevant conditions. The H₂/CO₂ separation performance of these PBI HFMs presented in this document regarding realistic process conditions is greater than that of any other polymeric system reported to-date.« less

  14. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (7 Rocky Brook Rd., Dover, MA 02030); Mitchell, William L. (111 Oakley Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (20 Landmark Rd., Westford, MA 01886); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (1 Richdale Ave.#2, Cambridge, MA 02140)

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

  15. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  16. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  17. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  18. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-09-26

    A method is disclosed for synthesizing hydrogen gas from hydrocarbon fuel. A first mixture of steam and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 208 to subject the first mixture to a first steam reforming reaction in the presence of a first catalyst 214. A stream of oxygen-containing gas is pre-heated by transferring heat energy from product gases. A second mixture of the pre-heated oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 218 disposed about the first tube 208 to subject the second mixture to a partial oxidation reaction and to provide heat energy for transfer to the first tube 208. A first reaction reformate from the first tube 208 and a second reaction reformate from the second tube 218 are directed into a third tube 224 disposed about the second tube 218 to subject the first and second reaction reformates to a second steam reforming reaction, wherein heat energy is transferred to the third tube 224 from the second tube 218.

  19. Fuel from Bacteria: Bioconversion of Carbon Dioxide to Biofuels by Facultatively Autotrophic Hydrogen Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: Ohio State is genetically modifying bacteria to efficiently convert carbon dioxide directly into butanol, an alcohol that can be used directly as a fuel blend or converted to a hydrocarbon, which closely resembles a gasoline. Bacteria are typically capable of producing a certain amount of butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Ohio State is engineering a new strain of the bacteria that could produce up to 50% more butanol before it becomes too toxic for the bacteria to survive. Finding a way to produce more butanol more efficiently would significantly cut down on biofuel production costs and help make butanol cost competitive with gasoline. Ohio State is also engineering large tanks, or bioreactors, to grow the biofuel-producing bacteria in, and they are developing ways to efficiently recover biofuel from the tanks.

  20. Materials for high-temperature hydrogen fluorine environments. Final report, June 1976-December 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.

    1981-03-01

    A determination has been made of the stability of 35 materials under high-temperature, fluorine rich, hydrogen fluoride torch testing. Refractory materials tested included 4 borides, 3 carbides, 3 nitrides, 12 oxides, 1 oxynitride, 1 sulfide, 10 metals, and carbon (10 types). Three materials distinctly performed better than nickel: lanthanum hexaboride, calcium hexaboride, and lanthanum silicon oxynitride. Of these, lanthanum hexaboride is the best candidate tested since it has an estimated upper use temperature > 1726 K, which is above the melting point and more than 300 K above the upper use temperature of nickel.

  1. Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide on nickel and tungsten films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saleh, J.M.; Nasser, F.A.K.

    1985-07-18

    The interaction of carbonyl sulfide with evaporated nickel and tungsten films has been investigated in the temperature range 195-450 K using gas pressures ranging from 1 to 13 N m/sup -2/. Rapid but mainly associative chemisorption of COS occurred on both metals at 195 K. Further adsorption of COS on W at temperatures 293-450 K was extremely slow and accompanied by more CO desorption than COS adsorbed. Sulfidation of Ni film by COS occurred at temperatures greater than or equal to 293 K with the liberation of carbon monoxide. The rate of adsorption increased with temperature but was independent of COS pressure. The activation energy (E/sub x/) increased with extent (X) of sulfidation to a limiting value of 97 kJ mol/sup -1/. A linear relationship was obtained from the plot of E/sub x/ against 1/X, suggesting the applicability of Cabrera-Mott theory to the sulfidation of Ni film by COS. 20 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Improved Hydrogen Utilization and Carbon Recovery for Higher Efficiency Thermochemical Bio-oil Pathways Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International RTI International RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle Institute. www.rti.org 2015 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review WBS 2.4.1.403 - Improved Hydrogen Utilization and Carbon Recovery for Higher Efficiency Thermochemical Bio-oil Pathways March 25, 2015 Bio-Oil Technology Area Review David C. Dayton, PI RTI International This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information RTI International

  3. Stable catalyst layers for hydrogen permeable composite membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Way, J. Douglas; Wolden, Colin A

    2014-01-07

    The present invention provides a hydrogen separation membrane based on nanoporous, composite metal carbide or metal sulfide coated membranes capable of high flux and permselectivity for hydrogen without platinum group metals. The present invention is capable of being operated over a broad temperature range, including at elevated temperatures, while maintaining hydrogen selectivity.

  4. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOEs target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  5. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jerry Y.S.

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  6. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, T.J.; Whinnery, L.L.

    1998-11-17

    A novel composition is described comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen. 1 fig.

  7. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy Jon (Livermore, CA); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-11-17

    A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  8. Polymer system for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy Jon (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (4929 Julie St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01

    A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  9. Hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide over alumina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polleck, R. E.; Ledley, R. E.; Scott, K. A.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction rate for the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in liquid petroleum hydrocarbons over alumina, such as propylene, is greatly increased by maintaining water in the hydrocarbons in an amount of one mole of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide to an upper limit of about ten moles of water per mole of carbonyl sulfide or about 30% of saturation of the hydrocarbons, whichever upper limit provides the lesser amount of water.

  10. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Wednesday, 26 September 2007 00:00 Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material

  11. Complete characterization by Raman spectroscopy of the structural properties of thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films exposed to rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Franck Wang, Na; Smith, Robert; Xiao, Qi-Fan; Dai, Qing; Marchon, Bruno; Inaba, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Toru; Saito, Yoko; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Mangolini, Filippo; Carpick, Robert W.

    2014-09-28

    We have demonstrated that multi-wavelength Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies are sufficient to completely characterize the structural properties of ultra-thin hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC:H) films subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA, 1 s up to 659 C) and to resolve the structural differences between films grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, facing target sputtering and filtered cathodic vacuum arc with minute variations in values of mass density, hydrogen content, and sp fraction. In order to distinguish unequivocally between films prepared with different density, thickness, and RTA treatment, a new method for analysis of Raman spectra was invented. This newly developed analysis method consisted of plotting the position of the Raman G band of carbon versus its full width at half maximum. Moreover, we studied the passivation of non-radiative recombination centers during RTA by performing measurements of the increase in photoluminescence in conjunction with the analysis of DLC:H networks simulated by molecular dynamics. The results show that dangling bond passivation is primarily a consequence of thermally-induced sp clustering rather than hydrogen diffusion in the film.

  12. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers...

  13. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were...

  14. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing...

  15. Hydrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael (Longmont, CO); Xie, Xiaobing (Foster City, CA); Evenson, IV, Carl (Lafayette, CO); Grimmer, Paul (Longmont, CO); Wright, Harold (Longmont, CO)

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  16. Preparation of amorphous sulfide sieves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siadati, Mohammad H.; Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2006-11-07

    The present invention involves methods and compositions for synthesizing catalysts/porous materials. In some embodiments, the resulting materials are amorphous sulfide sieves that can be mass-produced for a variety of uses. In some embodiments, methods of the invention concern any suitable precursor (such as thiomolybdate salt) that is exposed to a high pressure pre-compaction, if need be. For instance, in some cases the final bulk shape (but highly porous) may be same as the original bulk shape. The compacted/uncompacted precursor is then subjected to an open-flow hot isostatic pressing, which causes the precursor to decompose and convert to a highly porous material/catalyst.

  17. Synthesis and Optical Properties of Sulfide Nanoparticles Prepared in Dimethylsulfoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yuebin; Ma, Lun; Zhang, Xing; Joly, Alan G.; Liu, Zuli; Chen, Wei

    2008-11-01

    Many methods have been reported for the formation of sulfide nanoparticles by the reaction of metallic salts with sulfide chemical sources in aqueous solutions or organic solvents. Here, we report the formation of sulfide nanoparticles in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) by boiling metallic salts without sulfide sources. The sulfide sources are generated from the boiling of DMSO and react with metallic salts to form sulfide nanoparticles. In this method DMSO functions as a solvent and a sulfide source as well as a stabilizer for the formation of the nanoparticles. The recipe is simple and economical making sulfide nanoparticles formed in this way readily available for many potential applications.

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Title Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Sulfide Materials Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2015 Authors...

  19. Consolidation of tin sulfide chalcogels and xerogels with and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Consolidation of tin sulfide chalcogels and xerogels with and without adsorbed iodine Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Consolidation of tin sulfide chalcogels and ...

  20. Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  1. Ion Beam Analysis of the Thermal Stability of Hydrogenated Diamond-Like Carbon Thin Films on Si Substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, M. I.; Moore, A.; Garratt, E.; Wickey, K. J.; AlFaify, S.; Gao, X.; Kayani, A.; Ingram, D.

    2009-03-10

    Unbalanced magnetron sputtering deposition of C-H films has been performed with various levels of negative substrate bias and with a fixed flow rate of hydrogen. Argon was used as a sputtering gas and formed the majority of the gas in the plasma. The effect of hydrogenation on the final concentration of trapped elements and their thermal stability with respect to hydrogen content is studied using ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques. The elemental concentrations of the films were measured in the films deposited on silicon substrates with a 2.5 MeV of H{sup +} beam, which is used to perform Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) and Non-Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry (NRBS) and with 16 MeV of O{sup 5+} beam, used to perform Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA). Effect of bias on the thermal stability of trapped hydrogen in the films has been studied. As the films were heated in-situ in vacuum using a non-gassy button heater, hydrogen was found to be decreasing around 400 deg. C.

  2. Electroless preparation and characterization of Ni-B nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Zhilin; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Wang, Feng; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Liu, Jingjun; Ji, Jing; Institute of Carbon Fibers and Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 ; Park, Ki Chul; Endo, Morinobu

    2012-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The MWCNT/Ni-B catalyst has been successfully prepared by an electroless deposition process. The Ni-B nanoparticles on the supporter are amorphous and are well-distributed. The catalytic conversion towards hydrogenation of styrene shows excellent catalytic activity of the obtained materials. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A two-step treatment of MWCNTs enabled the homogeneous growth of Ni-B nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-B nanoparticles were amorphous with an average size of 60 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were electron transfer between Ni and B. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst had excellent catalytic activity towards hydrogenation of styrene. -- Abstract: Nickel-boron (Ni-B) nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were successfully synthesized through an electroless deposition process using the plating bath with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The structural and morphological analyses using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy have shown that the Ni-B nanoparticles deposited on the sidewalls of MWCNTs are fine spheres comprised of amorphous structure with the morphologically unique fine-structure like flowers, and homogenously dispersed with a narrow particle size distribution centered at around 60 nm diameter. The catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles was evaluated with respect to hydrogenation of styrene. The hydrogenation catalyzed by MWCNT-supported Ni-B nanoparticles has been found to make styrene selectively converted into ethylbenzene. The highest conversion reaches 99.8% under proper reaction conditions, which demonstrates the high catalytic activity of MWCNT/Ni-B nanoparticles.

  3. Method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, G.

    1980-06-17

    A method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane under liquid-liquid contact conditions by mixing liquid propane containing carbonyl sulfide as an impurity with 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol as the principal agent for the carbonyl sulfide removal. The 2(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol is reclaimed and reused for further carbonyl sulfide removal. 5 claims.

  4. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically through the process of coal gasification with carbon capture, utilization, and storage.

  5. The tropospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide: A new source of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, I.; Becker, K.H.; Patroescu, I. [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany)] [Bergische Universitaet, Wuppertal (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    The authors present the results of laboratory measurements of the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (CH{sub 3}SCH{sub 3}) mediated by OH. They observe the formation of sulfur dioxide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and carbonyl sulfide. The latter branching ratio represents a previously unreported source of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). It is significant because OCS is the major reservoir of gaseous sulfur in the earth`s atmosphere.

  6. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  7. Carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis in natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russo, F.; Caribotti, P.; Garofalo, N.

    1988-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide may naturally occur in high H/sub 2/S - CO/sub 2/ content sour natural gases. Furthermore part of the H/sub 2/S present in natural gases may be converted into COS if molecular sieves are used as H/sub 2/S removal substances in natural gas desulphurization plants. Carbonyl sulfide might then hydrolize to H/sub 2/S in the gas storage fields and transmission lines. This paper illustrates experimental data relevant to the kinetics and thermodynamics of the reaction between carbonyl sulfide and water both at gas and gas/liquid phases. Results may suggest whether carbonyl sulfide should be included in natural gas quality specifications.

  8. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

  9. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  10. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  11. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  12. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  13. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  14. Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracellular Proteins Promote Zinc Sulfide Aggregation Print Researchers from the ALS, Berkeley Lab's National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory analyzed biofilm samples rich in zinc sulfide and dominated by sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were collected from lead-zinc mine waters. The researchers were curious about the relationship of the organic material and metals, particularly how organics affect mobility, and its potential for

  15. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-03-24

    The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.

  16. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  17. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-11-04

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  18. Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Biodiesel: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number: CRD-10-408

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maness, P. C.

    2014-06-01

    OPX Biotechnologies, Inc. (OPX), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Johnson Matthey will develop and optimize a novel, engineered microorganism that directly produces biodiesel from renewable hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The proposed process will fix CO2 utilizing H2 to generate an infrastructure-compatible, energy-dense fuel at costs of less than $2.50 per gallon, with water being produced as the primary byproduct. NREL will perform metabolic engineering on the bacterium Cupriavidus necator (formerly Ralstonia eutropha) and a techno-economic analysis to guide future scale-up work. H2 and CO2 uptakes rates will be genetically increased, production of free fatty acids will be enhanced and their degradation pathway blocked in order to meet the ultimate program goals.

  19. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, Eloise A.; Morgan, Peter E. D.

    1990-04-03

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about 0.degree. C. up to about 300.degree. C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  20. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  1. Influence of the support of CoMo sulfide catalysts and of the addition of potassium and platinum on the catalytic performances for the hydrodeoxygenation of carbonyl, carboxyl, and guaiacol-type molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Centeno, A.; Laurent, E.; Delmon, B. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)] [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1995-07-01

    The present work corresponds to part of a program aimed at upgrading oil obtained by pyrolysis of biomass by hydrotreatment (hydrodeoxygenation HDO). CoMo sulfide catalysts, nonsupported, supported on different supports (alumina, carbon, silica), or modified by K or Pt, were used. The authors used a model reacting mixture containing compounds representative of the molecules that must react to permit a primary stabilisation of the pyrolytic oil: 4-methy lacetophenone (4-MA), diethylsebacate (DES), and guaiacol (GUA). In the reaction of the carbonyl group of the 4-MA it is shown that no important role is played by any acid-base mechanism; dispersion determines the activity. Acidity of the support influences the formation of active sites for decarboxylation and hydrogenation of the carboxyl group of DES. It was confirmed that guaiacol-type molecules lead to coking reactions. The role of acidity in the mechanism of these reactions is confirmed, but the modifications made in the catalysts in this work are still not sufficient to control coke deposition. The catalysts supported on carbon lead to the direct elimination of the methoxyl group of the guaiacol. Carbon, on the whole, seems to be a promising support. This work suggests that appropriate modifications of the hydrotreating catalysts can lead to a more effective process for stabilisation of the bio-oils by reaction with hydrogen. 55 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Process for the removal of acid gases from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blytas, G.C.; Diaz, Z.

    1982-11-16

    Hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl sulfide are removed from a gas stream in a staged procedure by: absorption of the CO/sub 2/ and COS; conversion of the hydrogen sulfide to produce sulfur in an absorbent mixture; hydrolysis of the carbonyl sulfide to produce a gas stream of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide; and removal of the hydrogen sulfide from the gas stream.

  3. Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal sulfide-containing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal sulfide-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal sulfide taiulings, by coating the metal sulfide-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal sulfide-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.

  4. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wunjun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2013-12-03

    Methods of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electroytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one or .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  5. Lithium sulfide compositions for battery electrolyte and battery electrode coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, Chengdu; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Lin, Zhan; Dudney, Nancy J; Howe, Jane Y; Rondinone, Adam J

    2014-10-28

    Method of forming lithium-containing electrolytes are provided using wet chemical synthesis. In some examples, the lithium containing electrolytes are composed of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7. The solid electrolyte may be a core shell material. In one embodiment, the core shell material includes a core of lithium sulfide (Li.sub.2S), a first shell of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7, and a second shell including one of .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4 or Li.sub.4P.sub.2S.sub.7 and carbon. The lithium containing electrolytes may be incorporated into wet cell batteries or solid state batteries.

  6. Formation of selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide-sulfide films on metal or metal coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eser, Erten; Fields, Shannon

    2012-05-01

    A process and composition for preventing cracking in composite structures comprising a metal coated substrate and a selenide, sulfide or mixed selenide sulfide film. Specifically, cracking is prevented in the coating of molybdenum coated substrates upon which a copper, indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) film is deposited. Cracking is inhibited by adding a Se passivating amount of oxygen to the Mo and limiting the amount of Se deposited on the Mo coating.

  7. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated iron with an aluminum sulfide ferrous sulfide flux.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.; Energy Technology

    1998-04-01

    Scrap iron and steel have long been considered as resources in the steelmaking industry, and their value is largely determined by the impurity content. Copper is a particularly troublesome impurity because of its role in causing hot shortness and should be kept below ==0.1 wt pct. A method for reducing copper content in steel to <0.1 wt pct could lead to increased use of lower-quality scrap.

  8. Electrodeposition From Acidic Solutions of Nickel Bis(benzenedithiolate) Produces a Hydrogen-Evolving Ni-S Film on Glassy Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Ming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Helm, Monte L.; Roberts, John A.

    2014-01-03

    Films electrodeposited onto glassy carbon electrodes from acidic acetonitrile solutions of [Bu4N][Ni(bdt)2] (bdt = 1,2-benzenedithiolate) are active toward electrocatalytic hydrogen production at potentials 0.2-0.4 V positive of untreated electrodes. This activity is preserved on rinsing the electrode and transfer to fresh acid solution. X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that the deposited material contains Ni and S. Correlations between voltammetric and spectroscopic results indicate that the deposited material is active, i.e. that catalysis is heterogeneous rather than homogeneous. Control experiments establish that obtaining the observed catalytic response requires both Ni and the 1,2 benzenedithiolate ligand to be present during deposition. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a 17 national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  9. Oxidation resistant organic hydrogen getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

    2008-09-09

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably Pt. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently removing hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  10. Hydrogen Production Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Education » Increase Your H2IQ » Hydrogen Production Basics Hydrogen Production Basics Hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source-it stores and delivers energy in a usable form, but it must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds. Diverse and Domestic Supply Resources Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources, including fossil fuels, such as coal (preferentially with carbon sequestration), and natural gas; nuclear energy; biomass and other renewable energy

  11. Hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  12. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

  13. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S.

    1992-05-12

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  14. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  15. A RhxSy/C Catalyst for the Hydrogen Oxidation and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions in HBr

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Masud, Jahangir; Nguyena, Trung V.; Singh, Nirala; McFarland, Eric; Ikenberry, Myles; Hohn, Keith; Pan, Chun-Jern; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2015-02-01

    Rhodium sulfide (Rh2S3) on carbon support was synthesized by refluxing rhodium chloride with ammonium thiosulfate. Thermal treatment of Rh2S3 at high temperatures (600°C to 850°C) in presence of argon resulted in the transformation of Rh2S3 into Rh3S4, Rh17S15 and Rh which were characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD, EDX, and deconvolved XPS analyses. The catalyst particle size distribution ranged from 3 to 12 nm. Cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode measurements were used to evaluate the catalytic activity for hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions in H2SO4 and HBr solutions. The thermally treated catalysts show high activity for the hydrogen reactions. The exchangemore » current densities (io) of the synthesized RhxSy catalysts in H2-saturated 1M H2SO4 and 1M HBr for HER and HOR were 0.9 mA/cm2 to 1.0 mA/cm2 and 0.8 to 0.9 mA/cm2, respectively. The lower io values obtained in 1M HBr solution compared to in H2SO4 might be due to the adsorption of Br- on the active surface. Stable electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of RhxSy catalyst was obtained for CV scan limits between 0 V and 0.65 V vs. RHE. Scans with upper voltage limit beyond 0.65 V led to decreased and unreproducible ECSA measurements.« less

  16. Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-31

    Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

  17. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  18. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  19. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Bauer, Hans F. (Morgantown, WV); Grimes, Robert W. (Laramie, WY)

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  20. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.H.; Bauer, H.F.; Grimes, R.W.

    1993-03-30

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  1. Electrolysis - Hydrogen - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Electrolysis - Hydrogen Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has invented a process that leverages nuclear technology in combination with various carbon sources to produce synthetic gases for refinement into synthetic transportation fuels/chemicals. Using solid-state electrolysis, water is decomposed to hydrogen and oxygen in one process, while carbon dioxide is

  2. Organusulfur Catalysis With Reduced Molybdenum Sulfides Containing the Mo6S8 Cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Jay Paskach

    2002-08-27

    Industrial synthesis of sulfur-containing organic chemicals basically focuses on the broad categories of mercaptans (thiols), alkylsulfides (thioethers), polysulfides, and thiophenes. Of the organo-sulfur compounds produced, by far the most important in terms of quantities produced is methyl mercaptan (methanethiol or MeSH), which is produced mainly for the downstream production of methionine and methanesulfonyl chloride. Higher thiols are also used in the manufacture of rubber and plastics as polymerization regulators, chain transfer agents, or initiators. Other important organosulfur chemicals are dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), both of which are used extensively for presulfiding of industrial hydroprocessing catalysts, and substituted thiophenes which are used as intermediates for production of agrochemicals, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Thiols are produced commercially at the rate of about 10{sup 4} ton/yr from hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and alcohols or olefins, using homogeneous free-radical synthesis, or heterogeneous catalysts based on solid acids or supported metal oxides and/or sulfides. Despite this large production rate, and the industrial importance of the organosulfur compounds, only limited research has been devoted to the development of new catalytic materials for their synthesis. Additionally, for most organosulfur catalytic reactions, only limited information exists about reaction mechanisms, active sites, adsorbed surface species, and especially the nature of the catalysts under reaction conditions.

  3. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  4. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S. (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC)

    2001-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  5. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S. (Durham, NC); Gupta, Raghubir P. (Durham, NC)

    1999-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  6. Polymer formulations for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, CA 94550); Even, Jr., William R. (4254 Drake Way, Livermore, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01

    A novel method for preparing a hydrogenation composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon--carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces and particularly from atmospheres within enclosed spaces that contain air, water vapor, oxygen, carbon dioxide or ammonia. The organic polymers molecules containing carbon--carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble noble metal catalyst composition. High molecular weight polymers may be added to the organic polymer/catalyst mixture in order to improve their high temperature performance. The hydrogenation composition is prepared by dispersing the polymers in a suitable solvent, forming thereby a solution suspension, flash-freezing droplets of the solution in a liquid cryogen, freeze-drying the frozen droplets to remove frozen solvent incorporated in the droplets, and recovering the dried powder thus formed.

  7. Synthesis of actinide nitrides, phosphides, sulfides and oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Der Sluys, William G. (Missoula, MT); Burns, Carol J. (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing an actinide compound of the formula An.sub.x Z.sub.y wherein An is an actinide metal atom selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, x is selected from the group consisting of one, two or three, Z is a main group element atom selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, oxygen and sulfur and y is selected from the group consisting of one, two, three or four, by admixing an actinide organometallic precursor wherein said actinide is selected from the group consisting of thorium, uranium, plutonium, neptunium, and americium, a suitable solvent and a protic Lewis base selected from the group consisting of ammonia, phosphine, hydrogen sulfide and water, at temperatures and for time sufficient to form an intermediate actinide complex, heating said intermediate actinide complex at temperatures and for time sufficient to form the actinide compound, and a process of depositing a thin film of such an actinide compound, e.g., uranium mononitride, by subliming an actinide organometallic precursor, e.g., a uranium amide precursor, in the presence of an effectgive amount of a protic Lewis base, e.g., ammonia, within a reactor at temperatures and for time sufficient to form a thin film of the actinide compound, are disclosed.

  8. Synthesis Of [2h, 13c] And [2h3, 13c]Methyl Aryl Sulfides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Alvarez, Marc A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.

    2004-03-30

    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms and the aryl group is selected from the group consisting of 1-naphthyl, substituted 1-naphthyl, 2-naphthyl, substituted 2-naphthyl, and phenyl groups with the structure ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, and R.sub.5 are each independently, hydrogen, a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a halogen, an amino group from the group consisting of NH.sub.2, NHR and NRR' where R and R' are each a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 lower alkyl, a phenyl, or an alkoxy group. The present invention is also directed to processes of preparing [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C], [.sup.2 H.sub.2,.sup.13 C] and [.sup.2 H.sub.3, .sup.13 C]methyl aryl sulfides wherein the .sup.13 C methyl group attached to the sulfur of the sulfide includes exactly one, two or three deuterium atoms. The present invention is also directed to the labeled compounds of [.sup.2 H.sub.1, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide and [.sup.2 H.sub.2, .sup.13 C]methyl iodide.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Analysis of Interfacial Water at Selected Sulfide Mineral Surfaces under Anaerobic Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Jiaqi; Miller, Jan D.; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-04-10

    In this paper, we report on a molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) study of the behavior of interfacial water at selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions. The study revealed the interfacial water structure and wetting characteristics of the pyrite (100) surface, galena (100) surface, chalcopyrite (012) surface, sphalerite (110) surface, and molybdenite surfaces (i.e., the face, armchair-edge, and zigzag-edge surfaces), including simulated contact angles, relative number density profiles, water dipole orientations, hydrogen-bonding, and residence times. For force fields of the metal and sulfur atoms in selected sulfide minerals used in the MDS, we used the universal force field (UFF) and another set of force fields optimized by quantum chemical calculations for interactions with interfacial water molecules at selected sulfide mineral surfaces. Simulation results for the structural and dynamic properties of interfacial water molecules indicate the natural hydrophobic character for the selected sulfide mineral surfaces under anaerobic conditions as well as the relatively weak hydrophobicity for the sphalerite (110) surface and two molybdenite edge surfaces. Part of the financial support for this study was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Basic Science Grant No. DE-FG-03-93ER14315. The Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), of the DOE, funded work performed by Liem X. Dang. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for DOE. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by BES. The authors are grateful to Professor Tsun-Mei Chang for valuable discussions.

  10. A Hydrogen-Evolving Ni(P2N2)2 Electrocatalyst Covalently Attached to a Glassy Carbon Electrode: Preparation, Characterization, and Catalysis. Comparisons With the Homogeneous Analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Atanu K.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bullock, R. Morris; Roberts, John A.

    2014-07-07

    A hydrogen-evolving homogeneous Ni(P2N2)2 electrocatalyst with peripheral ester groups has been covalently attached to a 1,2,3-triazolyllithium-terminated glassy carbon electrode. The surface-confined complex is an electroctalyst for hydrogen evolution, showing onset of catalytic current at the same potential as the soluble parent complex. X-ray photoemission spectra show excellent agreement between the coupled and homogeneous species. Coverage approaches a dense monolayer. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. The XPS measurements were performed at EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  11. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilsenbeck, Shane J. (Ames, IA); McCarley, Robert E. (Ames, IA); Schrader, Glenn L. (Ames, IA); Xie, Xiaobing (College Station, TX)

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (L.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M.sub.6 S.sub.8).sup.0 cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na.sub.2x (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 by disproportionation at 800.degree. C. and well-crystallized NaMo.sub.6 S.sub.8 at .gtoreq. 900.degree. C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M.sup.2+ and M.sup.3+ salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n (Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8)S.sub.x .multidot.yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M.sup.n+.sub.2x/n Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8+x (MeOH).sub.y MMOS! (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as "Chevrel phase-like" in that both contain Mo.sub.6 S.sub.8 cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst showed to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS.sub.2 catalysts.

  12. Reduced ternary molybdenum and tungsten sulfides and hydroprocessing catalysis therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilsenbeck, S.J.; McCarley, R.E.; Schrader, G.L.; Xie, X.B.

    1999-02-16

    New amorphous molybdenum/tungsten sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(L{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}, where L is molybdenum or tungsten and M is a ternary metal, has been developed. Characterization of these amorphous materials by chemical and spectroscopic methods (IR, Raman, PES) shows that the (M{sub 6}S{sub 8}){sup 0} cluster units are present. Vacuum thermolysis of the amorphous Na{sub 2x}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH first produces poorly crystalline NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} by disproportionation at 800 C and well-crystallized NaMo{sub 6}S{sub 8} at {>=} 900 C. Ion-exchange of the sodium material in methanol with soluble M{sup 2+} and M{sup 3+} salts (M=Sn, Co, Ni, Pb, La, Ho) produces the M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}(Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8})S{sub x}{hor_ellipsis}yMeOH compounds. Additionally, the new reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides with the general formula M{sup n+}{sub 2x/n}Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8+x}(MeOH){sub y}[MMOS] (M=Sn, Co, Ni) is an effective hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalyst both as-prepared and after a variety of pretreatment conditions. Under specified pretreatment conditions with flowing hydrogen gas, the SnMoS type catalyst can be stabilized, and while still amorphous, can be considered as ``Chevrel phase-like`` in that both contain Mo{sub 6}S{sub 8} cluster units. Furthermore, the small cation NiMoS and CoMoS type pretreated catalyst is shown to be very active HDS catalysts with rates that exceeded the model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS{sub 2} catalysts. 9 figs.

  13. Hydrogen Safety

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

  14. Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

  15. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  16. LLNL input to FY94 hydrogen annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, R.N.; Smith, J.R.; Rambach, G.; Pekala, R.W.; Westbrook, C.K.; Richardson, J.H.

    1994-12-16

    This report summarizes the FY 1994 progress made in hydrogen research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Research programs covered include: Technical and Economic Assessment of the Transport and Storage of Hydrogen; Research and Development of an Optimized Hydrogen-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine; Hydrogen Storage in Engineered Microspheres; Synthesis, Characterization and Modeling of Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage; Chemical Kinetic Modeling of H2 Applications; and, Municipal Solid Waste to Hydrogen.

  17. Hydrogen Safety Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Safety Basics Hydrogen Safety Basics Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies are poised to play an integral role in our energy future. Hydrogen, a versatile fuel with a history of safe use in industrial applications, can be produced from diverse domestic resources including renewable, nuclear, natural gas, and coal with carbon sequestration. Fuel cells provide a highly efficient means for producing electricity from hydrogen. They can be built to a variety of scales to provide power for distributed

  18. Organophosphorus compounds as coke inhibitors during naphtha pyrolysis. Effect of benzyl diethyl phosphite and triphenylphosphine sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, P.; Prasad, S.; Kunztu, D.

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that significant reduction in the rate of coke formation during naphtha pyrolysis was achieved by adding benzyl diethyl phosphite or triphenylphosphine sulfide to the feed. Although the yield of carbon oxides was reduced, there was no effect of these additives on the hydrocarbon yields. Addition of these organophosphorus compounds significantly reduced the concentration of metals, such as iron, nickel, and chromium, incorporated in the coke. A previously proposed model for coke inhibition due to the formation of a passivating metal-phosphorus complex could satisfactorily correlate the data.

  19. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

    1981-06-23

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

  20. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Barriers: Hydrogen embrittlement of pipelines and remediation (mixing with water vapor?) PDF icon hpwgw_embrittlementsteels_sofronis.pdf More Documents & Publications Webinar: I2CNER: An International Collaboration to Enable a Carbon-Neutral Energy Economy Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines

  1. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide exchange in bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fried, A.; Klinger, L.F.; Erickson, D.J. III (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-01-22

    Measurements of Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) fluxes were carried out on bog microcosms using chamber sampling and tunable diode laser analysis. Intact bog microcosms (vascular plants, mosses, and peat) removed ambient levels of OCS in the light and dark with rates from [minus]2.4 to [minus]8.1 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2]. Peat and peat plus mosses emitted OCS in the light with rates of 17.4 and 10.9 ng S min[sup [minus]1] m[sup [minus]2], respectively. In the dark, the mosses apparently removed OCS at a rate equivalent to the peat emissions. A 3-D numerical tracer model using this data indicated that boreal bog ecosystems remove at most 1% of ambient OCS, not sufficient to account for an observed OCS depletion in boreal air masses. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Process for removing carbonyl sulfide from gaseous streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tellis, C.

    1981-11-10

    This invention relates to a process for reducing the carbonyl sulfide content of a gaseous stream which has a concentration of carbonyl sulfide of from at least 1 to about 100 parts per million, by volume, which comprises providing an absorbent bed wherein the absorbent comprises zinc oxide and contains no more than 5%, by weight, of an oxide of an alkli or alkaline earth metal, and contacting said process stream with said adsorbent bed at a temperature of from about ambient to 250/sup 0/ C. For a period of time sufficient to remove at least 90% of the carbonyl sulfide content of said gaseous stream.

  3. Hydrogen Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Frances Wood of OnLocation Inc. at the Joint Meeting on Hydrogen Delivery Modeling and Analysis, May 8-9, 2007

  4. Hydrogen Liquefaction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Internationally 4-7 European Installations 4-6 Japanese Installations India Program ESA French Guiana (South America) 4 Satisfies ASME J-2719 (hydrogen ...

  5. Hydrogen Technology Research at SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, E.

    2011-02-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including membrane filters for H2 separation, doped carbon nanotubes, storage vessel design and optimization, chemical hydrides, hydrogen compressors and hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Several of these are discussed further in Section 2, SRNL Hydrogen Research and Development.

  6. Compositions of Magmatic and Impact Melt Sulfides in Tissint and EETA79001:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precursors of Immiscible Sulfide Melt Blebs in Shergottite Impact Melts (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Compositions of Magmatic and Impact Melt Sulfides in Tissint and EETA79001: Precursors of Immiscible Sulfide Melt Blebs in Shergottite Impact Melts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compositions of Magmatic and Impact Melt Sulfides in Tissint and EETA79001: Precursors of Immiscible Sulfide Melt Blebs in Shergottite Impact Melts Authors: Ross, D.K. ; Rao, M.N. ; Nyquist,

  7. Compositions of Magmatic and Impact Melt Sulfides in Tissint and EETA79001:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Precursors of Immiscible Sulfide Melt Blebs in Shergottite Impact Melts (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Compositions of Magmatic and Impact Melt Sulfides in Tissint and EETA79001: Precursors of Immiscible Sulfide Melt Blebs in Shergottite Impact Melts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Compositions of Magmatic and Impact Melt Sulfides in Tissint and EETA79001: Precursors of Immiscible Sulfide Melt Blebs in Shergottite Impact Melts Authors:

  8. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Hydrogen Sector List of Hydrogen Incentives Hydrogen Energy Data Book Retrieved from...

  9. EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE completed a final environmental assessment (EA) for a project under Area I of the Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2...

  10. Micro-PIXE Analysis of Trace Elements in Sulfides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickmott, D.D.; Wetteland, C.; Stimac, J.; Larocque, A.C.L.; Brearley, A.

    2003-08-26

    Micro-scale Proton-induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) of trace elements (TE) in sulfides provides insights into geologic processes including magmatic system evolution, ore forming events, and fluid-flow processes. The Los Alamos nuclear microprobe was used to determine TE concentrations and ratios in sulfides from diverse geologic environments including hydrothermal ore deposits, coal seams, and metamorphic rocks. Pyrrhotite (Po) from silicic volcanics contains high Cu and Ni; Po from the Clear Lake volcanic field has higher Mo than does Po from other volcanic fields. Coal pyrites contain high Cu, As, Se, Mo and Pb, and show high As/Se and Mo/Se in marine influenced sulfides from the Lower Kittanning coal, but not in other marine-influenced coals. Sulfides are amenable to micro-PIXE studies because of the difficulties in obtaining the homogeneous standards required for many other TE microanalytical techniques.

  11. Removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid hydrocarbon streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damron, E.; Mick, M.B.; Woodall, R.M.

    1981-09-22

    Carbonyl sulfide is removed from propane and other similar liquefied petroleum gas products by mixing liquid methanol with the untreated liquefied gas and then contacting the liquid mixture with solid potassium hydroxide.

  12. Energy Department Announces up to $4 Million to Advance Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    materials, components, and systems needed to establish the technical and cost feasibility for renewable and low carbon hydrogen delivery. The long-term goal of production...

  13. Process for removing carbonyl-sulfide from liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debras, G.L.G.; DeClippeleir, G.E.M.J.; Cahen, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    A process is described for removing carbonyl sulfide from a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising: (a) passing the hydrocarbon feedstock over an absorbent material comprising zinc oxide and a promoter selected from the group consisting of alumina, silico-aluminas and any combination thereof wherein the promoter is present in amounts from about 3 to about 15 percent by weight of the absorbent material; and (b) recovering a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon stream having a substantially reduced carbonyl sulfide content.

  14. Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muruska, H. Paul (East Windsor, NJ); Sansregret, Joseph L. (Scotch Plains, NJ); Young, Archie R. (Montclair, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

  15. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembled into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (15 ?m). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.

  16. Facile synthesis of lithium sulfide nanocrystals for use in advanced rechargeable batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xuemin; Wolden, Colin A.; Ban, Chunmei; Yang, Yongan

    2015-12-03

    This work reports a new method of synthesizing anhydrous lithium sulfide (Li2S) nanocrystals and demonstrates their potential as cathode materials for advanced rechargeable batteries. Li2S is synthesized by reacting hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with lithium naphthalenide (Li-NAP), a thermodynamically spontaneous reaction that proceeds to completion rapidly at ambient temperature and pressure. The process completely removes H2S, a major industrial waste, while cogenerating 1,4-dihydronaphthalene, itself a value-added chemical that can be used as liquid fuel. The phase purity, morphology, and homogeneity of the resulting nanopowders were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized Li2S nanoparticles (100 nm) were assembledmore » into cathodes, and their performance was compared to that of cathodes fabricated using commercial Li2S micropowders (1–5 μm). As a result, electrochemical analyses demonstrated that the synthesized Li2S were superior in terms of (dis)charge capacity, cycling stability, output voltage, and voltage efficiency.« less

  17. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this project, covering two phases and an additional extension phase, were the development of thin film-based hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices for solar-powered water splitting. The hybrid device, comprising a low-cost photoactive material integrated with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H or a-Si in short)-based solar cells as a driver, should be able to produce hydrogen with a 5% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) and be durable for at least 500 hours. Three thin film material classes were studied and developed under this program: silicon-based compounds, copper chalcopyrite-based compounds, and metal oxides. With the silicon-based compounds, more specifically the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), we achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% when the photoelectrode was coupled to an a-Si tandem solar cell, and a STH efficiency of 6.1% when using a crystalline Si PV driver. The hybrid PV/a-SiC device tested under a current bias of -3~4 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibited a durability of up to ~800 hours in 0.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Other than the PV driver, the most critical element affecting the photocurrent (and hence the STH efficiency) of the hybrid PV/a-SiC device was the surface energetics at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. Without surface modification, the photocurrent of the hybrid PEC device was ~1 mA/cm{sup 2} or lower due to a surface barrier that limits the extraction of photogenerated carriers. We conducted an extensive search for suitable surface modification techniques/materials, of which the deposition of low work function metal nanoparticles was the most successful. Metal nanoparticles of ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W) or titanium (Ti) led to an anodic shift in the onset potential. We have also been able to develop hybrid devices of various configurations in a monolithic fashion and optimized the current matching via altering the energy bandgap and thickness of each constituent cell. As a result, the short-circuit photocurrent density of the hybrid device (measured in a 2-electrode configuration) increased significantly without assistance of any external bias, i.e. from ?1 mA/cm{sup 2} to ~5 mA/cm{sup 2}. With the copper chalcopyrite compounds, we have achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% in a coplanar configuration with 3 a-Si solar cells and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode. This material class exhibited good durability at a photocurrent density level of -4 mA/cm{sup 2} (5% STH equivalent) at a fixed potential (-0.45 VRHE). A poor band-edge alignment with the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) potential was identified as the main limitation for high STH efficiency. Three new pathways have been identified to solve this issue. First, PV driver with bandgap lower than that of amorphous silicon were investigated. Crystalline silicon was identified as possible bottom cell. Mechanical stacks made with one Si solar cell and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode were built. A 400 mV anodic shift was observed with the Si cell, leading to photocurrent density of -5 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE (compared to 0 mA/cm{sup 2} at the same potential without PV driver). We also investigated the use of p-n junctions to shift CuGaSe{sub 2} flatband potential anodically. Reactively sputtered zinc oxy-sulfide thin films was evaluated as n-type buffer and deposited on CuGaSe{sub 2}. Ruthenium nanoparticles were then added as HER catalyst. A 250 mV anodic shift was observed with the p-n junction, leading to photocurrent density at 0VRHE of -1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Combining this device with a Si solar cell in a mechanical stack configuration shifted the onset potential further (+400 mV anodically), leading to photocurrent density of -7 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE. Finally, we developed wide bandgap copper chalcopyrite thin film materials. We demonstrated that Se can be substituted with S using a simple annealing step. Photocurrent densities in the 5-6 mA/cm{sub 2} range were obtained with red 2.0eV CuInGaS{sub 2} photocathodes. With the metal oxide compounds, we have demonstrated that a WO{sub 3}-based hybrid photoelectrode was feasible. Specifically, we showed that WO{sub 3} paired with an a-Si tandem solar cell can generate short circuit photocurrent density of 2.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, equivalent to STH efficiency of 3.1%. Long-term durability tests demonstrated WO{sub 3} ability to split water over extended periods, for up to 600 hours at current density levels of 2.0-2.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Efforts have been done to decrease WO{sub 3} bandgap using foreign elements incorporation. We did not manage to reduce the bandgap of WO{sub 3} with this method. However, more promising results have been achieved with bilayered systems, where only the top part of WO{sub 3} films was modified. Also, we have demonstrated that alloying WO{sub 3} with CuO can form 2.2eV bandgap CuWO{sub 4}. Incorporating conductive carbon nanotubes in CuWO{sub 4} reduced its intrinsic bulk resistance. Saturation photocurrent densities in the 0.4-0.5 mA/cm{sub 2} range were achieved. Recently, in collaboration with University of Texas at Arlington, we have identified new quaternary metal oxides with CuWO{sub 4} as primary material host. Our experimental work on ceramics confirmed the theoretical calculations that crowned bismuth as a possible candidate to improve CuWO{sub 4} water splitting efficiency.

  18. Natural sulfur flux from the Gulf of Mexico: dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, and sulfur dioxide. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Valin, C.C.; Luria, M.; Wellman, D.L.; Gunter, R.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1987-06-01

    Atmospheric measurements of natural sulfur compounds were performed over the northern Gulf of Mexico during the late summer months of 1984. Air samples were collected with an instrumented aircraft at elevations of 30-3500 m, during both day and night. Most air samples were representative of the clean maritime atmosphere, although some were from continental contaminated air during periods of offshore flow at the coastline. In all samples, carbonyl sulfide concentrations were within the range of 400-500 pptv. Conversely, the dimethyl sulfide concentrations showed significant variability: during clean atmospheric conditions the average of all measurements was 27 pptv, whereas under polluted conditions the average was 7 pptv. Measureable quantities of dimethyl sulfide (>5 pptv) were not observed above the boundary layer. The average sulfur dioxide concentration measured in the marine (clean) atmosphere was 215 pptv, which is consistent with the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide being its major source.

  19. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J. Politano, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL This project developed a hydrogen and fuel cell technology academic program at Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Florida. Design and Development of an Advanced Hydrogen Storage System using Novel Materials ? E. Stefanakos, University of South Florida The goal of this project was to design and develop novel conducting polymeric nanomaterials for on-board hydrogen storage. The project approach was to examine synthesis of polyaniline solid state hydrogen storage materials. Advanced HiFoil ? Bipolar Plates ? J. Braun, M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The goal of this project was to provide a durable, low cost bipolar plate for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The project results produced a durable, low cost bipolar plate with very high in-plane thermal conductivity.

  1. Synthesis Of Silver Sulfide Stratified Photocatalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baba, Y.; Yokoyama, S.; Takahashi, H.; Tohji, K.

    2008-02-25

    In this report, silver sulfide (Ag{sub 2}S) was selected as a new H{sub 2}S splitting photocatalyst material, and considered the synthesis method of Ag{sub 2}S photocatalyst particles with stratified structure. Previous stratified particles were synthesized by using metal oxide (hydroxide) as the precursor. Ag{sub 2}O particles as the precursor of Ag{sub 2}S were synthesized by mixing AgNO{sub 3} solution and NaOH, and their particle sizes could be controlled by the solutions' concentration. Then, Ag{sub 2}S particles were obtained by adding Na{sub 2}S solution into suspending solution of Ag{sub 2}O particles with optimum sizes. Particle sizes of Ag{sub 2}S were changed by Na{sub 2}S concentration control, and remaining Ag{sub 2}O precursor could be dissolved by adding NH{sub 3} solution. The photocatalytic H{sub 2}S splitting could be realized by UV-light irradiation on the Ag{sub 2}S particles without co-catalyst like Pt.

  2. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  3. Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Robust Polymer Composite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation Enabling Carbon Capture and Hydrogen Purification at Process Relevant Conditions This project will develop membranes aimed at improving the economics and performance of hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, enabling more-effcient and cleaner energy, chemicals, and fuels production from solid fuels such as coal, renewable biomass, and waste. Introduction In the gasifcation process, hydrocarbon feedstocks such as coal, biomass, and

  4. Hydrogen embrittlement of structural steels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerday, Brian P.

    2010-06-01

    Carbon-manganese steels are candidates for the structural materials in hydrogen gas pipelines, however it is well known that these steels are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Decades of research and industrial experience have established that hydrogen embrittlement compromises the structural integrity of steel components. This experience has also helped identify the failure modes that can operate in hydrogen containment structures. As a result, there are tangible ideas for managing hydrogen embrittement in steels and quantifying safety margins for steel hydrogen containment structures. For example, fatigue crack growth aided by hydrogen embrittlement is a key failure mode for steel hydrogen containment structures subjected to pressure cycling. Applying appropriate structural integrity models coupled with measurement of relevant material properties allows quantification of safety margins against fatigue crack growth in hydrogen containment structures. Furthermore, application of these structural integrity models is aided by the development of micromechanics models, which provide important insights such as the hydrogen distribution near defects in steel structures. The principal objective of this project is to enable application of structural integrity models to steel hydrogen pipelines. The new American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) B31.12 design code for hydrogen pipelines includes a fracture mechanics-based design option, which requires material property inputs such as the threshold for rapid cracking and fatigue crack growth rate under cyclic loading. Thus, one focus of this project is to measure the rapid-cracking thresholds and fatigue crack growth rates of line pipe steels in high-pressure hydrogen gas. These properties must be measured for the base materials but more importantly for the welds, which are likely to be most vulnerable to hydrogen embrittlement. The measured properties can be evaluated by predicting the performance of the pipeline using a relevant structural integrity model, such as that in ASME B31.12. A second objective of this project is to enable development of micromechanics models of hydrogen embrittlement in pipeline steels. The focus of this effort is to establish physical models of hydrogen embrittlement in line pipe steels using evidence from analytical techniques such as electron microscopy. These physical models then serve as the framework for developing sophisticated finite-element models, which can provide quantitative insight into the micromechanical state near defects. Understanding the micromechanics of defects can ensure that structural integrity models are applied accurately and conservatively.

  5. Dimethyl sulfide in the Amazon rain forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jardine, Kolby; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Williams, J.; Kunert, N.; Jardine, A.; Taylor, T.; Abrell, L.; Artaxo, Paulo; Guenther, Alex B.; Hewitt, C. N.; House, E.; Florentino, A. P.; Manzi, A.; Higuchi, N.; Kesselmeier, J.; Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Derstroff, B.; Fuentes, J.; Martin, Scot T.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Surface-to-atmosphere emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) may impact global climate 44 through the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid, which can yield secondary sulfate 45 aerosols and contribute to new particle formation. While oceans are generally 46 considered the dominant source of DMS, a shortage of ecosystem observations prevents 47 an accurate analysis of terrestrial DMS sources. Using mass spectrometry, we quantified 48 ambient DMS mixing ratios within and above a primary rainforest ecosystem in the 49 central Amazon Basin in real-time (2010-2011) and at high vertical resolution (2013-50 2014). Elevated but highly variable DMS mixing ratios were observed within the 51 canopy, showing clear evidence of a net ecosystem source to the atmosphere during 52 both day and night in both the dry and wet seasons. Periods of high DMS mixing ratios 53 lasting up to 8 hours (up to 160 ppt) often occurred within the canopy and near the 54 surface during many evenings and nights. Daytime gradients showed mixing ratios (up 55 to 80 ppt) peaking near the top of the canopy as well as near the ground following a rain 56 event. The spatial and temporal distribution of DMS suggests that ambient levels and 57 their potential climatic impacts are dominated by local soil and plant emissions. A soil 58 source was confirmed by measurements of DMS emission fluxes from Amazon soils as 59 a function of temperature and soil moisture. Furthermore, light and temperature 60 dependent DMS emissions were measured from seven tropical tree species. Our study 61 has important implications for understanding terrestrial DMS sources and their role in 62 coupled land-atmosphere climate feedbacks. 63

  6. Catalytic Nonoxidation Dehydrogenation of Ethane Over Fe-Ni Catalysts Supported on Mg (Al)O to Produce Hydrogen and Easily Purified Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen,W.; Wang, Y.; Shi, X.; Shah, N.; Huggins, F.; Bollineni, S.; Seehra, M.; Huffman, G.

    2007-01-01

    Nonoxidative decomposition of ethane was conducted over monometallic Ni and bimetallic Fe-Ni catalysts on basic Mg(Al)O support to produce H2 free of CO and CO2 and easily purified carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. The Mg(Al)O support was prepared by calcination of synthetic MgAl-hydrotalcite with a Mg to Al ratio of 5. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness with total metal loadings of 5 wt %. The dehydrogenation of undiluted ethane was conducted at temperatures of 500, 650, and 700 C. At 500 C, the Ni/Mg(Al)O catalyst was highly active and very stable with 100% conversion of ethane to 20 vol % H2 and 80 vol % CH4. However, the bimetallic Fe-Ni/Mg(Al)O exhibited its best performance at 650 C, yielding 65 vol % H2, 10 vol % CH4, and 25 vol % unreacted ethane. The product carbon was in the form of carbon nanotubes (CNT) at all three reaction temperatures, but the morphology of the CNT depended on both the catalyst composition and reaction temperature. The CNTs were formed by a tip-growth mechanism over the Mg(Al)O supported catalysts and were easily purified by a one-step dilute nitric acid treatment. Mossbauer spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, TEM, STEM, TGA, and XRD were used to characterize the catalysts and the CNT, revealing the catalytic mechanisms.

  7. Storing Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

    2010-05-31

    Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  8. Method for absorbing hydrogen using an oxidation resisant organic hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

    2009-02-03

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably platinum, is disclosed. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently remove hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  9. Hydrogen from Biomass - State of the Art and Research Challenges

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IEA/H2/TR-02/001 Hydrogen from Biomass State of the Art and Research Challenges Thomas A. Milne, Carolyn C. Elam and Robert J. Evans National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO USA A Report for the International Energy Agency Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials Table of Contents Preface.......................................................................................................... i Executive

  10. Hydrogen program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gronich, S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  11. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Code for Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines. B31 Hydrogen...

  12. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search <-- Back to Hydrogen Gateway Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials KIA FCEV SUNRISE MG 7955 6 7.jpg Guidance on materials...

  13. Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2005-05-01

    Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

  14. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the carbonyl sulfide ion with momentum analysis of the sulfur product ion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    A Nuclide 12-90-G mass spectrometer was modified for use as a photofragment momentum spectrometer. The resultant apparatus was capable of obtaining both absolute cross sections for photodissociation with respect to wavelength and relative cross sections for photodissociation with respect to kinetic energy release. The kinetic energy release for the photodissociation reaction of the nitrous oxide cation (leading to the production of the nitric oxide cation and the nitrogen atom), was studied at 3080.4 [angstrom], 3371.3 [angstrom], and 3381.4 [angstrom]. When a nitrogen atom was produced in the [sup 4]S state, the nitric oxide cation was found to be formed predominantly with 5 to 7 quanta of vibrational energy. Nitrogen atoms were formed preferentially in the [sup 2]D state when it was energetically feasible at 3371.3 [angstrom] and 3080.4 [angstrom]. The kinetic energy release for the photodissociation reaction of the carbonyl sulfide cation (leading to the production of carbon monoxide and a sulfur cation), was studied at 2822.2 [angstrom], 2921.8 [angstrom], 2991.0 [angstrom], 2991.9 [angstrom], 3080.4 [angstrom], 3104.3 [angstrom], 3127.9 [angstrom], 3184.9 [angstrom], 3351.8 [angstrom], 3371.3 [angstrom], and 3393.0 [angstrom]. When sulfur cations were produced in the [sup 4]S state, the carbon monoxide products were formed predominantly with 5 to 7 quanta of vibrational energy. Sulfur cations were formed preferentially in the [sup 2]D state from hot bands at 3351.8 [angstrom], 3080.4 [angstrom], and 2991.9 [angstrom]. Sulfur cations were also produced in the [sup 2]D state at 2921.8 [angstrom] and 2822.2 [angstrom], where it was energetically feasible from the ground state of carbonyl sulfide cations.

  15. Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-08-06

    An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

  16. Solar hydrogen for urban trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provenzano, J.: Scott, P.B.; Zweig, R.

    1997-12-31

    The Clean Air Now (CAN) Solar Hydrogen Project, located at Xerox Corp., El Segundo, California, includes solar photovoltaic powered hydrogen generation, compression, storage and end use. Three modified Ford Ranger trucks use the hydrogen fuel. The stand-alone electrolyzer and hydrogen dispensing system are solely powered by a photovoltaic array. A variable frequency DC-AC converter steps up the voltage to drive the 15 horsepower compressor motor. On site storage is available for up to 14,000 standard cubic feet (SCF) of solar hydrogen, and up to 80,000 SCF of commercial hydrogen. The project is 3 miles from Los Angeles International airport. The engine conversions are bored to 2.9 liter displacement and are supercharged. Performance is similar to that of the Ranger gasoline powered truck. Fuel is stored in carbon composite tanks (just behind the driver`s cab) at pressures up to 3600 psi. Truck range is 144 miles, given 3600 psi of hydrogen. The engine operates in lean burn mode, with nil CO and HC emissions. NO{sub x} emissions vary with load and rpm in the range from 10 to 100 ppm, yielding total emissions at a small fraction of the ULEV standard. Two trucks have been converted for the Xerox fleet, and one for the City of West Hollywood. A public outreach program, done in conjunction with the local public schools and the Department of Energy, introduces the local public to the advantages of hydrogen fuel technologies. The Clean Air Now program demonstrates that hydrogen powered fleet development is an appropriate, safe, and effective strategy for improvement of urban air quality, energy security and avoidance of global warming impact. Continued technology development and cost reduction promises to make such implementation market competitive.

  17. IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    1997-01-31

    The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including a brief summary of hydrogen in general. The Chairman's report provides highlights for the year. Sections are included on hydrogen energy activities in the IEA Hydrogen Agreement member countries, including Canada, European Commission, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US. Lastly, Annex reports are given for the following tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage.

  18. California Hydrogen Highway Network October 3, 2007 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Highway Network October 3, 2007 California Hydrogen Highway Network October 3, 2007 Presented at Refueling Infrastructure for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Lessons Learned for Hydrogen Conference, April 2-3, 2008, Sacramento, California PDF icon bevan_carb_h2hwynet.pdf More Documents & Publications California Regulations on Renewble Hydrogen and Low Carbon Technologies Panel Session III: Innovation and Coordination Asia/ITS

  19. Synthesis and photovoltaic application of coper (I) sulfide nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yue; Wadia, Cyrus; Ma, Wanli; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A.Paul

    2008-06-24

    We present the rational synthesis of colloidal copper(I) sulfide nanocrystals and demonstrate their application as an active light absorbing component in combination with CdS nanorods to make a solution-processed solar cell with 1.6percent power conversion efficiency on both conventional glass substrates and flexible plastic substrates with stability over a 4 month testing period.

  20. Hydrogen Production: Photobiological

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The photobiological hydrogen production process uses microorganisms and sunlight to turn water, and sometimes organic matter, into hydrogen.

  1. Hydrogen Technology Validation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

  2. Hydrogen scavengers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carroll, David W. (Los Alamos, NM); Salazar, Kenneth V. (Espanola, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Sandoval, Cynthia W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented a codeposition process for fabricating hydrogen scavengers. First, a .pi.-bonded allylic organometallic complex is prepared by reacting an allylic transition metal halide with an organic ligand complexed with an alkali metal; and then, in a second step, a vapor of the .pi.-bonded allylic organometallic complex is combined with the vapor of an acetylenic compound, irradiated with UV light, and codeposited on a substrate.

  3. Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mechanism, carbon-nitrogen and carbon-hydrogen bond formation occurs in a concerted fashion. Article Title: A Highly Enantioselective Zirconium Catalyst for Intramolecular...

  4. Surface Segregation in a PdCu Alloy Hydrogen Separation Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.B.; Matranga, C.S.; Gellman, A.J.

    2007-06-01

    Separation of hydrogen from mixed gas streams is an important step for hydrogen generation technologies, including hydrocarbon reforming and coal/biomass gasification. Dense palladium-based membranes have received significant attention for this application because of palladiums ability to dissociatively adsorb molecular hydrogen at its surface for subsequent transport of hydrogen atoms through its bulk. Alloying palladium with minor components, like copper, has been shown to improve both the membranes structural characteristics and resistance to poisoning of its catalytic surface [1]. Surface segregationa composition difference between the bulk material and its surfaceis common in alloys and can affect important surface processes. Rational design of alloy membranes requires that surface segregation be understood, and possibly controlled. In this work, we examine surface segregation in a polycrystalline Pd70Cu30 hydrogen separation membrane as a function of thermal treatment and adsorption of hydrogen sulfide.

  5. Hydrogen Sensor Testing, Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-11-01

    Factsheet describing the hydrogen sensor testing laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  6. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  7. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Troy A. Semelsberger Los Alamos National Laboratory Hydrogen Storage Summit Jan 27-29, 2015 Denver, CO Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials 2 Objectives 1. Assess chemical hydrogen storage materials that can exceed 700 bar compressed hydrogen tanks 2. Status (state-of-the-art) of chemical hydrogen storage materials 3. Identify key material characteristics 4. Identify obstacles, challenges and risks for the successful deployment of chemical hydrogen materials in a practical on-board hydrogen

  8. Hydrogen detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanegae, Naomichi (Mito, JP); Ikemoto, Ichiro (Mito, JP)

    1980-01-01

    A hydrogen detector of the type in which the interior of the detector is partitioned by a metal membrane into a fluid section and a vacuum section. Two units of the metal membrane are provided and vacuum pipes are provided independently in connection to the respective units of the metal membrane. One of the vacuum pipes is connected to a vacuum gauge for static equilibrium operation while the other vacuum pipe is connected to an ion pump or a set of an ion pump and a vacuum gauge both designed for dynamic equilibrium operation.

  9. Controllable atomistic graphene oxide model and its application in hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Liangliang; Gubbins, Keith E., E-mail: keg@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J. [Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York and the Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York 10031 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, The City College of New York and the Graduate School of the City University of New York, New York 10031 (United States); Duin, Adri C. T. van [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16801 (United States); Lu, Xiaohua [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2013-11-21

    The determination of an atomistic graphene oxide (GO) model has been challenging due to the structural dependence on different synthesis methods. In this work we combine temperature-programmed molecular dynamics simulation techniques and the ReaxFF reactive force field to generate realistic atomistic GO structures. By grafting a mixture of epoxy and hydroxyl groups to the basal graphene surface and fine-tuning their initial concentrations, we produce in a controllable manner the GO structures with different functional groups and defects. The models agree with structural experimental data and with other ab initio quantum calculations. Using the generated atomistic models, we perform reactive adsorption calculations for H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}S mixtures on GO materials and compare the results with experiment. We find that H{sub 2}S molecules dissociate on the carbonyl functional groups, and H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, and CO molecules are released as reaction products from the GO surface. The calculation reveals that for the H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}S mixtures, H{sub 2}O molecules are preferentially adsorbed to the carbonyl sites and block the potential active sites for H{sub 2}S decomposition. The calculation agrees well with the experiments. The methodology and the procedure applied in this work open a new door to the theoretical studies of GO and can be extended to the research on other amorphous materials.

  10. Hydrate decomposition conditions in the system hydrogen sulfide-methane, and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeter, J.P.; Kobayashi, R.; Hildebrand, H.A.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental hydrate decomposition conditions are presented for 3 different H/sub 2/S-containing mixtures in the temperature region 0 C to 30 C. The 3 mixtures investigated were 4% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 89% methane; 12% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 81% methane; and 30% H/sub 2/S, 7% propane, 63% methane. Hydrate decomposition pressures and temperatures were obtained for each of these mixtures by observation of the pressure-temperature hysteresis curves associated with formation and decomposition of the hydrate crystals. A repeatable decomposition point was observed in every case, and this was identified as the hydrate point. The results for the 4% H/sub 2/S mixture were used to adjust parameters in a computer model based on the Parrish and Prausnitz statistical thermodynamics method, coupled with the BWRS equation of state. After the parameter adjustment, the computer model predicted the behavior of the 12% H/sub 2/S and the 30% H/sub 2/S mixtures to within 2 C. Experimental data for the 3 mixtures are given.

  11. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, J.D.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Tuggle, D.G.

    1997-09-23

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes. 15 figs.

  12. Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID); Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tuggle, Dale G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes.

  13. Metaproteomics of a gutless marine worm and its symbiotic microbial community reveal unusual pathways for carbon and energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleiner, Manuel; Wentrop, C.; Lott, C.; Teeling, Hanno; Wetzel, Silke; Young, Jacque C; Chang, Y.; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Zarzycki, Jan; Fuchs, Georg; Markert, Stephanie; Hempel, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Low nutrient and energy availability has led to the evolution of numerous strategies for overcoming these limitations, of which symbiotic associations represent a key mechanism. Particularly striking are the associations between chemosynthetic bacteria and marine animals that thrive in nutrient-poor environments such as the deep-sea because the symbionts allow their hosts to grow on inorganic energy and carbon sources such as sulfide and CO2. Remarkably little is known about the physiological strategies that enable chemosynthetic symbioses to colonize oligotrophic environments. In this study, we used metaproteomics and metabolomics to investigate the intricate network of metabolic interactions in the chemosynthetic association between Olavius algarvensis, a gutless marine worm, and its bacterial symbionts. We propose novel pathways for coping with energy and nutrient limitation, some of which may be widespread in both free-living and symbiotic bacteria. These include (i) a pathway for symbiont assimilation of the host waste products acetate, propionate, succinate and malate, (ii) the potential use of carbon monoxide as an energy source, a substrate previously not known to play a role in marine invertebrate symbioses, (iii) the potential use of hydrogen as an energy source, (iv) the strong expression of high affinity uptake transporters, and (v) novel energy efficient steps in CO2 fixation and sulfate reduction. The high expression of proteins involved in pathways for energy and carbon uptake and conservation in the O. algarvensis symbiosis indicates that the oligotrophic nature of its environment exerted a strong selective pressure in shaping these associations.

  14. NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & ...

  15. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen ...

  16. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation The hydrogen ...

  17. Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen, Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in China Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen, Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in China Presentation given by Jinyang Zheng of ...

  18. CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior Presentation given by Jay ...

  19. Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC (formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC) Place:...

  20. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electrosynthetic microbiome (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome « Prev Next » Title: Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen

  1. Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel February 25, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The Energy Department recently posted a blog about Hexagon Lincoln, a company that creates carbon fiber composite fuel tanks used to transport hydrogen across the country. Read Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel to learn more about the company's expansion. Addthis Related Articles Hexagon Lincoln develops carbon

  2. Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel Nebraska Company Expands to Meet Demand for Hydrogen Fuel February 4, 2014 - 12:06pm Addthis Hexagon Lincoln develops carbon fiber composite fuel tanks that help deliver hydrogen to fleets throughout the country. The company has more than doubled its workforce to accommodate growing demand for the tanks. | Photo courtesy of Hexagon Lincoln Hexagon Lincoln develops carbon fiber composite fuel tanks that help deliver hydrogen to

  3. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2011 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting May 9, 2011 Enable widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies: * Early markets such as stationary power, lift trucks, and portable power * Mid-term markets such as residential CHP systems, auxiliary power units, fleets and buses * Long-term markets including mainstream transportation applications/light duty vehicles Updated Program Plan May 2011 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Key Goals 2 from renewables or low carbon

  4. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  5. Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber Lower Cost, Higher Performance Carbon Fiber Presented at the R&D Strategies for Compressed, Cryo-Compressed and Cryo-Sorbent Hydrogen Storage Technologies Workshops on February 14 and 15, 2011. PDF icon compressed_hydrogen2011_4_warren.pdf More Documents & Publications Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

  6. CTP Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CTP Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search Name: CTP Hydrogen Place: Westborough, Massachusetts Zip: 1581 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: CTP Hydrogen is an early stage company...

  7. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  8. Energy Department Awards $4.6 Million to Advance Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for four projects to develop advanced hydrogen storage materials that have potential to enable ... Novel Sorbent Achieves 90 Percent Carbon Capture in DOE-Sponsored Test DOE ...

  9. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... permeability properties were completed and the effects of hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide were investigated for perspective membranes. The initial candidate membrane of ...

  10. Compound and Elemental Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    gases usually include: carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogen sulfide (H2S) ammonia (NH4) methane (CH4) Related Techniques Lab Analysis Techniques Fluid Lab Analysis Compound and...

  11. FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY: NEW METHOD FOR GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    logs are analyzed in detail. Select species including carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, methane, and hydrogen sulfide show distinct differences between producing and nonproducing...

  12. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and (2) gas vented and flared. Processing losses include (1) nonhydrocarbon gases (e.g., water vapor, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen sulfide, and nitrogen) removed from the gas...

  13. Role of the oceans in the atmospheric cycle of carbonyl sulfide. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is both the dominant sulfur gas in the remote troposphere and, along with volcanoes, a major source of sulfur for the stratospheric sulfate layer. Prior to this work the ocean was regarded as a major sink for atmospheric OCS. The purpose of this study has been to assess the magnitude of the global air-sea flux of OCS. The author designed an analytical system which was centered around a Varian-3700 gas chromatograph with a flame-photometric detector. To increase the sensitivity of the detector, the hydrogen gas for the flame was doped with sulfur hexafloride. Air samples were concentrated in a liquid nitrogen cooled freeze-out loop, then injected into the gas chromatograph. Water samples purged with sulfur-free zero-air which was analyzed similarly. The author also built a permeation tube system for chemical standardization. This equipment was taken on two oceanographic cruises on the Pacific Ocean on board the NOAA ship DISCOVERER, one in the spring of 1983 and a second in the spring of 1984. Both of these cruises included measurements of air and sea-water concentrations of OCS.

  14. Role of the oceans in the atmospheric cycle of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is both the dominant sulfur gas in the remote troposphere and, along with volcanoes, a major source of sulfur for the stratospheric sulfate layer. Prior to this work the ocean was regarded as a major sink for atmospheric OCS. The purpose of this study has been to assess the magnitude of the global air-sea flux of OCS. The author designed an analytical system which was centered around a Varian-3700 gas chromatograph with a flame-photometric detector. To increase the sensitivity of the detector, the hydrogen gas for the flame was doped with sulfur hexafluoride. Air samples were concentrated in a liquid nitrogen cooled freeze-out loop, then injected into the gas chromatograph. Water samples purged with sulfur-free zero-air which was analyzed similarly. He also built a permeation tube system for chemical standardization. This equipment was taken on two oceanographic cruises on the Pacific Ocean, one in the spring of 1983 and a second in the spring of 1983. Both of these cruises included measurements of air and seawater concentrations of OCS from the equator to the Aleutian Islands. The Henry's law constant of solubility for OCS was measured in the laboratory for filtered and boiled seawater at three temperatures.

  15. Hydrogen Funding and the AB 118 Investment Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Funding and the AB 118 Investment Plan Hydrogen Funding and the AB 118 Investment Plan Presentation at the Renewable Hydrogen Worshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_ward.pdf More Documents & Publications Co-production of Hydrogen and Electricity (A Developer's Perspective) California Regulations on Renewble Hydrogen and Low Carbon Technologies IPHE Infrastructure Workshop - Workshop Proceedings, February 25-26, 2010 Sacramento, CA

  16. Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Diverse Domestic Resources Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources Distributed Generation Transportation HIGH EFFICIENCY HIGH EFFICIENCY & RELIABILITY & RELIABILITY ZERONEAR...

  17. Hydrogen Sensor Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On June 8, 2011, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory hosted a hydrogen sensors workshop to survey emerging fuel cell and hydrogen infrastructure applications that...

  18. Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Hydrogen Program Record number11007, Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation, documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost.

  19. Hydrogen Storage Challenges

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For transportation, the overarching technical challenge for hydrogen storage is how to store the amount of hydrogen required for a conventional driving range (>300 miles) within the vehicular...

  20. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search Hydrogen Companies Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"SATELLITE","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","limit":1000,"o...

  1. Hydrogen Delivery Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Pathway," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34 ... Chemical Economics Handbook. July 2010, http:chemical.ihs.comCEHPublicReports743.5000. 25 Hydrogen ...

  2. Hydrogen Safety Panel

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or otherwise restricted information. Project ID: scs07weiner PNNL-SA-65397 2 IEA HIA Task 19 Working Group Hydrogen Safety Training Props Hydrogen Safety Panel Incident...

  3. Supported metal catalysts: Preparation, characterization, and function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, S.D.; Leeming, P. [ICI Katalco, Cleveland (United Kingdom)] [ICI Katalco, Cleveland (United Kingdom); Webb, G. [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1996-05-01

    The sorptive properties of supported platinum catalysts has been studied for the adsorption of carbonyl sulfide and hydrogen sulfide. It was observed that hydrogen sulfide adsorption disallowed carbon monoxide adsorption. Dissociation chemistry was probed using labelled compounds. 32 refs., 8 tabs.

  4. Spectral induced polarization and electrodic potential monitoring of microbially mediated iron sulfide transformations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hubbard, Susan; Personna, Y.R.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Slater, L.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-02-15

    Stimulated sulfate-reduction is a bioremediation technique utilized for the sequestration of heavy metals in the subsurface.We performed laboratory column experiments to investigate the geoelectrical response of iron sulfide transformations by Desulfo vibriovulgaris. Two geoelectrical methods, (1) spectral induced polarization (SIP), and (2) electrodic potential measurements, were investigated. Aqueous geochemistry (sulfate, lactate, sulfide, and acetate), observations of precipitates (identified from electron microscopy as iron sulfide), and electrodic potentials on bisulfide ion (HS) sensitive silver-silver chloride (Ag-AgCl) electrodes (630 mV) were diagnostic of induced transitions between an aerobic iron sulfide forming conditions and aerobic conditions promoting iron sulfide dissolution. The SIP data showed 10m rad anomalies during iron sulfide mineralization accompanying microbial activity under an anaerobic transition. These anomalies disappeared during iron sulfide dissolution under the subsequent aerobic transition. SIP model parameters based on a Cole-Cole relaxation model of the polarization at the mineral-fluid interface were converted to (1) estimated biomineral surface area to pore volume (Sp), and (2) an equivalent polarizable sphere diameter (d) controlling the relaxation time. The temporal variation in these model parameters is consistent with filling and emptying of pores by iron sulfide biofilms, as the system transitions between anaerobic (pore filling) and aerobic (pore emptying) conditions. The results suggest that combined SIP and electrodic potential measurements might be used to monitor spatiotemporal variability in microbial iron sulfide transformations in the field.

  5. Hydrogen isotopes as a proxy for the [sup 18]O content of water...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the sup 18O content of water in carbonates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen isotopes as a proxy for the sup 18O content of water in carbonates Water ...

  6. Hydrogen milestone could help lower fossil fuel refining costs

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Stephen Herring

    2010-01-08

    Hydrogen researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory have reached another milestone on the road to reducing carbon emissions and protecting the nation against the effects of peaking world oil production. Stephen Herring, lab

  7. Metal-Organic Frameworks as Adsorbents for Hydrogen Purification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal-Organic Frameworks as Adsorbents for Hydrogen Purification and Precombustion Carbon Dioxide Capture Previous Next List Z. R. Herm, J. A. Swisher, B. Smit, R. Krishna, and J....

  8. Tennessee: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Optimizes Carbon Fiber...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Further optimization of these processes has the potential to result in carbon fibers with ... and institutional barriers to the widespread commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cells. ...

  9. FutureCarbon GmbH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GmbH Place: Bayreuth, Germany Zip: 95448 Sector: Carbon, Efficiency, Hydro, Hydrogen Product: The company originated out of a former Mannesmann think tank. Its focus is...

  10. Hydrogen production with coal using a pulverization device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing hydrogen from coal is described wherein high temperature steam is brought into contact with coal in a pulverizer or fluid energy mill for effecting a steam-carbon reaction to provide for the generation of gaseous hydrogen. The high temperature steam is utilized to drive the coal particles into violent particle-to-particle contact for comminuting the particulates and thereby increasing the surface area of the coal particles for enhancing the productivity of the hydrogen.

  11. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - News Release Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 December 14, 2010 Hydrogen Bus Lets Lab Visitors Glimpse Future The hydrogen bus uses the same basic technology as a conventional gasoline-powered engine but runs on renewable hydrogen. October 25, 2010 New Report Identifies Ways to Reduce Cost of Fuel Cell Power Plants A new report by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory details technical and cost gap analyses of molten carbonate fuel cell and phosphoric acid fuel cell stationary fuel cell power plants and identifies pathways for reducing

  12. EIS-0431: Hydrogen Energy California's Project, Kern County, California |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 31: Hydrogen Energy California's Project, Kern County, California EIS-0431: Hydrogen Energy California's Project, Kern County, California Summary This EIS evaluates the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to provide financial assistance for the construction and operation of Hydrogen Energy California LLC (HECA's) project, which would produce and sell electricity, carbon dioxide and fertilizer. DOE selected this project for an award of financial assistance

  13. Sysco Deploys Hydrogen Powered Pallet Trucks | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Sysco Deploys Hydrogen Powered Pallet Trucks Sysco Deploys Hydrogen Powered Pallet Trucks July 12, 2010 - 2:50pm Addthis Food service distribution company Sysco celebrated the grand opening of its highly efficient distribution center in June in Houston. As part of Sysco's efforts to reduce its carbon footprint, the company deployed almost 100 pallet trucks powered by fuel cells that create only water and heat as by-products. The hydrogen fuel cell project's cost was partially covered by funding

  14. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage Applications: A Review

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Niemann, Michael U.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Phani, Ayala R.; Kumar, Ashok; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2008-01-01

    Nmore » anomaterials have attracted great interest in recent years because of the unusual mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical, magnetic and surface properties. The high surface/volume ratio of these materials has significant implications with respect to energy storage. Both the high surface area and the opportunity for nanomaterial consolidation are key attributes of this new class of materials for hydrogen storage devices. Nanostructured systems including carbon nanotubes, nano-magnesium based hydrides, complex hydride/carbon nanocomposites, boron nitride nanotubes, TiS 2 / MoS 2 nanotubes, alanates, polymer nanocomposites, and metal organic frameworks are considered to be potential candidates for storing large quantities of hydrogen. Recent investigations have shown that nanoscale materials may offer advantages if certain physical and chemical effects related to the nanoscale can be used efficiently. The present review focuses the application of nanostructured materials for storing atomic or molecular hydrogen. The synergistic effects of nanocrystalinity and nanocatalyst doping on the metal or complex hydrides for improving the thermodynamics and hydrogen reaction kinetics are discussed. In addition, various carbonaceous nanomaterials and novel sorbent systems (e.g. carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, nanofibers, polyaniline nanospheres and metal organic frameworks etc.) and their hydrogen storage characteristics are outlined.« less

  15. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon lm003_warren_2011_o .pdf More Documents & Publications Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

  16. Hydrogen delivery technology roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2005-11-15

    Document describing plan for research into and development of hydrogen delivery technology for transportation applications.

  17. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  18. Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation slides from the Energy Department webinar, Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials, held August 13, 2013.

  19. Oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, Ken (Naperville, IL); Baxter, David J. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1-8 wt. % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500.degree.-1000.degree. C.

  20. Improved oxidation sulfidation resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Natesan, K.; Baxter, D.J.

    1983-07-26

    High temperature resistance of Fe-Cr-Ni alloy compositions to oxidative and/or sulfidative conditions is provided by the incorporation of about 1 to 8 wt % of Zr or Nb and results in a two-phase composition having an alloy matrix as the first phase and a fine grained intermetallic composition as the second phase. The presence and location of the intermetallic composition between grains of the matrix provides mechanical strength, enhanced surface scale adhesion, and resistance to corrosive attack between grains of the alloy matrix at temperatures of 500 to 1000/sup 0/C.

  1. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Enz, Glenn L. (N. Augusta, SC)

    1995-01-01

    A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  2. Composition for absorbing hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

    1995-05-02

    A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

  3. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully gettered by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in air) for the duration of the tests. However, catalytic reaction of hydrogen with carbon triple or double bonds in the getter materials did not take place. Instead, catalytic recombination was the predominant gettering mechanism in both getter materials as evidenced by (1) consumption of oxygen in the belljars, (2) production of free water in the belljars, and (3) absence of chemical changes in both getter materials as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

  4. Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Development and Commercialization of a Novel Low-Cost Carbon Fiber 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual ...

  5. The Hydriding Kinetics of Organic Hydrogen Getters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G. L.

    2002-02-11

    The aging of hermetically sealed systems is often accompanied by the gradual production of hydrogen gas that is a result of the decay of environmental gases and the degradation of organic materials. In particular, the oxygen, water, hydrogen ''equilibrium'' is affected by the removal of oxygen due the oxidation of metals and organic materials. This shift of the above ''equilibrium'' towards the formation of hydrogen gas, particularly in crevices, may eventually reach an explosive level of hydrogen gas or degrade metals by hydriding them. The latter process is generally delayed until the oxidizing species are significantly reduced. Organic hydrogen getters introduced by Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division have proven to be a very effective means of preventing hydrogen gas accumulation in sealed containers. These getters are relatively unaffected by air and environmental gases. They can be packaged in a variety of ways to fit particular needs such as porous pellets, fine or coarse [gravel] powder, or loaded into silicone rubber. The hydrogen gettering reactions are extremely irreversible since the hydrogen gas is converted into an organic hydrocarbon. These getters are based on the palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to double and then single bonds in aromatic aryl compounds. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) typically mixed with 25% by weight carbon with palladium (1% by weight of carbon) is one of the newest and best of these organic hydrogen getters. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reaction with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates, including mixed alkyl and aryl hydrocarbons with the possibilities of many isomers. The reaction kinetics mechanisms are also strongly influenced by the form in which they are packaged. For example, the hydriding rates for pellets and gravel have a strong dependence on reaction extent (i.e., DEB reduction) and a kinetic order in pressure of 0.76. Silicone rubber based DEB getters hydride at a much lower rate, have little dependence on reaction extent, have a higher kinetic order in pressure (0.87), and have a lower activation energy. The kinetics of the reaction as a function of hydrogen pressure, stoichiometry, and temperature for hydrogen and deuterium near ambient temperature (0 to 75 C) for pressures near or below 100 Pa over a wide range (in some cases, the complete) hydrogenation range are presented along with multi-dimensional rate models.

  6. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borup, Rodney L. (East Rochester, NY); Skala, Glenn W. (Churchville, NY); Brundage, Mark A. (Pittsford, NY); LaBarge, William J. (Bay City, MI)

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  7. Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide from liquid hydrocarbons with activated alumina and other adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T. (Alcoa Separations Technology Div., Aluminum Co. of America, Warrendale, PA (US))

    1988-01-01

    Contamination of Liquid hydrocarbon streams with carbonyl sulfide (COS) is not desirable; particularly in propylene. COS may poison the down stream polymerization catalyst. Thus, it is usually required to reduce the COS concentration to an extremely low level, e.g. 1 ppm or less, for polymer grade propylene. Many technologies generally available for sulfur removal, such as scrubbing and distillation are not applicable to the removal of COS from propylene. The former is not suitable for a low level removal. With the boiling point of COS (-50{sup 0}C) very close to that of propylene (-48{sup 0}C) it is difficult to achieve a very efficient separation with distillation. Adsorption technology provides a very energy efficient process in addition to its ability of the low level removal. Adsorbents selected in this study include activated carbon, molecular sieves, zinc oxide and activated alumina. The results show that activated alumina is far superior in both adsorption capacity and rate. An adsorption mechanism with activated alumina is proposed. It is believed that adsorption of COS takes place simultaneously with the hydrolysis of COS on the alumina surface. Adsorption isotherms of COS up to 100 ppm and the effect of moisture content are also addressed in this study.

  8. Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

    2011-07-26

    Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One LiH molecule contains one hydrogen atom because the valence of a Li ion is +1. One MgH2 molecule contains two hydrogen atoms because the valence of a Mg ion is +2. In metal perhydrides, a molecule could contain more hydrogen atoms than expected based on the metal valance, i.e. LiH1+n and MgH2+n (n is equal to or greater than 1). When n is sufficiently high, there will be plenty of hydrogen storage capacity to meet future requirements. The existence of hydrogen clusters, Hn+ (n = 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15) and transition metal ion-hydrogen clusters, M+(H2)n (n = 1-6), such as Sc(H2)n+, Co(H2)n+, etc., have assisted the development of this concept. Clusters are not stable species. However, their existence stimulates our approach on using electric charges to enhance the hydrogen adsorption in a hydrogen storage system in this study. The experimental and modeling work to verify it are reported here. Experimental work included the generation of cold hydrogen plasma through a microwave approach, synthesis of sorbent materials, design and construction of lab devices, and the determination of hydrogen adsorption capacities on various sorbent materials under various electric field potentials and various temperatures. The results consistently show that electric potential enhances the adsorption of hydrogen on sorbents. NiO, MgO, activated carbon, MOF, and MOF and platinum coated activated carbon are some of the materials studied. Enhancements up to a few hundred percents have been found. In general, the enhancement increases with the electrical potential, the pressure applied, and the temperature lowered. Theoretical modeling of the hydrogen adsorption on the sorbents under the electric potential has been investigated with the density functional theory (DFT) approach. It was found that the interaction energy between hydrogen and sorbent is increased remarkably when an electric field is applied. This increase of binding energy offers a potential solution for DOE when looking for a compromise between chemisorption and physisorption for hydrogen storage. Bonding of chemisorption is too

  9. Metal Nitride Catalysts to Enhance Hydrogen Evolution Reactions - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Metal Nitride Catalysts to Enhance Hydrogen Evolution Reactions Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology TEM image of catalyst ink comprised of Co<sub>0.6</sub>Mo<sub>1.4</sub>N<sub>2</sub> dispersed on carbon black TEM image of catalyst ink comprised of Co0.6Mo1.4N2 dispersed on carbon black

  10. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to maximize plant output is needed in order to address the DOE turbine goal for 20-30% reduction o

  11. Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems- Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen. Design and operations standards and materials for hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

  12. Hydrogen Power Inc formerly Hydrogen Power International and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Inc formerly Hydrogen Power International and Equitex Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Power, Inc. (formerly Hydrogen Power International and Equitex Inc.)...

  13. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and ... Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held ...

  14. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen Program Review Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen Program Review This paper, presented at the 2001 DOE...

  15. Advanced Palladium Membrane Scale-up for Hydrogen Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean Emerson; Neal Magdefrau; Ying She; Catherine Thibaud-Erkey

    2012-10-31

    The main objective of this project was to construct, test, and demonstrate a Pd-Cu metallic tubular membrane micro-channel separator capable of producing 2 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2} at ?95% recovery when operating downstream of an actual coal gasifier. A key milestone for the project was to complete a pilot-scale gasifier test by 1 September 2011 and demonstrate the separation of 2 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2} to verify progress toward the DOE??s goals prior to down-selection for larger-scale (??100 lb day{sup -1}) hydrogen separator development. Three different pilot-scale (??1.5 ft{sup 2}) separators were evaluated downstream of coal gasifiers during four different tests and the key project milestone was achieved in August 2011, ahead of schedule. During three of those tests, all of the separators demonstrated or exceeded the targeted separation rate of 2 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2}. The separator design was proved to be leak tight and durable in the presence of gasifier exhaust contaminants at temperatures and pressures up to 500 °C and 500 psia. The contaminants in the coal gasifier syngas for the most part had negligible impact on separator performance, with H{sub 2} partial pressure being the greatest determinant of membrane performance. Carbon monoxide and low levels of H{sub 2}S (<39 ppmv) had no effect on H{sub 2} permeability, in agreement with laboratory experiments. However, higher levels of H{sub 2}S (>100 ppmv) were shown to significantly reduce H{sub 2} separation performance. The presence of trace metals, including mercury and arsenic, appeared to have no effect based on the experimental data. Subscale Pd-Cu coupon tests further quantified the impact of H{sub 2}S on irreversible sulfide formation in the UTRC separators. Conditions that have a thermodynamic driving force to form coke were found to reduce the performance of the separators, presumably by blockage of effective separation area with carbon deposits. However, it was demonstrated that both in situ and ex situ (laboratory) air regeneration at 450 °C could restore separator performance by burning out such deposits. Gasifier testing revealed that high molecular weight hydrocarbons have the potential to retard H2 separation. Unconverted coal tars with carbon numbers greater than 14 have a boiling point such that they can act as a reversible poison to the Pd-Cu membranes even at temperatures above 500 °C. The use of real-time, physics-based, performance models revealed the effect of these coal tars. It is believed that this project provided the first evidence for the impact of coal tars on H{sub 2} separator performance. Final down-selection of candidate alloys for non-membrane materials of construction proceeded by evaluating the alloys in both UTRC laboratory tests and testing downstream of an actual gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The overall alloy ratings were calculated by multiplying the projected cost of a 100 lb day{sup -1} H{sub 2} separator outer shell by the projected oxide scale thickness for 5 years of operation. The alloy with the lowest resulting rating parameter was stainless steel 309 (SS-309) followed by stainless steel 310 (SS-310). However, it was noted that approximately half of the alloys showed susceptibility to pitting and localized corrosion. SS-309 was one of the alloys that exhibited heavy localized attack after 2000 hours of laboratory testing. As this localized corrosion can potentially lead to accelerated end of life, it was determined that SS-310 would be the best alloy selection for this application as it does not show signs of localized pitting corrosion.

  16. Hydrogen & Our Energy Future

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  | HydrOgEn & Our EnErgy FuturE U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov u.S. department of Energy |  www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future Contents Introduction ................................................... p.1 Hydrogen - An Overview ................................... p.3 Production ..................................................... p.5 Delivery

  17. Hydrogen Pipelines | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gaseous Hydrogen » Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipelines Photo of a hydrogen pipeline. Gaseous hydrogen can be transported through pipelines much the way natural gas is today. Approximately 1,500 miles of hydrogen pipelines are currently operating in the United States. Owned by merchant hydrogen producers, these pipelines are located where large hydrogen users, such as petroleum refineries and chemical plants, are concentrated such as the Gulf Coast region. Transporting gaseous hydrogen via

  18. Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Nguyen, Trung V.; Guante, Jr., Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

  19. Carbon Fiber Pilot Plant and Research Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pilot Plant and Research Facilities Carbon Fiber Pilot Plant and Research Facilities 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon lm003_warren_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

  20. Spherical Carbon Anodes Fabricated by Autogenic Reactions | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Spherical Carbon Anodes Fabricated by Autogenic Reactions Spherical Carbon Anodes Fabricated by Autogenic Reactions 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es114_thackeray_2011_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High Capacity Composite Carbon Anodes High Capacity Composite Carbon Anodes Fabricated by Autogenic Reactions Intermetallic Anodes

  1. DOE Signs Cooperative Agreement for New Hydrogen Power Plant | Department

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Energy New Hydrogen Power Plant DOE Signs Cooperative Agreement for New Hydrogen Power Plant November 6, 2009 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C. -- The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has signed a cooperative agreement with Hydrogen Energy California LLC (HECA) to build and demonstrate a hydrogen-powered electric generating facility, complete with carbon capture and storage, in Kern County, Calif. The new plant is a step toward commercialization of a clean technology that enables use of

  2. Tennessee: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Optimizes Carbon Fiber Production,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduces Carbon Fiber Costs by 30% | Department of Energy Tennessee: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Optimizes Carbon Fiber Production, Reduces Carbon Fiber Costs by 30% Tennessee: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Optimizes Carbon Fiber Production, Reduces Carbon Fiber Costs by 30% January 24, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis The high cost of aerospace-grade carbon fiber (CF) is currently a barrier to widespread commercialization of light-weight, high-pressure hydrogen and natural gas storage tanks. To

  3. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  4. Hydrogen Storage- Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Storing enough hydrogen on-board a vehicle to achieve a driving range of greater than 300 miles is a significant challenge. On a weight basis, hydrogen has nearly three times the energy content of...

  5. Hydrogen Program Overview

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: “Why Hydrogen?”

  6. Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Tools

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Data Partners Best Practices - LANL, SNL, NREL, NASA, Hydrogen Safety Panel, and IEA HIA Tasks 19 and 22 Incident Reporting - NASA and Hydrogen Safety Panel 3 Objectives H2...

  7. Solvothermal synthesis of copper sulfide semiconductor micro/nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Covellite copper sulfide (CuS) micro/nanometer crystals in the shape of hierarchical doughnut-shaped, superstructured spheric-shaped and flowerlike architectures congregated from those nanoplates with the thickness of 20-100 nm have been prepared by a solvothermal method. The as-obtained CuS products were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). A systematic investigation has been carried out to understand the factors influencing the evolution of CuS particle morphology which found to be predominant by solvent, surfactant, sulfur resource and copper salt. The possible formation mechanism for the nanostructure formation was also discussed. These CuS products show potential applications in solar cell, photothermal conversion and chemical sensor.

  8. Changes in Dimethyl Sulfide Oceanic Distribution due to Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron-Smith, P; Elliott, S; Maltrud, M; Erickson, D; Wingenter, O

    2011-02-16

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major precursors for aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei in the marine boundary layer over much of the remote ocean. Here they report on coupled climate simulations with a state-of-the-art global ocean biogeochemical model for DMS distribution and fluxes using present-day and future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. They find changes in zonal averaged DMS flux to the atmosphere of over 150% in the Southern Ocean. This is due to concurrent sea ice changes and ocean ecosystem composition shifts caused by changes in temperature, mixing, nutrient, and light regimes. The largest changes occur in a region already sensitive to climate change, so any resultant local CLAW/Gaia feedback of DMS on clouds, and thus radiative forcing, will be particularly important. A comparison of these results to prior studies shows that increasing model complexity is associted with reduced DMS emissions at the equator and increased emissions at high latitudes.

  9. Electrodeposited cobalt sulfide hole collecting layer for polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zampetti, Andrea; De Rossi, Francesca; Brunetti, Francesca; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo; Brown, Thomas M., E-mail: thomas.brown@uniroma2.it [CHOSE (Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy), Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2014-08-11

    In polymer solar cells based on the blend of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, the hole collecting layer has to be endowed with its ionization potential close to or greater than that of P3HT (?5?eV). Conductive polymer blends such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and metal oxides such as vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) satisfy this requirement and have been the most common materials used so far in bulk heterojunction structures. We report here cobalt sulfide (CoS) to be a promising hole collecting material deposited by convenient and room temperature electrodeposition. By simply tuning the CoS electrodeposition parameters, power conversion efficiencies similar (within 15%) to a reference structure with PEDOT:PSS were obtained.

  10. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  11. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This roadmap provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development.

  12. Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Hydrogen December 22, 2015 The three reports released by the Energy Department highlight continued strength, progress and innovation in the U.S. fuel cell hydrogen technologies market. Energy Department Reports: U.S. Fuel Cell Market Production and Deployment Continues Strong Growth The Energy Department released three new reports today showcasing strong growth across the U.S. fuel cell and hydrogen technologies market - continuing America's leadership in clean energy innovation and

  13. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  14. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, G.R.

    1999-08-03

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system is described which uses passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor. 1 fig.

  15. A RhxSy/C Catalyst for the Hydrogen Oxidation and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions in HBr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masud, Jahangir; Nguyena, Trung V.; Singh, Nirala; McFarland, Eric; Ikenberry, Myles; Hohn, Keith; Pan, Chun-Jern; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2015-01-01

    Rhodium sulfide (Rh2S3) on carbon support was synthesized by refluxing rhodium chloride with ammonium thiosulfate. Thermal treatment of Rh2S3 at high temperatures (600C to 850C) in presence of argon resulted in the transformation of Rh2S3 into Rh3S4, Rh17S15 and Rh which were characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD, EDX, and deconvolved XPS analyses. The catalyst particle size distribution ranged from 3 to 12 nm. Cyclic voltammetry and rotating disk electrode measurements were used to evaluate the catalytic activity for hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions in H2SO4 and HBr solutions. The thermally treated catalysts show high activity for the hydrogen reactions. The exchange current densities (io) of the synthesized RhxSy catalysts in H2-saturated 1M H2SO4 and 1M HBr for HER and HOR were 0.9 mA/cm2 to 1.0 mA/cm2 and 0.8 to 0.9 mA/cm2, respectively. The lower io values obtained in 1M HBr solution compared to in H2SO4 might be due to the adsorption of Br- on the active surface. Stable electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) of RhxSy catalyst was obtained for CV scan limits between 0 V and 0.65 V vs. RHE. Scans with upper voltage limit beyond 0.65 V led to decreased and unreproducible ECSA measurements.

  16. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of Uranium by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria This overarching aim of this project was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term sequestration of

  17. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of U by

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of U by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration of U by Sulfate Reducing Bacteria This four-year project's overarching aim was to identify the role of biogenic and synthetic iron-sulfide minerals in the long-term

  18. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon arravt082_ti_bowen_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications The Future of Home Heating StateActivity.pdf Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Program Overview

  19. Help Design the Hydrogen Fueling Station of Tomorrow | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Help Design the Hydrogen Fueling Station of Tomorrow Help Design the Hydrogen Fueling Station of Tomorrow January 10, 2014 - 4:26pm Addthis test test Paul Lester Paul Lester Digital Content Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Hydrogen is increasingly becoming a fuel for clean, reliable power and is helping reduce the nation's overall carbon footprint. In fact, U.S. shipments of fuel cells (electrochemical devices that use hydrogen and other fuels to produce electricity for fuel cell electric

  20. Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced ...

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on

  2. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  3. Methods and systems for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Chang H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kim, Eung S. (Ammon, ID); Sherman, Steven R. (Augusta, GA)

    2012-03-13

    Methods and systems are disclosed for the production of hydrogen and the use of high-temperature heat sources in energy conversion. In one embodiment, a primary loop may include a nuclear reactor utilizing a molten salt or helium as a coolant. The nuclear reactor may provide heat energy to a power generation loop for production of electrical energy. For example, a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid may be heated by the nuclear reactor via the molten salt and then expanded in a turbine to drive a generator. An intermediate heat exchange loop may also be thermally coupled with the primary loop and provide heat energy to one or more hydrogen production facilities. A portion of the hydrogen produced by the hydrogen production facility may be diverted to a combustor to elevate the temperature of water being split into hydrogen and oxygen by the hydrogen production facility.

  4. Renewable Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Renewable Hydrogen Welcoming presentations at the Delivering Renewable Hydrogen Workshop: A Focus on Near-Term Applications, Nov. 16, 2009, Palm Springs, CA PDF icon renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_remick.pdf More Documents & Publications National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration Status CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction Hydrogen Transmission and Distribution Workshop

  5. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Greater accumulation of free sulfide, from more sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris, also led ... (hydr)oxides more as the iron source led to less productivity of FeS due to their ...

  6. Assessing the Role of Iron Sulfides in the Long Term Sequestration...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Greater accumulation of free sulfide, from more sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris, also led ... (hydr)oxides as the iron source led to less productivity of FeS due to their ...

  7. Process for sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment of hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suciu, Dan F. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wikoff, Penny M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Beller, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Carpenter, Charles J. (Lynn Haven, FL)

    1991-01-01

    433 of 9384 ) United States Patent 5,000,859 Suciu , et al. March 19, 1991 Process for sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate treatment of hexavalent chromium and other heavy metals

  8. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2014-05-13

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure. The metal is a transitional metal or a Group IV metal. In the method, a porous membrane is placed between a metal precursor solution and a sulfur precursor solution. The metal cations of the metal precursor solution and sulfur ions of the sulfur precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal sulfide nanostructure.

  9. Use of iron salts to control dissolved sulfide in trunk sewers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padival, N.A.; Kimbell, W.A. [County Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States); Redner, J.A. [County Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, Compton, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sewer headspace H{sub 2}S reduction by precipitating dissolved sulfide in wastewater was investigated using iron salt (FeCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 2}). Full-scale experiments were conducted in a 40-km (25 mi) sewer with an average flow of 8.7 m{sup 3}/s (200 mgd). Results were sensitive to total Fe dosages and Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratios injected. A concentration of 16 mg/L total Fe and a blend ratio of 1.9:1 [Fe(III):Fe(II)] reduced dissolved sulfide levels by 97%. Total sulfide and headspace H{sub 2}S were reduced by 63% and 79%, respectively. Liquid and gas-phase sulfide reductions were largely due to the effective precipitation of sulfide with Fe(III) and Fe(II) and the limited volatilization of H{sub 2}S, respectively. Oxidation of sulfide in the presence of Fe(II) and minute amounts of O{sub 2} may have occurred. A combination of Fe(III) and Fe(II) proved more effective than either salt alone. By using excess Fe(III), dissolved sulfide can be reduced to undetectable levels. No specific relation between the concentration of Fe or Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratio and sewer crown pH was inferred. Iron salts may retard crown corrosion rates by precipitating free sulfide and reducing its release to the sewer headspace as H{sub 2}S. A mechanism to inhibit certain responsible bacteria was not established in the 40-km (25 mi) sewer.

  10. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water Districts land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

  11. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held January 5th and 6th, 2005 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. PDF icon 03_babu_transfer.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Proceedings of the 2005 Hydrogen Pipeline

  12. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  13. Assessing Steel Pipeline and Weld Susceptibility to Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Documents & Publications Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen...

  14. Hydrogen delivery technology rRoadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2005-11-01

    Hydrogen holds the long-term potential to solve two critical problems related to the energy infrastructure: U.S. dependence on foreign oil and U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The U.S. transportation sector is almost completely reliant on petroleum, over half of which is currently imported, and tailpipe emissions remain one of the countrys key air quality concerns. Fuel cell vehicles operating on hydrogen produced from domestically available resources including renewable resources, coal with carbon sequestration, or nuclear energy would dramatically decrease greenhouse gases and other emissions, and would reduce dependence on oil from politically volatile regions of the world. Clean, domestically-produced hydrogen could also be used to generate electricity in stationary fuel cells at power plants, further extending national energy and environmental benefits.

  15. Systematic Discrimination of Advanced Hydrogen Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, in concert with industry, is developing a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate high temperature heat applications to produce hydrogen and electricity or to support other industrial applications. A key part of this program is the production of hydrogen from water that would significantly reduce carbon emissions compared to current production using natural gas. In 2009 the INL led the methodical evaluation of promising advanced hydrogen production technologies in order to focus future resources on the most viable processes. This paper describes how the evaluation process was systematically planned and executed. As a result, High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis was selected as the most viable near-term technology to deploy as a part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project.

  16. Scaled Testing of Hydrogen Gas Getters for Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaszuba, J.; Mroz, E.; Haga, M.; Hollis, W. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Peterson, E.; Stone, M.; Orme, C.; Luther, T.; Benson, M. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage and shipment containers. Hydrogen forms a flammable mixture with air over a wide range of concentrations (5% to 75%), and very low energy is needed to ignite hydrogen-air mixtures. For these reasons, the concentration of hydrogen in waste shipment containers (Transuranic Package Transporter-II or TRUPACT-II containers) needs to remain below the lower explosion limit of hydrogen in air (5 vol%). Accident scenarios and the resulting safety analysis require that this limit not be exceeded. The use of 'hydrogen getters' is being investigated as a way to prevent the build up of hydrogen in TRUPACT-II containers. Preferred getters are solid materials that scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and chemically and irreversibly bind it into the solid state. In this study, two getter systems are evaluated: a) 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl)benzene or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds; and b) a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter, VEI or TruGetter, characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds. Carbon in both getter types may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. With oxygen present, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB and VEI performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests using small test volumes (ml-scale), high hydrogen generation rates, and short time spans of hours to days. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether DEB and VEI perform satisfactorily in actual drum-scale tests with realistic hydrogen generation rates and time frames. The two getter systems were evaluated in test vessels comprised of a Gas Generation Test Program-style bell-jar and a drum equipped with a composite drum filter. The vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and volume of a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were conducted in an atmosphere of air for 60 days at ambient temperature (15 to 27 deg. C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60 E-07 moles hydrogen per second (0.35 cc/min). Hydrogen was successfully 'gettered' by both systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in air) for the duration of the tests. However, catalytic reaction of hydrogen with carbon triple or double bonds in the getter materials did not take place. Instead, catalytic recombination was the predominant mechanism in both getters as evidenced by 1) consumption of oxygen in the bell-jars; 2) production of free water in the bell-jars; and 3) absence of chemical changes in both getters as shown by NMR spectra. (authors)

  17. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  18. Dispersion of Hydrogen Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Swain; Eric S. Grilliot; Matthew N. Swain

    2000-06-30

    The following is the presentation of a simplification of the Hydrogen Risk Assessment Method previously developed at the University of Miami. It has been found that for simple enclosures, hydrogen leaks can be simulated with helium leaks to predict the concentrations of hydrogen gas produced. The highest concentrations of hydrogen occur near the ceiling after the initial transients disappear. For the geometries tested, hydrogen concentrations equal helium concentrations for the conditions of greatest concern (near the ceiling after transients disappear). The data supporting this conclusion is presented along with a comparison of hydrogen, LPG, and gasoline leakage from a vehicle parked in a single car garage. A short video was made from the vehicle fuel leakage data.

  19. Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

  20. Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Hydrogen Program State & Regional Initiatives Webinar 14 October 2009 Mitch Ewan Hydrogen Systems Program Manager Hawaii Natural Energy Institute Chenoa Farnsworth Partner Kolohala Holdings, LLP Overview * Hawaii's Energy Situation * Mitch Ewan * Hawaii Power Park Project * Mitch Ewan * The Renewables-to-Hydrogen Fund * Chenoa Farnsworth Hawaii - Most Petroleum Dependent State Petroleum dependence for electricity - top six states Highest Electricity Prices in U.S. Hawaii and US

  1. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  2. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-11-22

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  3. Hydrogen Contamination Detector Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Workshop report, agenda, and presentations from the Hydrogen Contamination Detector Workshop hosted by SAE International on June 12, 2014, in Troy, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office, the workshop was held to gather individual input from key stakeholders about suitable technologies and research and development (R&D) gaps and needs for hydrogen contamination detectors at hydrogen refueling stations.

  4. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design | Department of Energy Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Presentation by Derek Lovley, UMass Amherst, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons,

  5. Cell design for lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extruded into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.

  6. Improved cell design for lithium alloy/metal sulfide battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, T.D.

    1984-03-30

    The disclosed lithium alloy/iron sulfide cell design provides loop-like positive and negative sheet metal current collectors electrically insulated from one another by separator means, the positive collector being located outwardly of the negative collector. The collectors are initially secured within an open-ended cell housing, which allows for collector pretesting for electrical shorts prior to adding any electrode materials and/or electrolyte to the cell. Separate chambers are defined outwardly of the positive collector and inwardly of the negative collector open respectively in opposite directions toward the open ends of the cell housing; and positive and negative electrode materials can be extruded into these respective chambers via the opposite open housing ends. The chambers and cell housing ends can then be sealed closed. A cross wall structurally reinforces the cell housing and also thereby defines two cavities, and paired positive and negative collectors are disposed in each cavity and electrically connected in parallel. The cell design provides for a high specific energy output and improved operating life in that any charge-discharge cycle swelling of the positive electrode material will be inwardly against only the positive collector to minimize shorts caused by the collectors shifting relative to one another.

  7. Carbonyl sulfide inhibition of CO dehydrogenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, M.R.; Ensign, S.A.; Arp, D.J.; Ludden, P.W. (Univ. of California, Riverside (USA))

    1989-08-22

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been investigated as a rapid-equilibrium inhibitor of CO oxidation by the CO dehydrogenase purified from Rhodospirillum rubrum. The kinetic evidence suggests that the inhibition by COS is largely competitive versus CO (K{sub i} = 2.3 {mu}M) and uncompetitive versus methylviologen as electron acceptor. The data are compatible with a ping-pong mechanism for CO oxidation and COS inhibition. Unlike the substrate CO, COS does not reduce the iron-sulfur centers of dye-oxidized CO dehydrogenase and thus is not an alternative substrate for the enzyme. However, like CO, COS is capable of protecting CO dehydrogenase from slow-binding inhibition by cyanide. A true binding constant (K{sub D}) of 2.2 {mu}M for COS has been derived on the basis of the saturable nature of COS protection against cyanide inhibition. The ability of CO, CO{sub 2}, COS, and related CO/CO{sub 2} analogues to reverse cyanide inhibition of CO dehydrogenase is also demonstrated. The kinetic results are interpreted in terms of two binding sites for CO on CO dehydrogenase from R. rubrum.

  8. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  9. Mechanistic study of the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outka, D.A.; Foltz, G.W. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A detailed mechanism for the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and solid palladium hydride is developed which extends previous model for this reaction by specifically including surface reactions. The modeling indicates that there are two surface-related processes that contribute to the overall rate of exchange: the desorption of hydrogen from the surface and the exchange between surface hydrogen and bulk hydrogen. This conclusion is based upon measurements examining the effect of small concentrations of carbon monoxide were helpful in elucidating the mechanism. Carbon monoxide reversibly inhibits certain steps in the exchange; this slows the overall rate of exchange and changes the distribution of products from the reactor.

  10. NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen does not exist freely in nature: it is only produced from other sources of energy, so it is often referred to as an energy carrier, that is, an efficient way to store and transport energy. Hydrogen can be made directly from fossil fuels or biomass, or it can be produced by passing electricity through water, breaking

  11. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Deb, S.K.

    1990-10-02

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. 6 figs.

  12. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

  14. Hydrogen ion microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO); Deb, Satyen K. (Boulder, CO)

    1990-01-01

    Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing.

  15. Hydrogen Industrial Trucks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Slides from the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Component and System Qualification Workshop held November 4, 2010 in Livermore, CA.

  16. HYDROGEN TO THE HIGHWAYS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  17. Hydrogen Generator Appliance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Gus Block, Nuvera Fuel Cells, at the Natural Gas and Hydrogen Infrastructure Opportunities Workshop held October 18-19, 2011, in Lemont, Illinois.

  18. Hydrogen Delivery and Fueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-09

    This MP3 provides an overview of how hydrogen is delivered from the point of production to where it is used.

  19. Hydrogen purification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golben, Peter Mark

    2010-06-15

    The present invention provides a system to purify hydrogen involving the use of a hydride compressor and catalytic converters combined with a process controller.

  20. Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Tools

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  1. Renewable Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R. J.

    2009-11-16

    Presentation about the United State's dependence on oil, how energy solutions are challenging, and why hydrogen should be considered as a long-term alternative for transportation fuel.

  2. President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell Technologies put on an Accelerated Schedule. President Bush commits a total $1.7 billion over first 5 years

  3. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  4. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facility | Department of Energy Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the carbon fiber technology facility. PDF icon lm003_mcgetrick_2014_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Carbon Fiber Technology

  6. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Presentation by 09-Sofronis to DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held January 5-6, 2005 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. PDF icon 09_sofronis_pipe_steels.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Embrittlement of Pipeline Steels: Causes and Remediation Webinar: I2CNER: An International Collaboration to Enable a Carbon-Neutral Energy Economy DOE-HDBK-1017/1-93

  7. One Step Hydrogen Generation Through Sorption Enhanced Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mays, Aerojet Rocketdyne U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Program Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 28-29, 2015 Does not contain any ITAR or EAR technical information This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective  Develop compact, hydrogen production technology for large-scale applications  Reduces cost of hydrogen by 15-20% vs. current technology  Reduces cost of carbon dioxide capture  Mature

  8. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Infrastructure Project Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project Place: California Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: String...

  9. Massachusetts Hydrogen Coalition | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Coalition Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Massachusetts Hydrogen Coalition Name: Massachusetts Hydrogen Coalition Address: 100 Cummings Center Place: Beverly,...

  10. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to th

  11. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-29

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  12. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, Larry A. (Albuquerque, NM); Mead, Keith E. (Peralta, NM); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

    1983-01-01

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  13. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

    1983-09-20

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

  14. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  15. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Li, Yingwel (Ann Arbor, MI); Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  16. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline

  17. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindin, Saul G.; Roberts, George W.

    1980-08-12

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  18. Green Hydrogen Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Company Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Green Hydrogen Company Name: Green Hydrogen Company Abbreviation: GH2 Address: Green Hydrogen Company, Head Office, 9...

  19. Safe Hydrogen LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Safe Hydrogen LLC Place: Lexington, Massachusetts Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Focused on hydrogen storage, through a 'slurry' of...

  20. Hydrogen Car Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Car Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Car Co Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90036 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: The Hydrogen Car Company produces hydrogen...

  1. The Hydrogen Company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Hydrogen Company Abbreviation: HydroGen Address: The Hydrogen Company, HydroGen Engineering and Consulting, Head Office, 9...

  2. Sandia Energy - Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cell Project Home Transportation Energy Hydrogen Market Transformation Maritime Hydrogen & SF-BREEZE Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell Project Maritime Hydrogen Fuel Cell...

  3. NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Storage & Transportation | Department of Energy Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon renewable_hydrogen_workshop_nov16_ramsden.pdf More Documents & Publications Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis

  4. Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Berkeley Lab Study Holds Implications for Geological and Biological Processes October 23, 2014 Contact: Lynn Yarris, lcyarris@lbl.gov, 510.486.5375 CarbonicAcid Though carbonic acid exists for only a fraction of a second before changing into a mix of hydrogen and bicarbonate ions, it is critical to both the health of the atmosphere and the human body. Though it garners few public headlines, carbonic acid, the

  5. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  6. Hydrogen desorption from hydrogen fluoride and remote hydrogen plasma cleaned silicon carbide (0001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Sean W. Tanaka, Satoru; Davis, Robert F.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    2015-09-15

    Due to the extreme chemical inertness of silicon carbide (SiC), in-situ thermal desorption is commonly utilized as a means to remove surface contamination prior to initiating critical semiconductor processing steps such as epitaxy, gate dielectric formation, and contact metallization. In-situ thermal desorption and silicon sublimation has also recently become a popular method for epitaxial growth of mono and few layer graphene. Accordingly, numerous thermal desorption experiments of various processed silicon carbide surfaces have been performed, but have ignored the presence of hydrogen, which is ubiquitous throughout semiconductor processing. In this regard, the authors have performed a combined temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation of the desorption of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and various other oxygen, carbon, and fluorine related species from ex-situ aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and in-situ remote hydrogen plasma cleaned 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces. Using XPS, the authors observed that temperatures on the order of 7001000?C are needed to fully desorb C-H, C-O and Si-O species from these surfaces. However, using TPD, the authors observed H{sub 2} desorption at both lower temperatures (200550?C) as well as higher temperatures (>700?C). The low temperature H{sub 2} desorption was deconvoluted into multiple desorption states that, based on similarities to H{sub 2} desorption from Si (111), were attributed to silicon mono, di, and trihydride surface species as well as hydrogen trapped by subsurface defects, steps, or dopants. The higher temperature H{sub 2} desorption was similarly attributed to H{sub 2} evolved from surface O-H groups at ?750?C as well as the liberation of H{sub 2} during Si-O desorption at temperatures >800?C. These results indicate that while ex-situ aqueous HF processed 6H-SiC (0001) surfaces annealed at <700?C remain terminated by some surface CO and SiO bonding, they may still exhibit significant chemical reactivity due to the creation of surface dangling bonds resulting from H{sub 2} desorption from previously undetected silicon hydride and surface hydroxide species.

  7. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  8. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  9. WEB-BASED RESOURCES ENHANCE HYDROGEN SAFETY KNOWLEDGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, Steven C.; Fassbender, Linda L.; Blake, Chad; Aceves, Salvador; Somerday, Brian P.; Ruiz, Antonio

    2013-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energys Fuel Cell Technologies Program addresses key technical challenges and institutional barriers facing the development and deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies with the goal of decreasing dependence on oil, reducing carbon emissions and enabling reliable power generation. The Safety, Codes & Standards program area seeks to develop and implement the practices and procedures that will ensure safety in the operation, handling and use of hydrogen and hydrogen systems for all projects and utilize these practices and lessons learned to promote the safe use of hydrogen. Enabling the development of codes and standards for the safe use of hydrogen in energy applications and facilitating the development and harmonization of international codes and standards are integral to this work.

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockward, Tommy

    2012-07-16

    For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

  11. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22, 2002-July 22, 2002 A report showing a comparative scooping economic analysis of 19 pathways for ...

  12. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Code for Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines. B31 Hydrogen Section Committee to develop a new code for H2 piping and pipelines.

  13. Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of FreedomCAR & Fuels PartnershipDOE Delivery Program President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Posture Plan: An Integrated Research, Development and...

  14. Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    60-42773 February 2009 Hydrogen Resource Assessment Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power Anelia Milbrandt and Margaret Mann National Renewable Energy...

  15. Closeout of Advanced Boron and Metal Loaded High Porosity Carbons.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Eklund (deceased); T. C. Mike Chung; Henry C. Foley; Vincent H. Crespi

    2011-05-01

    The Penn State effort explored the development of new high-surface-area materials for hydrogen storage, materials that could offer enhancement in the hydrogen binding energy through a direct chemical modification of the framework in high specific-surface-area platforms. The team chemically substituted boron into the hexagonal sp2 carbon framework, dispersed metal atoms bound to the boro-carbon structure, and generated the theory of novel nanoscale geometries that can enhance storage through chemical frustration, sheet curvature, electron deficiency, large local fields and mixed hybridization states. New boro-carbon materials were synthesized by high temperature plasma, pyrolysis of boron-carbon precursor molecules, and post-synthesis modification of carbons. Hydrogen uptake has been assessed, and several promising leads have been identified, with the requirement to simultaneously optimize total surface area while maintaining the enhanced hydrogen binding energies already demonstrated.

  16. Renewable Resources for Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

    2010-05-03

    This presentation provides an overview of renewable resources for hydrogen. It was presented at the National Hydrogen Association Hydrogen Conference & Expo in Long Beach, CA, May 3-6, 2010.

  17. IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1999 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    2000-01-31

    The annual report begins with an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including guiding principles and their strategic plan followed by the Chairman's report providing the year's highlights. Annex reports included are: the final report for Task 11, Integrated Systems; task updates for Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Task 13, Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Task 14, Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and Task 15, Photobiological Production of Hydrogen; and a feature article by Karsten Wurr titled 'Large-Scale Industrial Uses of Hydrogen: Final Development Report'.

  18. IEA agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 2000 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Carolyn C.

    2001-12-01

    The 2000 annual report of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement contains an overview of the agreement, including its guiding principles, latest strategic plan, and a report from the Chairman, Mr. Neil P. Rossmeissl, U.S. Department of Energy. Overviews of the National Hydrogen Programs of nine member countries are given: Canada, Japan, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Task updates are provided on the following annexes: Annex 12 - Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Annex 13 - Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Annex 14 - Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and, Annex 15 - Photobiological Production of Hydrogen.

  19. Validation of an Integrated Hydrogen Energy Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward C. Heydorn

    2012-10-26

    This report presents the results of a 10-year project conducted by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) to determine the feasibility of coproducing hydrogen with electricity. The primary objective was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a hydrogen energy station using a high-temperature fuel cell designed to produce power and hydrogen. This four-phase project had intermediate go/no-go decisions and the following specific goals: • Complete a technical assessment and economic analysis of the use of high-temperature fuel cells, including solid oxide and molten carbonate, for the co-production of power and hydrogen (energy park concept). • Build on the experience gained at the Las Vegas H2 Energy Station and compare/contrast the two approaches for co-production. • Determine the applicability of co-production from a high-temperature fuel cell for the existing merchant hydrogen market and for the emerging hydrogen economy. • Demonstrate the concept on natural gas for six months at a suitable site with demand for both hydrogen and electricity. • Maintain safety as the top priority in the system design and operation. • Obtain adequate operational data to provide the basis for future commercial activities, including hydrogen fueling stations. Work began with the execution of the cooperative agreement with DOE on 30 September 2001. During Phase 1, Air Products identified high-temperature fuel cells as having the potential to meet the coproduction targets, and the molten carbonate fuel cell system from FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FuelCell Energy) was selected by Air Products and DOE following the feasibility assessment performed during Phase 2. Detailed design, construction and shop validation testing of a system to produce 250 kW of electricity and 100 kilograms per day of hydrogen, along with site selection to include a renewable feedstock for the fuel cell, were completed in Phase 3. The system also completed six months of demonstration operation at the wastewater treatment facility operated by Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD, Fountain Valley, CA). As part of achieving the objective of operating on a renewable feedstock, Air Products secured additional funding via an award from the California Air Resources Board. The South Coast Air Quality Management District also provided cost share which supported the objectives of this project. System operation at OCSD confirmed the results from shop validation testing performed during Phase 3. Hydrogen was produced at rates and purity that met the targets from the system design basis, and coproduction efficiency exceeded the 50% target set in conjunction with input from the DOE. Hydrogen production economics, updated from the Phase 2 analysis, showed pricing of $5 to $6 per kilogram of hydrogen using current gas purification systems. Hydrogen costs under $3 per kilogram are achievable if next-generation electrochemical separation technologies become available.

  20. Successful removal of zinc sulfide scale restriction from a hot, deep, sour gas well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenrick, A.J.; Ali, S.A.

    1997-07-01

    Removal of zinc sulfide scale with hydrochloric acid from a hot, deep, Norphlet Sandstone gas well in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a 29% increase in the production rates. The zinc sulfide scale was determined to be in the near-wellbore area. The presence of zinc sulfide is explained by the production of 25 ppm H{sub 2}S gas, and the loss of 50--100 bbl of zinc bromide fluid to the formation. Although zinc sulfide scale has been successfully removed with hydrochloric acid in low-to-moderate temperature wells, no analogous treatment data were available for high temperature, high pressure (HTHP) Norphlet wells. Therefore laboratory testing was initiated to identify suitable acid systems for scale removal, and select a high quality corrosion inhibitor that would mitigate detrimental effects of the selected acid on downhole tubulars and surface equipment. This case history presents the first successful use of hydrochloric acid in removing zinc sulfide scale from a HTHP Norphlet sour gas well.