Sample records for hydrogen oxygenates excl

  1. The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The JET Hydrogen-Oxygen Recombination Sensor – A Safety Device for Hydrogen Isotope Processing Systems

  2. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  3. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  4. Atmospheric Pressure Humid Argon DBD Plasma for the Application of Sterilization -Measurement and Simulation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Simulation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Peroxide Formation M.J. Kirkpatrick, B. Dodet, E. Odic Département Energie - Supélec, F-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France AbstractHydrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. The yield of the three species was studied as a function of the discharge power and gas flow rate. Hydrogen

  5. Characteristics of Knock in Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon SI Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killingsworth, N; Rapp, V; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A promising approach for improving the efficiency of internal combustion engines is to employ a working fluid with a high specific heat ratio such as the noble gas argon. Moreover, all harmful emissions are eliminated when the intake charge is composed of oxygen, nonreactive argon, and hydrogen fuel. Previous research demonstrated indicated thermal efficiencies greater than 45% at 5.5 compression ratio in engines operating with hydrogen, oxygen, and argon. However, knock limits spark advance and increasing the efficiency further. Conditions under which knock occurs in such engines differs from typical gasoline fueled engines. In-cylinder temperatures using hydrogen-oxygen-argon are higher due to the high specific heat ratio and pressures are lower because of the low compression ratio. Better understanding of knock under these conditions can lead to operating strategies that inhibit knock and allow operation closer to the knock limit. In this work we compare knock with a hydrogen, oxygen, and argon mixture to that of air-gasoline mixtures in a variable compression ratio cooperative fuels research (CFR) engine. The focus is on stability of knocking phenomena, as well as, amplitude and frequency of the resulting pressure waves.

  6. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  7. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Paul R. (Knoxville, TN); Bamberger, Carlos E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO.sub.2) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) to form sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO.sub.3) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  8. Hydrogen and Oxygen Gas Monitoring System Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee C. Cadwallader; Kevin G. DeWall; J. Stephen Herring

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes pertinent design practices of selecting types of monitors, monitor unit placement, setpoint selection, and maintenance considerations for gas monitors. While hydrogen gas monitors and enriched oxygen atmosphere monitors as they would be needed for hydrogen production experiments are the primary focus of this paper, monitors for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide are also discussed. The experiences of designing, installing, and calibrating gas monitors for a laboratory where experiments in support of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) are described along with codes, standards, and regulations for these monitors. Information from the literature about best operating practices is also presented. The NHI program has two types of activities. The first, near-term activity is laboratory and pilot-plant experimentation with different processes in the kilogram per day scale to select the most promising types of processes for future applications of hydrogen production. Prudent design calls for indoor gas monitors to sense any hydrogen leaks within these laboratory rooms. The second, longer-term activity is the prototype, or large-scale plants to produce tons of hydrogen per day. These large, outdoor production plants will require area (or “fencepost”) monitoring of hydrogen gas leaks. Some processes will have oxygen production with hydrogen production, and any oxygen releases are also safety concerns since oxygen gas is the strongest oxidizer. Monitoring of these gases is important for personnel safety of both indoor and outdoor experiments. There is some guidance available about proper placement of monitors. The fixed point, stationary monitor can only function if the intruding gas contacts the monitor. Therefore, monitor placement is vital to proper monitoring of the room or area. Factors in sensor location selection include: indoor or outdoor site, the location and nature of potential vapor/gas sources, chemical and physical data of the gases or vapors, liquids with volatility need sensors near the potential sources of release, nature and concentration of gas releases, natural and mechanical ventilation, detector installation locations not vulnerable to mechanical or water damage from normal operations, and locations that lend themselves to convenient maintenance and calibration. The guidance also states that sensors should be located in all areas where hazardous accumulations of gas may occur. Such areas might not be close to release points but might be areas with restricted air movement. Heavier than air gases are likely to accumulate in pits, trenches, drains, and other low areas. Lighter than air gases are more likely to accumulate in overhead spaces, above drop ceilings, etc. In general, sensors should be located close to any potential sources of major release of gas. The paper gives data on monitor sensitivity and expected lifetimes to support the monitor selection process. Proper selection of indoor and outdoor locations for monitors is described, accounting for the vapor densities of hydrogen and oxygen. The latest information on monitor alarm setpoint selection is presented. Typically, monitors require recalibration at least every six months, or more frequently for inhospitable locations, so ready access to the monitors is an important issue to consider in monitor siting. Gas monitors, depending on their type, can be susceptible to blockages of the detector element (i.e., dus

  9. Formation of Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Hydrogen Peroxide in Electron Irradiated Crystalline Water Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weijun Zheng; David Jewitt; Ralf I. Kaiser

    2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Water ice is abundant both astrophysically, for example in molecular clouds, and in planetary systems. The Kuiper belt objects, many satellites of the outer solar system, the nuclei of comets and some planetary rings are all known to be water-rich. Processing of water ice by energetic particles and ultraviolet photons plays an important role in astrochemistry. To explore the detailed nature of this processing, we have conducted a systematic laboratory study of the irradiation of crystalline water ice in an ultrahigh vacuum setup by energetic electrons holding a linear energy transfer of 4.3 +/- 0.1 keV mm-1. The irradiated samples were monitored during the experiment both on line and in situ via mass spectrometry (gas phase) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (solid state). We observed the production of hydrogen and oxygen, both molecular and atomic, and of hydrogen peroxide. The likely reaction mechanisms responsible for these species are discussed. Additional formation routes were derived from the sublimation profiles of molecular hydrogen (90-140 K), molecular oxygen (147 -151 K) and hydrogen peroxide (170 K). We also present evidence on the involvement of hydroxyl radicals and possibly oxygen atoms as building blocks to yield hydrogen peroxide at low temperatures (12 K) and via a diffusion-controlled mechanism in the warming up phase of the irradiated sample.

  10. Hydrogen absorption characteristics of oxygen-stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Hydrogen absorption characteristics of oxygen-stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds M Abstract. -- The thermal behavior of oxygen-stabilized RjFegO^-hydrogen (R = Y, Dy, Ho) systems was studied decade to the study of the hydrogenation characte- ristics of a variety of intermetallic compounds, our

  11. Hydrogen removal from e-beam deposited alumina thin films by oxygen ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Arijeet, E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Mukharjee, C., E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Rajiv, K., E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Bose, Aniruddha, E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, S. D., E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Rai, S. K.; Ganguli, Tapas; Joshi, S. C.; Deb, S. K. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Phase, D. M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore-452017 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen interstitials and oxygen vacancies defects create energy levels in the band gap of alumina. This limits the application of alumina as a high-k dielectric. A low thermal budget method for removal of hydrogen from alumina is discussed. It is shown that bombardment of alumina films with low energy oxygen ion beam during electron beam evaporation deposition decreases the hydrogen concentration in the film significantly.

  12. Hydrogen and oxygen permeation through Nafion 117 and XUS 13204.10 fuel cell membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Steven Ray

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PERMEATION THROUGH NAFION 117 AND XUS 13204. 10 FUEL CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by STEVEN RAY LEE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AdrM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1992 Major Subject Chemical Engineering HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN PERMEATION THROUGH NAFION 117 AND XUS 13204. 10 FUEL CELL MEMBRANES A Thesis by STEVEN RAY LEE Approved as to style and content by: Ralph E. White (Chair...

  13. Hydrogen Production from Methane Using Oxygen-permeable Ceramic Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faraji, Sedigheh

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    in the production of both fuel-cell quality hydrogen and ultra-clean liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis), which are easier to transport and store than natural gas [6, 7]. The Fischer-Tropsch process has received significant attention in the quest to produce...:1 ratio of H2:CO which is beneficial to Fischer–Tropsch process and methanol synthesis [4]. Also, this reaction is exothermic which can reduce the overall hydrogen production plant cost [5]. CH4 + ˝ O2 ? CO + 2 H2...

  14. The effect of plutonium dioxide water surface coverage on the generation of hydrogen and oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berg, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crowder, Mark L. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The conditions for the production of oxygen during radiolysis of water adsorbed onto plutonium dioxide powder are discussed. Studies in the literature investigating the radiolysis of water show that both oxygen and hydrogen can be generated from water adsorbed on high-purity plutonium dioxide powder. These studies indicate that there is a threshold in the amount of water below which oxygen is not generated. The threshold is associated with the number of monolayers of adsorbed water and is shown to occur at approximately two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water. Material in equilibrium with 50% relative humidity (RH) will be at the threshold for oxygen generation. Using two monolayers of molecularly adsorbed water as the threshold for oxygen production, the total pressure under various conditions is calculated assuming stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen. The specific surface area of the oxide has a strong effect on the final partial pressure. The specific surface areas resulting in the highest pressures within a 3013 container are evaluated. The potential for oxygen generation is mitigated by reduced relative humidity, and hence moisture adsorption, at the oxide surface which occurs if the oxide is warmer than the ambient air. The potential for oxygen generation approaches zero as the temperature difference between the ambient air and the material approaches 6 C.

  15. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of process for producing H.sub.2 by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  16. Method for producing hydrogen and oxygen by use of algae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of process for producing H/sub 2/ by subjecting algae in an aqueous phase to light irradiation is increased by culturing algae which has been bleached during a first period of irradiation in a culture medium in an aerobic atmosphere until it has regained color and then subjecting this algae to a second period of irradiation wherein hydrogen is produced at an enhanced rate.

  17. Cavitation-induced ignition of cryogenic hydrogen-oxygen fluids V. V. Osipov,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muratov, Cyrill

    Cavitation-induced ignition of cryogenic hydrogen-oxygen fluids V. V. Osipov,1,a C. B. Muratov,2 E-ignite in the process of their sudden mixing. Here, we propose a cavitation-induced self-ignition mechanism that may a cavitation-induced self- ignition mechanism of cryogenic H2/Ox fluids. Cavitation is the formation

  18. Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of Energy Advisory10 March 2010Self-powered Hydrogen +

  19. Sensing performances of ZnO nanostructures grown under different oxygen pressures to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, Jin; Peng, Xiaoyan [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan, 00936-8377 PR (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan, 00936-8377 PR (United States); Wang, Zhenbo [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Feng, Peter, E-mail: P.feng@upr.edu [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan, 00936-8377 PR (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico Rio Piedras, San Juan, 00936-8377 PR (United States)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Surface morphology depends on the oxygen pressure. ? Structural degradation was observed for the ZnO samples when oxygen pressure was overhigh. ? The sensitivity of the ZnO-based sensors increase with grown oxygen pressure. -- Abstract: For extensive use in an industrialized process of individual ZnO nanostructures applied in gas sensors, a simple, inexpensive, and safe synthesis process is required. Here, nanostructured ZnO films were grown by a pulsed laser deposition technique under different oxygen pressures. Scanning electron microscopy images show nanopores, nanotips, and nanoparticles are obtained and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate oxygen concentration of the synthesized samples increases monotonously with oxygen pressure. The sensor based on ZnO with high oxygen concentration has high sensitivity, rapid response (9 s) and recovery (80 s) behavior to 500 ppm hydrogen below 150 °C. Experimental data indicate that high oxygen concentration effectively improves the sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO.

  20. Alarming Oxygen Depletion Caused by Hydrogen Combustion and Fuel Cells and their Resolution by Magnegas$^{TM}$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santilli, R M

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We recall that hydrogen combustion does resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emission of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. However, hydrogen combustion implies the permanent removal from our atmosphere of directly usable oxygen, a serious environmental problem called oxygen depletion, since the combustion turns oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen is prohibitive due to cost. We then show that a conceivable global use of hydrogen in complete replacement of fossil fuels would imply the permanent removal from our atmosphere of 2.8875x10^7 metric tons O_2/day. Fuel cells are briefly discussed to point out similarly serious environmental problems, again, for large uses. We propose the possibility of resolving these problems by upgrading hydrogen to the new combustible fuel called magnegas^TM, whose chemical structure is composed by the new chemical species of magnecules, whose energy content and other features are beyond the descriptive capaciti...

  1. Production of hydrogen in non oxygen-evolving systems: co-produced hydrogen as a bonus in the photodegradation of organic pollutants and hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sartoretti, C. Jorand; Ulmann, M.; Augustynski, J. (Electrochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Geneva (CH)); Linkous, C.A. (Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida (US))

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared as part of the documentation of Annex 10 (Photoproduction of Hydrogen) of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement. Subtask A of this Annex concerned photo-electrochemical hydrogen production, with an emphasis on direct water splitting. However, studies of non oxygen-evolving systems were also included in view of their interesting potential for combined hydrogen production and waste degradation. Annex 10 was operative from 1 March 1995 until 1 October 1998. One of the collaborative projects involved scientists from the Universities of Geneva and Bern, and the Federal Institute of Technology in Laussane, Switzerland. A device consisting of a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) with a WO{sub 3} photoanode connected in series with a so-called Grazel cell (a dye sensitized liquid junction photovoltaic cell) was developed and studied in this project. Part of these studies concerned the combination of hydrogen production with degradation of organic pollutants, as described in Chapter 3 of this report. For completeness, a review of the state of the art of organic waste treatment is included in Chapter 2. Most of the work at the University of Geneva, under the supervision of Prof. J. Augustynski, was focused on the development and testing of efficient WO{sub 3} photoanodes for the photoelectrochemical degradation of organic waste solutions. Two types of WO{sub 3} anodes were developed: non transparent bulk photoanodes and non-particle-based transparent film photoanodes. Both types were tested for degradation and proved to be very efficient in dilute solutions. For instance, a solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of 9% was obtained by operating the device in a 0.01M solution of methanol (as compared to about 4% obtained for direct water splitting with the same device). These organic compounds are oxidized to CO{sub 2} by the photocurrent produced by the photoanode. The advantages of this procedure over conventional electrolytic degradation are that much (an order of magnitude) less energy is required and that sunlight can be used directly. In the case of photoproduction of hydrogen, as compared to water splitting, feeding the anodic compartment of the PEC with an organic pollutant, instead of the usual supporting electrolyte, will bring about a substantial increase of the photocurrent at a given illumination. Thus, the replacement of the photo-oxidation of water by the photodegradation of organic waste will be accompanied by a gain in solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency and hence by a decrease in the cost of the photoproduced hydrogen. Taking into account the benefits and possible revenues obtainable by the waste degradation, this would seem to be a promising approach to the photoproduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is another waste effluent requiring extensive treatment, especially in petroleum refineries. The so-called Claus process is normally used to convert the H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. A sulfur recovery process developed at the Florida Solar Energy Center is described briefly in Chapter 4 by Dr. C. Linkous as a typical example of the photoproduction of hydrogen in a non oxygen-evolving system. The encouraging results obtained in these investigations of photoelectrochemical hydrogen production combined with organic waste degradation, have prompted a decision to continue the work under the new IEA Hydrogen Agreement Annex 14, Photoelectrolytic Hydrogen Production.

  2. Generation of DNA-Damaging Reactive Oxygen Species via the Autoxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide under Physiologically Relevant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gates, Kent. S.

    Generation of DNA-Damaging Reactive Oxygen Species via the Autoxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide under found that micromolar concentrations of H2S generated single-strand DNA cleavage. Mechanistic studies indicate that this process involved autoxidation of H2S to generate superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and

  3. Alarming Oxygen Depletion Caused by Hydrogen Combustion and Fuel Cells and their Resolution by Magnegas$^{TM}$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. M. Santilli

    2000-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We recall that hydrogen combustion does resolve the environmental problems of fossil fuels due to excessive emission of carcinogenic substances and carbon dioxide. However, hydrogen combustion implies the permanent removal from our atmosphere of directly usable oxygen, a serious environmental problem called oxygen depletion, since the combustion turns oxygen into water whose separation to restore the original oxygen is prohibitive due to cost. We then show that a conceivable global use of hydrogen in complete replacement of fossil fuels would imply the permanent removal from our atmosphere of 2.8875x10^7 metric tons O_2/day. Fuel cells are briefly discussed to point out similarly serious environmental problems, again, for large uses. We propose the possibility of resolving these problems by upgrading hydrogen to the new combustible fuel called magnegas^TM, whose chemical structure is composed by the new chemical species of magnecules, whose energy content and other features are beyond the descriptive capacities of quantum chemistry. In fact, magnegas contains up to 50% hydrogen, while having combustion exhaust with: 1) a positive oxygen balance (releasing more oxygen in the exhaust than that used in the combustion); 2) no appreciable carcinogenic or toxic substances; 3) considerably reduced carbon dioxide as compared to fossil fuels; 4) considerably reduced nitrogen oxides; and 5) general reduction of pollutants in the exhaust up to 96% of current EPA standards.

  4. On the mechanism of the deflagration-to-detonation transition in a hydrogen-oxygen mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liberman, M. A., E-mail: misha.liberman@gmail.co [Uppsala University, Department of Physics (Sweden); Ivanov, M. F.; Kiverin, A. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, M. S., E-mail: mike.kuznetsov@kit.ed [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Rakhimova, T. V.; Chukalovskii, A. A. [Moscow State University, Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The flame acceleration and the physical mechanism underlying the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) have been studied experimentally, theoretically, and using a two-dimensional gasdynamic model for a hydrogen-oxygen gas mixture by taking into account the chain chemical reaction kinetics for eight components. A flame accelerating in a tube is shown to generate shock waves that are formed directly at the flame front just before DDT occurred, producing a layer of compressed gas adjacent to the flame front. A mixture with a density higher than that of the initial gas enters the flame front, is heated, and enters into reaction. As a result, a high-amplitude pressure peak is formed at the flame front. An increase in pressure and density at the leading edge of the flame front accelerates the chemical reaction, causing amplification of the compression wave and an exponentially rapid growth of the pressure peak, which 'drags' the flame behind. A high-amplitude compression wave produces a strong shock immediately ahead of the reaction zone, generating a detonation wave. The theory and numerical simulations of the flame acceleration and the new physical mechanism of DDT are in complete agreement with the experimentally observed flame acceleration, shock formation, and DDT in a hydrogen-oxygen gas mixture.

  5. Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

  6. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  7. LIFE Chamber Chemical Equilibrium Simulations with Additive Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMuth, J A; Simon, A J

    2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to enable continuous operation of a Laser Inertial confinement Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine, the material (fill-gas and debris) in the fusion chamber must be carefully managed. The chamber chemical equilibrium compositions for post-shot mixtures are evaluated to determine what compounds will be formed at temperatures 300-5000K. It is desired to know if carbon and or lead will deposit on the walls of the chamber, and if so: at what temperature, and what elements can be added to prevent this from happening. The simulation was conducted using the chemical equilibrium solver Cantera with a Matlab front-end. Solutions were obtained by running equilibrations at constant temperature and constant specific volume over the specified range of temperatures. It was found that if nothing is done, carbon will deposit on the walls once it cools to below 2138K, and lead below 838K. Three solutions to capture the carbon were found: adding pure oxygen, hydrogen/nitrogen combo, and adding pure nitrogen. The best of these was the addition of oxygen which would readily form CO at around 4000K. To determine the temperature at which carbon would deposit on the walls, temperature solutions to evaporation rate equations needed to be found. To determine how much carbon or any species was in the chamber at a given time, chamber flushing equations needed to be developed. Major concerns are deposition of carbon and/or oxygen on the tungsten walls forming tungsten oxides or tungsten carbide which could cause embrittlement and cause failure of the first wall. Further research is needed.

  8. Effects of hydrogen anneals on oxygen deficient SrTio3-x single crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jalan, Bharat; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Mates, Thomas E.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    have suggested that hydrogen may also be substituted on thethat the in?uence of hydrogen anneals on the conductivity ofmay be passivated by the hydrogen anneal. A complex Author

  9. Thermochemical generation of hydrogen and oxygen from water. [NaMnO/sub 2/ and TiO/sub 2/

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, P.R.; Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermochemical cyclic process for the production of hydrogen exploits the reaction between sodium manganate (NaMnO/sub 2/) and titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) to form sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/), manganese (II) titanate (MnTiO/sub 3/) and oxygen. The titanate mixture is treated with sodium hydroxide, in the presence of steam, to form sodium titanate, sodium manganate (III), water and hydrogen. The sodium titanate-manganate (III) mixture is treated with water to form sodium manganate (III), titanium dioxide and sodium hydroxide. Sodium manganate (III) and titanium dioxide are recycled following dissolution of sodium hydroxide in water.

  10. Calculation of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents using the integral diffusion method -- Preliminary design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary designs are described for models of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents. Calculation of the uptake involves the modeling of seven processes: (1) diffusion of oxygen from the bulk gas into the boundary layer at the external cladding surface, (2) diffusion from the boundary layer into the oxide layer, (3) diffusion from the inner surface of the oxide layer into the metallic part of the cladding, (4) uptake of hydrogen in the event that the cladding oxide layer is dissolved in a steam-starved region, (5) embrittlement of cladding due to hydrogen uptake, (6) cracking of cladding during quenching due to its embrittlement and (7) release of hydrogen from the cladding after cracking of the cladding. An integral diffusion method is described for calculating the diffusion processes in the cladding. Experimental results are presented that show a rapid uptake of hydrogen in the event of dissolution of the oxide layer and a rapid release of hydrogen in the event of cracking of the oxide layer. These experimental results are used as a basis for calculating the rate of hydrogen uptake and the rate of hydrogen release. The uptake of hydrogen is limited to the equilibrium solubility calculated by applying Sievert's law. The uptake of hydrogen is an exothermic reaction that accelerates the heatup of a fuel rod. An embrittlement criteria is described that accounts for hydrogen and oxygen concentration and the extent of oxidation. A design is described for implementing the models for hydrogen and oxygen uptake and cladding embrittlement into the programming framework of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code. A test matrix is described for assessing the impact of the proposed models on the calculated behavior of fuel rods in severe accident conditions. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled; ``Preliminary Design Report for Modeling of Hydrogen Uptake in Fuel Rod Cladding During Severe Accidents.''

  11. Calculation of Hydrogen and Oxygen Uptake in Fuel Rod Cladding During Severe Accidents Using the Integral Diffusion Method - Final Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, Larry James

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final designs are described for models of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents. Calculation of the uptake involves the modeling of seven processes: (1) diffusion of oxygen from the bulk gas into the boundary layer at the external cladding surface, (2) diffusion from the boundary layer into the oxide layer, (3) diffusion from the inner surface of the oxide layer into the metallic part of the cladding, (4) uptake of hydrogen in the event that the cladding oxide layer is dissolved in a steam-starved region, (5) embrittlement of cladding due to hydrogen uptake, (6) cracking of cladding during quenching due to its embrittlement and (7) release of hydrogen from the cladding after cracking of the cladding. An integral diffusion method is described for calculating the diffusion processes in the cladding. Experimental results are presented that show a rapid uptake of hydrogen in the event of dissolution of the oxide layer and a rapid release of hydrogen in the event of cracking of the oxide layer. These experimental results are used as a basis for calculating the rate of hydrogen uptake and the rate of hydrogen release. A description is given of the implementation of the models for hydrogen and oxygen uptake and cladding embrittlement into the programming framework of the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 code.

  12. Calculation of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents using the integral diffusion method -- Final Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final designs are described for models of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents. Calculation of the uptake involves the modeling of seven processes: (1) diffusion of oxygen from the bulk gas into the boundary layer at the external cladding surface, (2) diffusion from the boundary layer into the oxide layer, (3) diffusion from the inner surface of the oxide layer into the metallic part of the cladding, (4) uptake of hydrogen in the event that the cladding oxide layer is dissolved in a steam-starved region, (5) embrittlement of cladding due to hydrogen uptake, (6) cracking of cladding during quenching due to its embrittlement and (7) release of hydrogen from the cladding after cracking of the cladding. An integral diffusion method is described for calculating the diffusion processes in the cladding. Experimental results are presented that show a rapid uptake of hydrogen in the event of dissolution of the oxide layer and a rapid release of hydrogen in the event of cracking of the oxide layer. These experimental results are used as a basis for calculating the rate of hydrogen uptake and the rate of hydrogen release. A description is given of the implementation of the models for hydrogen and oxygen uptake and cladding embrittlement into the programming framework of the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.3 code.

  13. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinskey, Anthony J. [MIT] [MIT; Worden, Robert Mark [Michigan State University MSU] [Michigan State University MSU; Brigham, Christopher [MIT] [MIT; Lu, Jingnan [MIT] [MIT; Quimby, John Westlake [MIT] [MIT; Gai, Claudia [MIT] [MIT; Speth, Daan [MIT] [MIT; Elliott, Sean [Boston University] [Boston University; Fei, John Qiang [MIT] [MIT; Bernardi, Amanda [MIT] [MIT; Li, Sophia [MIT] [MIT; Grunwald, Stephan [MIT] [MIT; Grousseau, Estelle [MIT] [MIT; Maiti, Soumen [MSU] [MSU; Liu, Chole [MSU] [MSU

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol.

  14. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on In2O3(110): A DFT Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Jingyun; Liu, Changjun; Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on the defective In2O3(110) surface with surface oxygen vacancies has been investigated using periodic density functional theory calculations. The relative stabilities of six possible surface oxygen vacancies numbered from Ov1 to Ov6 on the perfect In2O3(110) surface were examined. The calculated oxygen vacancy formation energies show that the D1 surface with the Ov1 defective site is the most thermodynamically favorable while the D4 surface with the Ov4 defective site is the least stable. Two different methanol synthesis routes from CO2 hydrogenation over both D1 and D4 surfaces were studied and the D4 surface was found to be more favorable for CO2 activation and hydrogenation. On the D4 surface, one of the O atoms of the CO2 molecule fills in the Ov4 site upon adsorption. Hydrogenation of CO2 to HCOO on the D4 surface is both thermodynamically and kinetically favorable. Further hydrogenation of HCOO involves both forming the C-H bond and breaking the C-O bond, resulting in H2CO and hydroxyl. The HCOO hydrogenation is slightly endothermic with an activation barrier of 0.57 eV. A high barrier of 1.14 eV for the hydrogenation of H2CO to H3CO indicates that this step is the rate-limiting step in the methanol synthesis on the defective In2O3(110) surface. We gratefully acknowledge the supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (#20990223) and from US Department of Energy, Basic Energy Science program (DE-FG02-05ER46231). D. Mei was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The computations were performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), which is a U.S. Department of Energy national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington. PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle.

  15. The role of oxygen in hydrogen sensing by a platinum-gate silicon carbide gas sensor: An ultrahigh vacuum study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    steering for advanced laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory sensing and control signals Rev of fundamental mechanisms has been less extensive.23­25 Reference 26 presents a model of the hydrogen

  16. Fluid-Bed Testing of Greatpoint Energy's Direct Oxygen Injection Catalytic Gasification Process for Synthetic Natural Gas and Hydrogen Coproduction Year 6 - Activity 1.14 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, Michael; Henderson, Ann

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GreatPoint Energy (GPE) concept for producing synthetic natural gas and hydrogen from coal involves the catalytic gasification of coal and carbon. GPE’s technology “refines” coal by employing a novel catalyst to “crack” the carbon bonds and transform the coal into cleanburning methane (natural gas) and hydrogen. The GPE mild “catalytic” gasifier design and operating conditions result in reactor components that are less expensive and produce pipeline-grade methane and relatively high purity hydrogen. The system operates extremely efficiently on very low cost carbon sources such as lignites, subbituminous coals, tar sands, petcoke, and petroleum residual oil. In addition, GPE’s catalytic coal gasification process eliminates troublesome ash removal and slagging problems, reduces maintenance requirements, and increases thermal efficiency, significantly reducing the size of the air separation plant (a system that alone accounts for 20% of the capital cost of most gasification systems) in the catalytic gasification process. Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale gasification facilities were used to demonstrate how coal and catalyst are fed into a fluid-bed reactor with pressurized steam and a small amount of oxygen to “fluidize” the mixture and ensure constant contact between the catalyst and the carbon particles. In this environment, the catalyst facilitates multiple chemical reactions between the carbon and the steam on the surface of the coal. These reactions generate a mixture of predominantly methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Product gases from the process are sent to a gas-cleaning system where CO{sub 2} and other contaminants are removed. In a full-scale system, catalyst would be recovered from the bottom of the gasifier and recycled back into the fluid-bed reactor. The by-products (such as sulfur, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2}) would be captured and could be sold to the chemicals and petroleum industries, resulting in near-zero hazardous air or water pollution. This technology would also be conducive to the efficient coproduction of methane and hydrogen while also generating a relatively pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) or sequestration. Specific results of bench-scale testing in the 4- to 38-lb/hr range in the EERC pilot system demonstrated high methane yields approaching 15 mol%, with high hydrogen yields approaching 50%. This was compared to an existing catalytic gasification model developed by GPE for its process. Long-term operation was demonstrated on both Powder River Basin subbituminous coal and on petcoke feedstocks utilizing oxygen injection without creating significant bed agglomeration. Carbon conversion was greater than 80% while operating at temperatures less than 1400°F, even with the shorter-than-desired reactor height. Initial designs for the GPE gasification concept called for a height that could not be accommodated by the EERC pilot facility. More gas-phase residence time should allow the syngas to be converted even more to methane. Another goal of producing significant quantities of highly concentrated catalyzed char for catalyst recovery and material handling studies was also successful. A Pd–Cu membrane was also successfully tested and demonstrated to produce 2.54 lb/day of hydrogen permeate, exceeding the desired hydrogen permeate production rate of 2.0 lb/day while being tested on actual coal-derived syngas that had been cleaned with advanced warm-gas cleanup systems. The membranes did not appear to suffer any performance degradation after exposure to the cleaned, warm syngas over a nominal 100-hour test.

  17. ccsd-00000318(version1):29Apr2003 Calculation of muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to atomic oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ), the problem corresponds to an ultra-cold collision. The close-coupling time-independent quantum equations explanation. Werthm¨uller et al [4] suggest the existence of a resonance at low energies. It is worth to stress that such an increase has not been observed in the case of muonic hydrogen colliding with sulfur

  18. agency hydrogen powered: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  19. alternative hydrogen pathways: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  20. agency hydrogen implementing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  1. ammonium hydrogen fluoride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  2. adsorbed hydrogen technical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  3. anhydrous hydrogen fluoride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  4. aerobic hydrogen accumulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  5. apocynin decreases hydrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  6. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM PHOTOLYSIS OF STEAM ADSORBED ONTO PLATINIZED SrTiO3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carr, R.G.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Submitted to Nature HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM PHOTOLYSIS OFof California. LBL 11872 HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM PHOTOLYSISthe recombination of hydrogen and oxygen is a significant

  7. argon-seeded hydrogen sheet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  8. attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  9. array-based electrochemical hydrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    effect of Hydrogen Booster System on exhaust gases emissions of an internal combustion engine. The hydrogen booster produces hydrogen and oxygen using six water fuel cells and...

  10. Electron beam exposure mechanisms in hydrogen silsesquioxane investigated by vibrational spectroscopy and in-situ electron beam induced desorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olynick, D.L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposure mechanisms in hydrogen silsesquioxane investigatedCA 94720 USA Abstract Hydrogen Silsesquioxane (HSQ) is usedsilicon is bonded to a hydrogen atom and bridges 3 oxygen

  11. Recombinant hydrogen-producing cyanobacterium and uses thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Qing; Smith, Hamilton O

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A recombinant cyanobacterium comprising an oxygen-tolerant, hydrogen-evolving hydrogenase, kit, and methods of use.

  12. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - NREL Teams with Southern...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electricity from renewable sources, such as solar and wind power, to make carbon-free hydrogen gas by breaking down water into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can then be...

  13. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenati...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on In2O3(110): A DFT Study. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on...

  14. atomic oxygen reactions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is caused Zare, Richard N. 179 Interactions of Oxygen and Hydrogen on Pd(111) surface Plasma Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: for the oxygen (2?2) structure. The...

  15. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Intake Air Oxygen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Robert Bosch at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensors....

  17. Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water on Pt(111): Precursor Transport Through the Hydrogen Electron-Stimulated Production of Molecular Oxygen in Amorphous Solid Water on Pt(111): Precursor Transport Through the...

  18. Oxygen analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  19. Oxidation resistant organic hydrogen getters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

    2008-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably Pt. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently removing hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  20. Hydrothermal flow systems in the Midcontinent Rift: Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic studies of the North Shore Volcanic Group and related hypabyssal sills, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Y.R.; Ripley, E.M. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences] [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rift-related lavas of the North Shore Volcanic Group (NSVG) are intruded by plutonic rocks of the Duluth Complex along the unconformity between the NSVG and the underlying Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks (Animikie Group) and Archean volcano-sedimentary and plutonic rocks. Heat associated with the emplacement of the mafic intrusions generated fluid flow in the overlying plateau lavas. {delta}{sup 18}O values for whole rocks from the NSVG and hypabyssal sills range from 5.5 to 17.7{per_thousand} and 5.3 to 11.5{per_thousand}, respectively, and most values are higher than those considered normal for basaltic rocks (5.4 to 6.0{per_thousand}). In general, there is a positive correlation between whole rock {delta}{sup 18}O and water content, which suggests that elevated {delta}{sup 18}O values are related primarily to secondary mineral growth and isotopic exchange during hydrothermal alteration and metamorphism. {delta}{sup 18}O{sub H{sub 2}O} values computed from amygdule-filling minerals such as smectite, chlorite, and epidote found in low- to high-temperature metamorphic zones range from {approximately}{minus}1 to 6{per_thousand} with an average value of {approximately}3{per_thousand}. Smectite in the lower-grade zones gives computed {delta}D{sub H{sub 2}O} values between {minus}26 and {minus}83{per_thousand}, whereas epidote in the higher-grade zones gives {delta}D{sub H{sub 2}O} values of {minus}15 to 6{per_thousand}. Fluid isotopic compositions computed from epidote and smectite values are suggestive of the involvement of at least two fluids during the early stages of amygdule filling. Fluid {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values determined from epidote at the higher metamorphic grades indicate that seawater dominated the deeper portions of the system where greenschist facies assemblages and elevated {delta}{sup 18}O values were produced in flow interiors, as well as margins. Smectite isotopic compositions suggest that meteoric water was predominant in the shallower portions of the system. The increase in {delta}{sup 18}O values of massive flow interiors with depth is interpreted as a result of rock interaction with a fluid of constant oxygen isotopic composition with increasing temperature. The stable isotopic data are supportive of previous suggestions that seawater was involved in the hydrothermal system associated with the Midcontinent Rift. Although the origin of the seawater remains problematic, it appears that marine incursions may have occurred during the late stages of Portage Lake volcanism, and periodically thereafter.

  1. Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatarkhanov, Mouslim

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal- and hydrogen-bonding competition during waterwith the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formationH and OH to maximize both hydrogen bonding and oxygen-metal

  2. Hydrogen Cryomagnetics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glowacki, B. A.; Hanely, E.; Nuttall, W. J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in our current approach. The liquefaction of hydrogen allows also for its use in transport applications for example BMW developed a car that utilises liquid hydrogen instead of compressed gas hydrogen making the use of cryogenic hydrogen even more... efficient. 11     Figure 13. Decentralised production of hydrogen pathways for Energy and Hydrogen Cryomagnetic solutions for a hospital environment. The shaded region in the figure represents the decentralised production of hydrogen using renewable...

  3. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

  4. Polymer system for gettering hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy Jon (330 Thrasher Ave., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Whinnery, LeRoy L. (4929 Julie St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel composition comprising organic polymer molecules having carbon-carbon double bonds, for removing hydrogen from the atmosphere within enclosed spaces. Organic polymers molecules containing carbon-carbon double bonds throughout their structures, preferably polybutadiene, polyisoprene and derivatives thereof, intimately mixed with an insoluble catalyst composition, comprising a hydrogenation catalyst and a catalyst support, preferably Pd supported on carbon, provide a hydrogen getter composition useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces even in the presence of contaminants such as common atmospheric gases, water vapor, carbon dioxide, ammonia, oil mists, and water. The hydrogen getter composition disclosed herein is particularly useful for removing hydrogen from enclosed spaces containing potentially explosive mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  5. Hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

    2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  6. Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

  7. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

  8. Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

  9. IONICALLY CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SEQUESTRATION Oxygen Transport Membrane Hydrogen Transport Membrane Natural Gas Coal Biomass Syngas CO/H2 WGS H2 operating experience. #12;ELTRON RESEARCH INC. Syngas Production Rate ­ 60 mL/min cm2 @ 900°C Equivalent O2 Operational Experience Under High Pressure Differential SUMMARY OF ELTRON OXYGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANE SYNGAS

  10. Hydrogen in Type Ic Supernovae?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Branch; David J. Jeffery; Timothy R. Young; E. Baron

    2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    By definition, a Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) does not have conspicuous lines of hydrogen or helium in its optical spectrum. SNe Ic usually are modelled in terms of the gravitational collapse of bare carbon-oxygen cores. We consider the possibility that the spectra of ordinary (SN 1994I-like) SNe Ic have been misinterpreted, and that SNe Ic eject hydrogen. An absorption feature usually attributed to a blend of Si II 6355 and C II 6580 may be produced by H-alpha. If SN 1994I-like SNe Ic eject hydrogen, the possibility that hypernova (SN 1998bw-like) SNe Ic, some of which are associated with gamma-ray bursts, also eject hydrogen should be considered. The implications of hydrogen for SN Ic progenitors and explosion models are briefly discussed.

  11. Hydrogen Storage

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

  12. Hydrogen Safety

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

  13. Hydrogen Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A H2A: Hydrogen Analysis Margaret K. Mann DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program Systems Analysis Workshop July 28-29, 2004 Washington, D.C. H2A Charter...

  14. Dissolution of oxygen reduction electrocatalysts in acidic environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Zhihui

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Platinum (Pt) alloy nanoparticles are used as catalysts in electrochemical cells to reduce oxygen to water and to oxidize hydrogen; the overall reaction converts chemical energy into electrical energy. These nanocatalysts are deposited on a carbon...

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Intake Air Oxygen Sensor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Robert Bosch at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about intake air oxygen sensor.

  16. PHOTOELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to allow the overlap of the bandedges with the water redox potentials in the dark. Charge transfer analysis A photoelectrochemical (PEC) system combines the harvesting of solar energy with the electrolysis of water. When, the energy can be sufficient to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Depending on the type of semiconductor

  17. Hydrogen Storage Technologies Hydrogen Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 #12;This). The Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team is one of 12 U.S. DRIVE technical teams ("tech teams") whose mission and clean advanced lightduty vehicles, as well as related energy infrastructure. For more information about

  18. Oxygen addition to sulfur of metal thiolates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soma, Takako

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and characterized. Molecular oxygen or hydrogen peroxide reacted with (N,N'-bis(mercaptoethyl)-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II), (BME-DACO)2Ni3 +2, to produce a trimetallic, (N,N'-bismercaptoethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane-nickel(II))-nickelate, (BME-DACO)2Ni3 2...

  19. Amorphous FeOOH Oxygen Evolution Reaction Catalyst for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jung-Fu "Afu"

    activity electrocatalysts for the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions (HER and OER). Toward this goal cells with a photovoltaic efficiency of 6.8%. The resulting a-FeOOH/a-Si devices achieve a total water, and (iv) be catalytically active for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) or hydrogen evolution reaction

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Materials & Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment Hydrogen Infrastructure Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Market Transformation...

  1. Method for absorbing hydrogen using an oxidation resisant organic hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Buffleben, George M. (Tracy, CA)

    2009-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for removing hydrogen from an atmosphere, comprising a mixture of a polyphenyl ether and a hydrogenation catalyst, preferably a precious metal catalyst, and most preferably platinum, is disclosed. This composition is stable in the presence of oxygen, will not polymerize or degrade upon exposure to temperatures in excess of 200.degree. C., or prolonged exposure to temperatures in the range of 100-300.degree. C. Moreover, these novel hydrogen getter materials can be used to efficiently remove hydrogen from mixtures of hydrogen/inert gas (e.g., He, Ar, N.sub.2), hydrogen/ammonia atmospheres, such as may be encountered in heat exchangers, and hydrogen/carbon dioxide atmospheres. Water vapor and common atmospheric gases have no adverse effect on the ability of these getter materials to absorb hydrogen.

  2. DOE Hydrogen Program Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Program A Prospectus for Biological H 2 Production The Hydrogen Economy The hydrogen economy pertains to a world fundamentally different from the one we now know. Hydrogen...

  3. Hydrogen production by high-temperature water splitting using electron-conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae H.; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at disassociation temperatures the hydrogen from the disassociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the disassociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  4. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y. Simon (Lakewood, CO)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used.

  5. Oxygen ion-beam microlithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsuo, Y.S.

    1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of providing and developing a resist on a substrate for constructing integrated circuit (IC) chips includes the following steps: of depositing a thin film of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon on the substrate and exposing portions of the amorphous silicon to low-energy oxygen ion beams to oxidize the amorphous silicon at those selected portions. The nonoxidized portions are then removed by etching with RF-excited hydrogen plasma. Components of the IC chip can then be constructed through the removed portions of the resist. The entire process can be performed in an in-line vacuum production system having several vacuum chambers. Nitrogen or carbon ion beams can also be used. 5 figures.

  6. Rat colonic reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage are mediated by diet and age

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Cara Aletha Everett

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diacetate docosahexanoic acid diphenyliodonium chloride ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid eicosapentanoic acid ethidium homodiner ? 1 fragment length analysis using repair enzymes Fapy glycosylase Hanks' balanced salt solution hydrogen peroxide lipid... the elimination of cancer cells. Production and Functions of Reactive Oxygen Species Formation of reactive oxygen species Reactive oxygen species are a by-product of normal metabolism and include superoxide (Ot' ), hydrogen peroxide (HzO&), and the hydroxyl...

  7. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  8. Hydrogen Fueling Systems and Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;Projects Hydrogen Infrastructure Development · Turnkey Commercial Hydrogen Fueling Station · Autothermal

  9. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  10. Oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohrmann, Charles A. (Kennewick, WA); Fullam, Harold T. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for oxidizing hydrogen halides having substantially no sulfur impurities by means of a catalytically active molten salt is disclosed. A mixture of the subject hydrogen halide and an oxygen bearing gas is contacted with a molten salt containing an oxidizing catalyst and alkali metal normal sulfates and pyrosulfates to produce an effluent gas stream rich in the elemental halogen and substantially free of sulfur oxide gases.

  11. Oxygen stabilized zirconium-vanadium-iron alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula (Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x).sub.2-u (V.sub.1-y Fe.sub.y)O.sub.z where x=0.0 to 0.9, y=0.01 to 0.9, z=0.25 to 0.5 and u=0 to 1. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 torr. The compound is suitable for use as a hydrogen getter in low pressure, high temperature applications such as magnetic confinement fusion devices.

  12. An Analysis of Near-Term Hydrogen Vehicle Rollout Scenarios for Southern California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas, Michael A; Ogden, J

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    onsite SMRs. Hydrogen from 100% solar photovoltaic poweredphotovoltaic (PV) electricity. Oxygen exhaust stream 12 x 6,250-psi compressed hydrogenphotovoltaic (PV) electricity Alkaline Electrolyzer Reverse osmosis and deionizer water purification Oxygen exhaust stream 12 x 6,250-psi compressed hydrogen

  13. Hydrogen program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  14. RELATIVE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR, RENEWABLE, AND FOSSIL ENERGY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M; Charles W. Forsberg, C

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  15. The Hype About Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirza, Umar Karim

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    economy based on the hydrogen fuel cell, but this cannot beus to look toward hydrogen. Fuel cell basics, simplifiedthe path to fuel cell commercialization. Hydrogen production

  16. Hydrogen Technologies Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

  17. Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

  18. Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Models

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    insert our Research Targets to see the impact List of Delivery Components Compressed Hydrogen Gas Truck (Tube trailer) Compressed Hydrogen Gas Truck Terminal Liquid Hydrogen Truck...

  19. Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy and Electronic Structure Theory . Covalency in Metal-Oxygen Multiple Bonds Evaluated Using Oxygen K-edge Spectroscopy...

  20. Polymer formulation for removing hydrogen and liquid water from an enclosed space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention describes a solution to the particular problem of liquid water formation in hydrogen getters exposed to quantities of oxygen. Water formation is usually desired because the recombination reaction removes hydrogen without affecting gettering capacity and the oxygen removal reduces the chances for a hydrogen explosion once free oxygen is essentially removed. The present invention describes a getter incorporating a polyacrylate compound that can absorb up to 500% of its own weight in liquid water without significantly affecting its hydrogen gettering/recombination properties, but that also is insensitive to water vapor.

  1. oxygen-plasma | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen-plasma oxygen-plasma Leads No leads are available at this time. Conversion of 1,2-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110). Abstract: We have studied the reactions of...

  2. HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM date ­ November 23, 2004 · Contract end date ­ March 31, 2006 #12;Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania Hydrogen Regional Infrastructure Program in Pennsylvania · Objectives ­ Capture

  3. Oxygen Handling and Cooling Options in High Temperature Electrolysis Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manohar S. Sohal; J. Stephen Herring

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Idaho National Laboratory is working on a project to generate hydrogen by high temperature electrolysis (HTE). In such an HTE system, safety precautions need to be taken to handle high temperature oxygen at ~830°C. This report is aimed at addressing oxygen handling in a HTE plant.. Though oxygen itself is not flammable, most engineering material, including many gases and liquids, will burn in the presence of oxygen under some favorable physicochemical conditions. At present, an absolute set of rules does not exist that can cover all aspects of oxygen system design, material selection, and operating practices to avoid subtle hazards related to oxygen. Because most materials, including metals, will burn in an oxygen-enriched environment, hazards are always present when using oxygen. Most materials will ignite in an oxygen-enriched environment at a temperature lower than that in air, and once ignited, combustion rates are greater in the oxygen-enriched environment. Even many metals, if ignited, burn violently in an oxygen-enriched environment. However, these hazards do not preclude the operations and systems involving oxygen. Oxygen can be safely handled and used if all the materials in a system are not flammable in the end-use environment or if ignition sources are identified and controlled. In fact, the incidence of oxygen system fires is reported to be low with a probability of about one in a million. This report is a practical guideline and tutorial for the safe operation and handling of gaseous oxygen in high temperature electrolysis system. The intent is to provide safe, practical guidance that permits the accomplishment of experimental operations at INL, while being restrictive enough to prevent personnel endangerment and to provide reasonable facility protection. Adequate guidelines are provided to govern various aspects of oxygen handling associated with high temperature electrolysis system to generate hydrogen. The intent here is to present acceptable oxygen standards and practices for minimum safety requirements. A summary of operational hazards, along with oxygen safety and emergency procedures, are provided.

  4. Hydrogen Technology Validation

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

  5. Hydrogen Analysis Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL factsheet that describes the general activites of the Hydrogen Analysis Group within NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  6. A DONOR COMPLEX WITH TUNNELING HYDROGEN IN PURE GERMANIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joos, B.; Haller, E.E.; Falicov, L.M.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A shallow donor complex observed by several authors in ultrapure germanium grown in a hydrogen atmosphere is attributed to an oxygen-hydrogen system. Photoconductivity data under stress are presented. An abrupt transition in the spectra at a well-defined stress (2.1 x 10{sup 8} dyn cm{sup -2}) is found. It is explained by a theory which involves dynamic tunneling of the hydrogen in the vicinity of an oxygen center. The comparison with other complex donors and acceptors supports the model.

  7. Ionwater hydrogen-bond switching observed with 2D IR vibrational echo chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Ion­water hydrogen-bond switching observed with 2D IR vibrational echo chemical exchange for review November 8, 2008) The exchange of water hydroxyl hydrogen bonds between anions and water oxygens of anion­ water hydroxyl hydrogen bond switching under thermal equilib- rium conditions as Taw 7 1 ps. Pump

  8. Oxygen partial pressure sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, D.W.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for detecting oxygen partial pressure and an oxygen partial pressure sensor are provided. The method for measuring oxygen partial pressure includes contacting oxygen to a solid oxide electrolyte and measuring the subsequent change in electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte. A solid oxide electrolyte is utilized that contacts both a porous electrode and a nonporous electrode. The electrical conductivity of the solid oxide electrolyte is affected when oxygen from an exhaust stream permeates through the porous electrode to establish an equilibrium of oxygen anions in the electrolyte, thereby displacing electrons throughout the electrolyte to form an electron gradient. By adapting the two electrodes to sense a voltage potential between them, the change in electrolyte conductivity due to oxygen presence can be measured. 1 fig.

  9. Reactive oxygen species and Udx1 during early sea urchin development Julian L. Wong, Gary M. Wessel*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wessel, Gary M.

    Reactive oxygen species and Udx1 during early sea urchin development Julian L. Wong, Gary M. Wessel Abstract Sea urchin fertilization is marked by a massive conversion of molecular oxygen to hydrogen of these defective embryos. We also report an unequal distribution of reactive oxygen species between sister

  10. Process for oxidation of hydrogen halides to elemental halogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyke, Stephen E. (Middleton, WI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for generating an elemental halogen selected from chlorine, bromine or iodine, from a corresponding hydrogen halide by absorbing a molten salt mixture, which includes sulfur, alkali metals and oxygen with a sulfur to metal molar ratio between 0.9 and 1.1 and includes a dissolved oxygen compound capable of reacting with hydrogen halide to produce elemental halogen, into a porous, relatively inert substrate to produce a substrate-supported salt mixture. Thereafter, the substrate-supported salt mixture is contacted (stage 1) with a hydrogen halide while maintaining the substrate-supported salt mixture during the contacting at an elevated temperature sufficient to sustain a reaction between the oxygen compound and the hydrogen halide to produce a gaseous elemental halogen product. This is followed by purging the substrate-supported salt mixture with steam (stage 2) thereby recovering any unreacted hydrogen halide and additional elemental halogen for recycle to stage 1. The dissolved oxygen compound is regenerated in a high temperature (stage 3) and an optical intermediate temperature stage (stage 4) by contacting the substrate-supported salt mixture with a gas containing oxygen whereby the dissolved oxygen compound in the substrate-supported salt mixture is regenerated by being oxidized to a higher valence state.

  11. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  12. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  13. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  14. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  15. Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen, Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in China Safety and Regulatory Structure for CNG, CNG-Hydrogen, Hydrogen Vehicles and Fuels in China Presentation given by Jinyang Zheng of...

  16. Hydrogen Bonded Arrays: The Power of Multiple Hydrogen Bonds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bonded Arrays: The Power of Multiple Hydrogen Bonds. Hydrogen Bonded Arrays: The Power of Multiple Hydrogen Bonds. Abstract: Hydrogen bond interactions in small covalent model...

  17. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline...

  18. CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior CNG, Hydrogen, CNG-Hydrogen Blends - Critical Fuel Properties and Behavior Presentation given by Jay...

  19. NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage &...

  20. Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

  1. Hydrogen production by high temperature water splitting using electron conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.

    2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing protons or hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at dissociation temperatures the hydrogen from the dissociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the dissociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is thereafter reacted with methane to produce syngas which optimally may be reacted in a water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2.

  2. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

  3. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Powered by Renewable Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently received a Borrego fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) on loan from Kia for display at a variety of summer events. The Borrego is fueled using renewable hydrogen that is produced and dispensed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado. The hydrogen dispensed at the station is produced via renewable electrolysis as part of the wind-to-hydrogen project, which uses wind turbines and photovoltaic arrays to power electrolyzer stacks that split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The FCEV features state-of-the-art technology with zero harmful emissions.

  4. Hydrogen Delivery Mark Paster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquids (e.g. ethanol etc.) ­ Truck: HP Gas & Liquid Hydrogen ­ Regional Pipelines ­ Breakthrough Hydrogen;Delivery Key Challenges · Pipelines ­ Retro-fitting existing NG pipeline for hydrogen ­ Utilizing existing NG pipeline for Hythane with cost effective hydrogen separation technology ­ New hydrogen pipeline

  5. Dissociation of water on oxygen-covered Rh^111 A. Shavorskiy,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnadt, Joachim

    to the somewhat unusual situation that these water layers are actually hydrophobic due to the lack of hydrogenDissociation of water on oxygen-covered Rh^111 A. Shavorskiy,1 T. Eralp,1 E. Ataman,2 C. Isvoranu,2 November 2009; published online 4 December 2009 The adsorption of water and coadsorption with oxygen on Rh

  6. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2010.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation without using an external power supply or circuitry. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen using OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  7. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes - annual report for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Lu, Y.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew from an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen production by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  8. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September bycost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would becost than both. Solar-hydrogen fuel- cell vehicles would be

  9. HYDROGEN IN GERMANIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haller, E.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    •^f-1? c^4--^ LBL-7996 HYDROGEN IN GERMANIUM E. E. HallerW-7405-ENG-48 LBL-7996 HYDROGEN IN GERMANIUM* E. E. Haller48. LBL-7996 Abstract Hydrogen is shown to form molecular

  10. President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Workshop on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Washington, DC July 13, 2005 JoAnn Milliken DOE Hydrogen Program Planning U.S. Energy Dependence is...

  11. Hydrogenation of O and OH on Pt(111): A comparison between the reaction rates of the first and the second hydrogen addition steps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Näslund, L.-Ĺ., E-mail: lars-ake.naslund@liu.se [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of water through hydrogenation of oxygen on platinum occurs at a surprisingly low reaction rate. The reaction rate limited process for this catalytic reaction is, however, yet to be settled. In the present work, the reaction rates of the first and the second hydrogen addition steps are compared when hydrogen is obtained through intense synchrotron radiation that induces proton production in a water overlayer on top of the adsorbed oxygen species. A substantial amount of the produced hydrogen diffuses to the platinum surface and promotes water formation at the two starting conditions O/Pt(111) and (H{sub 2}O+OH)/Pt(111). The comparison shows no significant difference in the reaction rate between the first and the second hydrogen addition steps, which indicates that the rate determining process of the water formation from oxygen on Pt(111) is neither the first nor the second H addition step or, alternatively, that both H addition steps exert rate control.

  12. Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Combustion Research Sandia Hydrogen Combustion Research Sebastian A. Kaiser (PI) Sandia National Laboratories Christopher M. White University of New Hampshire Sponsor: DoE...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production On June 13, 2014, in SNL maintains the equipment, experts, and partnerships required to develop technology for solar...

  14. Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous hydrogen, H2, has many physical properties that allow it to move rapidly into and through materials, which causes problems in keeping hydrogen from materials that are sensitive to hydrogen-induced degradation. Hydrogen molecules are the smallest diatomic molecules, with a molecular radius of about 37 x 10-12 m and the hydrogen atom is smaller still. Since it is small and light it is easily transported within materials by diffusion processes. The process of hydrogen entering and transporting through a materials is generally known as permeation and this section reviews the development of hydrogen permeation barriers and barrier coatings for the upcoming hydrogen economy.

  15. Hydrogen Program Overview

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: “Why Hydrogen?”

  16. Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sources Hydrogen Hydrogen September 30, 2014 Developed by Sandia National Laboratories and several industry partners, the fuel cell mobile light (H2LT) offers a cleaner, quieter...

  17. Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for clean energy technology manufacturers. March 28, 2014 Sales Tax Exemption for Hydrogen Generation Facilities In North Dakota, the sale of hydrogen used to power an internal...

  18. Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with a catalyst of molybdenum sulfide and exposed to sunlight, these pillars generate hydrogen gas from the hydrogen ions liberated by splitting water. Each pillar is approximately...

  19. Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Pipelines * Nuclear Energy * Office of Science Extending Collaborations * Other Federal Agencies - DOT, EPA, Others * International Collaborations Hydrogen from Diverse...

  20. of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of hydrogen-powered cars," he says. But a major hurdle remains: the cost of platinum metal needed to make fuel cells efficient. Fuel cells work by combining hydrogen gas with oxygen from the air for hydrogen-powered cars in mass production facilities," says SFU chemistry professor Steve Holdcroft, who

  1. Methods and systems for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Chang H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kim, Eung S. (Ammon, ID); Sherman, Steven R. (Augusta, GA)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and systems are disclosed for the production of hydrogen and the use of high-temperature heat sources in energy conversion. In one embodiment, a primary loop may include a nuclear reactor utilizing a molten salt or helium as a coolant. The nuclear reactor may provide heat energy to a power generation loop for production of electrical energy. For example, a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid may be heated by the nuclear reactor via the molten salt and then expanded in a turbine to drive a generator. An intermediate heat exchange loop may also be thermally coupled with the primary loop and provide heat energy to one or more hydrogen production facilities. A portion of the hydrogen produced by the hydrogen production facility may be diverted to a combustor to elevate the temperature of water being split into hydrogen and oxygen by the hydrogen production facility.

  2. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  3. EMSL - oxygen-plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen-plasma en Conversion of 1,2-Propylene Glycol on Rutile TiO2(110). http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsconversion-12-propylene-glycol-rutile-tio2110

  4. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop...

  5. NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop to make it a reality. This Roadmap provides a framework that can make a hydrogen economy a reality

  6. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  7. Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C oCNMSStaff HighlightGroundwater

  8. Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e& Fuel Cells Program&

  9. Oxygen transport membrane system and method for transferring heat to catalytic/process reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Sean M; Kromer, Brian R; Litwin, Michael M; Rosen, Lee J; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie R; Kosowski, Lawrence W; Robinson, Charles

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for producing heat used in a synthesis gas production is provided. The disclosed method and apparatus include a plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements adapted to separate oxygen from an oxygen containing stream contacting the retentate side of the membrane elements. The permeated oxygen is combusted with a hydrogen containing synthesis gas stream contacting the permeate side of the tubular oxygen transport membrane elements thereby generating a reaction product stream and radiant heat. The present method and apparatus also includes at least one catalytic reactor containing a catalyst to promote the stream reforming reaction wherein the catalytic reactor is surrounded by the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements. The view factor between the catalytic reactor and the plurality of tubular oxygen transport membrane elements radiating heat to the catalytic reactor is greater than or equal to 0.5.

  10. A calcium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pujare, N.U.; Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report preliminary work performed in their laboratory on a high-temperature electrochemically reversible calcium-oxygen cell. Following an analogous strategy to that recently discussed for the lithium-oxygen secondary system, this calcium-oxygen cell utilizes stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes to achieve effective separation between half-cell reactions.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF DOPED NANOPOROUS CARBONS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angela D. Lueking; Qixiu Li; John V. Badding; Dania Fonseca; Humerto Gutierrez; Apurba Sakti; Kofi Adu; Michael Schimmel

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen storage materials based on the hydrogen spillover mechanism onto metal-doped nanoporous carbons are studied, in an effort to develop materials that store appreciable hydrogen at ambient temperatures and moderate pressures. We demonstrate that oxidation of the carbon surface can significantly increase the hydrogen uptake of these materials, primarily at low pressure. Trace water present in the system plays a role in the development of active sites, and may further be used as a strategy to increase uptake. Increased surface density of oxygen groups led to a significant enhancement of hydrogen spillover at pressures less than 100 milibar. At 300K, the hydrogen uptake was up to 1.1 wt. % at 100 mbar and increased to 1.4 wt. % at 20 bar. However, only 0.4 wt% of this was desorbable via a pressure reduction at room temperature, and the high lowpressure hydrogen uptake was found only when trace water was present during pretreatment. Although far from DOE hydrogen storage targets, storage at ambient temperature has significant practical advantages oner cryogenic physical adsorbents. The role of trace water in surface modification has significant implications for reproducibility in the field. High-pressure in situ characterization of ideal carbon surfaces in hydrogen suggests re-hybridization is not likely under conditions of practical interest. Advanced characterization is used to probe carbon-hydrogen-metal interactions in a number of systems and new carbon materials have been developed.

  12. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of...

  13. Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems- Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen. Design and operations standards and materials for hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

  14. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen Program Review Hydrogen Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Report for the 2001 Hydrogen Program Review This paper, presented at the 2001 DOE...

  15. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5037: Hydrogen Storage Materials - 2004 vs. 2006 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage Materials - 2004 vs. 2006 This program record from the Department...

  16. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22, 2002-July 22, 2002 Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22,...

  17. Preliminary Design Report for Modeling of Hydrogen Uptake in Fuel Rod Cladding During Severe Accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, Larry James

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary designs are described for models of hydrogen and oxygen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents. Calculation of the uptake involves the modeling of seven processes: (1) diffusion of oxygen from the bulk gas into the boundary layer at the external cladding surface, (2) diffusion from the boundary layer into the oxide layer, (3) diffusion from the inner surface of the oxide layer into the metallic part of the cladding, (4) uptake of hydrogen in the event that the clad-ding oxide layer is dissolved in a steam-starved region, (5) embrittlement of cladding due to hydrogen uptake, (6) cracking of cladding during quenching due to its embrittlement and (7) release of hydrogen from the cladding after cracking of the cladding. An integral diffusion method is described for calculating the diffusion processes in the cladding. Experimental results are presented that show a rapid uptake of hydrogen in the event of dissolution of the oxide layer and a rapid release of hydrogen in the event of cracking of the oxide layer. These experimental results are used as a basis for calculating the rate of hydrogen uptake and the rate of hydrogen release. The uptake of hydrogen is limited to the equilibrium solubility calculated by applying Sievert's law. The uptake of hydrogen is an exothermic reaction that accelerates the heatup of a fuel rod. An embrittlement criteria is described that accounts for hydrogen and oxygen concentration and the extent of oxidation. A design is described for implementing the models for hydrogen and oxygen uptake and cladding embrittlement into the programming framework of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code. A test matrix is described for assessing the impact of the proposed models on the calculated behavior of fuel rods in severe accident conditions. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled; "Preliminary Design Report for Modeling of Hydrogen Uptake in Fuel Rod Cladding During Severe Accidents."

  18. Oxygen-stabilized zirconium-vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.

    1981-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr/sub x/OV/sub y/ where x = 0.7 to 2.0 and y = 0.18 to 0.33 is described. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from - 196/sup 0/C to 450/sup 0/C at pressures down to 10/sup -6/ Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO/sub 2/.

  19. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  20. The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    will trump hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. Advocates ofbenefits sooner than hydrogen and fuel cells ever could.emissions from a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle will be about

  1. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  2. Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and evaluate hydrogen enriched natural gas (HCNG) enginewas to demonstrate that hydrogen enriched natural gas (HCNG)characteristics of hydrogen enriched natural gas combustion,

  3. Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the electronic level of hydrogen (thick red bar) was notdescribing the behavior of hydrogen atoms as impuritiesenergy of interstitial hydrogen as a function of Fermi level

  4. A HYDROGEN IGNITION MECHANISM FOR EXPLOSIONS IN NUCLEAR FACILITY PIPING SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leishear, R.

    2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen explosions may occur simultaneously with water hammer accidents in nuclear facilities, and a theoretical mechanism to relate water hammer to hydrogen deflagrations and explosions is presented herein. Hydrogen and oxygen generation due to the radiolysis of water is a recognized hazard in pipe systems used in the nuclear industry, where the accumulation of hydrogen and oxygen at high points in the pipe system is expected, and explosive conditions may occur. Pipe ruptures in nuclear reactor cooling systems were attributed to hydrogen explosions inside pipelines, i.e., Hamaoka, Nuclear Power Station in Japan, and Brunsbuettel in Germany. Prior to these accidents, an ignition source for hydrogen was not clearly demonstrated, but these accidents demonstrated that a mechanism was, in fact, available to initiate combustion and explosion. A new theory to identify an ignition source and explosion cause is presented here, and further research is recommended to fully understand this explosion mechanism.

  5. Effect of the hydrogen tunnelling states of the acoustic wave propagation in niobium at low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    L-387 Effect of the hydrogen tunnelling states of the acoustic wave propagation in niobium at low son ŕ 200 MHz a été mesurée jusqu'ŕ 50 mK dans des monocristaux de niobium contenant de l'oxygčne et at 200 MHz has been measured down to 50 mK in single crystals of niobium doped with oxygen and hydrogen

  6. An experimental investigation of the ignition properties of hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wooldridge, Margaret S.

    for syngas turbine applications S.M. Walton *, X. He, B.T. Zigler, M.S. Wooldridge Department of Mechanical of simulated syngas mixtures of hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO), oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and carbon. Keywords: Carbon monoxide; Hydrogen; Syngas; Ignition; Rapid compression facility 1. Introduction Syngas

  7. Hydrogen separation membranes annual report for FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Ciocco, M.; Doctor, R. D.; Dorris, S.E.; Emerson, J. E.; Fisher, B.; Lee, T. H.; Killmeyer, R. P.; Morreale,B.; Picciolo, J. J.; Siriwardane, R. V.; Song, S. J.

    2007-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to develop dense ceramic membranes for separating hydrogen from other gaseous components in a nongalvanic mode, i.e., without using an external power supply or electrical circuitry. This goal of this project is to develop two types of dense ceramic membrane for producing hydrogen nongalvanically, i.e., without electrodes or external power supply, at commercially significant fluxes under industrially relevant operating conditions. The first type of membrane, hydrogen transport membranes (HTMs), will be used to separate hydrogen from gas mixtures such as the product streams from coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions. Potential ancillary uses of HTMs include dehydrogenation and olefin production, as well as hydrogen recovery in petroleum refineries and ammonia synthesis plants, the largest current users of deliberately produced hydrogen. The second type of membrane, oxygen transport membranes (OTMs), will produce hydrogen by nongalvanically removing oxygen that is generated when water dissociates at elevated temperatures. This report describes progress that was made during FY 2006 on the development of OTM and HTM materials.

  8. Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Strategic Initiatives, and Infrastructure Technologies Program #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Design & Operation development) #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: Future H2 Infrastructure Wind Powered

  9. OXYGEN DEPLETION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS FOR GRAIN MODELS AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELEMENTAL OXYGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittet, D. C. B. [New York Center for Astrobiology, and Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2010-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper assesses the implications of a recent discovery that atomic oxygen is being depleted from diffuse interstellar gas at a rate that cannot be accounted for by its presence in silicate and metallic oxide particles. To place this discovery in context, the uptake of elemental O into dust is considered over a wide range of environments, from the tenuous intercloud gas and diffuse clouds sampled by the depletion observations to dense clouds where ice mantles and gaseous CO become important reservoirs of O. The distribution of O in these contrasting regions is quantified in terms of a common parameter, the mean number density of hydrogen (n{sub H}). At the interface between diffuse and dense phases (just before the onset of ice-mantle growth) as much as {approx}160 ppm of the O abundance is unaccounted for. If this reservoir of depleted oxygen persists to higher densities it has implications for the oxygen budget in molecular clouds, where a shortfall of the same order is observed. Of various potential carriers, the most plausible appears to be a form of O-bearing carbonaceous matter similar to the organics found in cometary particles returned by the Stardust mission. The 'organic refractory' model for interstellar dust is re-examined in the light of these findings, and it is concluded that further observations and laboratory work are needed to determine whether this class of material is present in quantities sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the unidentified depleted oxygen.

  10. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present quarter, the possibility of using a more complex interfacial engineering approach to the development of reliable and stable oxygen transport perovskite ceramic membranes/metal seals is discussed. Experiments are presented and ceramic/metal interactions are characterized. Crack growth and fracture toughness of the membrane in the reducing conditions are also discussed. Future work regarding this approach is proposed are evaluated for strength and fracture in oxygen gradient conditions. Oxygen gradients are created in tubular membranes by insulating the inner surface from the reducing environment by platinum foils. Fracture in these test conditions is observed to have a gradient in trans and inter-granular fracture as opposed to pure trans-granular fracture observed in homogeneous conditions. Fracture gradients are reasoned to be due to oxygen gradient set up in the membrane, variation in stoichiometry across the thickness and due to varying decomposition of the parent perovskite. The studies are useful in predicting fracture criterion in actual reactor conditions and in understanding the initial evolution of fracture processes.

  11. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout- Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Targets, barriers and research and development priorities for gaseous delivery of hydrogen through hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

  12. A C-H...O Hydrogen Bond Stabilized Polypeptide Chain Reversal Motif

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babu, M. Madan

    A C-H...O Hydrogen Bond Stabilized Polypeptide Chain Reversal Motif at the C-terminus of Helices between the C atom of residue Ala 4 (T-4) and the backbone oxygen atom of DLeu 9. The C-H...O hydrogen Nitrogenase MoFe protein (PDB: 1qh8). The N-H...O hydrogen bond parameters are: O...N = 3.19Ă?; O...H = 2.48 Ă?

  13. Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Direct Observation of the Oxygenated Species during Oxygen Reduction on a Platinum Fuel Cell Cathode Friday, December 20, 2013 Fuel Cell Figure 1 Figure 1. In situ x-ray...

  14. Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7 detection Pipeline Safety: odorants, flame visibility Compression: cost, reliability #12;Breakout Session goal of a realistic, multi-energy distribution network model Pipeline Technology Improved field

  15. Hydrogen transport membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  16. Hydrogen Fuel Quality (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohi, J.

    2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Jim Ohi of NREL's presentation on Hydrogen Fuel Quality at the 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation on May 15-18, 2007 in Arlington, Virginia.

  17. Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Doe Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting August 31, 2005 #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Air Liquide Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 4 Copyright: 3. Special

  18. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  19. Webinar: Hydrogen Refueling Protocols

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Refueling Protocols, originally presented on February 22, 2013.

  20. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  1. Mechanism of heterogeneous catalytic reactions involving molecular hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golodets, G.I.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By means of various physicochemical methods, including kinetics, the mechanism of a series of reactions involving molecular H/sub 2/ (the hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds, nitriles, carbon monoxide, molecular nitrogen, and oxygen) on metallic catalysts of different chemical compositions and degrees of dispersion has been investigated. Some general laws for reactions of this class are formulated.

  2. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  3. Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction and Compression

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction and Compression - Overview of commercial hydrogen liquefaction and compression and opportunities to improve efficiencies and reduce cost.

  4. Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27°C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully “gettered” by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in air) for the duration of the tests. However, catalytic reaction of hydrogen with carbon triple or double bonds in the getter materials did not take place. Instead, catalytic recombination was the predominant gettering mechanism in both getter materials as evidenced by (1) consumption of oxygen in the belljars, (2) production of free water in the belljars, and (3) absence of chemical changes in both getter materials as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

  5. Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry

    Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez University of California, Berkeley #12;OUTLINE WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? HISTORY IMPORTANCE THEORY HOW TO MAKE ANTI-HYDROGEN OTHER ANTI-MATTER EXPERIMENTS CONCLUSION #12;WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? Anti-hydrogen is composed of a Positron(anti-electron) and anti-Proton. Anti-Hydrogen

  6. Hydrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael (Longmont, CO); Xie, Xiaobing (Foster City, CA); Evenson, IV, Carl (Lafayette, CO); Grimmer, Paul (Longmont, CO); Wright, Harold (Longmont, CO)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  7. Oxygen Concentration Microgradients for Cell Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jaehyun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Chemotactic Effect of Oxygen on Bacteria,” J. Pathol.Measurement and Control of Oxygen Levels in MicrofluidicA Microfabricated Electrochemical Oxygen Generator for High-

  8. Oxygen abundances in the most oxygen-rich spiral galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin; T. X. Thuan; J. M. Vilchez

    2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen abundances in the spiral galaxies expected to be richest in oxygen are estimated. The new abundance determinations are based on the recently discovered ff-relation between auroral and nebular oxygen line fluxes in HII regions. We find that the maximum gas-phase oxygen abundance in the central regions of spiral galaxies is 12+log(O/H)~8.75. This value is significantly lower than the previously accepted value. The central oxygen abundance in the Milky Way is similar to that in other large spirals.

  9. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E. (Kensington, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized (the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior.

  10. High pressure oxygen furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1992-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature high pressure oxygen furnace having a hybrid partially externally heated construction is disclosed. A metallic bar fabricated from an alloy having a composition of at least 45% nickel, 15% chrome, and 10% tungsten is utilized, the preferred alloy including 55% nickel, 22% chrome, 14% tungsten, 2% molybdenum, 3% iron (maximum) and 5% cobalt (maximum). The disclosed alloy is fabricated into 11/4 inch bar stock and has a length of about 17 inches. This bar stock is gun drilled for over 16 inches of its length with 0.400 inch aperture to define a closed high temperature, high pressure oxygen chamber. The opposite and closed end of the bar is provided with a small support aperture into which both a support and a thermocouple can be inserted. The closed end of the gun drilled bar is inserted into an oven, preferably heated by standard nickel chrome electrical elements and having a heavily insulated exterior. 5 figs.

  11. Method for producing hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, J.L.

    1980-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a method for producing high quality hydrogen, the carbon monoxide level of a hydrogen stream which also contains hydrogen sulfide is shifted in a bed of iron oxide shift catalyst to a desired low level of carbon monoxide using less catalyst than the minimum amount of catalyst which would otherwise be required if there were no hydrogen sulfide in the gas stream. Under normal operating conditions the presence of even relatively small amounts of hydrogen sulfide can double the activity of the catalyst such that much less catalyst may be used to do the same job.

  12. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the previous research, the reference point of oxygen occupancy was determined and verified. In the current research, the oxygen occupancy was investigated at 1200 C as a function of oxygen activity and compared with that at 1000 C. The cause of bumps at about 200 C was also investigated by using different heating and cooling rates during TGA. The fracture toughness of LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature is an important mechanical property. Vicker's indentation method was used to evaluate this toughness. Through this technique, a K{sub Ic} (Mode-I Fracture Toughness) value is attained by means of semi-empirical correlations between the indentation load and the length of the cracks emanating from the corresponding Vickers indentation impression. In the present investigation, crack propagation behavior was extensively analyzed in order to understand the strengthening mechanisms involved in the non-transforming La based ceramic composites. Cracks were generated using Vicker's indenter and used to identify and evaluate the toughening mechanisms involved. Preliminary results of an electron microscopy study of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Modeling of the isotopic transients on operating membranes (LSCrF-2828 at 900 C) and a ''frozen'' isotope profile have been analyzed in conjunction with a 1-D model to reveal the gradient in oxygen diffusivity through the membrane under conditions of high chemical gradients.

  13. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. The in situ electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements were made on LSFT at 1000 and 1200 C over the oxygen activity range from air to 10{sup -15} atm. The electrical conductivity measurements exhibited a p to n type transition at an oxygen activity of 1 x 10{sup -10} at 1000 C and 1 x 10{sup -6} at 1200 C. Thermogravimetric studies were also carried out over the same oxygen activities and temperatures. Based on the results of these measurements, the chemical and mechanical stability range of LSFT were determined and defect structure was established. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes exposed to air and N{sub 2} at 1000 C was done and the XRD and SEM analysis of the specimens were carried out to understand the structural and microstructural changes. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affect the mechanical properties. A complete transformation of fracture behavior was observed in the N{sub 2} treated LSFT samples. Further results to investigate the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appear to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. Recent results on transient kinetic data are presented. The 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model is used to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  14. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego; Anastasia A. Gandrik

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  15. FORMATION OF HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN ELECTRON-IRRADIATED CRYSTALLINE WATER ICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ralf I.

    Weijun Zheng,1,2 David Jewitt,1 and Ralf I. Kaiser2,3 Receivved 2005 August 15; accepted 2005 October 27 in an ultrahigh vacuum setup by energetic electrons holding a linear energy transfer of 4:3 Ć 0:1 keV mŔ1 to irradiation by energetic species from the solar wind (keV particles), the Galactic cosmic radiation field (ke

  16. HYDROGEN USAGE AND STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    It is thought that it will be useful to inform society and people who are interested in hydrogen energy. The study below has been prepared due to this aim can be accepted as an article to exchange of information between people working on this subject. This study has been presented to reader to be utilized as a “technical note”. Main Energy sources coal, petroleum and natural gas are the fossil fuels we use today. They are going to be exhausted since careless usage in last decades through out the world, and human being is going to face the lack of energy sources in the near future. On the other hand as the fossil fuels pollute the environment makes the hydrogen important for an alternative energy source against to the fossil fuels. Due to the slow progress in hydrogen’s production, storage and converting into electrical energy experience, extensive usage of Hydrogen can not find chance for applications in wide technological practices. Hydrogen storage stands on an important point in the development of Hydrogen energy Technologies. Hydrogen is volumetrically low energy concentration fuel. Hydrogen energy, to meet the energy quantity necessary for the nowadays technologies and to be accepted economically and physically against fossil fuels, Hydrogen storage technologies have to be developed in this manner. Today the most common method in hydrogen storage may be accepted as the high pressurized composite tanks. Hydrogen is stored as liquid or gaseous phases. Liquid hydrogen phase can be stored by using composite tanks under very high pressure conditions. High technology composite material products which are durable to high pressures, which should not be affected by hydrogen embrittlement and chemical conditions.[1

  17. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the small polaron conduction mechanism. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to develop strategies to detect and characterize vacancy creation, dopant segregations and defect association in the oxygen conducting membrane material. The pO{sub 2} and temperature dependence of the conductivity, non-stoichiometry and thermal-expansion behavior of compositions with increasing complexity of substitution on the perovskite A and B sites were studied. Studies with the perovskite structure show anomalous behavior at low oxygen partial pressures (<10{sup -5} atm). The anomalies are due to non-equilibrium effects and can be avoided by using very strict criteria for the attainment of equilibrium. The slowness of the oxygen equilibration kinetics arises from two different mechanisms. In the first, a two phase region occurs between an oxygen vacancy ordered phase such as brownmillerite SrFeO{sub 2.5} and perovskite SrFeO{sub 3-x}. The slow kinetics is associated with crossing the two phase region. The width of the miscibility gap decreases with increasing temperature and consequently the effect is less pronounced at higher temperature. The preferred kinetic pathway to reduction of perovskite ferrites when the vacancy concentration corresponds to the formation of significant concentrations of Fe{sup 2+} is via the formation of a Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases as clearly observed in the case of La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}FeO{sub 3-x} where LaSrFeO{sub 4} is found together with Fe. In more complex compositions, such as LSFTO, iron or iron rich phases are observed locally with no evidence for the presence of discrete RP phase. Fracture strength of tubular perovskite membranes was determined in air and in reducing atmospheric conditions. The strength of the membrane decreased with temperature and severity of reducing conditions although the strength distribution (Weibull parameter, m) was relatively unaltered. Surface and volume dominated the fracture origins and the overall fracture was purely transgranular. The dual phas

  18. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was carried out on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} to investigate oxygen deficiency ({delta}) of the sample. The TGA was performed in a controlled atmosphere using oxygen, argon, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with adjustable gas flow rates. In this experiment, the weight loss and gain of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} was directly measured by TGA. The weight change of the sample was evaluated at between 600 and 1250 C in air or 1000 C as a function of oxygen partial pressure. The oxygen deficiencies calculated from TGA data as a function of oxygen activity and temperature will be estimated and compared with that from neutron diffraction measurement in air. The LSFT and LSFT/CGO membranes were fabricated from the powder obtained from Praxair Specialty Ceramics. The sintered membranes were subjected to microstructure analysis and hardness analysis. The LSFT membrane is composed of fine grains with two kinds of grain morphology. The grain size distribution was characterized using image analysis. In LSFT/CGO membrane a lot of grain pullout was observed from the less dense, porous phase. The hardness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes were studied at various loads. The hardness values obtained from the cross section of the membranes were also compared to that of the values obtained from the surface. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. Measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure are reported. Further analysis of the dilatometry data obtained previously is presented. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  19. Oxygen detoxification in micro-metazoans of the sulfide-system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrill, Audrey Carr

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    )& neither need or possess the enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are neccessary to detoxify hydrogen peroxide& H 0 , and superoxide radicals, 0 , respectively. Second& if meioi'auna do contain catalase and superoxide dismutase, could.... It is possible that superoxi. de radioals and The style and format of this thesis follows that of &) ~~ hydrogen peroxide are formed in the process of sulfur detoxificationi since these are unwanted byproducts of any reaction involving molecular oxygen...

  20. Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2012-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

  1. Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Zhang, Junliang (Stony Brook, NY); Vukmirovic, Miomir (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

  2. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    psi) High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogen2005 High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogenthe hydrogen, a hydrogen compressor, high-pressure tank

  3. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

    2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  4. Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa-Aleman, Eliel (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

  5. Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on High-Stability-Low-Cost Supports Contiguous Platinum Monolayer Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts on...

  6. Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Using Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride). Stabilization of Platinum Nanoparticle Electrocatalysts for Oxygen...

  7. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ti doping on La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-{delta}} (LSF) tends to increase the oxygen equilibration kinetics of LSF in lower oxygen activity environment because of the high valence state of Ti. However, the addition of Ti decreases the total conductivity because the acceptor ([Sr{prime}{sub La}]) is compensated by the donor ([Ti{sub Fe}{sup {sm_bullet}}]) which decreases the carrier concentration. The properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSFT, x = 0.45) have been experimentally and theoretically investigated to elucidate (1) the dependence of oxygen occupancy and electrochemical properties on temperature and oxygen activity by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and (2) the electrical conductivity and carrier concentration by Seebeck coefficient and electrical measurements. In the present study, dual phase (La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.6}Ti{sub 0.4}O{sub 3-{delta}}/Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 2-{delta}}) membranes have been evaluated for structural properties such as hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength. The effect of high temperature and slightly reducing atmosphere on the structural properties of the membranes was studied. The flexural strength of the membrane decreases upon exposure to slightly reducing conditions at 1000 C. The as-received and post-fractured membranes were characterized using XRD, SEM and TG-DTA to understand the fracture mechanisms. Changes in structural properties of the composite were sought to be correlated with the physiochemical features of the two-phases. We have reviewed the electrical conductivity data and stoichiometry data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} some of which was reported previously. Electrical conductivity data for La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCrF) were obtained in the temperature range, 752 {approx} 1055 C and in the pO{sub 2} range, 10{sup -18} {approx} 0.5 atm. The slope of the plot of log {sigma} vs. log pO{sub 2} is {approx} 1/5 in the p-type region, pO{sub 2} = 10{sup -5} {approx} 10{sup -1} atm. The pO{sub 2} at which the p-n transition is observed increases with increasing temperature. The activation energy for ionic conduction was estimated to be 0.86 eV from an Arrhenius plot of the minimum conductivity vs. reciprocal temperature. At temperatures below 940 C, a plateau in the conductivity isotherm suggests the presence of a two-phase region. Most likely, phase separation occurs to form a mixture of a perovskite phase and an oxygen vacancy ordered phase related to brownmillerite. Additional data for the oxygen non stoichiometry are presented.

  8. Hydrogen production by water dissociation using ceramic membranes. Annual report for FY 2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Chen, L.; Dorris, S. E.; Emerson, J. E.; Lee, T. H.; Park, C. Y.; Picciolo, J. J.; Song, S. J.; Energy Systems

    2008-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop dense ceramic membranes that, without using an external power supply or circuitry, can produce hydrogen via coal/coal gas-assisted water dissociation. This project grew out of an effort to develop a dense ceramic membrane for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures such as those generated during coal gasification, methane partial oxidation, and water-gas shift reactions [1]. That effort led to the development of various cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) membranes that enable hydrogen to be produced by two methods. In one method, a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) selectively removes hydrogen from a gas mixture by transporting it through either a mixed protonic/electronic conductor or a hydrogen transport metal. In the other method, an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) generates hydrogen mixed with steam by removing oxygen that is generated through water splitting [1, 2]. This project focuses on the development of OTMs that efficiently produce hydrogen via the dissociation of water. Supercritical boilers offer very high-pressure steam that can be decomposed to provide pure hydrogen by means of OTMs. Oxygen resulting from the dissociation of steam can be used for coal gasification, enriched combustion, or synthesis gas production. Hydrogen and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} can be produced from coal and steam by using the membrane being developed in this project. Although hydrogen can also be generated by high-temperature steam electrolysis, producing hydrogen by water splitting with a mixed-conducting membrane requires no electric power or electrical circuitry.

  9. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films. Abstract: Abstract: Hydrogen is being...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Materials & Components Compatibility Hydrogen Behavior Quantitative Risk Assessment Hydrogen Infrastructure Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Market Transformation...

  11. Hydrogen Permeation Resistant Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KORINKO, PAUL; ADAMS, THAD; CREECH, GREGGORY

    2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings may be applied to these ferrous alloys to retard hydrogen ingress. Hydrogen is known to be very mobile in materials of construction. In this study, the permeation resistance of bare stainless steel samples and coated stainless steel samples was tested. The permeation resistance was measured using a modular permeation rig using a pressure rise technique. The coating microstructure and permeation results will be discussed in this document as will some additional testing.

  12. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  13. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  14. Nanoparticulate-catalyzed oxygen transfer processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew T. (Atlanta, GA); Breitkopf, Richard C. (Dunwoody, GA)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticulates of oxygen transfer materials that are oxides of rare earth metals, combinations of rare earth metals, and combinations of transition metals and rare earth metals are used as catalysts in a variety of processes. Unexpectedly large thermal efficiencies are achieved relative to micron sized particulates. Processes that use these catalysts are exemplified in a multistage reactor. The exemplified reactor cracks C6 to C20 hydrocarbons, desulfurizes the hydrocarbon stream and reforms the hydrocarbons in the stream to produce hydrogen. In a first reactor stage the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate mixed rare earth metal oxide to crack larger hydrocarbon molecules. In a second stage, the steam and hydrocarbon are passed through particulate material that desulfurizes the hydrocarbon. In a third stage, the hydrocarbon and steam are passed through a heated, mixed transition metal/rare earth metal oxide to reform the lower hydrocarbons and thereby produce hydrogen. Stages can be alone or combined. Parallel reactors can provide continuous reactant flow. Each of the processes can be carried out individually.

  15. Composite oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Lane, Jonathan A.

    2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a composite oxygen ion membrane and a composite oxygen ion membrane in which a porous fuel oxidation layer and a dense separation layer and optionally, a porous surface exchange layer are formed on a porous support from mixtures of (Ln.sub.1-xA.sub.x).sub.wCr.sub.1-yB.sub.yO.sub.3-.delta. and a doped zirconia. In the porous fuel oxidation layer and the optional porous surface exchange layer, A is Calcium and in the dense separation layer A is not Calcium and, preferably is Strontium. Preferred materials are (La.sub.0.8Ca.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Mn.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the porous fuel oxidation and optional porous surface exchange layers and (La.sub.0.8Sr.sub.0.2).sub.0.95Cr.sub.0.5Fe.sub.0.5O.sub.3-.delta. for the dense separation layer. The use of such materials allows the membrane to sintered in air and without the use of pore formers to reduce membrane manufacturing costs. The use of materials, as described herein, for forming the porous layers have application for forming any type of porous structure, such as a catalyst support.

  16. Hydrogen Delivery - Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Delivery Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Photo of light-duty vehicle at hydrogen refueling station. Infrastructure is required to move hydrogen from the...

  17. Department of Energy - Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Goes to.... Lighting Up Operations with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology http:energy.goveerearticlesand-oscar-sustainable-mobile-lighting-goes-lighting-operations-hydro...

  18. Hydrogen Industrial Trucks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides from the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Component and System Qualification Workshop held November 4, 2010 in Livermore, CA.

  19. Hydrogen purification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golben, Peter Mark

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a system to purify hydrogen involving the use of a hydride compressor and catalytic converters combined with a process controller.

  20. Renewable Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remick, R. J.

    2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation about the United State's dependence on oil, how energy solutions are challenging, and why hydrogen should be considered as a long-term alternative for transportation fuel.

  1. Hydrogen Storage Related Links

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following resources provide details about DOE-funded hydrogen storage activities, research plans and roadmaps, models and tools, and additional related links.

  2. Sustainable hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  3. DOE Hydrogen Program Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CO 2 emissions & energy consumption International Partnership for the Hydrogen Economy Norway An IPHE Vision: "... consumers will have the practical option of purchasing a...

  4. Hydrogen Fuel Cells

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    The fuel cell — an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen — is the key to making it happen.

  5. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  6. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in yield and 4 cP in viscosity in comparison to high AA pulp for the oxygen delignification. This difference is also seen for high-kappa SW kraft pulps with an average improvement of {approx}3% in yield and 3 cP in viscosity for low AA high kappa number 50 pulp. Low AA hardwood kappa number 20 pulp had an average improvement of {approx}4% in yield and 6-12 cP in viscosity as compared to high AA pulp. Lower kraft cooking temperature (160 vs. 170 C) in combination with the medium AA provides a practical approach for integrating high kappa pulping of hardwoods (i.e., low rejects) with an advanced extended oxygen delignification stage. ECF pulp bleaching of low and high kappa kraft SW and HW pulps exhibit comparable optical and physical strength properties when bleached D(EPO)D.

  7. Method for oxygen reduction in a uranium-recovery process. [US DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, F.J.; Brown, G.M.; Posey, F.A.

    1981-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in effecting uranium recovery from phosphoric acid solutions is provided by sparging dissolved oxygen contained in solutions and solvents used in a reductive stripping stage with an effective volume of a nonoxidizing gas before the introduction of the solutions and solvents into the stage. Effective volumes of nonoxidizing gases, selected from the group consisting of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and mixtures thereof, displace oxygen from the solutions and solvents thereby reduce deleterious effects of oxygen such as excessive consumption of elemental or ferrous iron and accumulation of complex iron phosphates or cruds.

  8. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  9. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Li, Yingwel (Ann Arbor, MI); Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  10. Hydrogen Energy Technology Geoff Dutton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engines Hydrogen-fuelled turbines Fuel cells Hydrogen systems OverallHydrogen Energy Technology Geoff Dutton April 2002 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Tyndall°Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 17 #12;Hydrogen Energy Technology Dr Geoff Dutton

  11. Combination moisture and hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1982-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the reusltant hydrogen.

  12. Total number of slots consumed in long_excl.q (exclusive nodes) will be

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003Tool ofTopo II: AnPipeline. 111.14.2restricted

  13. Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

    1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

  14. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to th

  15. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J. Politano, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL This project developed a hydrogen and fuel cel

  16. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O'Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  17. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  18. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C. It was found that space group of R3c yielded a better refinement than a cubic structure of Pm3m. Oxygen occupancy was nearly 3 in the region from room temperature to 700 C, above which the occupancy decreased due to oxygen loss. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. The X-Ray data and fracture mechanisms points to non-equilibrium decomposition of the LSFCO OTM membrane. The non-equilibrium conditions could probably be due to the nature of the applied stress field (stressing rates) and leads to transition in crystal structures and increased kinetics of decomposition. The formations of a Brownmillerite or Sr2Fe2O5 type structures, which are orthorhombic are attributed to the ordering of oxygen vacancies. The cubic to orthorhombic transitions leads to 2.6% increase in strains and thus residual stresses generated could influence the fracture behavior of the OTM membrane. Continued investigations on the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase-separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials were carried out. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previously characterization, stoichiometry and conductivity measurements for samples of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were reported. In this report, measurements of the chemical and thermal expansion as a function of temperature and p{sub O2} are described.

  19. Electrochemical studies of quinone oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deanhardt, M.L. (Lander College, Greenwood, SC (US)); Mushrush, G.W.; Stalick, W.M. (Chemistry Dept., George mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (US)); Watkins, J.M. Jr. (Naval Research Lab., Fuels Section, Code 6180, Washington, DC (US))

    1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Asphaltenes are a chemically complex mixture of aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. This material contains oxygen in various functional groups. The distribution includes esters, carboxylic acids, phenolic and most probably quinone type oxygen functionalities. The present work details the complete electrochemical behaviour of quinone type oxygen. The method is quinone specific. A condensed aromatic quinone, 9,10-anthraquinone, was selected as representative of complex quinones. By this method quinones can be determined in the presence of other oxygen functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, ethers, and other carbonyls.

  20. Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today's state of the art for hydrogen storage includes 5,000- and 10,000-psi compressed gas tanks and cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks for on-board hydrogen storage.

  1. Renewable Resources for Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation provides an overview of renewable resources for hydrogen. It was presented at the National Hydrogen Association Hydrogen Conference & Expo in Long Beach, CA, May 3-6, 2010.

  2. Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

  3. Hydrogen Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Analysis Hydrogen Analysis Presentation on Hydrogen Analysis to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of...

  4. The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It appears to us that hydrogen is a highly promising option06—16 The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen Daniel Sperling Joan OgdenThe Bumpy Road to Hydrogen 1 Daniel Sperling and Joan Ogden

  5. Hydrogen Delivery- Current Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is transported from the point of production to the point of use via pipeline, over the road in cryogenic liquid trucks or gaseous tube trailers, or by rail or barge. Read on to learn more about current hydrogen delivery and storage technologies.

  6. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  7. August 2006 Hydrogen Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report evaluating's primary transportation fuel from petroleum, which is increasingly imported, to hydrogen, which can the energy, environmental and economic benefits of a hydrogen economy. The goals and milestones

  8. Hydrogen Storage CODES & STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    automotive start-up. · Air/Thermal/Water Management ­ improved air systems, high temperature membranes, heat to pump Hydrogen Fuel/ Storage/ Infrastructure $45/kW (2010) $30kW (2015) 325 W/kg 220 W/L 60% (hydrogen system Component Air management, sensors, MEA's, membranes, Bipolar Plates, fuel processor reactor zones

  9. Regional groundwater flow paths in Trans-Pecos, Texas inferred from oxygen,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banner, Jay L.

    isotopes Matthew M. Uliana a,*, Jay L. Banner b , John M. Sharp Jr. b a Department of Earth and hydrogen, oxygen, and strontium isotopes. dD and d18 O values fall close to the global meteoric water line in the alluvial fill at the upgradient end of the flow system. ÂŞ 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 0022

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

  11. Integrated Renewable Hydrogen Utility System (IRHUS) business plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This business plan is for a proposed legal entity named IRHUS, Inc. which is to be formed as a subsidiary of Energy Partners, L.C. (EP) of West Palm Beach, Florida. EP is a research and development company specializing in hydrogen proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and systems. A fuel cell is an engine with no moving parts that takes in hydrogen and produces electricity. The purpose of IRHUS, Inc. is to develop and manufacture a self-sufficient energy system based on the fuel cell and other new technology that produces hydrogen and electricity. The product is called the Integrated renewable Hydrogen utility System (IRHUS). IRHUS, Inc. plans to start limited production of the IRHUS in 2002. The IRHUS is a unique product with an innovative concept in that it provides continuous electrical power in places with no electrical infrastructure, i.e., in remote and island locations. The IRHUS is a zero emissions, self-sufficient, hydrogen fuel generation system that produces electricity on a continuous basis by combining any renewable power source with hydrogen technology. Current plans are to produce a 10 kilowatt IRHUS MP (medium power). Future plans are to design and manufacture IRHUS models to provide power for a variety of power ranges for identified attractive market segments. The technological components of the IRHUS include an electrolyzer, hydrogen and oxygen storage subsystems, fuel cell system, and power control system. The IRHUS product is to be integrated with a variety of renewable energy technologies. 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). ItĆs made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Hydrogen Infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Infrastructure Widespread Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Is the Goal of H2FIRST Project On June 4, 2014, in Capabilities, Center for Infrastructure Research and...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Hydrogen Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Safety Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production On June 13, 2014, in SNL maintains the equipment, experts, and partnerships required to develop technology for solar...

  15. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and technology pathways are impacted by their analyses. These technical teams include Fuel Cells, Fuel Pathway Integration, Hydrogen Delivery, Hydrogen Production, Materials,...

  16. Turing Water into Hydrogen Fuel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel New method creates highly reactive catalytic surface, packed with hydroxyl species May 15, 2012 | Tags: Franklin,...

  17. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Infrastructure Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis Option Analysis DOE and FreedomCAR & Fuel Partnership Hydrogen Delivery and On-Board Storage Analysis Workshop...

  18. CAN HYDROGEN WIN?: EXPLORING SCENARIOS FOR HYDROGEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -constrained world. Long-run simulations were created using CIMS, a hybrid energy-economy model supply submodel was built to simulate economies of scale in infrastructure. Capital costs, technology such as biofuel plug-in hybrids, but did well when biofuels were removed or priced excessively. Hydrogen fuel

  19. Hydrogen Production and Delivery Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iouri Balachov, PhD

    2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to DOE's Solicitation for Grant Applications DE-PS36-03GO93007, 'Hydrogen Production and Delivery Research', SRI International (SRI) proposed to conduct work under Technical Topic Area 5, Advanced Electrolysis Systems; Sub-Topic 5B, High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis. We proposed to develop a prototype of a modular industrial system for low-cost generation of H{sub 2} (<$2/kg) by steam electrolysis with anodic depolarization by CO. Water will be decomposed electrochemically into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} on the cathode side of a high-temperature electrolyzer. Oxygen ions will migrate through an oxygen-ion-conductive solid oxide electrolyte. Gas mixtures on the cathode side (H{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O) and on the anode side (CO + CO{sub 2}) will be reliably separated by the solid electrolyte. Depolarization of the anodic process will decrease the electrolysis voltage, and thus the electricity required for H{sub 2} generation and the cost of produced H{sub 2}. The process is expected to be at least 10 times more energy-efficient than low-temperature electrolysis and will generate H{sub 2} at a cost of approximately $1-$1.5/kg. The operating economics of the system can be made even more attractive by deploying it at locations where waste heat is available; using waste heat would reduce the electricity required for heating the system. Two critical targets must be achieved: an H{sub 2} production cost below $2/kg, and scalable design of the pilot H{sub 2} generation system. The project deliverables would be (1) a pilot electrolysis system for H{sub 2} generation, (2) an economic analysis, (3) a market analysis, and (4) recommendations and technical documentation for field deployment. DOE was able to provide only 200K out of 1.8M (or about 10% of awarded budget), so project was stopped abruptly.

  20. Oxygen detection using evanescent fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Weenqing (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for the detection of oxygen using optical fiber based evanescent light absorption. Methylene blue was immobilized using a sol-gel process on a portion of the exterior surface of an optical fiber for which the cladding has been removed, thereby forming an optical oxygen sensor. When light is directed through the optical fiber, transmitted light intensity varies as a result of changes in the absorption of evanescent light by the methylene blue in response to the oxygen concentration to which the sensor is exposed. The sensor was found to have a linear response to oxygen concentration on a semi-logarithmic scale within the oxygen concentration range between 0.6% and 20.9%, a response time and a recovery time of about 3 s, ant to exhibit good reversibility and repeatability. An increase in temperature from 21.degree. C. to 35.degree. C. does not affect the net absorption of the sensor.

  1. Advancing the Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiner, Steven C.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A White Paper of the International Energy Agency Hydrogen Implementing Agreement Task 31 - Hydrogen Safety

  2. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to study the local environmentals of LSFT with various level of oxygen deficiency. Ionic valence state, magnetic interaction and influence of Ti on superexchange are discussed Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at elevated temperature, pressure and elevated conditions. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. An electrochemical cell has been designed and built for measurements of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of temperature and pressure. The initial measurements on La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} are reported. Neutron diffraction measurements of the same composition are in agreement with both the stoichiometry and the kinetic behavior observed in coulometric titration measurements. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The COCO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  3. Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    Low Oxygen Environments in Chesapeake Bay Jeremy Testa Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science Why we care about low oxygen? What causes low oxygen? Where and When does Chesapeake Bay lose oxygen? #12;#12;Hypoxia and Chesapeake Animals Low dissolved oxygen

  4. Production of hydrogen from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

    1985-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

  5. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid mixed-conducting electrolytes in the series La{sub l-x}A{sub x}Co{sub l-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A = Sr,Ca,Ba) are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as cathodes in fuel cells. All of the compositions studied exhibited very high electrical conductivities. At lower temperatures, conductivities increased with increasing temperature, characterized by activation energies of 0.05 to 0.16 eV that are consistent with a small polaron (localized electronic carrier) conduction mechanism. At higher temperatures, electronic conductivities tended to decrease with increasing temperature, which is attributed to decreased electronic carrier populations associated with lattice oxygen loss. Oxygen ion conductivities were higher than that of yttria stabilized zirconia and increased with the cobalt content and also increased with the extent of divalent A-site substitution. Thermogravimetric studies were conducted to establish the extent of oxygen vacancy formation as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and composition. These vacancy populations strongly depend on the extent of A-site substitution. Passive oxygen permeation rates were established for each of the compositions as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure gradient. For 2.5 mm thick membranes in an oxygen vs nitrogen partial pressure gradient, oxygen fluxes at 900 C ranged from approximately 0.3 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in iron and with low amounts of strontium A-site substitution to approximately 0.8 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in cobalt and strontium. A-site substitution with calcium instead of strontium resulted in substantially lower fluxes.

  6. Hydrogen from biomass: state of the art and research challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milne, Thomas A.; Elam, Carolyn C.; Evans, Robert J.

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen, Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. Hydrogen's share in the energy market is increasing with the implementation of fuel cell systems and the growing demand for zero-emission fuels. Hydrogen production will need to keep pace with this growing market. In the near term, increased production will likely be met by conventional technologies, such as natural gas reforming. In these processes, the carbon is converted to CO2 and released to the atmosphere. However, with the growing concern about global climate change, alternatives to the atmospheric release of CO2 are being investigated. Sequestration of the CO2 is an option that could provide a viable near-term solution. Reducing the demand on fossil resources remains a significant concern for many nations. Renewable-based processes like solar- or wind-driven electrolysis and photobiological water splitting hold great promise for clean hydrogen production; however, advances must still be made before these technologies can be economically competitive. For the near-and mid-term, generating hydrogen from biomass may be the more practical and viable, renewable and potentially carbon-neutral (or even carbon-negative in conjunction with sequestration) option. Recently, the IEA Hydrogen Agreement launched a new task to bring together international experts to investigate some of these near- and mid-term options for producing hydrogen with reduced environmental impacts. This review of the state of the art of hydrogen production from biomass was prepared to facilitate in the planning of work that should be done to achieve the goal of near-term hydrogen energy systems. The relevant technologies that convert biomass to hydrogen, with emphasis on thermochemical routes are described. In evaluating the viability of the conversion routes, each must be put in the context of the availability of appropriate feedstocks and deployment scenarios that match hydrogen to the local markets. Co-production opportunities are of particular interest for near-term deployment since multiple products improve the economics; however, co-product development is not covered in this report. Biomass has the potential to accelerate the realization of hydrogen as a major fuel of the future. Since biomass is renewable and consumes atmospheric CO2 during growth, it can have a small net CO2 impact compared to fossil fuels. However, hydrogen from biomass has major challenges. There are no completed technology demonstrations. The yield of hydrogen is low from biomass since the hydrogen content in biomass is low to being with (approximately 6% versus 25% for methane) and the energy content is low due to the 40% oxygen content of biomass. Since over half of the hydrogen from biomass comes from splitting water in the steam reforming reaction, the energy content of the feedstock is an inherent limitation of the process . The low yield of hydrogen on a weight basis is misleading since the energy conversion efficiency is high. However, the cost for growing, harvesting, and transporting biomass is high. Thus even with reasonable energy efficiencies, it is not presently economically competitive with natural gas steam reforming for stand-alone hydrogen without the advantage of high-value co-products. Additionally, as with all sources of hydrogen, production from biomass will require appropriate hydrogen storage and utilization systems to be developed and deployed. The report also looked at promising areas for further research and development. The major areas for R,D and D are: feedstock preparation and feeding; gasification gas conditioning; system integration; modular systems development; valuable co-product integration; and larger-scale demonstrations. These are in addition to the challenges for any hydrogen process in storage and utilization technologies.

  7. Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films K. Pangal,a) J. C August 1998; accepted for publication 21 October 1998 We report that a room temperature hydrogen plasma thermal crystallization of amorphous silicon time by a factor of five. Exposure to hydrogen plasma reduces

  8. BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efforts were undertaken · Conversion took place during a period of less regulation on pipeline activityBP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Gary P · UK partnership opened the first hydrogen demonstration refueling station · Two hydrogen pipelines

  9. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; W.B. Yelon; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and initial studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were loaded to fracture at varying stress rates. Studies were done at room temperature in air and at 1000 C in a specified environment to evaluate slow crack growth behavior. In addition, studies were also begun to obtain reliable estimates of fracture toughness and stable crack growth in specific environments. Newer composition of Ti doped LSF membranes were characterized by neutron diffraction analysis. Quench studies indicated an apparent correlation between the unit cell volume and oxygen occupancy. The studies however, indicated an anomaly of increasing Fe/Ti ratio with change in heat treatment. Ti doped LSF was also characterized for stoichiometry as a function of temp and pO{sub 2}. The non stoichiometry parameter {delta} was observed to increase almost linearly on lowering pO{sub 2} until a ideal stoichiometric composition of {delta} = 0.175 was approached.

  10. NREL's Hydrogen Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research and development taking place today at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is paving the way for nature's most plentiful element—hydrogen—to power the next generation. NREL researchers are working to unlock the potential of hydrogen and to advance the fuel cell technologies that will power the automobiles, equipment, and buildings of tomorrow. Hydrogen and fuel cells are a fundamental part of the broader portfolio of renewable technologies that are moving our nation toward its goals of energy independence and sustainability.

  11. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldridge, Frederick T. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  12. Increased Efficiency in SI Engine with Air Replaced by Oxygen in Argon Mixture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Killingsworth, N J; Rapp, V H; Flowers, D L; Aceves, S M; Chen, J; Dibble, R

    2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Basic engine thermodynamics predicts that spark ignited engine efficiency is a function of both the compression ratio of the engine and the specific heat ratio of the working fluid. In practice the compression ratio of the engine is often limited due to knock. Both higher specific heat ratio and higher compression ratio lead to higher end gas temperatures and increase the likelihood of knock. In actual engine cycles, heat transfer losses increase at higher compression ratios and limit efficiency even when the knock limit is not reached. In this paper we investigate the role of both the compression ratio and the specific heat ratio on engine efficiency by conducting experiments comparing operation of a single-cylinder variable-compression-ratio engine with both hydrogen-air and hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures. For low load operation it is found that the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures result in higher indicated thermal efficiencies. Peak efficiency for the hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures is found at compression ratio 5.5 whereas for the hydrogen-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of 0.24 the peak efficiency is found at compression ratio 13. We apply a three-zone model to help explain the effects of specific heat ratio and compression ratio on efficiency. Operation with hydrogen-oxygen-argon mixtures at low loads is more efficient because the lower compression ratio results in a substantially larger portion of the gas to reside in the adiabatic core rather than in the boundary layer and in the crevices, leading to less heat transfer and more complete combustion.

  13. Hydrogen and moisture getter and absorber for sealed devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, H.M.; Schicker, J.R.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a hydrogen getter and method for formulating and using the getter. This getter effectively removes hydrogen gas typically present in many hermetically-sealed electronic applications where the presence of such gas would otherwise be harmful to the electronics. The getter is a non-organic composition, usable in a wide range of temperatures as compared to organic getters. Moreover, the getter is formulated to be used without the need for the presence of oxygen. The getter is comprised of effective amounts of an oxide of a platinum group metal, a desiccant, and a gas permeable binder which preferably is cured after composition in an oxygen-bearing environment at about 150 to about 205 degrees centigrade.

  14. Hydrogen Strategies: an Integrated Resource Planning Analysis for the Development of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pigneri, Attilio

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of hydrogen infrastructure development strategiesalso presented. Keywords: Hydrogen Infrastructure, Renewableof a Tasmanian hydrogen infrastructure is performed

  15. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN UO2-x

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, K.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ K.C. K:i.m, "Oxygen Diffusion in Hypostoichiometricsystem for enriching uo 2 in oxygen-18 or for stoichiometry+nal of Nuclear Materials OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN U0 2 _:x K.C.

  16. Oxygen transfer in the implant environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goor, Jared Braden

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature dependence of oxygen diffusion and consumptionRN. Influence of temperature on oxygen diffusion in hamster341-347, 1988. Cox ME. Oxygen Diffusion in Poly(dimethyl

  17. Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

  18. Hybrid & Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    Hybrid & Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory www.vss.psu.edu/hhvrl Joel R. Anstrom, Director 201 The Pennsylvania Transportation Institute Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory will contribute to the advancement of hybrid and hydrogen vehicle technology to promote the emerging hydrogen economy by providing

  19. Webinar: Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials, originally presented on August 13, 2013.

  20. Hydrogen Production & Delivery Sara Dillich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ). 15% solar-to-chemical energy efficiency by microalgae Biomass Gasification Hydrogen Production Cost

  1. Hydrogen storage compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH4- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH4- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  2. Hydrogen storage compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  3. Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    biomass, landfill gas, bio-oil or biodiesel. CHP systems that use natural gas, wood pellets, hydrogen, propane or heating oil are also eligible.* March 28, 2014 Net Metering The...

  4. National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy developme

  5. The Hydrogen Connection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the world seeks to identify alternative energy sources, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will offer a broad range of benefits for the environment, the economy and energy security.

  6. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Water column oxygen demand and sediment oxygen flux: patterns of oxygen dissolved oxygen (DO) levels often occur during summer in tidal creeks along the southeastern coast of the USA. We analyzed rates of oxygen loss as water-column biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and sediment

  7. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects Fact Sheet. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel...

  8. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-yield process for converting lignin into reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline compositions of high quality is provided. The process is a two-stage catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated, partially oxygenated gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage of the process, a lignin feed material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction, followed by a selective hydrocracking reaction which utilizes a superacid catalyst to produce a high oxygen-content depolymerized lignin product mainly composed of alkylated phenols, alkylated alkoxyphenols, and alkylbenzenes. In the second stage of the process, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to an exhaustive etherification reaction, optionally followed by a partial ring hydrogenation reaction, to produce a reformulated, partially oxygenated/etherified gasoline product, which includes a mixture of substituted phenyl/methyl ethers, cycloalkyl methyl ethers, C.sub.7 -C.sub.10 alkylbenzenes, C.sub.6 -C.sub.10 branched and multibranched paraffins, and alkylated and polyalkylated cycloalkanes.

  9. Atomic oxygen patterning from a biomedical needle-plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Seán; Turner, Miles M. [School of Physical Science and National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)] [School of Physical Science and National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, Dublin City University, Dublin (Ireland)

    2013-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A “plasma needle” is a cold plasma source operating at atmospheric pressure. Such sources interact strongly with living cells, but experimental studies on bacterial samples show that this interaction has a surprising pattern resulting in circular or annular killing structures. This paper presents numerical simulations showing that this pattern occurs because biologically active reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are produced dominantly where effluent from the plasma needle interacts with ambient air. A novel solution strategy is utilised coupling plasma produced neutral (uncharged) reactive species to the gas dynamics solving for steady state profiles at the treated biological surface. Numerical results are compared with experimental reports corroborating evidence for atomic oxygen as a key bactericidal species. Surface losses are considered for interaction of plasma produced reactants with reactive solid and liquid interfaces. Atomic oxygen surface reactions on a reactive solid surface with adsorption probabilities above 0.1 are shown to be limited by the flux of atomic oxygen from the plasma. Interaction of the source with an aqueous surface showed hydrogen peroxide as the dominant species at this interface.

  10. Hydrogen recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

  11. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts continued to explore existing catalytic methods involving nano catalysts for capture of CO2 from the fermentation process.

  12. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana

    2003-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present quarter, experiments are presented on ceramic/metal interactions of Zirconia/ Ni-B-Si system and with a thin Ti coating deposited on zirconia surface. Existing facilities were modified for evaluation of environmental assisted slow crack growth and creep in flexural mode. Processing of perovskites of LSC, LSF and LSCF composition were continued for evaluation of mechanical properties as a function of environment. These studies in parallel to those on the LSFCO composition is expect to yield important information on questions such as the role of cation segregation and the stability of the perovskite structure on crack initiation vs. crack growth. Studies have been continued on the La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}FeO{sub 3-d} composition using neutron diffraction and TGA studies. A transition from p-type to n-type of conductor was observed at relative low pO{sub 2}, at which the majority carriers changed from the holes to electrons because of the valence state decreases in Fe due to the further loss of oxygen. Investigation on the thermodynamic properties of the membrane materials are continued to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Data obtained at 850 C show that the stoichiometry in La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.8}Cr{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x} vary from {approx}2.85 to 2.6 over the pressure range studied. From the stoichiometry a lower limit of 2.6 corresponding to the reduction of all Fe{sup 4+} to Fe{sup 3+} and no reduction of Cr{sup 3+} is expected.

  13. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; T. Nithyanantham; X.-D Zhou; Y-W. Sin; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In the current research, the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient were measured as a function of temperature in air. Based on these measurements, the charge carrier concentration, net acceptor dopant concentration, activation energy of conduction and mobility were estimated. The studies on the fracture toughness of the LSFT and dual phase membranes at room temperature have been completed and reported previously. The membranes that are exposed to high temperatures at an inert and a reactive atmosphere undergo many structural and chemical changes which affects the mechanical properties. To study the effect of temperature on the membranes when exposed to an inert environment, the membranes (LAFT and Dual phase) were heat treated at 1000 C in air and N{sub 2} atmosphere and hardness and fracture toughness of the membranes were studied after the treatment. The indentation method was used to find the fracture toughness and the effect of the heat treatment on the mechanical properties of the membranes. Further results on the investigation of the origin of the slow kinetics on reduction of ferrites have been obtained. The slow kinetics appears to be related to a non-equilibrium reduction pathway that initially results in the formation of iron particles. At long times, equilibrium can be reestablished with recovery of the perovskite phase. 2-D modeling of oxygen movement has been undertaken in order to fit isotope data. The model will serve to study ''frozen'' profiles in patterned or composite membranes.

  14. Onboard Plasmatron Hydrogen Production for Improved Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel R. Cohn; Leslie Bromberg; Kamal Hadidi

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasmatron fuel reformer has been developed for onboard hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. These applications include hydrogen addition to spark-ignition internal combustion engines, NOx trap and diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, and emissions reduction from spark ignition internal combustion engines First, a thermal plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. This plasmatron used an electric arc with relatively high power to reform fuels such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels at an oxygen to carbon ratio close to 1. The draw back of this device was that it has a high electric consumption and limited electrode lifetime due to the high temperature electric arc. A second generation plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. It used a low-current high-voltage electric discharge with a completely new electrode continuation. This design uses two cylindrical electrodes with a rotating discharge that produced low temperature volumetric cold plasma., The lifetime of the electrodes was no longer an issue and the device was tested on several fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and biofuels at different flow rates and different oxygen to carbon ratios. Hydrogen concentration and yields were measured for both the thermal and non-thermal plasmatron reformers for homogeneous (non-catalytic) and catalytic reforming of several fuels. The technology was licensed to an industrial auto part supplier (ArvinMeritor) and is being implemented for some of the applications listed above. The Plasmatron reformer has been successfully tested on a bus for NOx trap regeneration. The successful development of the plasmatron reformer and its implementation in commercial applications including transportation will bring several benefits to the nation. These benefits include the reduction of NOx emissions, improving engine efficiency and reducing the nation's oil consumption. The objective of this program has been to develop attractive applications of plasmatron fuel reformer technology for onboard applications in internal combustion engine vehicles using diesel, gasoline and biofuels. This included the reduction of NOx and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines using plasmatron reformer generated hydrogen-rich gas, conversion of ethanol and bio-oils into hydrogen rich gas, and the development of new concepts for the use of plasmatron fuel reformers for enablement of HCCI engines.

  15. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  16. Generation of hydrogen peroxide in a shorted fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, S.P.; McIntyre, J.A. [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen peroxide is a {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} chemical with a well-assured future. As such, significant growth in demand is predicted for this material. To meet this growth, new technologies of manufacture are being contemplated to compete with the established Anthraquinone process. Some of these new methods seek the niche market of on-site generation of hydrogen peroxide. One good example of this is Dow`s caustic/peroxide generation scheme for the bleaching of paper pulp. Others rely on externally-supplied electrical power in an electrochemical reactor scheme, where peroxide may be generated additionally in neutral or acidic solution. It has long been realized that the chemical potential of the reactants themselves can be used in a controlled manner in an electrolytic cell. This is the basis of fuel cells (to generate electrical power) and has been extended to the synthesis of useful chemical species, either using solid polymer electrolytes or active oxygen transporting membranes. Use has also been made of the inherent chemical potential in H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} reactions to produce hydrogen peroxide. This reactor utilized a liquid phase cathode with dissolved air or oxygen to produce small concentrations of peroxide in a fixed volume. In fact, most schemes for the direct, electrochemical production of peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen yield low, millimolar peroxide concentrations. This paper describes the development of a scalable, segmented-flow, shorted fuel cell for the generation of greater than 1 w/o hydrogen peroxide. Three areas are of major importance in the development of a continuous, peroxide-forming reactor: the reactor design, catalyst choice and application, and the operating parameters for the reactor. The cathode catalyst is probably the single most important part. Operating parameters include such basics as temperature, pressure, gas flow rate, and liquid flow rate. Each of these topics will be discussed.

  17. Process for generation of hydrogen gas from various feedstocks using thermophilic bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ooteghem, Suellen Van (Morgantown, WV)

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45.degree. C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

  18. Process for Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Various Feedstocks Using Thermophilic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ooteghem Van, Suellen

    2005-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing hydrogen gas is provided comprising selecting a bacteria from the Order Thermotogales, subjecting the bacteria to a feedstock and to a suitable growth environment having an oxygen concentration below the oxygen concentration of water in equilibrium with air; and maintaining the environment at a predetermined pH and at a temperature of at least approximately 45 degrees C. for a time sufficient to allow the bacteria to metabolize the feedstock.

  19. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation...

  20. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid. Electrocatalytic Reactivity for Oxygen Reduction of Palladium-Modified...

  1. OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC URANIUM DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kee Chul

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research Division OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRIC11905 -DISCLAIMER - OXYGEN DIFFUSION IN HYPOSTOICHIOMETRICc o n e e n i g woroxygen self-diffusion coefficient

  2. Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Formation, characterization and reactivity of adsorbed oxygen on BaOPt(111). Abstract: The formation...

  3. Angling chromium to let oxygen through | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Angling chromium to let oxygen through Angling chromium to let oxygen through Released: September 10, 2014 New semiconducting material works at lower temperatures Scanning...

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Triptycenes: Oxygen Substitution Cyclization Strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    VanVeller, Brett

    The cyclization and planarization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with concomitant oxygen substitution was achieved through acid catalyzed transetherification and oxygen-radical reactions. The triptycene scaffold ...

  5. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Crowell, Jeffrey A. W. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  6. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Hydrogen Codes &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Facilitate the creation and adoption of model building codes and equipment standards for hydrogen systems of hydrogen building codes for NFPA's hearing cycle. Facilitate in the adoption of the ICC codes in three key for hydrogen refueling and storage, by 2006; · Complete and adopt the revised NFPA 55 standard for hydrogen

  7. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  8. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; Thomas W. Eagar; Harold R. Larson; Raymundo Arroyave; X.-D Zhou; Y.-W. Shin; H.U. Anderson; Nigel Browning; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the initial studies on newer compositions and also includes newer approaches to address various materials issues such as in metal-ceramic sealing. The current quarter's research has also focused on developing a comprehensive reliability model for predicting the structural behavior of the membranes in realistic conditions. In parallel to industry provided compositions, models membranes have been evaluated in varying environment. Of importance is the behavior of flaws and generation of new flaws aiding in fracture. Fracture mechanics parameters such as crack tip stresses are generated to characterize the influence of environment. Room temperature slow crack growth studies have also been initiated in industry provided compositions. The electrical conductivity and defect chemistry of an A site deficient compound (La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}) was studied. A higher conductivity was observed for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} than that of La{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}FeO{sub 3} and La{sub 0.80}Sr{sub 0.20}FeO{sub 3}. Defect chemistry analysis showed that it was primarily contributed by a higher carrier concentration in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. Moreover, the ability for oxygen vacancy generation is much higher in La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3} as well, which indicates a lower bonding strength between Fe-O and a possible higher catalytic activity for La{sub 0.55}Sr{sub 0.35}FeO{sub 3}. The program continued to investigate the thermodynamic properties (stability and phase separation behavior) and total conductivity of prototype membrane materials. The data are needed together with the kinetic information to develop a complete model for the membrane transport. Previous report listed initial measurements on a sample of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-x} prepared in-house by Praxair. Subsequently, a second sample of powder from a larger batch of sample were characterized and compared with the results from the previous batch.

  9. Recent progress in enhancing solar-to-hydrogen efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jianqing [Hohai University, China; Yang, Donghui [Hohai University, China; Song, Dan [Hohai University, China; Jiang, Jinghua [Hohai University, China; Ma, Aibin [Hohai University, China; Hu, Michael Z. [ORNL; Ni, Chaoying [University of Delaware

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar water splitting is a promising and ideal route for renewable production of hydrogen by using the most abundant resources of solar light and water. Focusing on the working principal of solar water splitting, including photon absorption and exciton generation in semiconductor, exciton separation and transfer to the surface of semiconductor, and respective electron and hole reactions with absorbed surface species to generate hydrogen and oxygen, this review covers the comprehensive efforts and findings made in recent years on the improvement for the solar-to-hydrogen efficiency (STH) determined by a combination of light absorption process, charge separation and migration, and catalytic reduction and oxidation reactions. Critical evaluation is attempted on the strategies for improving solar light harvesting efficiency, enhancing charge separation and migration, and improving surface reactions. Towards the end, new and emerging technologies for boosting the STH efficiency are discussed on multiple exciton generation, up-conversion, multi-strategy modifications and the potentials of organometal hybrid perovskite materials.

  10. Method of generating hydrogen by catalytic decomposition of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Dorris, Stephen E. (LaGrange Park, IL); Bose, Arun C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Stiegel, Gary J. (Library, PA); Lee, Tae-Hyun (Naperville, IL)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for producing hydrogen includes providing a feed stream comprising water; contacting at least one proton conducting membrane adapted to interact with the feed stream; splitting the water into hydrogen and oxygen at a predetermined temperature; and separating the hydrogen from the oxygen. Preferably the proton conducting membrane comprises a proton conductor and a second phase material. Preferable proton conductors suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include a lanthanide element, a Group VIA element and a Group IA or Group IIA element such as barium, strontium, or combinations of these elements. More preferred proton conductors include yttrium. Preferable second phase materials include platinum, palladium, nickel, cobalt, chromium, manganese, vanadium, silver, gold, copper, rhodium, ruthenium, niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and combinations of these. More preferably second phase materials suitable for use in a proton conducting membrane include nickel, palladium, and combinations of these. The method for generating hydrogen is preferably preformed in the range between about 600.degree. C. and 1,700.degree. C.

  11. Preliminary design report for modeling of hydrogen uptake in fuel rod cladding during severe accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary designs are described for models of the interaction of Zircaloy and hydrogen and the consequences of this interaction on the behavior of fuel rod cladding during severe accidents. The modeling of this interaction and its consequences involves the modeling of seven processes: (1) diffusion of oxygen from the bulk gas into the boundary layer at the external cladding surface, (2) diffusion from the boundary layer into the oxide layer at the cladding external surface, (3) diffusion from the inner surface of the oxide layer into the metallic part of the cladding, (4) uptake of hydrogen in the event that the cladding oxide layer is dissolved in a steam-starved region, (5) embrittlement of cladding due to hydrogen uptake, (6) cracking of cladding during quenching due to its embrittlement and (7) release of hydrogen from the cladding after cracking of the cladding. An integral diffusion method is described for calculating the diffusion processes in the cladding. Experimental and theoretical results are presented that show the uptake of hydrogen in the event of dissolution of the oxide layer occurs rapidly and that show the release of hydrogen in the event of cracking of the cladding occurs rapidly. These experimental results are used as a basis for calculating the rate of hydrogen uptake and the rate of hydrogen release. The uptake of hydrogen is limited to the equilibrium solubility calculated by applying Sievert`s law. The uptake of hydrogen is an exothermic reaction that accelerates the heatup of a fuel rod. An embrittlement criteria is described that accounts for hydrogen and oxygen concentration and the extent of oxidation. A design is described for implementing the models for Zr-H interaction into the programming framework of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code. A test matrix is described for assessing the impact of the Zr-H interaction models on the calculated behavior of fuel rods in severe accident conditions.

  12. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  13. A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noone, Bailey C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to fluorite to hexagonal. This change in crystal structure as a result of adding hydrogen is a shared characteristic with other actinide elements. Americium is isostructural with plutonium because they both form cubic dihyrides and hexagonal trihydrides. Reacting hydrogen with plutonium has the practical application of separating plutonium from other materials that don't react as well with hydrogen. When plutonium is placed in a chamber where there is very little oxygen, it can react with hydrogen without igniting. The hydrogen plutonium reaction can then be reversed, thus regaining the separated plutonium. Another application of this reaction is that it can be used to predict how plutonium reacts with other substances. Deuterium and tritium are two isotopes of hydrogen that are of interest. They are known to react likewise to hydrogen because they have similar properties. The reaction of plutonium and isotopes of hydrogen can prove to be very informative.

  14. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  15. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  16. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  17. Hydrogen-selective membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

    1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

  18. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present quarterly report describes some of the investigations on the structural properties of dense OTM bars provided by Praxair and studies on newer composition of Ti doped LSF. In this report, in situ neutron diffraction was used to characterize the chemical and structural properties of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} (here after as L2SF55T) specimen, which was subject to measurements of neutron diffraction from room temperature to 900 C in N{sub 2}. Space group of R3c was found to result in a better refinement and is used in this study. The difference for crystal structure, lattice parameters and local crystal chemistry for LSFT nearly unchanged when gas environment switched from air to N{sub 2}. Stable crack growth studies on Dense OTM bars provided by Praxair were done at room temperature in air. A bridge-compression fixture was fabricated to achieve stable pre-cracks from Vickers indents. Post fracture evaluation indicated stable crack growth from the indent and a regime of fast fracture. Post-fracture X-ray data of the OTM fractured at 1000 C in environment were refined by FullProf code and results indicate a distortion of the parent cubic perovskite to orthorhombic structure with reduced symmetry. TGA-DTA studies on the post-fracture samples also indicated residual effect arising from the thermal and stress history of the samples. The thermal and chemical expansion of La{sub 0.2}Sr{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45}O{sub 3-{delta}} were studied at 800 {le} T {le} 1000 C and at {approx} 1 x 10{sup -15} {le} pO{sub 2} {le} 0.21 atm. The thermal expansion coefficient of the sample was calculated from the dilatometric analysis in the temperature range between room temperature and 1200 C in air. A series of isotope transients under air separation mode (small gradient) were completed on the membrane of LSCrF-2828 at 900 C. Low pO{sub 2} atmospheres based on with CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have also been admitted to the delivery side of the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  19. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposure for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle technologies.10 gasoline hybrids or 20 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (eachwheels analysis of hydrogen based fuel-cell vehicle pathways

  20. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposure for hydrogen and fuel cell vehicle technologies10 gasoline hybrids or 20 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (eachwheels analysis of hydrogen based fuel-cell vehicle pathways

  1. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogenapplies to hydrogen storage vessels and compressors. 2.4.4.vehicles. 3. Compressor: compresses hydrogen gas to achieve

  2. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-pressure hydrogen compressor Compressed hydrogento hydrogen storage vessels and compressors. Feedstock Costvehicles 3. Compressor: compresses hydrogen gas to achieve

  3. 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report November 2013 summary report for the 2013 Biological Hydrogen...

  4. Hydrogen Production & Delivery | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydrogen Production & Delivery Hydrogen Production & Delivery "2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation H2...

  5. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in planning a new hydrogen infrastructure: 1) the lack ofon the Costs of Hydrogen Infrastructure for Transportstudy. Studies of Hydrogen Infrastructure in China There

  6. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in planning a new hydrogen infrastructure: (1) the lack of1.3.3. Studies of hydrogen infrastructure in China Thereon the costs of hydrogen Infrastructure for transport

  7. Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results Hydrogen Fuel Quality - Focus: Analytical Methods Development & Hydrogen Fuel Quality Results...

  8. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to increase CO conversion and produce more hydrogen than a standard water gas shift reactor would. Substantial improvements in substrate and membrane performance were achieved in another DOE project (DE-FC26-07NT43054). These improved membranes were used for testing in a water gas shift environment in this program. The amount of net H2 generated (defined as the difference of hydrogen produced and fed) was greater than would be produced at equilibrium using conventional water gas shift reactors up to 75 psig because of the shift in equilibrium caused by continuous hydrogen removal. However, methanation happened at higher pressures, 100 and 125 psig, and resulted in less net H2 generated than would be expected by equilibrium conversion alone. An effort to avoid methanation by testing in more oxidizing conditions (by increasing CO2/CO ratio in a feed gas) was successful and net H2 generated was higher (40-60%) than a conventional reactor at equilibrium at all pressures tested (up to 125 psig). A model was developed to predict reactor performance in both cases with and without methanation. The required membrane area depends on conditions, but the required membrane area is about 10 ft2 to produce about 2000 scfh of hydrogen. The maximum amount of hydrogen that can be produced in a membrane reactor decreased significantly due to methanation from about 2600 scfh to about 2400 scfh. Therefore, it is critical to eliminate methanation to fully benefit from the use of a membrane in the reaction. Other modeling work showed that operating a membrane reactor at higher temperature provides an opportunity to make the reactor smaller and potentially provides a significant capital cost savings compared to a shift reactor/PSA combination.

  9. OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Thanh N.

    OXYGEN ADSORPTION ON NITROGEN CONTAINING CARBON SURFACES Alejandro Montoya, Jorge O. Gil, Fanor-rich site of the carbon basal plane of graphite and then, it dissociates into oxygen atoms.1,2 Oxygen atoms at the edge of the carbon surface can form covalent bonds with oxygen. These sites can chemisorb

  10. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  11. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and probably for some time to come. The model for liquid transfer to a 120-liter vehicle tank shows that transfer times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The model for compressed gas transfer shows that underfilling of nearly 30% can occur during rapid filling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates underfilling.

  12. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

  13. Oxygen as a site specific structural probe in neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neuefeind, Joerg C [ORNL; Simonson, J Michael {Mike} [ORNL; Salmon, Phil [University of Bath; Zeidler, Anita [University of Bath; Fischer, Henry E [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL); Rauch, Helmut [E141 Atominstitut der & #xD6; sterreichischen Universit& #xE4; ten,; Markland, Thomas [Columbia University; Lemmel, Hartmut [Technical University Vienna

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxygen is a ubiquitous element, playing an essential role in most scientific and technological disciplines, and is often incorporated within a structurally disordered material where examples include molten silicates in planetary science, glasses used for lasers and optical communication, and water in biological processes. Establishing the structure of a liquid or glassy oxide and thereby its relation to the functional properties of a material is not, however, a trivial task owing to the complexity associated with atomic disorder. Here we approach this challenge by measuring the bound coherent neutron scattering lengths of the oxygen isotopes with the sensitive technique of neutron interferometry. We find that there is a small but finite contrast of 0.204(6) fm between the scattering lengths of the isotope 18O and oxygen of natural isotopic abundance natO, contrary to tables of recommended values. This has enabled us to investigate the structure of both light and heavy water by exploiting, for the first time, the method of oxygen isotope substitution in neutron diffraction, thus circumventing many of the significant problems associated with more traditional methods in which hydrogen is substituted by deuterium. We find a difference of ~0.5% between the O-H and O-D intra-molecular bond distances which is much smaller than recent estimates based on diffraction data and is found to be in excellent agreement with path integral molecular dynamics simulations made with a flexible polarisable water model. Our results demonstrate the potential for using oxygen isotope substitution as a powerful and effective site specific probe in a plethora of materials, of pertinence as instrumentation at next generation neutron sources comes online

  14. Hydrogen Storage -Overview George Thomas, Hydrogen Consultant to SNL*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    aspects of hydrogen utilization. production distribution utilization How do we achieve safe, efficient Forecourt storage (refueling stations) requirements being developed (IHIG) Distribution storage (delivery 75 100 125 hydrogen m ethane ethane propane butane pentane hexane heptane octane (gasoline) cetane

  15. Reactions of Methylene Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffin, E. L.

    1912-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    was orystallized out as a yellow solid from aloohol and then from ethyl aostate. Melting point 170°C Analysis: Calculated for C17H14O2U s - 10.10$ Found I = 10.00$ SUMMARY 0 It was found that the methods given in the literature for the preparation... following* 1. Metallic sodium replaces either one, or both of the hydrogens, the latter being given off as a free gas. 2. Sodium hydroxide replaces the hydrogen by the metal, with a splitting off of water. 3. Sodium ethylate reacts, giving the metal 3...

  16. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  17. Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Oxygen isotopic exchange: A useful tool for characterizing oxygen conducting oxides Bassat J we obtain in both cases data concerning the oxygen diffusion in the bulk and the oxygen exchange with regards to the oxygen reduction reaction. Detailed experimental and analytical processes are given

  18. Hawaii hydrogen power park Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy source. (Barrier V-Renewable Integration) Hydrogen storage & distribution system. (Barrier V Vent AC Power Reformer Low Pressure H2 Storage Propane Hydrogen Optional Reformer System Optional Wind. Low pressure hydrogen storage utilizing propane tanks. High pressure storage using lightweight

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Hydrogen Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Behavior Protected: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program On April 28, 2014, in There is no excerpt because this is a protected post. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program On November 9, 2010,...

  20. Hydrogen,Fuel Cells & Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;The President's FY04 Budget Request for FreedomCAR and Hydrogen Fuel Initiatives 4.0Office of Nuclear commercialization decision by 2015. Fuel Cell Vehicles in the Showroom and Hydrogen at Fueling Stations by 2020 #12

  1. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Options Analysis

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report, by the Nexant team, documents an in-depth analysis of seven hydrogen delivery options to identify the most cost-effective hydrogen infrastructure for the transition and long term. The pro

  2. Hydrogen Distribution and Delivery Infrastructure

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen delivery technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how hydrogen is transported and delivered today, the challen

  3. Hydrogen Delivery Options and Issues

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    stationary power site - GH2 Pipelines and Trucks, LH2 Trucks, Carriers <1.00kg of Hydrogen by 2017 Hydrogen Delivery H2 Delivery Current Status * Technology - GH2 Tube...

  4. Oxygen uptake of benthic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, William Franklin

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

  5. Oxygen uptake of benthic systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Priebe, William Franklin

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mg/hr/sq m between standard and maximum mixing. Hanes and Irvine (23) made a determination of the effects of temperature on quiescent oxygen uptake rates by covering sludge with aerated water and allowing the supernatant to be totally de- pleted.... ECTROLTSIS STSTDI FOA MEMURIRC BOO. FIGURE 2. SWITCH ELECTROQE IN CONTACT WITH ELECTROIYTE. OXYGEN GENERATOR OFF. FIGURE 3. SWIICH ELECI'RODE NOT IN CONTACT' WITH -' ECTROLYTE. 0 0 0 a 0 0 0 ~ O0 0 o 0 0 o o 0 0 0 0 PIERRE A. HIGH SPEED NIXINC...

  6. Webinar: Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements, originally presented on June 25, 2013.

  7. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  8. Hydrogen isotope separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartlit, John R. (Los Alamos, NM); Denton, William H. (Abingdon, GB3); Sherman, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of four cryogenic fractional distillation columns interlinked with two equilibrators for separating a DT and hydrogen feed stream into four product streams, consisting of a stream of high purity D.sub.2, DT, T.sub.2, and a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal.

  9. Hydrogen, Fuel Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be powered by hydrogen, and pollution-free." "Join me in this important innovation to make our air for the foreseeable future. Even with the significant energy efficiency benefits that gasoline- electric hybrid - fossil fuels like natural gas and coal; renewable energy sources such as solar radiation, wind

  10. Sulfur surface chemistry on the platinum gate of a silicon carbide based hydrogen sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Roger G.

    monitoring, solid-oxide fuel cells, and coal gasification, require operation at much higher temperatures than the magnitude of the sensor's response to alternating hydrogen and oxygen pulses by about 70%, as compared-based devices and the understanding of their operation.10­12 The sensing mechanism involves several steps. 1

  11. PII S0016-7037(99)00195-7 A mechanistic model for interpretation of hydrogen and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    with leaf water enrichment; (2) incorporation of leaf water isotope ratio values into photosyntheticPII S0016-7037(99)00195-7 A mechanistic model for interpretation of hydrogen and oxygen isotope Isotope Ratio Facility for Environmental Research, Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake

  12. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward C. Heydorn

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a ���¢��������real-world���¢������� retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation���¢��������s hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations with a focus on safe, convenient, fast-fills. These potential areas were then compared to and overlaid with suitable sites from various energy companies and other potential station operators. Work continues to match vehicle needs with suitable fueling station locations. Once a specific site was identified, the necessary agreements could be completed with the station operator and expected station users. Detailed work could then begin on the site drawings, permits, safety procedures and training needs. Permanent stations were successfully installed in Irvine (delivered liquid hydrogen), Torrance (delivered pipeline hydrogen) and Fountain Valley (renewable hydrogen from anaerobic digester gas). Mobile fueling stations were also deployed to meet short-term fueling needs in Long Beach and Placerville. Once these stations were brought online, infrastructure data was collected and reported to DOE using Air Products���¢�������� Enterprise Remote Access Monitoring system. Feedback from station operators was incorporated to improve the station user���¢��������s fueling experience.

  13. Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Jerry; Prebo, Brendan

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate the viability of using hydrogen as a fuel in an internal combustion engine vehicle for use as a part of a mass transit system. The advantages of hydrogen as a fuel include renew-ability, minimal environmental impact on air quality and the environment, and potential to reduce dependence on foreign energy sources for the transportation sector. Recognizing the potential for the hydrogen fuel concept, the Southeast Michigan Congress of Governments (SEMCOG) determined to consider it in the study of a proposed regional mass transit rail system for southeast Michigan. SEMCOG wanted to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicles in shuttle buses to connect the Detroit Metro Airport to a proposed, nearby rail station. Shuttle buses are in current use on the airport for passenger parking and inter-terminal transport. This duty cycle is well suited to the application of hydrogen fuel at this time because of the ability to re-fuel vehicles at a single nearby facility, overcoming the challenge of restricted fuel availability in the undeveloped hydrogen fuel infrastructure. A cooperative agreement between SEMCOG and the DOE was initiated and two H2ICE buses were placed in regular passenger service on March 29, 2009 and operated for six months in regular passenger service. The buses were developed and built by the Ford Motor Company. Wayne County Airport Authority provided the location for the demonstration with the airport transportation contractor, Metro Cars Inc. operating the buses. The buses were built on Ford E450 chassis and incorporated a modified a 6.8L V-10 engine with specially designed supercharger, fuel rails and injectors among other sophisticated control systems. Up to 30 kg of on-board gaseous hydrogen were stored in a modular six tank, 350 bar (5000 psi) system to provide a 150 mile driving range. The bus chassis and body were configured to carry nine passengers with luggage. By collecting fuel use data for the two H2ICE buses, with both written driver logs and onboard telemetry devices, and for two conventional propane-gasoline powered buses in the same service, comparisons of operating efficiency and maintenance requirements were completed. Public opinion about the concept of hydrogen fuel was sampled with a rider survey throughout the demonstration. The demonstration was very effective in adding to the understanding of the application of hydrogen as a transportation fuel. The two 9 passenger H2ICE buses accumulated nearly 50,000 miles and carried 14,285 passengers. Data indicated the H2ICE bus fuel economy to be 9.4 miles/ gallon of gasoline equivalent (m/GGE) compared to the 10 passenger propane-gasoline bus average of 9.8 m/GGE over 32,400 miles. The 23- passenger bus averaged 7.4 m/GGE over 40,700 miles. Rider feedback from 1050 on-board survey cards was overwhelmingly positive with 99.6% indicating they would ride again on a hydrogen powered vehicle. Minimal maintenance was required for theses buses during the demonstration project, but a longer duration demonstration would be required to more adequately assess this aspect of the concept.

  14. PULSATIONS IN HYDROGEN BURNING LOW-MASS HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfadt, Justin D. R. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Kohn Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Arras, Phil, E-mail: jdrs@physics.ucsb.ed, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.ed, E-mail: arras@virginia.ed [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Helium core white dwarfs (WDs) with mass M {approx}< 0.20 M {sub sun} undergo several Gyr of stable hydrogen burning as they evolve. We show that in a certain range of WD and hydrogen envelope masses, these WDs may exhibit g-mode pulsations similar to their passively cooling, more massive carbon/oxygen core counterparts, the ZZ Cetis. Our models with stably burning hydrogen envelopes on helium cores yield g-mode periods and period spacings longer than the canonical ZZ Cetis by nearly a factor of 2. We show that core composition and structure can be probed using seismology since the g-mode eigenfunctions predominantly reside in the helium core. Though we have not carried out a fully nonadiabatic stability analysis, the scaling of the thermal time in the convective zone with surface gravity highlights several low-mass helium WDs that should be observed in search of pulsations: NLTT 11748, SDSS J0822+2753, and the companion to PSR J1012+5307. Seismological studies of these He core WDs may prove especially fruitful, as their luminosity is related (via stable hydrogen burning) to the hydrogen envelope mass, which eliminates one model parameter.

  15. Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Piping Experience in Chevron Refining Ned Niccolls Materials Engineer Chevron Energy Technology Company Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 #12;Outline 2 Overall perspectives from long term use of hydrogen piping in refining. Piping specifications and practices. The (few

  16. The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in combustion engines, or converted into hydrogen at fuelengines are now nearly zero-emitting. What do these lessons imply for hydrogen?Hydrogen will find it difficult to compete with the century-long investment in petroleum fuels and internal combustion engines.

  17. Proceedings NATIONAL HYDROGEN VISION MEETING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's Plan directs us to explore the possibility of a hydrogen economy..." Spencer Abraham, Secretary be found at the end of this document.) The intent was to identify a common vision of a "hydrogen economy of the Group: Which factors are most likely to support/inhibit the development of a "hydrogen economy

  18. January 2005 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 January 2005 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF PIPELINE STEELS: CAUSES AND REMEDIATION P. Sofronis, I. Robertson, D. Johnson University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN January 5-6, 2005 #12;2 January 2005 Hydrogen

  19. Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines Barton Smith, Barbara Frame, Larry Anovitz and Cliff;Composites Technology for Hydrogen Pipelines Fiber-reinforced polymer pipe Project Overview: Investigate of pipeline per day. · $190k/mile capital cost for distribution pipelines · Hydrogen delivery cost below $1

  20. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Gorski, Anthony J. (Woodridge, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  1. Hydrogen and sulfur recovery from hydrogen sulfide wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Gorski, A.J.; Daniels, E.J.

    1993-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for generating hydrogen and elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide waste in which the hydrogen sulfide is [dis]associated under plasma conditions and a portion of the hydrogen output is used in a catalytic reduction unit to convert sulfur-containing impurities to hydrogen sulfide for recycle, the process also including the addition of an ionizing gas such as argon to initiate the plasma reaction at lower energy, a preheater for the input to the reactor and an internal adjustable choke in the reactor for enhanced coupling with the microwave energy input.

  2. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop:...

  3. Ultraviolet stimulation of hydrogen peroxide production using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ultraviolet stimulation of hydrogen peroxide production using aminoindazole, diaminopyridine, and phenylenediamine solid polymer Ultraviolet stimulation of hydrogen peroxide...

  4. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Solicitation Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project...

  5. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project 2009 DOE...

  6. Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production This report documents the engineering and cost...

  7. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemical Cycle Selection and Investment Priority Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH):...

  8. Hydrogen Production Infrastructure Options Analysis | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Infrastructure Options Analysis Hydrogen Production Infrastructure Options Analysis Presentation on hydrogen production and infrastructure options presented at the DOE Transition...

  9. Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria Presentation by Charles Dismukes, Rutgers...

  10. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

  11. Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production Technologies Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production Technologies Presentation by John...

  12. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen...

  13. Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Combinatorial Approaches for Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presentation on NIST Combinatorial Methods at the...

  14. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop: Preliminary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop: Preliminary Results Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop: Preliminary Results Preliminary results from the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop...

  15. Upcoming Webinar December 16: International Hydrogen Infrastructure...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Upcoming Webinar December 16: International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges NOW, DOE, and NEDO Upcoming Webinar December 16: International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges...

  16. Two charged states of hydrogen on the SrTiO{sub 3}(001) surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeyasu, Kotaro, E-mail: takeyasu@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fukada, Keisuke; Ogura, Shohei; Matsumoto, Masuaki; Fukutani, Katsuyuki, E-mail: fukutani@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153–8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153–8505 (Japan)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of hydrogen exposure on the electronic structure of two types of SrTiO{sub 3}(001) surfaces, oxygen-deficient (OD) and nearly-vacancy-free (NVF) surfaces, were investigated with ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. Upon molecular hydrogen exposure to the OD surface which reveals in-gap states at 1.3 eV below the Fermi level, the in-gap state intensity was reduced to half the initial value at a hydrogen coverage of 0.9 ± 0.7 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup ?2}. On the NVF surface which has no in-gap state, on the other hand, atomic-hydrogen exposure induced in-gap states, and the hydrogen saturation coverage was evaluated to be 3.1 ± 0.8 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup ?2}. We argue that H is positively charged as H{sup ?0.3+} on the NVF surface by being coordinated to the O atom, whereas H is negatively charged as H{sup ?} on the OD surface by occupying the oxygen vacancy site. The stability of H{sup ?} at the oxygen vacancy site is discussed.

  17. Solar photoproduction of hydrogen. IEA technical report of the IEA Agreement of the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolton, J.R. [Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (CA) N6A 5B7

    1996-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The report was prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Hydrogen Program and represents the result of subtask C, Annex 10 - Photoproduction of Hydrogen. The concept of using solar energy to drive the conversion of water into hydrogen and oxygen has been examined, from the standpoints of potential and ideal efficiencies, measurement of (and how to calculate) solar hydrogen production efficiencies, a survey of the state-of-the-art, and a technological assessment of various solar hydrogen options. The analysis demonstrates that the ideal limit of the conversion efficiency for 1 sun irradiance is {approximately}31% for a single photosystem scheme and {approximately}42% for a dual photosystem scheme. However, practical considerations indicate that real efficiencies will not likely exceed {approximately}10% and {approximately}16% for single and dual photosystem schemes, respectively. Four types of solar photochemical hydrogen systems have been identified: photochemical systems, semiconductor systems, photobiological systems, and hybrid and other systems. A survey of the state-of-the-art of these four types is presented. The four types (and their subtypes) have also been examined in a technological assessment, where each has been examined as to efficiency, potential for improvement, and long-term functionality. Four solar hydrogen systems have been selected as showing sufficient promise for further research and development: (1) Photovoltaic cells plus an electrolyzer; (2) Photoelectrochemical cells with one or more semiconductor electrodes; (3) Photobiological systems; and (4) Photodegradation systems. The following recommendations were presented for consideration of the IEA: (1) Define and measure solar hydrogen conversion efficiencies as the ratio of the rate of generation of Gibbs energy of dry hydrogen gas (with appropriate corrections for any bias power) to the incident solar power (solar irradiance times the irradiated area); (2) Expand support for pilot-plant studies of the PV cells plus electrolyzer option with a view to improving the overall efficiency and long-term stability of the system. Consideration should be given, at an appropriate time, to a full-scale installation as part of a solar hydrogen-based model community; (3) Accelerate support, at a more fundamental level for the development of photoelectrochemical cells, with a view to improving efficiency, long-term performance and multi-cell systems for non-biased solar water splitting; (4) Maintain and increase support for fundamental photobiological research with the aim of improving long-term stability, increasing efficiencies and engineering genetic changes to allow operation at normal solar irradiances; and (5) Initiate a research program to examine the feasibility of coupling hydrogen evolution to the photodegradation of waste or polluting organic substances.

  18. Hydrogen and helium traces in type Ib-c supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Elmhamdi; I. J. Danziger; D. Branch; B. Leibundgut; E. Baron; R. P. Kirshner

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectroscopic properties of a selected optical photospheric spectra of core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are investigated.Special attention is devoted to traces of hydrogen at early phases. The generated spectra are found to match the observed ones reasonably well, including a list of only 23 candidate ions. Guided by SN Ib 1990I, the observed trough near 6300\\AA is attributed to H$\\alpha$ in almost all Type Ib events, although in some objects it becomes too weak to be discernible, especially at later phases. Alternative line identifications are discussed. Differences in the way hydrogen manifests its presence within CCSNe are highlighted. In Type Ib SNe, the H$\\alpha$ contrast velocity (i.e. line velocity minus the photospheric velocity) seems to increase with time at early epochs, reaching values as high as 8000 km s$^{-1}$ around 15-20 days after maximum and then remains almost constant. The derived photospheric velocities, indicate a lower velocity for Type II SNe 1987A and 1999em as compared to SN Ic 1994I and SN IIb 1993J, while Type Ib events display a somewhat larger variation. The scatter, around day 20, is measured to be $\\sim$5000 km s$^{-1}$. Following two simple approaches, rough estimates of ejecta and hydrogen masses are given. A mass of hydrogen of approximately 0.02 $M_\\odot$ is obtained for SN 1990I, while SNe 1983N and 2000H ejected $\\sim$0.008 $M_\\odot$ and $\\sim$0.08 $M_\\odot$ of hydrogen, respectively. SN 1993J has a higher hydrogen mass, $\\sim 0.7$ $M_\\odot$ with a large uncertainty. A low mass and thin hydrogen layer with very high ejection velocities above the helium shell, is thus the most likely scenario for Type Ib SNe. Some interesting and curious issues relating to oxygen lines suggest future investigations.

  19. Sealing off a carbon nanotube with a self-assembled aqueous valve for the storage of hydrogen in GPa pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, H Y; Gong, X G; Liu, Zhi-Feng

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The end section of a carbon nanotube, cut by acid treatment, contains hydrophillic oxygen groups. Water molecules can self-assemble around these groups to seal off a carbon nanotube and form an "aqueous valve". Molecular dynamics simulations on single-wall (12,12) and (15,15) tubes with dangling carboxyl groups show that the formation of aqueous valves can be achieved both in the absence of and in the presence of high pressure hydrogen. Furthermore, significant diffusion barriers through aqueous valves are identified. It indicates that such valves could hold hydrogen inside the tube with GPa pressure. Releasing hydrogen is easily achieved by melting the "aqueous valve". Such a design provides a recyclable and non- destructive way to store hydrogen in GPa pressure. Under the storage conditions dictated by sealing off the container in liquid water, the hydrogen density inside the container is higher than that for solid hydrogen, which promises excellent weight storage efficiency.

  20. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  1. HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Liseau, Rene; Black, John H. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Bell, Tom A. [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC-INTA, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Hollenbach, David [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Kaufman, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Melnick, Gary [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Neufeld, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre [LERMA and UMR8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Av. de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France); Snell, Ronald [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Bergin, Edwin [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Caselli, Paola [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Caux, Emmanuel [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: Paul.F.Goldsmith@jpl.nasa.gov [LRA/LERMA, CNRS, UMR8112, Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

  2. Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities and Challenges *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A hydrogen economy, the long-term goal of many nations, can potentially provide energy security, along with environmental and economic benefits. However, the transition from a conventional petroleum-based energy system to a hydrogen economy involves many uncertainties, such as the development of efficient fuel cell technologies, problems in hydrogen production and distribution infrastructure, and the response of petroleum markets. This study uses the U.S. MARKAL model to simulate the impacts of hydrogen technologies on the U.S. energy system and identify potential impediments to a successful transition. Preliminary findings identify potential market barriers facing the hydrogen economy, as well as opportunities in new R&D and product markets for bioproducts. Quantitative analysis also offers insights on policy options for promoting hydrogen technologies. The objective of this paper is to study the transition from a petroleum-based energy system to a hydrogen economy, and ascertain the consequent opportunities and

  3. Effect of bacterium Oceanospirillum on the corrosion potential and oxygen reduction of AISI 4340 steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popova, Snezana N.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . In view of the electrochemical nature of metallic corrosion, it is reasonable to study MIC utilizing electrochemical techniques(1 ? 6). An excellent technical review of electrochemical techniques applied to microbiologically influenced corrosion... on a metal surface will interfere with the electrochemical reactions (hydrogen and oxygen reduction) which control the corrosion rates. Most confirmed cases of microbial corrosion are localized and include: pitting, selective leaching and stress...

  4. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mackay, Richard (Lafayette, CO); Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  5. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  6. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Tao (Columbia, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  7. HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BROWN,LC; BESENBRUCH,GE; LENTSCH,RD; SCHULTZ,KR; FUNK,JF; PICKARD,PS; MARSHALL,AC; SHOWALTER,SK

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK B202 HIGH EFFICIENCY GENERATION OF HYDROGEN FUELS USING NUCLEAR POWER. Combustion of fossil fuels, used to power transportation, generate electricity, heat homes and fuel industry provides 86% of the world's energy. Drawbacks to fossil fuel utilization include limited supply, pollution, and carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon dioxide emissions, thought to be responsible for global warming, are now the subject of international treaties. Together, these drawbacks argue for the replacement of fossil fuels with a less-polluting potentially renewable primary energy such as nuclear energy. Conventional nuclear plants readily generate electric power but fossil fuels are firmly entrenched in the transportation sector. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. Hydrogen will be particularly advantageous when coupled with fuel cells. Fuel cells have higher efficiency than conventional battery/internal combustion engine combinations and do not produce nitrogen oxides during low-temperature operation. Contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels and most specifically on natural gas. When hydrogen is produced using energy derived from fossil fuels, there is little or no environmental advantage. There is currently no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally attractive hydrogen production process available for commercialization, nor has such a process been identified. The objective of this work is to find an economically feasible process for the production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the primary energy source. Hydrogen production by thermochemical water-splitting (Appendix A), a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen using only heat or, in the case of a hybrid thermochemical process, by a combination of heat and electrolysis, could meet these goals. Hydrogen produced from fossil fuels has trace contaminants (primarily carbon monoxide) that are detrimental to precious metal catalyzed fuel cells, as is now recognized by many of the world's largest automobile companies. Thermochemical hydrogen will not contain carbon monoxide as an impurity at any level. Electrolysis, the alternative process for producing hydrogen using nuclear energy, suffers from thermodynamic inefficiencies in both the production of electricity and in electrolytic parts of the process. The efficiency of electrolysis (electricity to hydrogen) is currently about 80%. Electric power generation efficiency would have to exceed 65% (thermal to electrical) for the combined efficiency to exceed the 52% (thermal to hydrogen) calculated for one thermochemical cycle. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles have been studied, at various levels of effort, for the past 35 years. They were extensively studied in the late 70s and early 80s but have received little attention in the past 10 years, particularly in the U.S. While there is no question about the technical feasibility and the potential for high efficiency, cycles with proven low cost and high efficiency have yet to be developed commercially. Over 100 cycles have been proposed, but substantial research has been executed on only a few. This report describes work accomplished during a three-year project whose objective is to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source.'' The emphasis of the first phase was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen from water in which the primary energy input is high temperature heat from an advanced nuclear reactor and to select one (or, at most three) for further detailed consideration. During Phase 1, an exhaustive literature search was performed to locate all cycles previously proposed. The cycles located were screened using objective criteria to determine which could benefit, in terms of efficien

  8. The Role of Oxygen in Coal Gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klosek, J.; Smith, A. R.; Solomon, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products supplies oxygen to a number of coal gasification and partial oxidation facilities worldwide. At the high operating pressures of these processes, economics favor the use of 90% and higher oxygen purities. The effect of inerts...

  9. Oxygen reduction on platinum : an EIS study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golfinopoulos, Theodore

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum over yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for oxygen partial pressures between 10-4 and 1 atm and at temperatures ...

  10. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Osvaldo

    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, ...

  11. Microchemical systems for singlet oxygen generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Tyrone F. (Tyrone Frank), 1980-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Lasers (COIL) are a technology of interest for industrial and military audiences. COILs are flowing gas lasers where the gain medium of iodine atoms is collisionally pumped by singlet delta oxygen ...

  12. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandel, Navdeep S

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species (mROS) as a natural by-product of electron transport chain activity. While initial studies focused on the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species, a recent paradigm shift ...

  13. Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close Imaging Oxygen Molecules Up Close Released: March 20, 2011 ARRA-enabled upgrades enhance research capabilities STM images of the same TiO2(110)...

  14. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Other State Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Programs Regional Levelrelated to hydrogen and fuel cell tech- nologies. Otherapplications of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. They

  15. Hydrogen Strategies: an Integrated Resource Planning Analysis for the Development of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pigneri, Attilio

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concepts and knowledge in hydrogen energy systems and theirdevelop alternative hydrogen-energy scenarios. The scenariosof alternative hydrogen energy pathways to characterize an

  16. Hydrogen Strategies: an Integrated Resource Planning Analysis for the Development of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pigneri, Attilio

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concepts and knowledge in hydrogen energy systems and theirInternational Hydrogen Energy Congress and Exhibition IHECthe Development of Hydrogen Energy Infrastructures Attilio

  17. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Partnership Finalizes Hydrogen Energy Roadmap,” World WideCommercialization Strategy for Hydrogen Energy Technologies,Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Energy Station Concepts: Are “

  18. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cell Deployment and Hydrogen Infrastructure, Worldwide Web,of deploying hydrogen infrastructure. stream of hydrogenfeasibility of a hydrogen infrastructure is enhanced by

  19. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9017: On-Board Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9017: On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems - Projected Performance and Cost Parameters DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9017: On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems - Projected...

  20. Hydrogen Energy Stations: Poly-Production of Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lipman, Timothy; Brooks, Cameron

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy Timothy E. LipmanElectricity, Hydrogen, and Thermal Energy Timothy E. Lipmanof electricity, hydrogen, and thermal energy; 2) a survey of

  1. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Batteries. The Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Nonaqueous...

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort (INEEL)

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

  3. Composite oxygen ion transport element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jack C. (Getzville, NY); Besecker, Charles J. (Batavia, IL); Chen, Hancun (Williamsville, NY); Robinson, Earil T. (Mentor, OH)

    2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite oxygen ion transport element that has a layered structure formed by a dense layer to transport oxygen ions and electrons and a porous support layer to provide mechanical support. The dense layer can be formed of a mixture of a mixed conductor, an ionic conductor, and a metal. The porous support layer can be fabricated from an oxide dispersion strengthened metal, a metal-reinforced intermetallic alloy, a boron-doped Mo.sub.5Si.sub.3-based intermetallic alloy or combinations thereof. The support layer can be provided with a network of non-interconnected pores and each of said pores communicates between opposite surfaces of said support layer. Such a support layer can be advantageously employed to reduce diffusion resistance in any type of element, including those using a different material makeup than that outlined above.

  4. Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

  5. A Circulating Hydrogen Ultra-High Purification System for the MuCap Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Ganzha; P. A. Kravtsov; O. E. Maev; G. N. Schapkin; G. G. Semenchuk; V. Trofimov; A. A. Vasilyev; M. E. Vznuzdaev; S. M. Clayton; P. Kammel; B. Kiburg; M. Hildebrandt; C. Petitjean; T. I. Banks; B. Lauss

    2007-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The MuCap experiment is a high-precision measurement of the rate for the basic electroweak process of muon capture, mu- + p -> n + nu . The experimental approach is based on an active target consisting of a time projection chamber (TPC) operating with pure hydrogen gas. The hydrogen has to be kept extremely pure and at a stable pressure. A Circulating Hydrogen Ultrahigh Purification System was designed at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI) to continuously clean the hydrogen from impurities. The system is based on an adsorption cryopump to stimulate the hydrogen flow and on a cold adsorbent for the hydrogen cleaning. It was installed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 2004 and performed reliably during three experiment runs. During several months long operating periods the system maintained the hydrogen purity in the detector on the level of 20 ppb for moisture, which is the main contaminant, and of better than 7 ppb and 5 ppb for nitrogen and oxygen, respectively. The pressure inside the TPC was stabilized to within 0.024% of 10 bar at a hydrogen flow rate of 3 standard liters per minute.

  6. Effects of oxygen on fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, M.L.; Shuchart, C.E.; Yaritz, J.G.; Norman, L.R.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of polysaccharide gels at high temperature is limited by such factors as pH, mechanical degradation, and oxidants. Oxygen is unavoidably placed in fracturing fluids through dissolution of air. To prevent premature degradation of the fracturing fluid by this oxidant, oxygen scavengers are commonly used. In this paper, the effects of oxygen and various oxygen scavengers on gel stability will be presented. Mechanical removal of oxygen resulted in surprisingly stable fracturing gels at 275 F. However, chemical removal of oxygen gave mixed results. Test data from sodium thiosulfate, sodium sulfite, and sodium erythorbate used as oxygen scavengers/gel stabilizers showed that the efficiency of oxygen removal from gels did not directly coincide with the viscosity retention of the gel, and large excesses of additives were necessary to provide optimum gel stabilization. The inability of some oxygen scavengers to stabilize the gel was the result of products created from the interaction of oxygen with the oxygen scavenger, which in turn, produced species that degraded the gel. The ideal oxygen scavenger should provide superior gel stabilization without creating detrimental side reaction products. Of the materials tested, sodium thiosulfate appeared to be the most beneficial.

  7. Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Oxygen Detection via Nanoscale Optical Indicators Ruby N. Ghosh Dept. of Physics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI, USA weekschr@msu.edu Abstract--Oxygen plays a ubiquitous role in terrestrial developed an optical technique for monitoring oxygen in both gas and liquid phases utilizing nanoscale metal

  8. 8, 22252248, 2008 Detection of oxygen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 2225­2248, 2008 Detection of oxygen emission related to spring bloom H. Yamagishi et al Chemistry and Physics Discussions Detection of regional scale sea-to-air oxygen emission related to spring bloom near Japan by using in-situ measurements of atmospheric oxygen/nitrogen ratio H. Yamagishi 1 , Y

  9. Overview of High-Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, J. S.; O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Hartvigsen, J. J.; Petri, M. C.; Carter, J. D.; Bischoff, B. L.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last five years there has been a growing interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, particularly to augment transportation fuels and thus reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Hydrogen is now produced primarily via steam reforming of methane. However, in the long term, methane reforming is not a viable process for the large-scale hydrogen production since such fossil fuel conversion processes consume non-renewable resources and emit greenhouse gases. Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen without consuming fossil fuels and without emitting greenhouse gases through the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is developing three general categories of high temperature processes for hydrogen production: thermochemical, electrolytic and hybrid thermo-electrolytic. This paper introduces the work being done in the development of high temperature electrolysis of steam. High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) is built on the technology of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), which were invented over a century ago, but which have been most vigorously developed during the last twenty years. SOFCs consume hydrogen and oxygen and produce steam and electricity. Solid Oxide Electrolytic Cells (SOECs) consume electricity and steam and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The purpose of the HTE research is to solve those problems unique to the electrolytic mode of operation, while building further on continuing fuel cell development. ORGANIZATION Experiments have been conducted for the last three years at the Idaho National Laboratory and at Ceramatec, Inc. on the operation of button cells and of progressively larger stacks of planar cells. In addition, the INL has been performing analyses of the cell-scale fluid dynamics and plant-scale flowsheets in order to determine optimum operating conditions and plant configurations. Argonne National Laboratory has been performing experiments for the development of new electrode materials, as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics and flowsheets for comparison with the work being done at the INL. ANL has also been performing diagnostic measures on components form long-duration tests at the INL and Ceramatec to determine the causes for the slow degradation in cell performance. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been developing high temperature porous membranes for the separation of hydrogen from the residual steam, thus avoiding the need to condense and reheat the steam. The University of Nevada at Las Vegas has been collaborating with ANL on the development of electrode and electrolyte materials and will soon begin to investigate the causes of cell degradation. HTE research also includes NERI projects at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute on the development of toughened SOEC composite seals and at the Georgia Institute of Technology on the microstructural design of SOEC materials. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The most recent large-scale test of HTE was performed from June 28 through Sept 22, 2006 at the Ceramatec plant in Salt Lake City. The test apparatus consists of two stacks of 60 cells each in a configuration that will be used in the Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) experiment during FY-07. The ILS will contain three modules of four stacks each. The “Half-Module” initially produced 1.2 normal m3of H2/hour and 0.65 Nm3/hr at the end of the 2040-hour continuous test.

  10. Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transmission and Distribution Workshop American Society of Mechanical EngineersSavannah River National Laboratory (ASMESRNL) Materials and Components for Hydrogen Infrastructure...

  11. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 11007: Hydrogen Threshold...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vehicles) in 2020. This record from the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that...

  12. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways?Scoping...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Central Methanol Methanol Forecourt Gasoline Gasoline Forecourt H 2 from ethylene or refinery Residuepitch Central The by-product source of hydrogen defined by IHIG in the...

  13. Hydrogen-Bond Networks: Strengths of Different Types of Hydrogen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energetic driving force for enzyme catalysis and conformational changes such as in protein folding due to multiple hydrogen bonds in a HBN. Citation: Shokri A, Y Wang, GA...

  14. Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes E;2 Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on two layered bismuth based oxide ceramics. Oxygen permeability for these systems was compared to permeability of the cubic fluorite type structure

  15. Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Mathew G. - Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto

    Singlet Oxygen Singlet oxygen generation and detection are growing fields with applications in such areas as cancer treatment, photosensitized oxidations, and biomolecular degradation. Ground state oxygen state of an oxygen molecule is a singlet state, which can readily react with other singlet molecules

  16. Lycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtzel, Eleanore

    , quenching singlet oxygen generated during the water-splitting process of photo- synthesis (10, 11). VariousLycopene cyclase paralog CruP protects against reactive oxygen species in oxygenic photosynthetic cyclase. Instead, we show that CruP aids in preventing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS

  17. Experimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, David L.

    state I. Conventionally, a two-phase (gas-liquid) chemistry singlet oxygen generator (SOG) producesExperimental Effects of Atomic Oxygen on the Development of an Electric Discharge Oxygen Iodine of the electric discharge iodine laser continues, the role of oxygen atoms downstream of the discharge region

  18. amide hydrogen exchange: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economics of Hydrogen Technologies Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Internal Combustion Engine Transportation Applications Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen Internal Power...

  19. ammonium hydrogen carbonate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Economics of Hydrogen Technologies Renewable Energy Websites Summary: Internal Combustion Engine Transportation Applications Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen Internal Power...

  20. Implementing a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure: Storage Options and System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan M; Yang, Christopher

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Infrastructure – Optimizingdevelopment of a hydrogen infrastructure has been identifiedrecent studies of hydrogen infrastructure have assessed

  1. Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity teamed with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Public Service to develop and monitor the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant. The Pilot Plant provides 100% hydrogen, and hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG)-blended fuels for the evaluation of hydrogen and H/CNG internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles in controlled and fleet testing environments. Since June 2002, twenty hydrogen and H/CNG vehicles have accumulated 300,000 test miles and 5,700 fueling events. The AVTA is part of the Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These testing activities are managed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This paper discusses the Pilot Plant design and monitoring, and hydrogen ICE vehicle testing methods and results.

  2. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos, Carlos da Silva dos; Ricotta, Regina Maria

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the quantum confinement effect is proposed as the cause of the displacement of the vibrational spectrum of molecular groups that involve hydrogen bonds. In this approach the hydrogen bond imposes a space barrier to hydrogen and constrains its oscillatory motion. We studied the vibrational transitions through the Morse potential, for the NH and OH molecular groups inside macromolecules in situation of confinement (when hydrogen bonding is formed) and non-confinement (when there is no hydrogen bonding). The energies were obtained through the variational method with the trial wave functions obtained from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SQM) formalism. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish the emission peaks related to the existence of the hydrogen bonds. These analytical results were satisfactorily compared with experimental results obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Nancy Garland DOE Hydrogen Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    commercialization decision by 2015 Fuel cell vehicles in showroom and hydrogen at fuel stations by 2020 #12;Hydrogen, and distributed combined heat and power applications. #12;DOE Hydrogen Program Budget $544DOT $37,301Earmarks (EE,830$30,000$29,432Storage R&D (EE) $14,363$25,325$22,564Production & Delivery R&D (EE) FY 05 Appropriations* ($000) FY 05

  4. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  5. Process modeling of hydrogen production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ASPEN PLUS commercial simulation software has been used to develop a process model for a conceptual process to convert municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen. The process consists of hydrothermal treatment of the MSW in water to create a slurry suitable as feedstock for an oxygen blown Texaco gasifier. A method of reducing the complicated MSW feed material to a manageable set of components is outlined along with a framework for modeling the stoichiometric changes associated with the hydrothermal treatment process. Model results indicate that 0.672 kmol/s of hydrogen can be produced from the processing of 30 kg/s (2600 tonne/day) of raw MSW. A number of variations on the basic processing parameters are explored and indicate that there is a clear incentive to reduce the inert fraction in the processed slurry feed and that cofeeding a low value heavy oil may be economically attractive.

  6. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs to estimate hydrogen pipeline costs. Davis, CA: ITS-hydrogen. The cost of hydrogen pipeline delivery de- pendshydrogen trucks, and hydrogen pipelines, were devel- oped

  7. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    costs to estimate hydrogen pipeline costs. Davis, CA: ITS-hydrogen trucks, and hydrogen pipelines, were devel- opedFor large amounts of hydrogen, pipeline transmission is pre-

  8. Determining the lowest-cost hydrogen delivery mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current lack of hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen fuel isof developing hydrogen infrastructure systems. This analysisa refueling infrastructure for hydrogen vehicles: a southern

  9. Determining the Lowest-Cost Hydrogen Delivery Mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    current lack of hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen fuel isof developing hydrogen infrastructure systems. This analysisa Refueling Infrastructure for Hydrogen Vehicles: A Southern

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: hydrogen storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage Energy Department Awards 7M to Advance Hydrogen Storage Systems On June 12, 2014, in CRF, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Facilities, Infrastructure...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: pure hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pure hydrogen ECIS, Boeing, Caltrans, and Others: Fuel-Cell-Powered Mobile Lighting Applications On March 29, 2013, in Capabilities, CRF, Energy, Energy Efficiency, Facilities,...

  12. Catalyzed borohydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Au, Ming (Augusta, GA)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen storage material and process is provided in which alkali borohydride materials are created which contain effective amounts of catalyst(s) which include transition metal oxides, halides, and chlorides of titanium, zirconium, tin, and combinations of the various catalysts. When the catalysts are added to an alkali borodydride such as a lithium borohydride, the initial hydrogen release point of the resulting mixture is substantially lowered. Additionally, the hydrogen storage material may be rehydrided with weight percent values of hydrogen at least about 9 percent.

  13. Hydrogen Technology Research at SRNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danko, E.

    2011-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a U.S. Department of Energy research and development laboratory located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. SRNL has over 50 years of experience in developing and applying hydrogen technology, both through its national defense activities as well as through its recent activities with the DOE Hydrogen Programs. The hydrogen technical staff at SRNL comprises over 90 scientists, engineers and technologists. SRNL has ongoing R&D initiatives in a variety of hydrogen storage areas, including metal hydrides, complex hydrides, chemical hydrides and carbon nanotubes. SRNL has over 25 years of experience in metal hydrides and solid-state hydrogen storage research, development and demonstration. As part of its defense mission at SRS, SRNL developed, designed, demonstrated and provides ongoing technical support for the largest hydrogen processing facility in the world based on the integrated use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage, separation, and compression. The SRNL has been active in teaming with academic and industrial partners to advance hydrogen technology. A primary focus of SRNL's R&D has been hydrogen storage using metal and complex hydrides. SRNL and its Hydrogen Technology Research Laboratory have been very successful in leveraging their defense infrastructure, capabilities and investments to help solve this country's energy problems. SRNL has participated in projects to convert public transit and utility vehicles for operation using hydrogen fuel. Two major projects include the H2Fuel Bus and an Industrial Fuel Cell Vehicle (IFCV) also known as the GATOR{trademark}. Both of these projects were funded by DOE and cost shared by industry. These are discussed further in Section 3.0, Demonstration Projects. In addition to metal hydrides technology, the SRNL Hydrogen group has done extensive R&D in other hydrogen technologies, including membrane filters for H2 separation, doped carbon nanotubes, storage vessel design and optimization, chemical hydrides, hydrogen compressors and hydrogen production using nuclear energy. Several of these are discussed further in Section 2, SRNL Hydrogen Research and Development.

  14. Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Results of two Reports from the National Research Council...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: hydrogen production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    production High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production On July 9, 2014, in Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation (CIRI), Concentrating Solar...

  16. Hydrogen Codes and Standards (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohi, J.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 2006 DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Annual Merit Review in Washington, D.C., May 16-19, 2006.

  17. Alternative Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Technologies: Hydrogen, Biofuels, Advanced Efficiency, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Light Duty Vehicle...

  18. Experiment Hazard Class 11 - Hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    arrestors must be provided on all hydrogen supplies and must be located immediately downstream of the first regulator or other location determined by a safety review. Flammable...

  19. Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    level in two different semiconductors, illustrating the06-01999R1 Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators SpecialA. oxide materials; A. semiconductors; C. electronic

  20. Significance of Isotopically Labile Organic Hydrogen in Thermal Maturation of Organic Matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arndt Schimmelmann; Maria Mastalerz

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Isotopically labile organic hydrogen in fossil fuels occupies chemical positions that participate in isotopic exchange and in chemical reactions during thermal maturation from kerogen to bitumen, oil and gas. Carbon-bound organic hydrogen is isotopically far less exchangeable than hydrogen bound to nitrogen, oxygen, or sulfur. We explore why organic hydrogen isotope ratios express a relationship with organic nitrogen isotope ratios in kerogen at low to moderate maturity. We develop and apply new techniques to utilize organic D/H ratios in organic matter fractions and on a molecular level as tools for exploration for fossil fuels and for paleoenvironmental research. The scope of our samples includes naturally and artificially matured substrates, such as coal, shale, oil and gas.

  1. Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

  2. NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency Visit |Infrastructure TheSolar EnergyHydrogen Basics

  3. Sandia Energy - Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Press ReleasesInAppliedEnergyGeothermalBehaviorHydrogen

  4. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia, California:ProjectPrograms | OpenVentures JumpHydrogen

  5. Hawaii Renewable Hydrogen Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEN TO THEHudson YearHarvesting theRenewable

  6. National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum | DepartmentDepartment ofHYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP

  7. National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many DevilsForum | DepartmentDepartment ofHYDROGEN ENERGYKeith Wipke,

  8. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan Runhua New Energy DevelopmentList of Hydrogen Incentives

  9. Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen Abstraction by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, William J.

    Photoinduced Hydrogen Abstraction from Phenols by Aromatic Ketones. A New Mechanism for Hydrogen carried out of the kinetics of inter- and intramolecular phenolic hydrogen abstraction phenolic hydrogen, which yields the corresponding phenoxyl-hemipinacol biradical. The biradicals have also

  10. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Program Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure.5Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program (EERE) President's Office of Science Berkeley, California #12;President Bush Launches the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative "Tonight I am proposing $1

  11. 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station December 16, 2013 -...

  12. Metal salt catalysts for enhancing hydrogen spillover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T; Wang, Yuhe

    2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for hydrogen storage includes a receptor, a hydrogen dissociating metal doped on the receptor, and a metal salt doped on the receptor. The hydrogen dissociating metal is configured to spill over hydrogen to the receptor, and the metal salt is configured to increase a rate of the spill over of the hydrogen to the receptor.

  13. Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions Why Hydrogen Production? Hydrogen is a critical. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use

  14. Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage William Tumas proprietary or confidential information #12;2 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Overview Project Start Date: FY Barriers Addressed #12;3 Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center National

  15. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  16. Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Storage. Tobias Brunner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distribution along highways and in remote areas. Gaseous hydrogen distribution via pipelines in onlyCryo-compressed Hydrogen Storage. Tobias Brunner February 15th, 2011, Washington D.C. BMW Hydrogen. Hydrogen Storage Workshop. BMW EfficientDynamics Less emissions. More driving pleasure. #12;BMW Hydrogen

  17. OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrn, Marianne; Calvin, Melvin

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES TWO-eng-48 OXYGEN 18 EXCHANGE REACTIONS OF ALDEHYDES AND KETONES

  18. Advanced thermochemical hydrogen cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Bowman, M.G.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this program is to contribute to the development of practical thermochemical cycles for the production of hydrogen from water. Specific goals are: investigate and evaluate the technical and economic viability of thermochemical cycles as an advanced technology for producing hydrogen from water; investigate and evaluate the engineering principles involved in interfacing individual thermochemical cycles with the different thermal energy sources (high temperature fission, solar, and fusion); and conduct a continuing research and development effort to evaluate the use of solid sulfates, oxides and other compounds as potentially advanced cycles and as alternates to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ based cycles. Basic thermochemistry studies have been completed for two different steps in the decomposition of bismuth sulfate. Two different bismuth sulfate cycles have been defined for different sulfuric acid strengths. The eventual best cycle will depend on energy required to form sulfuric acid at different concentrations. A solids decomposition facility has been constructed and practical studies of solid decompositions are being conducted. The facility includes a rotary kiln system and a dual-particle fluidized bed system. Evaluation of different types of cycles for coupling with different heat sources is continuing.

  19. Hydrogen iodide decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Keefe, Dennis R. (San Diego, CA); Norman, John H. (San Diego, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid hydrogen iodide is decomposed to form hydrogen and iodine in the presence of water using a soluble catalyst. Decomposition is carried out at a temperature between about 350.degree. K. and about 525.degree. K. and at a corresponding pressure between about 25 and about 300 atmospheres in the presence of an aqueous solution which acts as a carrier for the homogeneous catalyst. Various halides of the platinum group metals, particularly Pd, Rh and Pt, are used, particularly the chlorides and iodides which exhibit good solubility. After separation of the H.sub.2, the stream from the decomposer is countercurrently extracted with nearly dry HI to remove I.sub.2. The wet phase contains most of the catalyst and is recycled directly to the decomposition step. The catalyst in the remaining almost dry HI-I.sub.2 phase is then extracted into a wet phase which is also recycled. The catalyst-free HI-I.sub.2 phase is finally distilled to separate the HI and I.sub.2. The HI is recycled to the reactor; the I.sub.2 is returned to a reactor operating in accordance with the Bunsen equation to create more HI.

  20. Mixed Ionic and Electonic Conductors for Hydrogen Generation and Separation: A New Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srikanth Gopalan

    2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite mixed conductors comprising one electronic conducting phase, and one ionic conducting phase (MIECs) have been developed in this work. Such MIECs have applications in generating and separating hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels at high process rates and high purities. The ionic conducting phase comprises of rare-earth doped ceria and the electronic conducting phase of rare-earth doped strontium titanate. These compositions are ideally suited for the hydrogen separation application. In the process studied in this project, steam at high temperatures is fed to one side of the MIEC membrane and hydrocarbon fuel or reformed hydrocarbon fuel to the other side of the membrane. Oxygen is transported from the steam side to the fuel side down the electrochemical potential gradient thereby enriching the steam side flow in hydrogen. The remnant water vapor can then be condensed to obtain high purity hydrogen. In this work we have shown that two-phase MIECs comprising rare-earth ceria as the ionic conductor and doped-strontium titanate as the electronic conductor are stable in the operating environment of the MIEC. Further, no adverse reaction products are formed when these phases are in contact at elevated temperatures. The composite MIECs have been characterized using a transient electrical conductivity relaxation technique to measure the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient. Oxygen permeation and hydrogen generation rates have been measured under a range of process conditions and the results have been fit to a model which incorporates the oxygen chemical diffusivity and the surface exchange coefficient from the transient measurements.

  1. Hydrogen and OUr Energy Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rick Tidball; Stu Knoke

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2003, President George W. Bush announced the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to accelerate the research and development of hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies that would enable hydrogen fuel cell vehicles to reach the commercial market in the 2020 timeframe. The widespread use of hydrogen can reduce our dependence on imported oil and benefit the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutant emissions that affect our air quality. The Energy Policy Act of 2005, passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bush on August 8, 2005, reinforces Federal government support for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. Title VIII, also called the 'Spark M. Matsunaga Hydrogen Act of 2005' authorizes more than $3.2 billion for hydrogen and fuel cell activities intended to enable the commercial introduction of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles by 2020, consistent with the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. Numerous other titles in the Act call for related tax and market incentives, new studies, collaboration with alternative fuels and renewable energy programs, and broadened demonstrations--clearly demonstrating the strong support among members of Congress for the development and use of hydrogen fuel cell technologies. In 2006, the President announced the Advanced Energy Initiative (AEI) to accelerate research on technologies with the potential to reduce near-term oil use in the transportation sector--batteries for hybrid vehicles and cellulosic ethanol--and advance activities under the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative. The AEI also supports research to reduce the cost of electricity production technologies in the stationary sector such as clean coal, nuclear energy, solar photovoltaics, and wind energy.

  2. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to maximize plant output is needed in order to address the DOE turbine goal for 20-30% reduction o

  3. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Bloomfield; Brian S. MacKenzie

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor EHC was evaluated against DOE applications for compressing hydrogen at automobile filling stations, in future hydrogen pipelines and as a commercial replacement for conventional diaphragm hydrogen compressors. It was also evaluated as a modular replacement for the compressors used in petrochemical refineries. If the EHC can be made inexpensive, reliable and long lived then it can satisfy all these applications save pipelines where the requirements for platinum catalyst exceeds the annual world production. The research performed did not completely investigate Molybdenum as a hydrogen anode or cathode, it did show that photoetched 316 stainless steel is inadequate for an EHC. It also showed that: molybdenum bipolar plates, photochemical etching processes, and Gortex Teflon seals are too costly for a commercial EHC. The use of carbon paper in combination with a perforated thin metal electrode demonstrated adequate anode support strength, but is suspect in promoting galvanic corrosion. The nature of the corrosion mechanisms are not well understood, but locally high potentials within the unit cell package are probably involved. The program produced a design with an extraordinary high cell pitch, and a very low part count. This is one of the promising aspects of the redesigned EHC. The development and successful demonstration of the hydraulic cathode is also important. The problem of corrosion resistant metal bipolar plates is vital to the development of an inexpensive, commercial PEM fuel cell. Our research suggests that there is more to the corrosion process in fuel cells and electrochemical compressors than simple, steady state, galvanic stability. It is an important area for scientific investigation. The experiments and analysis conducted lead to several recommended future research directions. First, we need a better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of experimental cells with titration to determine the loss of membrane active sites is recommended. We suspect that the corrosion includes more than simple galvanic mechanisms. The mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Shunt currents at hydraulic cathode ports were problematic, but are not difficult to cure. In addition to corrosion there is evidence of high component resistivity. This may be due to the deposition of organic compounds, which may be produced electrochemically on the surface of the metal support screens that contact carbon gas diffusion layers (GDLs) or catalyst supports. An investigation of possible electro-organic sythesis mechanisms with emphasis on oxalates formation is warranted. The contaminated cell parts can be placed in an oxidizing atmosphere at high temperature and the weight loss can be observed. This would reveal the existence of organic compounds. Investigation into the effects of conductivity enhancers such as carbon microlayers on supporting carbon paper is also needed. Corrosion solutions should be investigated such as surface passivation of 316 SS parts using nitric acid. Ultra thin silane/siloxane polymer coatings should be tried. These may be especially useful in conjunction with metal felt replacement of carbon paper. A simple cure for the very high, localized corrosion of the anode might be to diffusion bond the metal electrode support screen to bipolar plate. This will insure uniform resistance perpendicular to the plane of the cell and eliminate some of the dependence of the resistance on high stack compression. Alternative materials should be explored. Alternatives to carbon in the cell may be helpful in any context. In particular, alternatives to carbon paper GDLs such as metal felts and alternatives to carbon supports for Pt such as TiC and TiB2 might also be worthwhile and would be helpful to fuel cells as well. Some alternative to the metals we used in the cell, Mo and 316 SS, are potentially useful. These include Al/Mg/Si alloys. Corrosion resistant materials such as Nb and Mo might prove useful as cladding materials that can be hot stamp

  4. Developments in ITM oxygen technology for IGCC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, V.E.E.; Richards, R.E.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), an Air Products-led team (with Ceramatec, Eltron Research, McDermott Technology, NREC, Texaco, the Pennsylvania State University, and the University of Pennsylvania) is developing a new technology for air separation - Ion Transport Membrane Oxygen - based on the use of mixed-conducting ceramic membranes that have both electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity when operated at high temperature, typically 800 to 900 C. Under the influence of an oxygen partial-pressure driving force, the ITM Oxygen process achieves a high-purity, high-flux separation of oxygen from a compressed-air stream. By integrating the energy-rich, oxygen-depleted, non-permeate stream with a gas turbine system, the ITM Oxygen process becomes a co-producer of high-purity oxygen, power, and steam. Under a recent CRADA entitled ``Ion Transport Membranes (ITM) for Oxygen-Blown IGCC Systems and Indirect Coal Liquefaction,'' Air Products and DOE completed an initial quantification of the benefits of an ITM Oxygen-integrated IGCC facility. Compared to the cryogenic oxygen base case, the ITM Oxygen technology can potentially: reduce total installed costs by 7%; improve thermal efficiency for the integrated IGCC system by about 3%, leading to further decreases in carbon dioxide and sulfur emissions; and reduce the cost of generated electric power by more than 6%. The ITM Oxygen development project will proceed in three phases. Phase 1, which commenced under a DOE Cooperative Agreement in October 1998, is a 3-year effort focusing on construction of a technology development unit (TDU) for process concept validation tests at a capacity of 0.1 ton-per-day (TPD) oxygen. To accomplish this objective, the Air Products team will address relevant technical challenges in ITM Oxygen materials, engineering, membrane module development, and performance testing. During Phase 1 the team will also verify the economic prospects for integrating ITM Oxygen technology with IGCC and other advanced power generation systems. After at least one intermediate scaleup, Phase 2 and 3 activities will culminate with scaleup to a 25- to 50-TPD pre-commercial demonstration unit, fully integrated with a gas turbine. Meeting these challenges of developing cost-effective fabrication techniques for ITM Oxygen devices, and successfully integrating them with commercially available gas turbine engines, is key to bringing ITM Oxygen technology to the marketplace.

  5. ANALYSIS OF A HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS-COOLED REACTOR POWERED HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS HYDROGEN PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; A. M. Gandrik

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An updated reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The reactor heat is used to produce heat and electric power to the HTE plant. A Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 44.4% was used to provide the electric power. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 1.1 million cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 42.8% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.85 kg/s (66 million SCFD) and an oxygen production rate of 14.6 kg/s (33 million SCFD). An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.03/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20% for a reactor cost of $2000/kWt and $2.41/kg of hydrogen for a reactor cost of $1400/kWt.

  6. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLuchi, Mark A.; Ogden, Joan M.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M. A. (1992). Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles. Re- koebensteinthan both. Solar-hydrogen and fuel-cell vehicles wouldberegulation. Solar-Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles MarkA. DeLuchi

  7. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Well-to-wheels analysis of hydrogen based fuel-cell vehicleJP, et al. Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis,”Year 2006 UCD—ITS—RR—06—04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs

  8. Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    storing and transporting hydrogen. Golden, CO: NREL; 1998. [V. Survey of the economics of hydrogen technologies. Golden,liquid or gaseous form. Hydrogen can be produced from a va-

  9. 7, 1271512750, 2007 Hydrogen isotope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    imply that there must be a very strong concomitant isotopic enrichment in the radical channel (CH2O + hACPD 7, 12715­12750, 2007 Hydrogen isotope fractionation in the photolysis of formaldehyde T. S a Creative Commons License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Hydrogen isotope fractionation

  10. Catalytically Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with the Freedom CAR hydrogen storage system targets (Key parameters: cost, specific energy, and energy density). #12;Objectives I. Determination of the chemical nature of the titanium species responsible that are compatible with the Freedom CAR hydrogen storage system targets. Key parameters: cost, specific energy

  11. High-resolution NMR process analyzer for oxygenates in gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skloss, T.W.; Kim, A.J.; Haw, J.F. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a high-resolution 42-MHz[sup 1]HFT-NMR instrument that is suitable for use as a process analyzer and demonstrate its use in the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a flowing stream of gasoline. This spectrometer is based on a 55-kg permanent magnet with essentially no fringe field. A spectral resolution of 3 Hz was typically obtained for spinning samples, and this performance was only slightly degraded with flowing samples. We report a procedure for magnet drift compensation using a software procedure rather than a field-frequency lock channel. This procedure allowed signal averaging without loss of resolution. Regulatory changes to be implemented in the near future have created a need for the development of methods for the determination of MTBE and other oxygenates in reformulated gasolines. Existing methods employing gas chromatography are not fast enough for process control of a gasoline blender and suffer from other limitations. This study demonstrates that process analysis NMR is well-suited to the determination of MTBE in a simulated gasoline blender. The detection limit of 0.5 vol % MTBE was obtained with a measurement time of 1 min. The absolute standard deviation of independent determinations was 0.17% when the MTBE concentration was 10%, a nominal value. Preliminary results also suggest that the method may be applicable to gasolines containing mixtures of oxygenate additives as well as the measurement of aromatic and olefinic hydrogens. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Condensed hydrogen for thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucheyev, S. O.; Hamza, A. V. [Nanoscale Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power, in either pure fusion or fission-fusion hybrid reactors, is a possible solution for future world's energy demands. Formation of uniform layers of a condensed hydrogen fuel in ICF targets has been a long standing materials physics challenge. Here, we review the progress in this field. After a brief discussion of the major ICF target designs and the basic properties of condensed hydrogens, we review both liquid and solid layering methods, physical mechanisms causing layer nonuniformity, growth of hydrogen single crystals, attempts to prepare amorphous and nanostructured hydrogens, and mechanical deformation behavior. Emphasis is given to current challenges defining future research areas in the field of condensed hydrogens for fusion energy applications.

  13. FEASIBILITY OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION USING LASER INERTIAL FUSION AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M

    2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Average Power Laser (HAPL) program is developing technology for Laser IFE with the goal of producing electricity from the heat generated by the implosion of deuterium-tritium (DT) targets. Alternatively, the Laser IFE device could be coupled to a hydrogen generation system where the heat would be used as input to a water-splitting process to produce hydrogen and oxygen. The production of hydrogen in addition to electricity would allow fusion energy plants to address a much wider segment of energy needs, including transportation. Water-splitting processes involving direct and hybrid thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis are currently being developed as means to produce hydrogen from high temperature nuclear fission reactors and solar central receivers. This paper explores the feasibility of this concept for integration with a Laser IFE plant, and it looks at potential modifications to make this approach more attractive. Of particular interest are: (1) the determination of the advantages of Laser IFE hydrogen production compared to other hydrogen production concepts, and (2) whether a facility of the size of FTF would be suitable for hydrogen production.

  14. Low-Cost High-Pressure Hydrogen Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropley, Cecelia C.; Norman, Timothy J.

    2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrolysis of water, particularly in conjunction with renewable energy sources, is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method of producing hydrogen at dispersed forecourt sites, such as automotive fueling stations. The primary feedstock for an electrolyzer is electricity, which could be produced by renewable sources such as wind or solar that do not produce carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gas emissions. However, state-of-the-art electrolyzer systems are not economically competitive for forecourt hydrogen production due to their high capital and operating costs, particularly the cost of the electricity used by the electrolyzer stack. In this project, Giner Electrochemical Systems, LLC (GES) developed a low cost, high efficiency proton-exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis system for hydrogen production at moderate pressure (300 to 400 psig). The electrolyzer stack operates at differential pressure, with hydrogen produced at moderate pressure while oxygen is evolved at near-atmospheric pressure, reducing the cost of the water feed and oxygen handling subsystems. The project included basic research on catalysts and membranes to improve the efficiency of the electrolysis reaction as well as development of advanced materials and component fabrication methods to reduce the capital cost of the electrolyzer stack and system. The project culminated in delivery of a prototype electrolyzer module to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for testing at the National Wind Technology Center. Electrolysis cell efficiency of 72% (based on the lower heating value of hydrogen) was demonstrated using an advanced high-strength membrane developed in this project. This membrane would enable the electrolyzer system to exceed the DOE 2012 efficiency target of 69%. GES significantly reduced the capital cost of a PEM electrolyzer stack through development of low cost components and fabrication methods, including a 60% reduction in stack parts count. Economic analysis indicates that hydrogen could be produced for $3.79 per gge at an electricity cost of $0.05/kWh by the lower-cost PEM electrolyzer developed in this project, assuming high-volume production of large-scale electrolyzer systems.

  15. Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    04 Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai Jonathan X.voltage connections) Capital costs for this equipment must

  16. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Analysis, Options and Trade-offs, Transition and Long-term Presentation on Hydrogen...

  17. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop March 18, 2015 8:00AM EDT to...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: produce and deliver hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    produce and deliver hydrogen High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production On July 9, 2014, in Center for Infrastructure Research and Innovation (CIRI),...

  19. Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop Proceedings Workshop, October...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Proceedings Workshop, October 16th, 2002 Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop Proceedings Workshop, October 16th, 2002 A workshop on compressed and liquefied hydrogen storage was a...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: studying hydrogen's effects on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    studying hydrogen's effects on materials and engines Linde, Sandia Partnership Looks to Expand Hydrogen Fueling Network On February 26, 2015, in Center for Infrastructure Research...

  1. Hydrogen for Energy Storage Analysis Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D. M.; Ramsden, T.; Harrison, K.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overview of hydrogen for energy storage analysis presented at the National Hydrogen Association Conference & Expo, May 3-6, 2010, Long Beach, CA.

  2. California National Guard Sustainability Planning, Hydrogen Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Guard Sustainability Planning, Hydrogen Fuel Goals California National Guard Sustainability Planning, Hydrogen Fuel Goals Overview of California Guard Army Facilities, ANG...

  3. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report This report provides an overview of the...

  4. Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration Webinar (Text...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Database Demonstration Webinar (Text Version) Hydrogen Storage Materials Database Demonstration Webinar (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Hydrogen...

  5. Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements (Text Version) | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Requirements (Text Version) Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Hydrogen Storage Materials Requirements,"...

  6. Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Analysis Geographically Based Hydrogen Demand and Infrastructure Analysis Presentation by NREL's Margo Melendez at the 2010 - 2025 Scenario Analysis for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Sandia hydrogen program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen program Energy Department Awards 7M to Advance Hydrogen Storage Systems On June 12, 2014, in CRF, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Facilities,...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: understanding hydrogen components

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen components Energy Department Awards 7M to Advance Hydrogen Storage Systems On June 12, 2014, in CRF, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems, Facilities,...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: material interactions with hydrogen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    material interactions with hydrogen Energy Department Awards 7M to Advance Hydrogen Storage Systems On June 12, 2014, in CRF, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage Systems,...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: accelerate hydrogen infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    accelerate hydrogen infrastructure technologies Energy Department Awards 7M to Advance Hydrogen Storage Systems On June 12, 2014, in CRF, Energy, Energy Storage, Energy Storage...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: hydrogen-storage materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydrogen-storage materials ECIS-I2CNER: Hydrogen Infrastructure Research Aids Energy Independence Goal On February 14, 2013, in CRF, Energy, Livermore Valley Open Campus (LVOC),...

  12. Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Transportation and Stationary Power Integration with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology in Connecticut Overview of strengths,...

  13. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program: 2002 Annual Progress Report Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program: 2002 Annual Progress Report...

  14. Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program FY2003 Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Report Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program FY2003...

  15. 2nd International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Webinar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    nd International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Webinar Slides 2nd International Hydrogen Infrastructure Challenges Webinar Slides Presentation slides from the Fuel Cell...

  16. Dense, layered membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roark, Shane E.; MacKay, Richard; Mundschau, Michael V.

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides hydrogen-permeable membranes for separation of hydrogen from hydrogen-containing gases. The membranes are multi-layer having a central hydrogen-permeable layer with one or more catalyst layers, barrier layers, and/or protective layers. The invention also relates to membrane reactors employing the hydrogen-permeable membranes of the invention and to methods for separation of hydrogen from a hydrogen-containing gas using the membranes and reactors. The reactors of this invention can be combined with additional reactor systems for direct use of the separated hydrogen.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: fully certified commercial hydrogen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fully certified commercial hydrogen fueling station Linde, Sandia Partnership Looks to Expand Hydrogen Fueling Network On February 26, 2015, in Center for Infrastructure Research...

  18. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification National Renewable Energy Laboratory Panel, Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification To: Mr. Mark Ruth, NREL, DOE

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: hydrogen fueling infrastructure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Washington DC, Sandian's Christopher San Marchi (manager of Sandia's Hydrogen and Metallurgy Science Dept.) and Brian Somerday (also in the Hydrogen and Metallurgy Science...

  20. National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration Status Webinar (Text...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Association. Today, Mr. Wipke is here to talk to us about work on hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and the Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and...