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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the seventh report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in these areas. These areas are: (1) Steam reformer transient response, (2) Heat transfer enhancement, (3) Catalyst degradation, (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies, and (5) Autothermal reforming of coal-derived methanol. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the third report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 30, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) External evaluation of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design, set up and initial testing of the autothermal reactor, (3) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (4) Catalyst degradation studies, and (5) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

6

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the first such report that will be submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1--December 31, 2003. This quarter saw progress in three areas. These areas are: (1) Evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor, as well as (3) Set up and data collection of baseline performance using the steam reformer. All of the projects are proceeding on schedule. During this quarter one conference paper was written that will be presented at the ASME Power 2004 conference in March 2004, which outlines the research direction and basis for looking at the coal to hydrogen pathway.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

8

BIMETALLIC NANOCATALYSTS IN MESOPOROUS SILICA FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL-DERIVED FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In steam reforming reactions (SRRs) of alkanes and alcohols to produce H{sub 2}, noble metals such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are extensively used as catalyst. These metals are expensive; so, to reduce noble-metal loading, bi-metallic nanocatalysts containing non-noble metals in MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Material No. 41, a mesoporous material) as a support material with high-surface area were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal procedure with a surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts of Pd-Ni and Pd-Co with varying metal loadings in MCM-41 were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The BET surface area of MCM-41 (~1000 m{sup 2}/g) containing metal nanoparticles decreases with the increase in metal loading. The FTIR studies confirm strong interaction between Si-O-M (M = Pd, Ni, Co) units and successful inclusion of metal into the mesoporous silica matrix. The catalyst activities were examined in steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reactions to produce hydrogen. Reference tests using catalysts containing individual metals (Pd, Ni and Co) were also performed to investigate the effect of the bimetallic system on the catalytic behavior in the SRM reactions. The bimetallic system remarkably improves the hydrogen selectivity, methanol conversion and stability of the catalyst. The results are consistent with a synergistic behavior for the Pd-Ni-bimetallic system. The performance, durability and thermal stability of the Pd-Ni/MCM-41 and Pd-Co/MCM-41 suggest that these materials may be promising catalysts for hydrogen production from biofuels. A part of this work for synthesis and characterization of Pd-Ni-MCM-41 and its activity for SRM reactions has been published (Development of Mesoporous Silica Encapsulated Pd-Ni Nanocatalyst for Hydrogen Production in Production and Purification of Ultraclean Transportation Fuels; Hu, Y., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2011.)

Kuila, Debasish; Ilias, Shamsuddin

2013-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

9

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

10

Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goals of Office of Clean Coal are: (1) Improved energy security; (2) Reduced green house gas emissions; (3) High tech job creation; and (4) Reduced energy costs. The goals of the Hydrogen from Coal Program are: (1) Prove the feasibility of a 40% efficient, near zero emissions IGCC plant that uses membrane separation technology and other advanced technologies to reduce the cost of electricity by at least 35%; and (2) Develop H{sub 2} production and processing technologies that will contribute {approx}3% in improved efficiency and 12% reduction in cost of electricity.

O.N. Dogan; B.H. Howard; D.E. Alman

2012-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

11

Effect of hydrogen sulfide on chemical looping of coal-derived synthesis gas over bentonite-supported metal---oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on the chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas with bentonite-supported metal oxidesssuch as iron oxide, nickel oxide, manganese oxide, and copper oxideswas investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). During the reaction with synthesis gas containing H2S, metal-oxide oxygen carriers were first reduced by carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and then interacted with H2S to form metal sulfide, which resulted in a weight gain during the reduction/sulfidation step. The reduced/sulfurized compounds could be regenerated to form sulfur dioxide and oxides during the oxidation reaction with air. The reduction/oxidation capacities of iron oxide and nickel oxide were not affected by the presence of H2S, but both manganese oxide and copper oxide showed decreased reduction/oxidation capacities. However, the rates of reduction and oxidation decreased in the presence of H2S for all four metal oxides.

Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Siriwardane, R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Effect of hydrogen sulfide on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over bentonite-supported metal-oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) on the chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas with bentonite-supported metal oxides - such as iron oxide, nickel oxide, manganese oxide, and copper oxide - was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). During the reaction with synthesis gas containing H{sub 2}S, metal-oxide oxygen carriers were first reduced by carbon monoxide and hydrogen, and then interacted with H{sub 2}S to form metal sulfide, which resulted in a weight gain during the reduction/sulfidation step. The reduced/sulfurized compounds could be regenerated to form sulfur dioxide and oxides during the oxidation reaction with air. The reduction/oxidation capacities of iron oxide and nickel oxide were not affected by the presence of H{sub 2}S, but both manganese oxide and copper oxide showed decreased reduction/oxidation capacities. However, the rates of reduction and oxidation decreased in the presence of H{sub 2}S for all four metal oxides.

Tian, H.J.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Siriwardane, R. [US DOE, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To overcome the issue of pinhole (defect) formation in membrane films over large areas, a process was developed and implemented for producing 6-12 {micro}m-thick, Pd-Cu alloy films on thermally oxidized silicon wafer substrates. The processing parameters on silicon are such that adhesion is poor and as-deposited Pd-Cu alloy films easily release from the oxidized silicon surface. Hydrogen permeation tests were conducted on 9 and 12 {micro}m-thick Pd-Cu alloy films and the hydrogen flux for 9 and 12 {micro}m-thick films were 16.8 and 8 cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min respectively. The hydrogen permeability (corrected using data in McKinnley patent) of the 9 {micro}m-thick membrane is 7.4 {center_dot} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 3}(STP) {center_dot} cm/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s {center_dot} cm Hg{sup 0.5} at 350 C and compares very well to permeability reported by McKinnley for a 62.5% Pd membrane; this permeability is {approx}56% of the value reported for a Pd-Cu alloy membrane with optimum 60% Pd composition. Using XRD, we confirmed the presence of a two-phase, {alpha}/{beta}, structure and that the composition of our membrane was slightly higher than the optimum composition. We are making adjustments to the compositions of the Pd-Cu alloy target in order to produce films next quarter that match the ideal Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} composition.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the last quarter, new procedures were developed and implemented to improve reliability and repeatability of release characteristics from the temporary substrate (i.e., silicon wafer) and to minimize through-thickness defects in a 6-inch diameter film, 3 microns in thickness. With the new procedures, we have been able to consistently produce essentially stress free films, with zero or minimal defects (less than 5) across a 6-inch diameter area. (It is important to note that for those films containing pinholes, a procedure has been developed to repair the pinholes to form a gas tight seal). The films are all within the identified tolerance range for composition (i.e., 60 {+-} 0.2 % Pd). A number of these films have subsequently been shipped to IdaTech for evaluation and integration into their test module. Colorado School of Mines continued their high temperature evaluation of 6 micron thick, sputtered Pd-Cu films. Pure hydrogen permeability increased up to 400 C while the membrane was in the {beta}-phase and dropped once the temperature increased to over 450 C. Above this temperature, as confirmed by the binary phase diagram, the film transforms into either a mixed {alpha}/{beta} or pure {alpha} phase. The same trend was observed for a baseline 25 micron-thick foil (from Wilkinson) where the pure hydrogen permeability increased with temperature while the membrane was in the {beta}-phase and then decreased upon transformation to the {alpha} phase.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

15

Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

Joseph Rabovitser

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

16

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the past quarter, significant progress has been made in optimize the deposition and release characteristics of ultrathin (less than 4 micron) membranes from rigid silicon substrates. Specifically, we have conducted a series of statistically designed experiments to examine the effects of plasma cleaning and compliant layer deposition conditions on the stress, release and pinhole density of membranes deposited on 4 inch and 6 inch round substrates. With this information we have progressed to the deposition and release of ultra-thin membranes from 12-inch diameter (113 sq. in.) rigid substrates, achieving a key milestone for large-area membrane fabrication. Idatech received and is beginning preparations to test the Pd alloy membranes fabricated at SwRI the previous quarter. They are currently evaluating alternate gasketing methods and support materials that will allow for effective sealing and mounting of such thin membranes. David Edlund has also recently left Idatech and Bill Pledger (Chief Engineer) has replaced him as the primary technical point of contact. At Idetech's request a small number of additional 16 sq. in, samples were provided in a 2 in. by 8 in. geometry for use in a new module design currently under development. Recent work at the Colorado School of Mines has focused on developing preconditioning methods for thin Pd alloy membranes (6 microns or less) and continuing tests of thin membranes produced at SwRI. Of particular note, a 300-hour short-term durability study was completed over a range of temperatures from 300-450 C on a foil that showed perfect hydrogen selectivity throughout the entire test. With a 20 psi driving force, pure hydrogen flow rates ranged from 500 to 700 cc/min. Calculated at DOE specified conditions, the H{sub 2} flux of this membrane exceeded the 2010 Fossil target value of 200 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.

J. Arps

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Converting CO2 emissions and hydrogen into methanol vehicle fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There are new possibilities for transforming the ecological position of the metal-producing industries by utilizing their green-house gas emissions with electrolytically produced hydrogen to generate methanol ...

Bragi rnason; Thorsteinn I. Sigfsson

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4/In2O3 Model...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4In2O3 Model Catalyst: A Combined DFT and Kinetic Study. Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4In2O3 Model...

19

Process for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen from methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for producing carbon monoxide and hydrogen which comprises contacting methanol vapor at a temperature of 200 degrees to 300 degrees C with an indirectly heated zinc containing catalyst to obtain an effluent gas in which the components of carbon monoxide and hydrogen constitute at least 90% by volume of said gas. At least a part of the impurities from said effluent gas are removed and said effluent gas is deparated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by adsorption. The effluent gas can be separated into its carbon monoxide and hydrogen components by use of a plurality of adsorbers containing zeolite-type molecular sieve material where the zeolite is substantially permeable to hydrogen but sorbs carbon monoxide.

Jockel, H.; Marschner, F.; Moller, F.W.; Mortel, H.

1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

20

Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch Relaxation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Bond Dissociation and Reformation in Methanol Oligomers Following Hydroxyl Stretch, 2002 Vibrational relaxation and hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol-d dissolved in CCl4 have been-d molecules both accepting and donating hydrogen bonds at 2500 cm-1 . Following vibrational relaxation

Fayer, Michael D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas Warm Cleanup: Proof-of-Concept Process Demonstration of Multicontaminant Removal Progress toward Biomass and Coal-Derived Syngas...

22

Spontaneous hydrogen evolution in direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is an electrochemical energy conversion device that converts chemical energy of liquid methanol into electrical energy. Because of its (more)

Ye, Qiang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Transient Hydrogen Evolution/Oxidation Reactions on the OCV of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells in the mass transport of various species and electrochemical reactions in DMFCs compared with hydrogen- fueled of a direct methanol fuel cell DMFC was observed to undergo an overshoot before it stabilized during

Zhao, Tianshou

24

Hydrogen-bonded complexes of serotonin with methanol and ethanol: a DFT study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Density functional theoretical studies on hydrogen-bonded complexes of serotonin with methanol/ethanol have been carried out in a systematic ... -hydroxyl group. Serotonin-molecules strongly bind with ethanol tha...

A. Mano Priya; L. Senthilkumar; P. Kolandaivel

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

McDowell, William J. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing at realistic conditions (e.g., elevated pressures) and differential conversions (to measure true kinetics, to avoid deactivation, and to avoid condensable concentrations of products in the outlet gas).

James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

28

Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Mechanism of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors examine possible mechanisms of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen on supported copper catalysts. Two broad categories of reaction mechanism can be identified: (a) Type I: Carbon monoxide, adsorbed on the copper surface, is hydrogenated by the addition of hydrogen atoms while the C-O bond remains intact. A second C-O bond is neither formed nor broken. (b) Type II: Carbon monoxide (or a partially hydrogenated intermediate, e.g., HCO) reacts with an oxygen atom on the catalyst surface to give an intermediate, typically a formate, which contains two C-O bonds. Subsequent reaction leads overall to methanol and the reformation of the surface oxygen atom. Both mechanisms are discussed.

Fakley, M.E.; Jennings, J.R.; Spencer, M.S. (ICI Chemicals and Polymers Ltd, Billingham, Cleveland (England))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

2001-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

31

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas Description Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology offers a means to utilize coal -the most abundant fuel in the United States-to produce a host of products, ranging from electricity to value-added chemicals like transportation fuels and hydrogen, in an efficient, environmentally friendly manner. However, the overall cost (capital, operating,

32

Carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (the CAMERE process)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CAMERE process (carbon dioxide hydrogenation to form methanol via a reverse-water-gas-shift reaction) was developed and evaluated. The reverse-water-gas-shift reactor and the methanol synthesis reactor were serially aligned to form methanol from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Carbon dioxide was converted to CO and water by the reverse-water-gas-shift reaction (RWReaction) to remove water before methanol was synthesized. With the elimination of water by RWReaction, the purge gas volume was minimized as the recycle gas volume decreased. Because of the minimum purge gas loss by the pretreatment of RWReactor, the overall methanol yield increased up to 89% from 69%. An active and stable catalyst with the composition of Cu/ZnO/ZrO{sub 2}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} (5:3:1:1) was developed. The system was optimized and compared with the commercial methanol synthesis processes from natural gas and coal.

Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.; Uhm, S.J. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.] [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Catalysis Lab.; Moon, I. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Rozovskii, A.Y.; Lin, G.I. [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A Theoretical Study of Methanol Synthesis from CO(2) Hydrogenation on Metal-doped Cu(111) Surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations were employed to investigate the methanol synthesis reaction from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation (CO{sub 2} + 3H{sub 2} {yields} CH{sub 3}OH + H{sub 2}O) on metal-doped Cu(111) surfaces. Both the formate pathway and the reverse water-gas shift (RWGS) reaction followed by a CO hydrogenation pathway (RWGS + CO-Hydro) were considered in the study. Our calculations showed that the overall methanol yield increased in the sequence: Au/Cu(111) < Cu(111) < Pd/Cu(111) < Rh/Cu(111) < Pt/Cu(111) < Ni/Cu(111). On Au/Cu(111) and Cu(111), the formate pathway dominates the methanol production. Doping Au does not help the methanol synthesis on Cu(111). Pd, Rh, Pt, and Ni are able to promote the methanol production on Cu(111), where the conversion via the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathway is much faster than that via the formate pathway. Further kinetic analysis revealed that the methanol yield on Cu(111) was controlled by three factors: the dioxomethylene hydrogenation barrier, the CO binding energy, and the CO hydrogenation barrier. Accordingly, two possible descriptors are identified which can be used to describe the catalytic activity of Cu-based catalysts toward methanol synthesis. One is the activation barrier of dioxomethylene hydrogenation, and the other is the CO binding energy. An ideal Cu-based catalyst for the methanol synthesis via CO{sub 2} hydrogenation should be able to hydrogenate dioxomethylene easily and bond CO moderately, being strong enough to favor the desired CO hydrogenation rather than CO desorption but weak enough to prevent CO poisoning. In this way, the methanol production via both the formate and the RWGS + CO-Hydro pathways can be facilitated.

Liu P.; Yang, Y.; White, M.G.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

34

Promotive SMSI effect for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to methanol on a Pd/CeO{sub 2} catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports strong metal support interaction (SMSI) appearing in supported palladium catalysts which improves greatly the selectivity and lifetime of the catalysts for methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} hydrogenation. Catalytic hydrogenation of carbon dioxide into valuable chemicals and fuels such as methanol has recently been recognized as one of the promising recycling technologies for emitted CO{sub 2}. 33 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

NONE

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Influence of preparation method on performance of Cu(Zn)(Zr)-alumina catalysts for the hydrogen production via steam reforming of methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The selective production of hydrogen via steam reforming of methanol (SRM)...?C. Reverse water gas shift reaction and methanol decomposition reactions also take place simultaneously with the steam reforming react...

Sanjay Patel; K. K. Pant

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Recent Advances in Catalysts for Methanol Synthesis via Hydrogenation of CO and CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cu?Zn sites are basically metallic, in which the Cu atoms catalyze the hydrogenation in methanol synthesis; therefore, aurichalcite should be an excellent precursor in the preparation of Cu/ZnO catalyst. ... Previous studies70-73 indicate that precipitation parameters strongly affect the performance of a CuO?ZnO-based catalyst, in which Cu/ZnO catalysts are prepared using precursors such as hydrozincite Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6, aurichalcite (Cux,Zn1-x)5(CO3)2(OH)6, malachite Cu2(CO3)(OH)2, rosasite (Cux,Zn1-x)2(CO3)(OH)2, or their mixtures. ... 70,71 Only catalysts prepared using the aurichalcite precursor are more active to CO hydrogenation. ...

Xin-Mei Liu; G. Q. Lu; Zi-Feng Yan; Jorge Beltramini

2003-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

37

Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both-d in an isotopically mixed solu- tion of methanol dissolved in carbon tetrachloride.11­13 The first step involved

Fayer, Michael D.

38

Hydrogen production from methanol decomposition over Pt/Al2O3 and ceria promoted Pt/Al2O3 catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rights reserved. Keywords: Methanol decomposition; Pt/alumina; Ceria; Hydrogen; PEM fuel cell 1 exchange mem- brane (PEM) fuel cell system. PEM fuel cells convert hydrogen gas into useful electric power is seen as an attractive means of providing the necessary hydrogen to the fuel cell. With the exception

Gulari, Erdogan

39

A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Remarkable Improvement in Hydrogen Recovery and Reaction Efficiency of a Methanol Reforming?Membrane Reactor by Using a Novel Knudsen Membrane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, we employed a methanol reforming?mesoporous membrane reactor combined with water gas shift reaction to achieve three important aims simultaneously:? methanol conversion improvement, high hydrogen recovery, and CO elimination. ... Colloidal silica sol of 100 nm in particle size was synthesized from base-catalyzed hydrolysis?condensation reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) purchased from Aldrich. ... The feed side of the membrane was pressurized by pure hydrogen or nitrogen, while the permeate side of the membrane was under atmospheric pressure without a sweeping gas. ...

Dong-Wook Lee; Sang-Jun Park; Chang-Yeol Yu; Son-Ki Ihm; Kew-Ho Lee

2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Material Handling Equipment Demonstration - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Todd Ramsden National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, CO 80401 Phone: (303) 275-3704 Email: todd.ramsden@nrel.gov DOE Manager HQ: Peter Devlin Phone: (202) 586-4905 Email: Peter.Devlin@ee.doe.gov Subcontractor: Oorja Protonics, Inc., Fremont, CA Project Start Date: June 1, 2010 Project End Date: March 31, 2013 Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives Operate and maintain fuel-cell-powered material * handling equipment (MHE) using direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) technology. Compile operational data of DMFCs and validate their * performance under real-world operating conditions. Provide an independent technology assessment that * focuses on DMFC system performance, operation, and

42

An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when must-take wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

1995-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

47

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

48

Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

49

Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation over a Pd4/In2O3 Model Catalyst: A Combined DFT and Kinetic Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation on Pd4/In2O3 has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and microkinetic modeling. In this study, three possible routes in the reaction network of CO2 + H2 ? CH3OH + H2O have been examined. Our DFT results show that the HCOO route competes with the RWGS route whereas a high activation barrier kinetically blocks the HCOOH route. DFT results also suggest that H2COO* + H* ? H2CO* +OH* and cis-COOH* + H* ?CO* + H2O* are the rate limiting steps in the HCOO route and the RWGS route, respectively. Microkinetic modeling results demonstrate that the HCOO route is the dominant reaction route for methanol synthesis from CO2 hydrogenation. We found that the activation of H adatom on the small Pd cluster and the presence of H2O on the In2O3 substrate play important roles in promoting the methanol synthesis. The hydroxyl adsorbed at the interface of Pd4/In2O3 induces the transformation of the supported Pd4 cluster from a butterfly structure into a tetrahedron structure. This important structure change not only indicates the dynamical nature of the supported nanoparticle catalyst structure during the reaction but also shifts the final hydrogenation step from H2COH to CH3O.

Ye, Jingyun; Liu, Changjun; Mei, Donghai; Ge, Qingfeng

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Allentown, PA); Tewari, Krishna (Allentown, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Vibrational relaxation of the free terminal hydroxyl stretch in methanol oligomers: Indirect pathway to hydrogen bond breaking  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vibrational relaxation of methanol-d MeOD in carbon tetrachloride has been investigated via ultrafast infrared such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or alkanes. Unlike water, which is only sparingly soluble in nonpolar

Fayer, Michael D.

52

Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 3. Emissions test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the plant, Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company, in Meridian, Mississippi. Volume 1, of a 5 volume report, contains a comprehensive report of the whole test program - see abstract of Volume 1 for a detailed abstract of the whole program. Volume 3 contains detailed emissions testing results. 41 figs., 6 tabs. (LTN)

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Selective production of hydrogen for fuel cells via oxidative steam reforming of methanol over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fuel cell powered vehicles using hydrogen (H2) as a fuel are currently being developed in an effort to mitigate the emissions of green house gases such as CO2, NOx, and hydrocarbons. The H2 fuel is extracted from methanol onboard a vehicle by steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reaction. A considerable amount of CO is produced as a by-product, which is a poison to the Pt anode of the fuel cell. Very recently, we have demonstrated that a combined SRM and partial oxidation of methanol (POM), which we labeled as oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM) reaction is more efficient for the selective production of H2 relatively at a lower temperature of around 230C over CuZnAl(Zr)-oxide catalysts derived from hydroxycarbonate precursors containing hydrotalcite (HT)-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs)/aurichalcite phases. There are several operating parameters such as catalyst composition, reaction temperature, O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios and methanol injection rate that are need to be optimized in order to produce H2 suitable for fuelling a fuel cell. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of these variable parameters on the catalytic performance over a series of CuZnAl- and CuZnAlZr-oxide catalysts. Our study indicated that among the CuZn-based catalysts, those containing Zr were the most active. The optimum O2/CH3OH and H2O/CH3OH molar ratios should be in the ranges 0.200.30 and 1.31.6, respectively, in order to achieve a better catalytic performance. Studies of the effect of methanol contact time on the catalytic performance over a Zr-containing catalyst revealed that the OSRM reaction proceeds through the formation of formaldehyde intermediate. CO was produced as a secondary product by the decomposition of formaldehyde and it is subsequently transformed into CO2 and H2 by the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction.

S Velu; K Suzuki; M.P Kapoor; F Ohashi; T Osaki

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Reaction of aromatic compounds and coal-derived liquids with steam over alumina supported nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research program has been to explore and define the potential of steam reforming to produce light gases from coal-derived liquids. This was achieved through a study of the reaction of a model aromatic compound and of a coal-derived liquid with steam over an alumina supported nickel catalyst. The reaction of steam with benzene and SRC-II liquids over an alumina supported nickel-catalyst has been investigated in a plug flow reactor. The primary process variables investigated were reactor pressure and temperature, contact time, and steam/carbon ratio. A proposed reaction network was also developed to explain the data obtained in this study. The empirical rate equation for the benzene steam reforming reaction at 973 K, 300 psig, and a steam/carbon ratio of approximately 3 was r/sub C6H6/ = 1.92 x 10 TP/sub C6H6/. The activation energy was 88 KJ/mol, or 21 kcal/mol in the temperature range 748-973 K. A correlation was developed to predict product yields and hydrocarbon conversion over the range of process variables investigated. A second correlation was developed to predict the yields and conversion beyond the range of variables investigated.

Chen, I.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Photocatalytic hydrogen production from methanol aqueous solution under visible-light using Cu/STiO2 prepared by electroless plating method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cu was loaded on the S-doped TiO2 by electroless plating method. The prepared Cu/STiO2 exhibited high photocatalytic activity for hydrogen generation, and the yield is up to 7.5mmolh?1g?1cat in methanol solution. Their physical structure and chemical properties were characterized by UVVis, XRD, XPS and EXAFS. The copper species were CuO and Cu2O, and the sample showed excellent visible light absorption ability. Comparing with the sample prepared by chemical reducing method, the electroless plated copper on STiO2 was highly dispersed, which could facilitate photo-generated charges capture, transfer and separation.

Wenyu Zhang; Shengjun Wang; Jingguo Li; Xiaoyong Yang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

A case history of a fixed bed, coal-derived oil hydrotreater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the apparent shrinkage in the worldwide supply of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, upgrading of coal-derived liquids to synthetic crude oils will eventually emerge as a commercial entity. Although the Char-Oil-Energy Development (COED) Project has been shelved in the short term, information about the reaction engineering of the upgrading of coal-derived liquids by hydrotreatment in the COED Process should be relevant to upgrading technologies for other coal liquefaction processes. The COED Process was developed by FMC Corporation and the Office of Coal Research (now DOE) in the late 1960's and early 1970's. The process produced a synthetic crude oil, medium Btu gas and char by multi-stage, fluidized bed pyrolysis of coal. The raw coal-tar produced by pyrolysis was upgraded to synthetic crude oil by catalytic, fixed-bed hydrotreatment. Raw coal-tar has different properties from petroleum-derived oils, and upgrading by hydrotreatment is not an off-the-shelf technology. A 30 barrel per day fixed-bed hydrotreater was constructed and operated at the COED pilot plant site. The pilot plant hydrotreater design was based on conventional petroleum residua hydrotreatment technology together with bench-scale hydrotreatment tests performed by ARCO in the 1960's utilizing coal-tars produced in a process development unit. The pilot plant hydrotreater did operate for about four years providing valuable information about the reaction engineering of the hydrotreatment process as well as providing numerous samples for applications studies performed by other DOE contractors and interested potential users of the COED syncrude. Of note, 50,000 gallons of COED syncrude were supplied to the U.S. Naval Ship Engineering Center for shipboard testing in the boilers of the U.S.S. Johnston on November 1516th, 1973. This paper deals with the reaction engineering of the guard chamber and fixed-bed hydrotreatment reactors at the COED facility. Of major importance is the study of the role of the feedstock (pyrolysis coal-tar) properties and their effects on the catalysts utilized in the reactors. A working kinetic model has been derived that could allow a designer to optimize a particular set of design parameters and a plant operator to determine catalyst life. A quantitative comparison has been made of the effect of metals content of coal-derived oils and petroleum resids on catalyst deactivation.

Marvin I. Greene

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD (Primary Contact) TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: copeland@tda.com Email: galptekin@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2323 Tel: (303) 940-2349 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Margarita Dubovik Yevgenia Gershanovich TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: dubovik@tda.com Email: ygershan@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2316 Tel: (303) 940-2346 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

62

Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Coal-derived syngas MILD combustion in parallel jet forward flow combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of air-fuel momentum flux ratio on MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion of coal-derived syngas was examined in parallel jet forward flow combustor. The results were presented on flow field using non-reactive numerical simulations and on OH? radicals distribution and exhaust emissions using experiments. The predicted gas recirculation ratios in the combustor are high enough to establish the reaction condition of MILD scheme. Lower air-fuel momentum flux ratio associated with higher heat load benefits the drop of peak flame temperature and the increase of reaction zone volume. The critical air-fuel momentum flux ratios below which MILD combustion occurred were identified for three MILD configurations. The MILD configuration equipped with larger air nozzles and smaller fuel nozzles was observed to achieve MILD combustion at leaner condition. The MILD regime was established for syngas fuel with lean operational limit and ultra-low \\{NOx\\} and CO emissions.

Mingming Huang; Zhedian Zhang; Weiwei Shao; Yan Xiong; Yan Liu; Fulin Lei; Yunhan Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 1. Comprehensive report. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases which are distinguished by the level of the test effort. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels used at the station (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. In general, no adverse boiler performance effects were encountered with the combustion of the CDL fuels. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. With the exception of NO/sub x/ emissions, the CDL fuels will be expected to have lower levels of stack emissions compared to a conventional No. 6 fuel oil. NO/sub x/ emissions will be controllable to EPA standards with the application of conventional combustion modification techniques. Volume 1, of a five-volume report, contains a comprehensive report of the entire test program. 43 figs., 19 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 2: boiler test results. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). The second phase involved the evaluation of three additional CDL fuels (H-Coal light distillate, Exxon Donor Solvent full range distillate and Solvent Refined Coal-II middle distillate). The test boiler was a front wall-fired Babcock and Wilcox unit with a rated steam flow of 425,000 lb/h and a generating capacity of 40 MW. Boiler performance and emissions were evaluated with baseline and CDL fuels at 15, 25, 40 MW loads and at various excess air levels. Low NO/sub x/ (staged) combustion techniques were also implemented. Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. The CDL fuels could be handled similarly to No. 2 oil with appropriate safety procedures and materials compatibility considerations. Volume 2 of a five-volume report contains the detailed boiler test results. 96 figs., 26 tabs.

Not Available

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

67

Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenati...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on In2O3(110): A DFT Study. Active Oxygen Vacancy Site for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation on...

68

Molecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ultrafast hydrogen migration.7,8 The 38 fs 800 nm pump pulse produced methanol monocation, and a probe pulseMolecular Dynamics of Methanol Monocation (CH3OH+ ) in Strong Laser Fields Bishnu Thapa and H surfaces of methanol neutral, monocation, and singlet and triplet dication were explored using the CBS

Schlegel, H. Bernhard

69

Rapid starting methanol reactor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

Chludzinski, Paul J. (38 Berkshire St., Swampscott, MA 01907); Dantowitz, Philip (39 Nancy Ave., Peabody, MA 01960); McElroy, James F. (12 Old Cart Rd., Hamilton, MA 01936)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 October 1993--31 December 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The principal objective of this research is to evaluate the hydrotreatment properties of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported Mo oxynitride and oxycarbide catalysts. This information will be used to assess the potential of these materials for use as commercial catalysts for hydrotreating coal-derived liquids. During this quarter, the authors evaluated the catalytic properties of a series of supported molybdenum nitride catalysts. These catalysts were prepared in the laboratory for comparison with the supported molybdenum oxynitrides. Pyridine hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) was used as the test reaction.

Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

Adsorption of intact methanol on Ru,,0001... Pawel Gazdzicki,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in applications such as the direct methanol fuel cell, where Ru/Pt alloys are used as catalysts for dehydration and hydrogen/ deuterium as suggested in the literature is therefore discarded. At very low coverages or by annealing a low coverage methanol layer, hydrogen bonding leads to cluster formation, as evidenced

72

A Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from Methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cells using hydrogen as fuel are efficient, quiet, and have near zero harmful emissions. Elemental fuel cells that use precious metal catalysts such as platinum require hydrogen fuel which contains lessA Novel Combustion Synthesis Preparation of CuO/ZnO/ZrO2/Pd for Oxidative Hydrogen Production from

Mukasyan, Alexander

73

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}) has utilized its expertise in large-area vacuum deposition methods to conduct research into the fabrication of dense, freestanding Pd-alloy membranes that are 3-5 microns thick and over 100 in{sup 2} in area. The membranes were deposited onto flexible and rigid supports that were subsequently removed and separated using novel techniques developed over the course of the project. Using these methods, the production of novel alloy compositions centered around the Pd-Cu system were developed with the objective of producing a thermally stable, nano-crystalline grain structure with the highest flux recorded as 242 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a 2 {micro}m thick Pd{sub 53}Cu{sub 47} at 400 C and 20 psig feed pressure which when extrapolated is over twice the 2010 Department of Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target. Several membranes were made with the same permeability, but with different thicknesses and these membranes were highly selective. Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines supported the effort with extensive testing of experimental membranes as well as design and modeling of novel alloy composite structures. IdaTech provided commercial bench testing and analysis of SwRI-manufactured membranes. The completed deliverables for the project include test data on the performance of experimental membranes fabricated by vacuum deposition and several Pd-alloy membranes that were supplied to IdaTech for testing.

K. Coulter

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

Selective Production of Hydrogen for Fuel Cells Via Oxidative Steam Reforming of Methanol Over CuZnAl Oxide Catalysts: Effect of Substitution of Zirconium and Cerium on the Catalytic Performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

H2 fuel, for fuel cells, is traditionally produced from methanol by the endothermic steam reforming of methanol (SRM). Partial oxidation of methanol (POM), which is highly exothermic, has also been suggested as ....

S. Velu; K. Suzuki

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2005-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

76

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

2006-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

77

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. Progress report, September 1, 1985-August 31, 1986  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this report, the progress of our efforts toward understanding molecular behavior and its effect on thermodynamic properties is presented. The theory has been developed to treat fluids and fluid mixtures with various molecular interactions, including intermolecular associations. Experiments also were performed for binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures containing model coal compounds and supercritical carbon dioxide at high pressures. Our progress, both theoretical and experimental, is presented below in the following order: (1) Application of Associated-Perturbed-Anisotropic-Chain Theory (APACT) to fluid mixtures containing one associating component (such as water, alcohol and acid) and a diluent. (2) Generalization of APACT to treat solubility enhancements using solvating entrainers and testing these equations with model coal compounds in high pressure carbon dioxide. (3) Application of the Simplified-Perturbed-Hard-Chain theory (SPHCT) to mixtures containing more than fifteen conmponents. (4) Derivation of a simple equation of state, called COMPACT, to treat fluid mixtures containing associating compounds. (5) Prediction of properties of systems containing a supercritical fluid using the Perturbed-Anisotropic-Chain theory (PACT). (6) Completion of reformulation of PACT to account for group-group interactions when several non-polar functional groups are present. (7) Experimental investigation of extracting valuable chemicals from coal liquids using supercritical carbon dioxide with methanol as cosolvent. (8) Experimental measurements of phase compositions and densities of coal compounds in high pressure carbon dioxide. 14 refs., 18 figs.

Donohue, M.D.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen energy is a clean or inexhaustible energy like renewable energy and nuclear energy. Todays energy supply has a considerable impact on the environment. Hydrogen energy is a promising alternative solut...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Oxidation of Methanol on 2nd and 3rd Row Group VIII Transition Metals (Pt, Ir, Os, Pd, Rh, and Ru): Application to Direct Methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to electric energy in a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell was demon- strated. Although hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells): Application to Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Jeremy Kua and William A. Goddard III* Contribution from and designing new catalysts. We find that methanol dehydrogenation is most facile on Pt, with the hydrogens

Goddard III, William A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

Oxygen carrier development for chemical looping combustion of coal derived synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present work, NETL researchers have studied chemical looping combustion (CLC) with an oxygen carrier NiO/bentonite (60 wt.% NiO) for the IGCC systems utilizing simulated synthesis gas. Multi cycle CLC was conducted with NiO/Bentonite in TGA at atmospheric pressure and in a high pressure reactor in a temperature range between 700-900C. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation as a function of conversion were calculated for all oxidation-reduction cycles utilizing the TGA data. The effect of particle size of the oxygen carrier on CLC was studied for the size between 20-200 mesh. The multi cycle CLC tests conducted in a high pressure packed bed flow reactor indicated constant total production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800C and 900C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction.

Siriwardane, R.V.; Chaudhari, K.; Zinn, A.N.; Simonyi, T.; Robinson, Clark; Poston, J.A.

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700 C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900 C.

Tian, H.; Chaudhari, K.; Simonyi, T.; Poston, J.; Liu, T.; Sanders, T.; Veser, G.; Siriwardane, R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuO/bentonite and CuO?BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900 C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO2 from fuel gas at 800 and 900 C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction?oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation?reduction cycles above 700 C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO?BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700?900 C.

Tian, Hanjing; Chaudhari, K.P.; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, J.A.; Liu, Tengfei; Sanders, Tom; Veser, Goetz; Siriwardane, R.V.

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Chemical-looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas over copper oxide oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CuO/bentonite and CuO-BHA nanocomposites were studied as oxygen carriers in chemical-looping combustion (CLC) of simulated synthesis gas. Global reaction rates of reduction and oxidation, as the function of reaction conversion, were calculated from 10-cycle oxidation/reduction tests utilizing thermogravimetric analysis at atmospheric pressure between 700 and 900{degree}C. It was found that the reduction reactions are always faster than oxidation reactions; reaction temperature and particle size do not significantly affect the reaction performance of CuO/bentonite. Multicycle CLC tests conducted in a high-pressure flow reactor showed stable reactivity for production of CO{sub 2} from fuel gas at 800 and 900{degree}C and full consumption of hydrogen during the reaction. Results of the tapered element oscillating microbalance showed a negative effect of pressure on the global rates of reduction-oxidation reactions at higher fractional conversions. X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed the presence of CuO in the bulk phase of the oxidized sample. Electron microanalysis showed significant morphology changes of reacted CuO/bentonite samples after the 10 oxidation-reduction cycles above 700{degree}C in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer. The nanostructured CuO-BHA carrier also showed excellent stability and, in comparison to the CuO/bentonite system, slightly accelerated redox kinetics albeit at the expense of significantly increased complexity of manufacturing. Overall, both types of CuO carriers exhibited excellent reaction performance and thermal stability for the CLC process at 700-900{degree}C. 48 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Hanjing Tian; Karuna Chaudhari; Thomas Simonyi; James Poston; Tengfei Liu; Tom Sanders; Goetz Veser; Ranjani Siriwardane [U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Laboratory

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

86

Formation and control of fuel-nitrogen pollutants in catalytic combustion of coal-derived gases. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program has been the elucidation of the mechanism of high temperature catalytic oxidation of coal-derived gases, including their individual constituents,and the effects of sulfur and nitrogen impurities. Detailed experimental data were obtained and a two-dimensional model is being developed and tested by comparison with the experimental data. When complete, the model can be used to optimize designs of catalytic combustors. The model at present includes axial and radial diffusion and gas and surface chemical reactions. Measured substrate temperatures are input in lieu of complete coupling of gas and solid energy conservation equations and radiative heat transfer. Axial and radial gas temperature and composition profiles inside a catalyst channel were computed and compared with experimental measurements at the catalyst outlet. Experimental investigations were made of carbon monoxide and medium-Btu gas combustion in the presence of platinum supported on a monolithic Cordierite substrate. Axial profiles of substrate temperature, gas temperature, and gas composition were determined at different gas velocities and equivalence ratios. The effects of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the medium-Btu gas were also investigated. Systems were proposed for making resonance absorption and Raman scattering measurements of gas temperature and/or species concentrations in a catalytic reactor. A new pulsed multipass Raman scattering technique for increasing photon yield from a scattering volume was developed.

Walsh, P. M.; Bruno, C.; Santavicca, D. A.; Bracco, F. V.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Annual report, September 29, 1992--September 28, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project is to develop and optimize a two-stage fermentation process for the conversion of coal derived synthesis gas in an mixture of alcohols. The goals include the development of superior strains with high product tolerance and productivity, optimization of process conditions for high volumetric productivity and product concentrations, integration and optimization of two stage syngas fermentation, evaluation of bioreactor configurations for enhanced mass transfer, evaluation of syngas conversion by a culture of Butyribacterium methyltrophicum and Clostridium acetobutylicum, development of a membrane based pervaporation system for in situ removal of alcohols, and development of a process for reduction of carbon and electron loss. The specific goals for year one (September 1992 - September 1993) were (1) development of a project work plan, (2) development of superior CO-utilizing strains, (3) optimization of process conditions for conversion of synthesis gas to a mixture of acids in a continuously stirred reactor (CSTR), (4) evaluation of different bioreactor configurations for maximization of mass transfer of synthesis gas, (5) development of a membrane based pervaporation system, and (6) reduction of carbon and electron loss via H{sub 2}CO{sub 2} fermentation. Experimentation and progress toward these goals are described in this report.

Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

1993-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Analysis of coal-derived synthetic crude from HRI CTSL Run CC-15 and HRI Run CMSL-2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (US DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89883), IIT Research Institute, National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research applied a suite of petroleum inspection tests to two direct coal liquefactions net product oils produced in two direct coal liquefaction processing runs. Two technical reports, authored by NIPER, are presented here. The following assessment briefly describes the two coal liquefaction runs and highlights the major findings of the project. It generally is concluded that the methods used in these studies can help define the value of liquefaction products and the requirements for further processing. The application of these methods adds substantially to our understanding of the coal liquefaction process and the chemistry of coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract.

Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Kim, J.; Shay, J. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

New MEA Materials for Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) Performance, Durability, and Cost - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

6 6 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report James Fletcher (Primary Contact), Philip Cox University of North Florida (UNF) 1 UNF Drive Jacksonville, FL 32224 Phone: (904) 620-1844 Email: jfletche@UNF.edu DOE Managers HQ: Donna Ho Phone: (202) 586-8000 Email: Donna.Ho@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0000475 Subcontractors: * University of Florida, Gainesville, FL * Northeastern University, Boston, MA * Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, Swindon, UK

91

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Methanol to someone by Methanol to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Methanol on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Methanol Methanol (CH3OH), also known as wood alcohol, is an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992. As an engine fuel, methanol has chemical and physical fuel properties similar to ethanol. Methanol use in vehicles has declined dramatically since the early 1990s, and automakers no longer

92

Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology (NCHT) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRIs coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERCs TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRIs patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERCs TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

COAL DERIVED MATRIX PITCHES FOR CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE MANUFACTURE/PRODUCTION OF FIBERS AND COMPOSITES FROM COAL-BASED PRECURSORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Consortium for premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory continue with the development of innovative technologies that will allow coal or coal-derived feedstocks to be used in the production of value-added carbon materials. In addition to supporting eleven independent projects during budget period 3, three meetings were held at two separate locations for the membership. The first was held at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort on May 15-16, 2000. This was followed by two meetings at Penn State, a tutorial on August 11, 2000 and a technical progress meeting on October 26-27.

Peter G. Stansberry; John W. Zondlo

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

methanol.qxd  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Methanol One in a series of fact sheets United States Environmental Protection Agency EPA420-F-00-040 March 2002 www.epa.gov Transportation and Air Quality Transportation and Regional Programs Division C L E A N A L T E R N A T I V E F U E L S C L E A N E R A I R Because of the environ- mental advantages and cost savings, Arizona Checker Leasing Company purchased its first methanol-fueled vehicles in 1993 and cur- rently counts 300 in its fleet of nearly 450 automobiles. The company leases its M85 fuel-flexible vehicles to two cab companies in the Phoenix area. The company purchases its methanol from the California Energy Com- mission, which sells it at a lower, subsidized price. According to the company, methanol has performed just as well as gasoline, providing a safe, reliable, and cost- effective fuel source for the

96

METC ceramic corrosion/erosion studies: turbine-material screening tests in high-temperature, low-Btu, coal-derived-gas combustion products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Morgantown Energy Technology Center, through its Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies, has participated in the United States Department of Energy's High-Temperature Turbine Technology Program, Ceramic Technology Readiness. The program's overall objective is to advance the turbine firing temperature to a range of 2600/sup 0/ to 3000/sup 0/F (1700 to 1922K) with a reasonable service life using coal or coal-derived fuel. The Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Studies' major objective was to conduct a screening test for several ceramic materials to assess their probability of survival in turbine applications. The materials were exposed to combustion products from low heating value coal-derived gas and air at several high temperatures and velocities. The combustion product composition and temperatures simulated actual environment that may be found in stationary power generating gas turbines except for the pressure levels. The results of approximately 1000 hours of accumulative exposure time of material at the specific test conditions are presented in this report.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Waltermire, D.M.; Hawkins, L.W.; Jarrett, T.L.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Methanol as a Hydrogen and Energy Carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high losses during conversion from renewable power to secondary energy carriers and repowering constitute a general disadvantage. In... 1. Env...

Ludolf Plass; Martin Bertau

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Role of the zeolitic environment in catalytic activation of methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most significant industrial applications of zeolites exploits the ability of the microporous aluminosilicate environment to catalyze the methanol to gasoline (MTG) process. The industrial process proceeds at elevated temperatures ({approximately} 700 K) and methanol pressures which correspond to a loading of {approximately} 5--6 methanol molecules per acidic hydroxyl group, which is believed to be the active site. The authors present an extensive study of the initial stages of the methanol to gasoline conversion in the framework of the ab initio molecular dynamics approach. They investigate the effect of different zeolite environments, methanol loading, and temperature and show that, for understanding the initial adsorption and activation of the adsorbed species, all three factors need to be considered simultaneously. The results allow them to develop a simple model for the activation of the methanol molecule, which elucidates the role of both the zeolite framework and the methanol solvent. The zeolite framework plays an active role in methanol protonation. The solvent significantly softens the C-O bond of the methoxonium, rendering it very anharmonic. High mobility of the methoxonium cation, promoted by some zeolite frameworks, prevents it from forming hydrogen bonds with the active sites and the solvent leading to the activation of the methoxonium species. This picture is shown to be consistent with the experimental infrared spectra.

Stich, I. [Angstrom Technology Partnership, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [Angstrom Technology Partnership, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Gale, J.D. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry] [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Terakura, K. [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Higashi, Ibaraki (Japan)] [National Inst. for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Higashi, Ibaraki (Japan); [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Payne, M.C. [Cavendish Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Cavendish Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1999-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

99

Advanced hydrogen utilization technology demonstration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study done by Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC). DDC used a 6V-92TA engine for experiments with hydrogen fuel. The engine was first baseline tested using methanol fuel and methanol unit injectors. One cylinder of the engine was converted to operate on hydrogen fuel, and methanol fueled the remaining five cylinders. This early testing with only one hydrogen-fueled cylinder was conducted to determine the operating parameters that would later be implemented for multicylinder hydrogen operation. Researchers then operated three cylinders of the engine on hydrogen fuel to verify single-cylinder idle tests. Once it was determined that the engine would operate well at idle, the engine was modified to operate with all six cylinders fueled with hydrogen. Six-cylinder operation on hydrogen provided an opportunity to verify previous test results and to more accurately determine the performance, thermal efficiency, and emissions of the engine.

Hedrick, J.C.; Winsor, R.E. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)] [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States)

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Methanol Utilisation Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Around the year 2000, the car manufacturers did not yet know which fuel would be best for which fuel cell for driving a car. Therefore, they experimented with all possible fuels: gaseous hydrogen, liquid hydrogen

Martin Bertau; Hans Jrgen Wernicke

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fabrication and Performance of Ni-YSZ Anode Supported Cell for Coal Derived Syngas Application by Tape Casting and Spin Coating  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ni-YSZ anode supported cell has been developed for direct utilization of coal derived syngas as fuel in the temperature range of 700-850 C. The porous Ni-YSZ anode substrate was prepared based on processes of slip casting and lamination of anode tape. Then thin-film YSZ electrolyte was deposited on pre-sintered anode substrate via a colloidal spin coating technique and an optimized final sintering route. Dense and crackfree YSZ electrolyte was successfully obtained after sintering at 1440C for 4hrs. Processing factors like pre-sintering of anode, solvent, coating cycles and sintering route on the final properties of YSZ film was studied. A power density of 0.62W/cm2 has been achieved for the anode supported cell tested in 97%H2/3%H2O at 800C. EIS test results indicated the cell performance was essentially influenced by interfacial resistance and charge transfer process.

Gong, Mingyang (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Jiang, Yinglu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV); Johnson, C.D.; Xingbo, Liu (West Virginia U., Morgantown WV)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol: Enhanced methanol production in silica sol-gel matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strategies for effective conversion of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to methanol offer promising new technologies not only for recycling of the greenhouse gas but also for an efficient production of fuel alternatives. Partial hydrogenation of carbon dioxide has been accomplished by means of heterogeneous catalysis, electrocatalysis, and photocatalysis. Oxide-based catalysts are predominantly used for industrial fixation of carbon dioxide. A unique approach in this direction involves the use of enzymes as catalysts for conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol. The use of enzymes is particularly appealing since it provides a facile low-temperature route for generation of methanol directly from gaseous carbon dioxide. The authors report an enzymatically coupled sequential reduction of carbon dioxide to methanol by using a series of reactions catalyzed by three different dehydrogenases. Overall, the process involves an initial reduction of CO{sub 2} to formate catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (F{sub ate}DH), followed by reduction of formate to formaldehyde by formaldehyde dehydrogenase (F{sub ald}DH), and finally formaldehyde is reduced to methanol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). In this process, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) acts as a terminal electron donor for each dehydrogenase-catalyzed reduction.

Obert, R.; Dave, B.C.

1999-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

103

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, vehicles can still drive with gasoline/diesel derived from tar sand, oil shale, and coal derived liquids

104

The Methanol Economy Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Methanol Economy Project is based on the concept of replacing fossil fuels with methanol generated either from renewable resources or abundant natural (shale) gas. The full methanol cycle was investigated in this project, from production of methanol through bromination of methane, bireforming of methane to syngas, CO{sub 2} capture using supported amines, co-electrolysis of CO{sub 2} and water to formate and syngas, decomposition of formate to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, and use of formic acid in a direct formic acid fuel cell. Each of these projects achieved milestones and provided new insights into their respective fields. ? Direct electrophilic bromination of methane to methyl bromide followed by hydrolysis to yield methanol was investigated on a wide variety of catalyst systems, but hydrolysis proved impractical for large-scale industrial application. ? Bireforming the correct ratio of methane, CO{sub 2}, and water on a NiO / MgO catalyst yielded the right proportion of H{sub 2}:CO (2:1) and proved to be stable for at least 250 hours of operation at 400 psi (28 atm). ? CO{sub 2} capture utilizing supported polyethyleneimines yielded a system capable of adsorbing CO{sub 2} from the air and release at nominal temperatures with negligible amine leaching. ? CO{sub 2} electrolysis to formate and syngas showed considerable increases in rate and selectivity by performing the reaction in a high pressure flow electrolyzer. ? Formic acid was shown to decompose selectively to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} using either Ru or Ir based homogeneous catalysts. ? Direct formic acid fuel cells were also investigated and showed higher than 40% voltage efficiency using reduced loadings of precious metals. A technoeconomic analysis was conducted to assess the viability of taking each of these processes to the industrial scale by applying the data gathered during the experiments to approximations based on currently used industrial processes. Several of these processes show significant promise for industrial scale up and use towards improving our nations energy independence.

Olah, George; Prakash, G.K.

2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis Project Summary Full Title: H2 Production Infrastructure Analysis - Task 1: Distributed Hydrogen Fueling Systems Analysis Project ID: 78 Principal Investigator: Brian James Keywords: Hydrogen infrastructure; costs; methanol; hydrogen fueling Purpose As the DOE considers both direct hydrogen and reformer-based fuel cell vehicles, it is vital to have a clear perspective of the relative infrastructure costs to supply each prospective fuel (gasoline, methanol, or hydrogen). Consequently, this analysis compares these infrastructure costs as well as the cost to remove sulfur from gasoline (as will most likely be required for use in fuel cell systems) and the cost implications for several hydrogen tank filling options. This analysis supports Analysis

106

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final report, September 29, 1992--December 27, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The proposed research project consists of an integrated, two-stage fermentation and a highly energy-efficient product separation scheme. In the first fermentation, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) into butyric acid and acetic acids which are then converted into butanol, ethanol, and a small amount of acetone in the second stage fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum. An advanced separation system process, based on pervaporation, removes the alcohols from the fermentation broth as they are formed, along with some of the hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), to minimize possible inhibition of the fermentations. This bioconversion process offers a critical advantage over conventional, catalytic processes for synthesis gas conversion: the microorganisms are several orders of magnitude more sulfur tolerant than metallic catalysts. The catalysts require sulfur removal to the parts per million level, while the microorganisms are unaffected by H{sub 2}S and carbonyl sulfide (COS) at one part per hundred--roughly the composition of sulfur in raw synthesis gas. During the two-year course of this project, the following major objectives have been accomplished: demonstrated long-term cell recycle of continuous fermentation of synthesis gas; demonstrated cell immobilization of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum; identified trickle-bed reactor as a viable alternative fermentation method; modulated metabolic pathways to increase C4 formation during synthesis gas fermentation; recovered carbon and electrons from H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with pathway modulation for increased C4 production; developed bacterial strains with improved selectivity for butyrate fermentation; demonstrated two-stage CO to alcohol fermentation; and concentrated alcohol from solventogenic fermentation by pervaporation.

Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, H.E.

1995-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

The role of biomass in California's hydrogen economy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Making a Business from Biomass in Energy, Environment,2004. An assessment of biomass resources in California.methanol and hydrogen from biomass. Journal of Power Sources

Parker, Nathan C; Ogden, Joan; Fan, Yueyue

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL; ,

2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

109

Comparative investigation on chemical looping combustion of coal-derived synthesis gas containing H2S over supported NiO oxygen carriers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical looping combustion (CLC) of simulated coal-derived synthesis gas was conducted with NiO oxygen carriers supported on SiO2, ZrO2, TiO2, and sepiolite. The effect of H2S on the performance of these samples for the CLC process was also evaluated. Five-cycle thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests at 800 #1;C indicated that all oxygen carriers had a stable performance at 800 #1;C, except NiO/SiO2. Full reduction/oxidation reactions of the oxygen carrier were obtained during the five-cycle test. It was found that support had a significant effect on reaction performance of NiO both in reduction and oxidation rates. The reduction reaction was significantly faster than the oxidation reaction for all oxygen carriers, while the oxidation reaction is fairly slow due to oxygen diffusion on NiO layers. The reaction profile was greatly affected by the presence of H2S, but there was no effect on the capacity due to the presence of H2S in synthesis gas. The presence of H2S decreased reduction reaction rates significantly, but oxidation rates of reduced samples increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of the oxidized samples after a five-cycle test showed stable crystalline phases without any formation of sulfides or sulfites/sulfates. Increase in reaction temperature to 900 #1;C had a positive effect on the performance.

Ksepko, E.; Siriwardane, R.; Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Sciazko, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. (STFI, Stockholm (Sweden))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal The economics of producing methanol and other fuels aresome discussion of producing methanol as a by-product from

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content-Fueled Turbines - University of California, Irvine  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content-Fueled Turbines-University of California, Irvine Background Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and components in the hot section of gas turbines are degraded by coal-derived high hydrogen content (HHC) synthesis gas (syngas). In this project the University of California, Irvine (UCI) will provide an improved mechanistic understanding of the degradation of critical turbine system materials in HHC-fueled

113

Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Included in this reaction is the decomposition of methanol, which produces CO: CH3OH CO + 2H2 (90.5 kJ mol a picture of the methanol reformer which has been designed to produce hydrogen for a 1 kWe HTPEM fuel cellExperimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack

Berning, Torsten

114

Determination of Syngas Premixed Gasoline and Methanol Combustion Products at Chemical Equilibrium via Lagrange Multipliers Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(10) Several patents for generating hydrogen-rich syngas out of methanol to combust the syngas in an automotive engine have been published. ... On the other hand, the high flame speed of hydrogen causes higher NOx emissions and combustion instability when syngas is combusted with a near-stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. ...

Osman Sinan Ssl; Ipek Becerik

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

115

The effect of ZnO in methanol synthesis catalysts on Cu dispersion and the specific activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ZnO in Cu/ZnO catalysts prepared by the coprecipitation method has been studied using measurements of the surface area of Cu, the specific activity for the methanol synthesis by hydrogenation of CO2

T. Fujitani; J. Nakamura

116

IEA/H2/TR-02/001 Hydrogen from Biomass  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................... 14 Biomass Pyrolysis to Hydrogen and Carbon or Methanol................................. 17-Derived Pyrolysis Oils............................................ 18 Hydrogen from Biomass-Derived MethanolIEA/H2/TR-02/001 Hydrogen from Biomass State of the Art and Research Challenges Thomas A. Milne

117

In-situ characterization of adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts by FT-IR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts during reaction conditions. A copper carbonyl, bidentate formate, and methoxy species were identified as stable surface groups. An adsorbed formaldehyde species was unstable at the reaction temperature, but could be observed on the catalyst surface at the beginning of the reaction. Surface species were very similar for feed mixtures of 1) carbon monoxide and hydrogen, 2) carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and 3) formic acid and hydrogen. The role of copper in methanol synthesis catalysts was to increase the adsorption of carbon monoxide to form a linear carbonyl species. This carbonly promoted the hydrogenation of formate groups. The formate species was adsorbed on a zinc site (Zn/sub ..beta../) different from the zinc site (Zn/sub ..gamma../) on which formaldehyde and methoxy groups were adsorbed. The rate-determining step in methanol synthesis was determined to be the reaction of hydrogen from a hydroxyl species adsorbed on another zinc site (Zn/sub ..cap alpha../) with a methoxy group to yield methanol. It was established that at the experimental conditions used in this study, the methanol synthesis reaction was far from equilibrium while the water-gas shift reaction was near equilibrium.

Edwards, J.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

In situ characterization of adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts by FT-IR spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Transmission infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize adsorbed species on methanol synthesis catalysts during reaction conditions. A copper carbonyl, bidentate formate, and methoxy species were identified as stable surface groups. An adsorbed formaldehyde species was unstable at the reaction temperature, but could be observed on the catalyst surface at the beginning of the reaction. Surface species were very similar for feed mixtures of (1) carbon monoxide and hydrogen, (2) carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen, and (3) formic acid and hydrogen. The role of copper in methanol synthesis catalysts was to increase the adsorption of carbon monoxide to form a linear carbonyl species. This carbonyl promoted the hydrogenation of formate groups. The formate species was adsorbed on a zinc site (Zn/sub ..beta../) different from the zinc site (Zn/sub ..gamma../) on which formaldehyde and methoxy groups were adsorbed. The rate-determining step in methanol synthesis was determined to be the reaction of hydrogen from a hydroxyl species adsorbed on another zinc site (Zn/sub ..cap alpha../) with a methoxy group to yield methanol. It was established that at the experimental conditions used in this study, the methanol synthesis reaction was far from equilibrium while the water-gas shift reaction was near equilibrium. 186 references, 83 figures, 28 tables.

Edwards, J.F.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

COMMERCIAL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIQUID PHASE METHANOL (LPMEOH) PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Technology Program to demonstrate the production of methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas), has completed the 69-month operating phase of the program. The purpose of this Final Report for the ''Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process'' is to provide the public with details on the performance and economics of the technology. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project was a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the DOE and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The DOE's cost share was $92,708,370 with the remaining funds coming from the Partnership. The LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit is located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport, Tennessee. The technology was the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOH{trademark} Process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern coal gasifiers. Originally tested at the Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU), a small, DOE-owned process development facility in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst, and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. The LPMEOH{trademark} Demonstration Project accomplished the objectives set out in the Cooperative Agreement with DOE for this Clean Coal Technology project. Overall plant availability (defined as the percentage of time that the LPMEOH{trademark} demonstration unit was able to operate, with the exclusion of scheduled outages) was 97.5%, and the longest operating run without interruption of any kind was 94 days. Over 103.9 million gallons of methanol was produced; Eastman accepted all of the available methanol for use in the production of methyl acetate, and ultimately cellulose acetate and acetic acid.

E.C. Heydorn; B.W. Diamond; R.D. Lilly

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Methanol production with elemental phosphorus byproduct gas: technical and economic feasibility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of using a typical, elemental, phosphorus byproduct gas stream in methanol production is assessed. The purpose of the study is to explore the potential of a substitute for natural gas. The first part of the study establishes economic tradeoffs between several alternative methods of supplying the hydrogen which is needed in the methanol synthesis process to react with CO from the off gas. The preferred alternative is the Battelle Process, which uses natural gas in combination with the off gas in an economically sized methanol plant. The second part of the study presents a preliminary basic design of a plant to (1) clean and compress the off gas, (2) return recovered phosphorus to the phosphorus plant, and (3) produce methanol by the Battelle Process. Use of elemental phosphorus byproduct gas in methanol production appears to be technically feasible. The Battelle Process shows a definite but relatively small economic advantage over conventional methanol manufacture based on natural gas alone. The process would be economically feasible only where natural gas supply and methanol market conditions at a phosphorus plant are not significantly less favorable than at competing methanol plants. If off-gas streams from two or more phosphorus plants could be combined, production of methanol using only offgas might also be economically feasible. The North American methanol market, however, does not seem likely to require another new methanol project until after 1990. The off-gas cleanup, compression, and phosphorus-recovery system could be used to produce a CO-rich stream that could be economically attractive for production of several other chemicals besides methanol.

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol

122

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectral Intensity With 5% Coal (x ::: 86.9 cm) CalculatedPredictions B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel TemperatureMethanol as the Fuel B. Methanol/Coal Slurry as the Fuel C.

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Methanol conversion to higher hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several indirect options exist for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from coal, natural gas, or biomass. All involve an initial conversion step to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}). Presently, there are two commercial technologies for converting syngas to liquids: Fischer-Tropsch, which yields a range of aliphatic hydrocarbons with molecular weights determined by Schulz-Flory kinetics, and methanol synthesis. Mobil`s diversity of technology for methanol conversion gives the methanol synthesis route flexibility for production of either gasoline, distillate or chemicals. Mobil`s ZSM-5 catalyst is the key in several processes for producing chemicals and transportation fuels from methanol: MTO for light olefins, MTG for gasoline, MOGD for distillates. The MTG process has been commercialized in New Zealand since 1985, producing one-third of the country`s gasoline supply, while MTO and MOGD have been developed and demonstrated at greater than 100 BPD scale. This paper will discuss recent work in understanding methanol conversion chemistry and the various options for its use.

Tabak, S.A. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States). Central Research Lab.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

124

Ogden, Williams and Larson, Toward a Hydrogen-Based Transportation System, final draft, 8 May 2001 Toward a Hydrogen-Based Transportation System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................................................................11 A Strategy for Pursuing Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles as a Long-Term Option .........................................................................................................13 Methanol as an Initial Fuel for Fuel Cell Cars...............................................................................................................14 Hydrogen as an Initial Fuel for Fuel Cell Vehicles

125

List of Methanol Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methanol Incentives Methanol Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 22 Methanol Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 22) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Alcohol Fuel Credit (Federal) Corporate Tax Credit United States Commercial Industrial Ethanol Methanol No Alternative Fuels Incentive Grant Fund (AFIG) (Pennsylvania) State Grant Program Pennsylvania Commercial Industrial Residential General Public/Consumer Nonprofit Schools Local Government Renewable Transportation Fuels Renewable Fuel Vehicles Other Alternative Fuel Vehicles Refueling Stations Ethanol Methanol Biodiesel No Biodiesel and Alcohol Fuel Blend Sales Tax Exemption (Washington) Sales Tax Incentive Washington Commercial Ethanol Methanol

126

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene. Abstract: The desorption kinetics of methanol,...

127

ATOM-ECONOMICAL PATHWAYS TO METHANOL FUEL CELL FROM BIOMASS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An economical production of alcohol fuels from biomass, a feedstock low in carbon and high in water content, is of interest. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a Liquid Phase Low Temperature (LPLT) concept is under development to improve the economics by maximizing the conversion of energy carrier atoms (C,H) into energy liquids (fuel). So far, the LPLT concept has been successfully applied to obtain highly efficient methanol synthesis. This synthesis was achieved with specifically designed soluble catalysts, at temperatures < 150 C. A subsequent study at BNL yielded a water-gas-shift (WGS) catalyst for the production of hydrogen from a feedstock of carbon monoxide and H{sub 2}O at temperatures < 120 C. With these LPLT technologies as a background, this paper extends the discussion of the LPLT concept to include methanol decomposition into 3 moles of H{sub 2} per mole of methanol. The implication of these technologies for the atom-economical pathways to methanol fuel cell from biomass is discussed.

MAHAJAN,D.; WEGRZYN,J.E.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Methods of Conditioning Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Methods for conditioning the membrane electrode assembly of a direct methanol fuel cell ("DMFC") are disclosed. In a first method, an electrical current of polarity opposite to that used in a functioning direct methanol fuel cell is passed through the anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly. In a second method, methanol is supplied to an anode surface of the membrane electrode assembly, allowed to cross over the polymer

129

Methanol adsorption and decomposition on rhodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The decomposition of methanol on rhodium probed from {approximately}200 atomic sites of the (001) or (111) planes or Rh field emitter crystals but randomly with regard to crystallographic zones was studied by pulsed field desorption mass spectrometry. High electric field pulses were used to quantitatively desorb the final products, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, thus achieving steady-state conditions. Substantial amounts of methoxy (mainly desorbed as CH{sub 3}{sup +} ions) were also present at the surface. Applying a steady electric field, F{sub R} {ge} 4 V/nm, between the field pulses, led to a deceleration of the decomposition reaction and to increase of the amount of adsorbed CH{sub 3}O and CH{sub 2}O species. There were indicators that the rate-determining step of the reaction is C-H bond cleavage in adsorbed methoxy to form the CH{sub 2}O intermediate. This was supported by the observation of a kinetic isotope effect in the formation of CD{sub 2}O and CHDO from methyl-d{sub 2}-alcohol, CHD{sub 2}OH. Here, the C-H bond breaking to form the CD{sub 2}O was found to be twice as fast as the breaking of the C-D bond which results in CHDO. Field ion microscopy was applied to investigate the influence of the reaction on the structure of the whole hemispherical single crystal surface. There were neither topographic changes nor corrosion of the Rh surface after field-free exposure to 2 Pa methanol at temperatures up to 423 K.

Chuah, G.K.; Kruse, N.; Schmidt, W.A.; Block, J.H.; Abend, G. (Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

6, 39453963, 2006 Methanol inside aged  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The oxidation of methane (and other hydrocarbons) can also produce methanol primarily via the self reactionACPD 6, 3945­3963, 2006 Methanol inside aged tropical biomass burning plumes G. Dufour et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions First space-borne measurements of methanol inside aged tropical biomass

131

Hydrogen Generation from Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen Generation from Dimethyl Ether for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units ... Vehicle manufacturers are rushing ahead with research into alternative fuels such as dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, methanol, ethanol, and hydrogen. ...

Marita Nilsson; Lars J. Pettersson; Brd Lindstrm

2006-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

132

NETL: News Release - Enabling Turbine Technologies for Hydrogen Fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

September 8, 2005 September 8, 2005 Enabling Turbine Technologies for Hydrogen Fuels Turbine Program Advances Ultra-Clean, Coal-Based Systems WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy Turbine Technology R&D Program was recently expanded with the selection of 10 new projects valued at $130 million. The new program will advance turbines and turbine subsystems for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, and address the use of hydrogen in small-scale turbines for industrial applications. Resulting technologies will operate cleanly and efficiently when fueled with coal-derived hydrogen or synthesis gas. Turbines can generate electrical power on a large scale-in central power stations sized 250 megawatts and larger-or on a small scale-in local, industrial power systems sized 1-100 megawatts. Small-scale systems also produce mechanical power for jet engines, compressors, heating systems, and other applications.

133

Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Johanson, Edwin S. (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

First-Principles Study on the Origin of the Different Selectivities for Methanol Steam Reforming on Cu(111) and Pd(111)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the final products are dominated by carbon dioxide and hydrogen. On Pd(111), formaldehyde is also found is considered as a promising alternative because of its high hydrogen to carbon ratio, no carbon-carbon bond, and easy storage and handling requirements.4,5 Hydrogen production from methanol can be performed by three

Li, Weixue

135

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 9, July 1--September 30, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOH{trademark} Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons per day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas from Eastman`s integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates. At the Eastman complex, the technology is being integrated with existing coal-gasifiers.

NONE

1997-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

136

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LOMEOH(TM)) Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOEP") Demonstration Project at K.ingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L, P. (the Partnership). The LPMEOHY Process Demonstration Unit is being built at a site located at the Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) complex in Kingsport. On 4 October 1994, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and signed the agreements that would form the Partnership, secure the demonstration site, and provide the financial commitment and overall project management for the project. These partnership agreements became effective on 15 March 1995, when DOE authorized the commencement of Budget Period No. 2 (Mod. AO08 to the Cooperative Agreement). The Partnership has subcontracted with Air Products to provide the overall management of the project, and to act as the primary interface with DOE. As subcontractor to the Partnership, Air Products will also provide the engineering design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and will provide the technical and engineering supervision needed to conduct the operational testing program required as part of the project. As subcontractor to Air Products, Eastman will be responsible for operation of the LPMEOHTM Process Demonstration Unit, and for the interconnection and supply of synthesis gas, utilities, product storage, and other needed sewices. The project involves the construction of an 80,000 gallons per day (260 tons-per-day (TPD)) methanol unit utilizing coal-derived synthesis gas fi-om Eastman's integrated coal gasification facility. The new equipment consists of synthesis gas feed preparation and compression facilities, the liquid phase reactor and auxiliaries, product distillation facilities, and utilities. The technology to be demonstrated is the product of a cooperative development effort by Air Products and DOE in a program that started in 1981. Developed to enhance electric power generation using integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology, the LPMEOHTM process is ideally suited for directly processing gases produced by modern day coal gasifiers. Originally tested at a small 3,200 gallons per day, DOE-owned experimental unit in LaPorte, Texas, the technology provides several improvements essential for the economic coproduction of methanol and electricity directly from gasified coal. This liquid phase process suspends fine catalyst particles in an inert liquid, forming a slurry. The slurry dissipates the heat of the chemical reaction away from the catalyst surface, protecting the catalyst and allowing the methanol synthesis reaction to proceed at higher rates.

None

1996-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

137

Direct methanol fuel cell and system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fuel cell having an anode and a cathode and a polymer electrolyte membrane located between anode and cathode gas diffusion backings uses a methanol vapor fuel supply. A permeable polymer electrolyte membrane having a permeability effective to sustain a carbon dioxide flux equivalent to at least 10 mA/cm.sup.2 provides for removal of carbon dioxide produced at the anode by reaction of methanol with water. Another aspect of the present invention includes a superabsorpent polymer material placed in proximity to the anode gas diffusion backing to hold liquid methanol or liquid methanol solution without wetting the anode gas diffusion backing so that methanol vapor from the liquid methanol or liquid methanol-water solution is supplied to the membrane.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

138

Author's personal copy Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water/  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coal and gasoline [3]. Moreover, hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate electricity, or directly as a transportation fuel [4]. Hydrogen can be generated from hydrocarbons and water resourcesAuthor's personal copy Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production from water/ methanol decomposition

Wood, Thomas K.

139

Florida Hydrogen Initiative  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J. Politano, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL This project developed a hydrogen and fuel cel

Block, David L

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

140

Quantitative Analysis of Station Hydrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Analysis of Station Analysis of Station Hydrogen * Role of ENAA (Engineering Advancement Association of Japan) - To manage the construction and operation of hydrogen stations in national project, JHFC Project - To act as secretariat of ISO/TC197 (Hydrogen technologies) committee of Japan Kazuo Koseki Chief Secretary of ISO/TC197 of Japan ENAA Yokohama Daikoku Station (Desulfurized Gasoline) Yokohama Asahi Station (Naphtha) Senju Station (LPG) Kawasaki Station (Methanol) Yokohama Asahi Station Naphtha PSA Compressor Storage Tanks Dispenser Reformer Buffer Tank 25 MPa 35 MPa 1073 K 0.8 MPa Inlet : 0.6 MPa Outlet : 40 MPa Vent Stack 40 MPa Result of Quantitative Analysis Concentration. vol.ppm Min.Detect Analysis Impurity Gasoline Naphtha LPG Methanol Conc. Method CO 0.05 0.06 0.02 0.06 0.01 GC-FID

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Approaches to methanol-tolerant air cathodes for methanol-air fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The achievement of truly methanol-tolerant oxygen cathodes will greatly assist the development of direct methanol-air fuel cells, because the cathode performance will not be affected by the presence of methanol or its oxidation products, which can diffuse across the cell from the anode. In addition, methanol will not be consumed at the cathode. Although platinum-based oxygen cathodes can continue to perform well in the presence of methanol under certain conditions, methanol can be consumed rapidly at such electrodes. Oxygen electrocatalysts were examined in the present work which are largely inactive for methanol oxidation and are also not affected significantly by the presence of methanol. These included heat-treated transition metal macrocycles and hydrated ruthenium dioxide. The most promising electrocatalyst examines thus far is heat-treated iron tetramethoxyphenylporphyrin supported on high area carbon.

Tryk, D.A.; Gupta, S.L.; Aldred, W.H.; Yeager, E.B. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Low Crossover of Methanol and Water Through Thin Membranes in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the literature has been focused on developing new electrocatalysts to improve sluggish methanol oxidation and new developed in this work to attain low methanol crossover, low water crossover, and high cell performance diffusion barrier to reduce methanol crossover. In addition, a highly hydrophobic cathode microporous layer

143

The Integration of a Structural Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

9 9 The InTegraTIon of a STrucTural WaTer- gaS-ShIfT caTalyST WITh a VanadIum alloy hydrogen TranSporT deVIce Description The purpose of this project is to produce a scalable device that simultaneously performs both water-gas-shift (WGS) and hydrogen separation from a coal-derived synthesis gas stream. The justification of such a system is the improved efficiency for the overall production of hydrogen. Removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas (syngas) stream allows the WGS reaction to convert more carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and maximizes the total hydrogen produced. An additional benefit is the reduction in capital cost of plant construction due to the removal of one step in the process by integrating WGS with the membrane separation device.

144

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

1995-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

145

Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

Steinberg, Meyer (Melville, NY); Grohse, Edward W. (Port Jefferson, NY)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Hydrogen Highways  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adequate on-board hydrogen storage is essential, and remainsjustify their costs. Hydrogen storage remains an importantto 10,000 psi, liquid hydrogen storage, and other solid and

Lipman, Timothy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Counterflow Extinction of Premixed and Nonpremixed Methanol and Ethanol Flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for high temperature ethanol oxidation. Interna- tionaland combustion of methanol and ethanol droplets. Combustionvelocities of methanol, ethanol and isooctane-air mix- u

Seshadri, Kalyanasundaram

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Presentation...

149

Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Abstract: Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed...

150

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel...

151

Using Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the Glass Transition Temperature. Using Rare Gas Permeation to Probe Methanol Diffusion near the Glass Transition Temperature....

152

Study of the methanol conversion to ethylene and propylene using small pore size zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project consisted of the study of the kinetics of the reaction of methanol to olefins. A combined selectivity to ethylene and propylene of 90% is readily achieved by selecting a proper set of operating conditions. The investigation encompassed the study of external and internal diffusion, adsorption and reaction. Instantaneous and overall material balances were developed, and a minimization technique was used to calculate the rate of formation of coke, the amount of coke deposition on the catalyst, and the hydrogen to carbon ratio. This procedure allowed the adjustment of several parameters in order to satisfy the material balances. The results were used to calculate the rate constants of the proposed model. The results indicated that the dehydration of methanol was inhibited by the adsorption of methanol. In general low methanol partial pressures, achieved by decreasing the total pressure in the case of pure methanol feeds, or by diluting methanol with water or nitrogen, increased the selectivity toward olefins. All the catalysts studied showed deactivation due to the accumulation of aromatic compounds (coke), which had a hydrogen to carbon ration close to 1.1. The maximum amount of coke that can be deposited on the catalyst was about 0.16 grams coke/gram catalyst. The catalyst was regenerated by burning the coke with air. Residence time distribution experiments using a step input change showed that perfect mixing could be obtained with 200 grams of powder catalyst of 30-100 microns particle size by using flow rates smaller than 5 cc/sec measured at reactor conditions, and impeller speeds higher than 12 rev/sec.

Vera-Castaneda, E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

List of Hydrogen Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

List of Hydrogen Incentives List of Hydrogen Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 59 Hydrogen Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 59) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Biomass Equipment & Materials Compensating Tax Deduction (New Mexico) Sales Tax Incentive New Mexico Commercial Industrial Anaerobic Digestion Biodiesel Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Ethanol Hydrogen Landfill Gas Methanol Microturbines Municipal Solid Waste Yes Business Energy Tax Credit (Oregon) Corporate Tax Credit Oregon Agricultural Commercial Construction Industrial Multi-Family Residential Building Insulation Caulking/Weather-stripping Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Duct/Air sealing Heat recovery Lighting Biodiesel Biomass CHP/Cogeneration

154

Methanol synthesis in a trickle bed reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kinetic models for methanol synthesis under the assumption that the rate limiting step was the reaction between an adsorbed CO molecule and two adsorbed H2 molecules. The experiment was conducted over a Cu/ZnO/Cr~03 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor... to account for the large degree of initial deactivation. However, Rozovskii (1980) claimed the opposite and stated that methanol is made from carbon dioxide and no methanol is produced from Hz/CO mixtures over the Cu/ZnO/Alz03 catalyst. Liu et al. (1984...

Tjandra, Sinoto

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Advanced direct methanol fuel cells. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of the program was an advanced proton-exchange membrane (PEM) for use as the electrolyte in a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell which provides reduced methanol crossover while simultaneously providing high conductivity and low membrane water content. The approach was to use a membrane containing precross-linked fluorinated base polymer films and subsequently to graft the base film with selected materials. Over 80 different membranes were prepared. The rate of methanol crossover through the advanced membranes was reduced 90%. A 5-cell stack provided stable performance over a 100-hour life test. Preliminary cost estimates predicted a manufacturing cost at $4 to $9 per kW.

Hamdan, Monjid; Kosek, John A.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Basics August 14, 2013 - 2:01pm Addthis Photo of a woman scientist using a machine that is purifying biological catalysts for hydrogen production. Hydrogen is the simplest element on Earth. A hydrogen atom consists of only one proton and one electron. It is also the most plentiful element in the universe. Despite its simplicity and abundance, hydrogen doesn't occur naturally as a gas on Earth. It is always combined with other elements. Water, for example, is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is also found in many organic compounds, notably the "hydrocarbons" that make up fuels such as gasoline, natural gas, methanol, and propane. To generate electricity using hydrogen, pure hydrogen must first be

157

Hydrogen passivation of Se and Te in AlSb M. D. McCluskey and E. E. Haller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen passivation of Se and Te in AlSb M. D. McCluskey and E. E. Haller Lawrence Berkeley observed local vibrational modes LVM's arising from DX-hydrogen complex in AlSb. Hydrogen was diffused into bulk AlSb:Se and AlSb:Te by annealing in sealed quartz ampoules with either hydrogen gas or methanol CH

McCluskey, Matthew

158

Experimental investigation of methanol crossover evolution during direct methanol fuel cell degradation tests  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Methanol crossover and severe degradation are two of the most critical issues hindering the commercialization of direct methanol fuel cells. The experimental investigations found in the literature show that degradation has both permanent and temporary contributions; the latter can be recovered thanks to a suitable operation interruption. This work reports the experimental characterization of methanol crossover and water content in cathode exhaust during different degradation tests performed in continuous and cycling operation modes. Such investigation evidences a reduction of methanol crossover during the DMFC degradation tests that can be partially restored. Methanol crossover reduction presents both temporary and permanent contributions: the latter could be related to membrane degradation. Moreover the effect of both methanol crossover and electric power reduction on fuel cell efficiency are discussed.

A. Casalegno; F. Bresciani; M. Zago; R. Marchesi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Hydrogen Delivery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 #12;This.................................................................................. 13 6. Hydrogen Storage). The Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team is one of 12 U.S. DRIVE technical teams ("tech teams") whose mission

160

Catalyst for methanol synthesis: Preparation and activation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase composition and structure of the initial and reduced forms of the copper-zinc oxide catalysts for methanol synthesis are discussed. The mechanism of the process is discussed.

T. M. Yurieva

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Abrupt Decline in the Open-Circuit Voltage of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells at Critical Oxygen Feed Rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PEMFCs . In an effort to reduce methanol crossover, many researchers have sought either to develop new is more sluggish than that of hydrogen. Thus, more reactive electrocatalysts are desired.1,8,9 The second depresses the cathode potential as well as poisons the cathode electrocatalyst.2 In addition, the permeated

Zhao, Tianshou

162

Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work we report on thevacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuumultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH +, (CH 3OH)2 +, (CH3OH)nH + (n=1-9), and (CH 3OH)n(H2O)H + (n=2-9 ) as a function of photon energy. With an increase in the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Ahmed, Musahid; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Belau, Leonid; Kostko, Oleg

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

163

Vacuum-Ultraviolet (VUV) Photoionization of Small Methanol and Methanol-Water Clusters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, we report on the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of small methanol and methanol-water clusters. Clusters of methanol with water are generated via co-expansion of the gas phase constituents in a continuous supersonic jet expansion of methanol and water seeded in Ar. The resulting clusters are investigated by single photon ionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and mass analyzed using reflectron mass spectrometry. Protonated methanol clusters of the form (CH3OH)nH+(n = 1-12) dominate the mass spectrum below the ionization energy of the methanol monomer. With an increase in water concentration, small amounts of mixed clusters of the form (CH3OH n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-11) are detected. The only unprotonated species observed in this work are the methanol monomer and dimer. Appearance energies are obtained from the photoionization efficiency (PIE) curves for CH3OH+, (CH3OH)2+, (CH3OH)nH+ (n = 1-9), and (CH3OH)n(H2O)H+ (n = 2-9) as a function of photon energy. With an increasein the water content in the molecular beam, there is an enhancement of photoionization intensity for the methanol dimer and protonated methanol monomer at threshold. These results are compared and contrasted to previous experimental observations.

Kostko, Oleg; Belau, Leonid; Wilson, Kevin R.; Ahmed, Musahid

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

164

Methanol's transformation to commodity status stretches supply  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol is undergoing a renaissance. Beginning in the US in the fourth quarter of 1993, methanol has seen a transformation from a low-growth, low-priced, overly abundant commodity chemical into a high-demand, undersupplied, cost-price driven product. As the economic recovery has spread to the rest of the world, methanol demand has dramatically increased. this meteoric rise has been further sparked in the US by increased use of methanol as an ingredient in gasoline oxygenates required by the federal government. Increased demand has led to the consolidation of producers, a scramble to reopen existing capacity, addition of capacity via product conversion, and plans for various future capacity expansions. Methanol fits alongside the other long-standing, major organic commodity chemicals-ethylbenzene, ethylene, ethylene dichloride, formaldehyde, propylene, styrene, terephthalic acid, and vinyl chloride. Methanol also serves both as a building block for many other chemicals--formaldehyde, acetic acid, and terephthalic acid--and as a solvent for many industrial uses.

Peaff, G.

1994-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

165

Hydrogen Delivery  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mark Paster Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology Program Hydrogen Production and Delivery Team Hydrogen Delivery Goal Hydrogen Delivery Goal Liquid H 2 & Chem. Carriers Gaseous Pipeline Truck Hydrides Liquid H 2 - Truck - Rail Other Carriers Onsite reforming Develop Develop hydrogen fuel hydrogen fuel delivery delivery technologies that technologies that enable the introduction and enable the introduction and long long - - term viability of term viability of hydrogen as an energy hydrogen as an energy carrier for transportation carrier for transportation and stationary power. and stationary power. Delivery Options * End Game - Pipelines - Other as needed * Breakthrough Hydrogen Carriers * Truck: HP Gas & Liquid Hydrogen

166

Basic metal oxides as cocatalysts for Cu/SiO{sub 2} catalysts in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The catalytic behavior of Cu catalysts supported on ultrapure silica and promoted with Ca, Zn, and La oxides was investigated in the hydrogenation of CO and CO{sub 2} to methanol at high pressure. Cu on very pure silica produces hardly any methanol, while the addition of basic oxides and the use of {gamma}-alumina as support improve the catalyst performance. The strong promoting effect of Ca and La oxide on the silica-supported Cu and the weak promoting effect for alumina-supported Cu suggest that the basic oxide additives must be close to or in contact with the Cu particles to be effective in methanol synthesis. The methanol activity of Zn/Cu/SiO{sub 2} increased with increasing CO{sub 2} content in a CO-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture, suggesting that CO{sub 2} is the main carbon source for methanol.

Gotti, A.; Prins, R. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry] [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland). Lab. of Technical Chemistry

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

167

Investigation of hydrogen transfer in coprocessing using model systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coprocessing of coal with petroleum resid involves the reaction of two very different materials: coal is aromatic and resid is naphthenic. Hydrogen transfer is an important mechanism in most coal liquefaction systems. When coal is reacted with a coal-derived solvent, a high hydroaromatic content capable of transferring hydrogen in the solvent is desirable for achieving the desired coal conversions. But, resids tend to be naphthenic rather than hydroaromatic in character. The current study evaluated the reactivity of naphthenic compounds as models for resids in the presence of aromatic acceptors that are representative of the coal structure. The model donor used was perhydropyrene and the model acceptors were phenanthrene and anthracene. Thermal and catalytic reactions were performed at 400 and 440{degrees}C for 30 min in a H{sub 2} or N{sub 2} atmosphere with 1:1 and 5:1 ratios of model donor to model acceptor and with slurry phase catalysts, Mo naphthenate and Ni octoate. In reactions containing anthracene, the presence of perhydropyrene had increased the total amount of hydrogen being accepted by anthracene, while excess perhydropyrene was required to increase the hydrogen accepted by the model phenanthrene. Catalysis by Mo naphthenate promoted hydrogen transfer from perhydropyrene to anthracene, but catalysis by Ni octoate did not.

Shen, J.; Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Hydrogen bond breaking probed with multidimensional stimulated vibrational echo correlation spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen bond breaking probed with multidimensional stimulated vibrational echo correlation September 2003 Hydrogen bond population dynamics are extricated with exceptional detail using ultrafast ( 50 of methanol­OD oligomers in CCl4 . Hydrogen bond breaking makes it possible to acquire data for times much

Fayer, Michael D.

169

Hydrogens Potential  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Estimates of future demand for non-fossil produced hydrogen and of its potential are oriented toward ... to the environment as the present fossil energy economy [10.4, 10.9].

J. Nitsch; C. Voigt

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

A sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this type of fuel cell become a lead- ing candidate to replace batteries in portable applications includA sandwich structured membrane for direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu October 2012 Received in revised form 4 December 2012 Accepted 3 January 2013 Keywords: Fuel cell Direct

Zhao, Tianshou

171

Performance of a spark ignition engine fueled with methanol or methanol-gasoline blends  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Engine torque and specific energy consumption of an automotive engine were studied under steady state condition using gasoline, methanol gasoline blends and straight methanol as fuel. At first the engine was run without any modification. Next the diameters of metering orifices in carburetor were modified to give the same excess air factor regardless of fuel type under each fixed engine operating condition. Finally the engine was run with 15% mixture methanol in gasoline by volume using the carburetor modified to have approximately 10% larger fuel flow area than the production carburetor. From the results of this study the effects of using methanol on engine torque and specific energy consumption can be explained on the basis of change in stoichiometry caused by the use of methanol.

You, B.C.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Hydrogen storage in carbon materialspreliminary results  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent developments aiming at the accelerated commercialization of fuel cells for automotive applications have triggered an intensive research on fuel storage concepts for fuel cell cars. The fuel cell technology currently lacks technically and economically viable hydrogen storage technologies. On-board reforming of gasoline or methanol into hydrogen can only be regarded as an intermediate solution due to the inherently poor energy efficiency of such processes. Hydrogen storage in carbon nanofibers may lead to an efficient solution to the above described problems.

Ludwig Jrissen; Holger Klos; Peter Lamp; Gudrun Reichenauer; Victor Trapp

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

and Methanol and Methanol Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Methanol Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol and Methanol Tax Ethyl alcohol and methyl alcohol motor fuels are taxed at a rate of $0.08 per gallon when used as a motor fuel. Ethyl alcohol is defined as a motor

175

Hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

176

Nuclear Hydrogen  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Error Error Nuclear Hydrogen - RCC cannot be displayed due to a timeout error. We recommend: * Refresh Nuclear Hydrogen - RCC * Increasing your portlet timeout setting. *...

177

Praxair extending hydrogen pipeline in Southeast Texas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Praxair Inc., an independent corporation created by the spinoff of Union Carbide Corp.'s Linde division, is extending its high purity hydrogen pipeline system from Channelview, Tex., to Port Arthur, Tex. The 70 mile, 10 in. extension begins at a new pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purification unit next to Lyondell Petrochemical Co.'s Channelview plant. The PSA unit will upgrade hydrogen offgas from Lyondell's methanol plant to 99.99% purity hydrogen. The new line, advancing at a rate of about 1 mile/day, will reach its first customer, Star Enterprise's 250,000 b/d Port Arthur refinery, in September.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

178

New methanol plant for Kharg Island  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Iran`s National Petrochemical Co. (NPC; Teheran) plans to set up a world scale export-oriented methanol plant on Kharg Island in the Persian Gulf. It says discussions are being held with three Western groups - C. Itoh (Tokyo), H & G (London), and Uhde (Dortmund) - to supply the 660,000-m.t./year facility. The estimated $150-million project would be repaid through export of methanol within three to four years. NPC hopes to conclude talks this year. Strategically located, Kharg Island is described as a good location in peacetime. It already serves as an oil terminal. NPC has an LPG and sulfur complex there.

Alperowicz, N.

1992-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

179

NETL: Gasification - Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Syngas Processing Systems Syngas Processing Systems Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Coal Gasification Praxair Inc. Project Number: FE0004908 Project Description Praxair is conducting research to develop hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) technology to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) in coal-derived syngas for IGCC applications. The project team has fabricated palladium based membranes and measured hydrogen fluxes as a function of pressure, temperature, and membrane preparation conditions. Membranes are a commercially-available technology in the chemical industry for CO2 removal and H2 purification. There is, however, no commercial application of membrane processes that aims at CO2 capture for IGCC syngas. Due to the modular nature of the membrane process, the design does not exhibit economy of scale-the cost of the system will increase linearly as the plant system scale increases making the use of commercially available membranes, for an IGCC power plant, cost prohibitive. For a membrane process to be a viable CO2 capture technology for IGCC applications, a better overall performance is required, including higher permeability, higher selectivity, and lower membrane cost.

180

Methanol-tolerant carbon aerogel-supported PtAu catalysts for direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

PtAu nanoparticles supported on carbon aerogel, namely 2:1 has been synthesized by the microwave-assisted polyol process. The structure of PtAu nanoparticles is characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical property of PtAu catalysts for methanol oxidation is evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The results show that Au-modified Pt catalysts exhibit a high methanol tolerance and improved electrochemical catalytic activity, suggesting that carbon aerogel supported PtAu catalysts are better catalysts for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol than conventional Pt catalysts.

Hong Zhu; Zhijun Guo; Xinwei Zhang; Kefei Han; Yubao Guo; Fanghui Wang; Zhongming Wang; Yongsheng Wei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Quality  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Introduction Developing and implementing fuel quality specifications for hydrogen are prerequisites to the widespread deployment of hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles. Several organizations are addressing this fuel quality issue, including the International Standards Organization (ISO), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP), and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)/Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). All of their activities, however, have focused on the deleterious effects of specific contaminants on the automotive fuel cell or on-board hydrogen storage systems. While it is possible for the energy industry to provide extremely pure hydrogen, such hydrogen could entail excessive costs. The objective of our task is to develop a process whereby the hydrogen quality requirements may be determined based on life-cycle costs of the complete hydrogen fuel cell vehicle "system." To accomplish this objective, the influence of different contaminants and their concentrations in fuel hydrogen on the life-cycle costs of hydrogen production, purification, use in fuel cells, and hydrogen analysis and quality verification are being assessed.

182

Ozone Control and Methanol Fuel Use  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from diesel-type engines and use in stationary...methanol-fueled engine is expected to emit half as much as diesel-fueled engines. In the 2010 simulations...1989)]. A FUNDAMENTAL FEATURE OF NOR-mal...phase of the cell cycle by any combination...

A. G. Russell; D. St. Pierre; J. B. Milford

1990-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

183

Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a CuSiO2 catalyst. Isotope effects in methanol synthesis and the reactivity of copper formates on a...

184

Synthesis of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether from Syngas over Pd...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

are necessary when combining methanol and DME synthesis with a methanol to gasoline (MTG) process in a single reactor bed. A commercial CuZnOAl2O3 catalyst, utilized...

185

THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of NO and N02 in a Turbulent Propane/Air Di fusion Flame,"Fuel Methanol Ethanol Ethane Propane i so Octane n - Cetanestage of the secondary Propane, at A spark air line contains

Grosshandler, W.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This feasibility study includes all phases of methanol production from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The study examines: production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-day methanol production facility; potential environmental impacts of the whole project; safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol; and development of site specific cost estimates.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

CdSe-MoS2: A Quantum Size-Confined Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution from Water under Visible Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and for the conversion of carbon dioxides into methanol and hydrocarbons. Metal chalcogenides1­9 are promisingCdSe-MoS2: A Quantum Size-Confined Photocatalyst for Hydrogen Evolution from Water under Visible driven pathway to hydrogen. Hydrogen is not only an environmentally benign fuel for the generation

Osterloh, Frank

188

Photoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,n70460...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

been described elsewhere.9 Methanol cluster anions were produced by passing argon through a reservoirPhotoelectron imaging of large anionic methanol clusters: ,,MeOH...n - ,,n?70­460... Aster Kammrath Electron solvation in methanol anion clusters, MeOH n - n 70­460 , is studied by photoelectron imaging. Two

Neumark, Daniel M.

189

Communication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, with the rest coming from natural gas (Peng, 2011). Methanol is commonly used to produce formaldehyde, methylCommunication China's growing methanol economy and its implications for energy and the environment online 2 December 2011 Keywords: Methanol economy China Coal-based chemical a b s t r a c t For more than

Jackson, Robert B.

190

Theoretical model for methanol formation from CO and H/sub 2/ on zinc oxide surfaces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Models are developed for the polar (0001) and nonpolar (1010) surfaces of ZnO in order to consider methanol formation from adsorbed carbon monoxide and hydrogen atoms. The heats of adsorption of H/sub x/CO and OH/sub x/CO (x = 0-3) species involved in methanol formation are computed to determine the enthalpy changes of reaction. Reaction sequences involving formyl or formate intermediates are considered. The reaction mechanism is catalyzed by the Cu/sup +/ to proceed through a methoxy intermediate on Cu/sup +//ZnO with a lower of the energy pathway. The ZnO surfaces are poor donors and function primarily as acceptors of electron density from CO. The donor role of Cu/sup +/ is demonstrated on the polar surface by increasing the heat of adsorption of acceptor adspecies and decreasing the heat of adsorption of donor adspecies. 22 references, 8 figures, 4 tables.

Baetzold, R.C.

1985-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

191

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

192

Supercritical methanol for polyethylene terephthalate depolymerization: Observation using simulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To apply PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol to commercial recycling, the benefits of supercritical methanol usage in PET depolymerization was investigated from the viewpoint of the reaction rate and energy demands. PET was depolymerized in a batch reactor at 573 K in supercritical methanol under 14.7 MPa and in vapor methanol under 0.98 MPa in our previous work. The main products of both reactions were the PET monomers of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and ethylene glycol (EG). The rate of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol was faster than that of PET depolymerization in vapor methanol. This indicates supercritical fluid is beneficial in reducing reaction time without the use of a catalyst. We depicted the simple process flow of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol and in vapor methanol, and by simulation evaluated the total heat demand of each process. In this simulation, bis-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET) was used as a model component of PET. The total heat demand of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol was 2.35 x 10{sup 6} kJ/kmol Produced-DMT. That of PET depolymerization in vapor methanol was 2.84 x 10{sup 6} kJ/kmol Produced-DMT. The smaller total heat demand of PET depolymerization in supercritical methanol clearly reveals the advantage of using supercritical fluid in terms of energy savings.

Genta, Minoru; Iwaya, Tomoko; Sasaki, Mitsuru [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 865-8555 (Japan); Goto, Motonobu [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 865-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: mgoto@kumamoto-u.ac.jp

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold

194

The hydrogen economy: Its history  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept leading to a hydrogen economy lay in the work of a Nazi engineer, Lawaceck, 1968. I heard his suggestion of cheaper transfer of energy in hydrogen through pipes at a dinner in that year. A paper was published with Appleby in 1972 which was the first published document concerning that title and involving the title of A Hydrogen Economy. The first meeting was in Cornell University in 1973. In 1974 T. Nejat Veziroglu organized the first big meeting on hydrogen (900 attendees). At this meeting I presented privately to Veziroglu the possibilities of a world development and he told me that he was ready to put his organizing ability to use in spreading the ideas worldwide. However, he not only proceeded to do this but he, also a professor at the University of Miami, contributed several papers of notes, particularly the one with Awad of 1974 about the cost of pollution. Gregory worked at the Gas Research Institute from 1971 and confirmed the expectations put down by Lawaceck. Veziroglu founded the International Journal of Hydrogen Energy in 1974. Research in hydrogen was relatively low cost and therefore was taken up most eagerly by those from the newer countries. The National Science Foundation awarded Texas A&M University in 1982 a five year support for hydrogen as a fuel with the condition that half the costs be borne by at least five industrial companies. I was appointed director of the research under the grant and chose to concentrate upon the decomposition of water by solar light via an electrochemical photo fuel cell. We were able to obtain considerable increases in efficiency of decomposition of water by solar light, and at the time the work was interrupted we had 9.6 percent efficiency for decomposition. S.U.M. Khan and R. Kainthla were the principal contributors to the theory of using light via electrochemical cells for this purpose. The Texas A&M University work on hydrogen was interrupted in 1989 by the arrival of claims that one of my former students had carried out electrolysis of deuterium oxide saying that an extra unexplained heat had been observed and he suggested this heat was nuclear in origin. Later, seeking to reduce the cost of hydrogen as a fuel I involved Sol Zaromb in discussions and we came across the idea that if one included a carbon dioxide molecule obtained by removing it from the atmosphere in the structure of methanolAT, no increase in global warming would occur from the use of methanol with that condition, (published in 2008). By this condition methanol took on the largest advantage of gaseous hydrogen: That it did not cause global warming. The estimated cost of the new (anti-global warming) fuel, methanolAT was less than $30/GJ. This estimated cost could be compared with the $48/GJ which is now being supported by a French Canadian group who published an attractive book with six pages of calculations of costs. The difference between the cost estimated by this group and the costs which have been assumed by hydrogen enthusiasts in earlier times was that they took into account the auxiliary expenses which would come with the use of hydrogen, in particular the storage at high pressure. The characteristics of the new methanol to cause no global warming put that aspect of it on an equal footing to the gaseous hydrogen. The CO2 which was an essential part of the structure of methanolAT was necessary to be created in a stream, rather than directly from the atmosphere, but it was easily shown that this could be done by the use of biomass and by carbonaceous wastes. A German team under Weiderman and Grob appeared in 2008 and proceeded to suggest some extensions of the ideas which had been undergoing publication for some time. The aim of the German work was to reduce costs of a compound which they called Methasyn. The present situation is that the claim of methanolAT as a world fuel to be used without any concerns of exhaustion or pollution depends on the commercial point of view of the costs being less than that of obtaining oil from the tar sands.

John O'.M. Bockris

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Hydrogen Analysis  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation on Hydrogen Analysis to the DOE Systems Analysis Workshop held in Washington, D.C. July 28-29, 2004 to discuss and define role of systems analysis in DOE Hydrogen Program.

196

Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On-board hydrogen storage for transportation applications continues to be one of the most technically challenging barriers to the widespread commercialization of hydrogen-fueled vehicles. The EERE...

197

Hydrogen Safety  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

198

Strahlenchemie von alkoholenIX : Die UV-photolyse (? = 185 nm) von methanol in flssiger phase  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zusammenfassung Bei der Photolyse (? = 185 nm) von flssigem Methanol entstehen Wasserstoff, Glykol, Formaldehyd und Methan sowie Spuren than. Die Quantenausbeuten (bezogen auf ?(H2) = 04 des thanol -Aktinometers (5 mol/1 in Wasser)) betragen 083, 078, 0058, 005 bzw. 0002. Die Isotopenverteilung des bei der Photolyse von CH3OD entstehenden Wasserstoffs (85% HD) zeigt, dass in der flssigen Phase, hnlich wie in der Gasphase,2 die Spaltung der O?H-Bindung (1) der wichtigste Zerfallsprozess ist. CH3OH + hv (? = 185 nm) ? CH3O + H (1) In Mischungen mit Wasser, in denen das Wasser fast keinen Anteil der Strahlung absorbiert, werden die Quantenausbeuten der Produkte Wasserstoff, Glykol, Methan und than stark erniedrigt, whrend die Formaldehydausbeute konstant bleibt. In 1 molarer Lsung betrgt ?(H2) = 042, ?(Glykol) = 032, ?(CH4) = 610?4. than ist nicht mehr nachweisbar. The UV photolysis (? = 185 nm) of liquid methanol yields hydrogen, glycol, formaldehyde, methane and traces of ethane in quantum yields of 083, 078, 0058, 005 and 0002 resp. (related to ?(H2) = 04 of the ethanol-actinometer (5 mole/1 in water)). The isotopic distribution of the hydrogen (85% HD) formed in the photolysis of CH3OD shows, that as in the gasphase2 the scission of the O?H-bond (1) is the major process. CH3OH + hv (? = 185 nm) ? CH3O + H (1) In methanoi-water mixtures (nearly all the light of the wavelength ? = 185 nm is absorbed by methanol) the quantum yields of hydrogen, glycol, methane and ethane are greatly reduced, while the formaldehyde yield remains unaffected. In 1 molar solution ?(H2) = 042, ?(glycol) = 032 and ?(CH4) = 6 x 10?4 is obtained. Ethane cannot be detected.

C. Von Sonntag

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Hydrogen Cryomagnetics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% cryogenics (inc. MRI) 29% pressurisation and purging 11%controlled atmospheres (inc. breathing) 6% 4 Figure 5. Simplified price-cost, supply-demand relationship that is central to the helium market model developed during the Helium Resources... of hydrogen large amounts of hydrogen must be available for liquefaction. This poses problems for the production of liquid hydrogen via intermittent wind energy and via microwave plasma reactors that are not scalable as a result of low hydrogen production...

Glowacki, B. A.; Hanely, E.; Nuttall, W. J.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Mechanism of methanol synthesis on Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(100) surfaces: Comparative dipped adcluster model study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mechanism of methanol synthesis from CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} on Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(100) surfaces was studied using the dipped adcluster model (DAM) combined with ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2) calculations. On clean Cu(100) surface, calculations show that five successive hydrogenations are involved in the hydrogenation of adsorbed CO{sub 2} to methanol, and the intermediates are formate, dioxomethylene, formaldehyde, and methoxy. The rate-limiting step is the hydrogenation of formate to formaldehyde, and the Cu-Cu site is responsible for the reaction on Cu(100). The roles of Zn on Zn/Cu(100) catalyst are to modify the rate-limiting step of the reaction: to lower the activation energies of this step and to stabilize the dioxomethylene intermediate at the Cu-Zn site. The present comparative results indicate that the Cu-Zn site is the active site, which cooperates with the Cu-Cu site to catalyze methanol synthesis on a Cu-based catalyst. Electron transfer from surface to adsorbates is the most important factor in affecting the reactivity of these surface catalysts.

Nakatsuji, Hiroshi; Hu, Zhenming

2000-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

202

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Emerging Fuels Emerging Fuels Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogenation-Derived Renewable Diesel on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol

203

Coking of zeolites during methanol conversion: Basic reactions of the MTO-, MTP- and MTG processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deactivation of acidic zeolite catalysts during methanol conversion is investigated for elucidating how spatial constraints interfere mechanistically. Detailed product composition including retained organic matter is determined in a time resolved mode. At 270300C with H-ZSM-5, first unsaturated hydrocarbons are formedmethane being the indicative co-product. Then the reaction rate increases auto-catalytically, but soon declines because of exhaustive pore filling. The retained organic matter consists mainly of ethyl-trimethyl-benzene- and isopropyl-dimethyl-benzene molecules. Alkylation of benzene rings with ethene and propene produces the deactivating molecules. At 475C, alkylation of benzene rings with olefins has shifted to the reverse, reactivating the H-ZSM-5 catalyst. Coke forms slowly on the surface of H-ZSM-5 crystallites. Spatial constraints suppress the formation of 2-ring aromatics. With the wide pore zeolite H-Y, fast deactivation is noticedbigger aromatic molecules can be formed and are retained. Methanol reactions on the protonic catalyst sites are visualized as CH3+ attack for methylation and dehydrogenation, methane being the hydrogen-rich co-product. Methanol conversion on zeolites H-ZSM-58, H-EU-1 and H-Beta is comparatively investigated. Zone ageing is discussed for favorable reactor design. It is shown, how a multi-compound product composition is the source of information for elucidating complex reaction mechanisms.

Hans Schulz

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Commercial-Scale Demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

he Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOW) Demonstration Project at Kingsport Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P. (the Partnership) to produce methanol from coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas). Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Air Products) and Eastman Chemical Company (Eastman) formed the Partnership to execute the Demonstration Project. The LPMEOEP Process Demonstration Unit was built at a site located at the Eastman coal-to-chemicals complex in Kingsport. The LPMEOHW Demonstration Facility completed its first year of operation on 02 April 1998. The LPMEOW Demonstration Facility also completed the longest continuous operating run (65 days) on 21 April 1998. Catalyst activity, as defined by the ratio of the rate constant at any point in time to the rate constant for freshly reduced catalyst (as determined in the laboratory autoclave), was monitored throughout the reporting period. During a six-week test at a reactor temperature of 225oC and Balanced Gas flowrate of 700 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was steady at 0.29-0.36% per day. During a second one-month test at a reactor temperature of 220oC and a Balanced Gas flowrate of 550-600 KSCFH, the rate of decline in catalyst activity was 0.4% per day, which matched the pefiorrnance at 225"C, as well as the 4-month proof-of-concept run at the LaPorte AFDU in 1988/89. Beginning on 08 May 1998, the LPMEOW Reactor temperature was increased to 235oC, which was the operating temperature tier the December 1997 restart with the fresh charge of catalyst (50'Yo of design loading). The flowrate of the primary syngas feed stream (Balanced Gas) was also increased to 700-750 KSCFH. During two stable operating periods between 08 May and 09 June 1998, the average catalyst deactivation rate was 0.8% per day. Due to the scatter of the statistical analysis of the results, this test was extended to better quanti& the catalyst aging behavior. During the reporting perio~ two batches of fresh catalyst were activated and transferred to the reactor (on 02 April and 20 June 1998). The weight of catalyst in the LPMEOW Reactor has reached 80% of the design value. At the end of the reporting period, a step-change in the pressure-drop profile within the LPMEOW Reactor and an increase in the pressure of the steam system which provides cooling to the LPMEOW Reactor were observed. No change in the calculated activity of the catalyst was detected during either of these transients. These parameters will be monitored closely for any additional changes.

None

1998-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

205

Coal to methanol to gasoline by the hydrocarb process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HYDROCARB Process converts coal or any other carbonaceous material to a clean carbon fuel and co-product gas or liquid fuel. By directing the co-product to liquid methanol, it becomes possible to produce methanol at costs as low as $0.13 to $0.14/gal as shown in Table 1 for a Western Lignite and Table 2 for an Eastern Bituminous coal. In the case of Western lignite, it is assumed that the carbon black fuel product can be sold at $3.00/MMBtu ($18/Bbl FOE) and for the Eastern coal at $2.50/MMBtu ($15/Bbl FOE). A methanol market is expected to develop due to the need for an automotive fuel with reduced pollutant emissions. However, should the methanol market not materialize as expected, then methanol can be readily converted to conventional gasoline by the addition of an MTG, methanol to gasoline process step. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Improved Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A stack of direct methanol fuel cells exhibiting a circular footprint. A cathode and anode manifold, tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are located within the circular footprint. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet cathode manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold, where the serpentine channels of the anode are orthogonal to the serpentine channels of the cathode. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

207

Novel hydrogen separation device development for coal gasification system applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was undertaken for the development of a novel Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator (EHS) technology for low-cost hydrogen separation from coal derived gases. Design and operating parameter testing was performed using subscale cells (25 cm{sup 2}). High H{sub 2} purity, >99% is one of the main features of the EHS. It was found that N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} behave as equivalent inerts; EHS performance is not affected by the balance of feed gas containing these components. This product purity level is not sacrificed by increased H{sub 2} recovery. CO, however, does adversely affect EHS performance and therefore feed stream pretreatment is recommended. Low levels of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} were added to the feed gas stream and it was verified that these impurities did not affect EHS performance. Task 2 demonstrated the scale-up to full size multi-cell module operation while maintaining a stable energy requirement. A 10-cell full-size module (1050 cm{sup 2} cell active area) was operated for over 3,800 hours and gave a stable baseline performance. Several applications for the EHS were investigated. The most economically attractive systems incorporating an EHS contain low pressure, dilute hydrogen streams, such as coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems, hydrogen plant purification and fluid catalytic cracker units. In addition, secondary hydrogen recovery from PSA or membrane tailstreams using an EHS may increase overall system efficiency.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Liquefaction of natural gas to methanol for shipping and storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The penetration of natural gas into distant markets can be substantially increased by a new methanol synthesis process under development at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The new methanol process is made possible by the discovery of a catalyst that drops synthesis temperatures from about 275/sup 0/C to about 100/sup 0/C. The new low temperature liquid catalyst can convert synthesis gas completely to methanol in a single pass through the methanol synthesis reactor. This characteristic leads to a further major improvement in the methanol plant. As a result of process design factors made possible by the BNL catalyst, the plant required to convert natural gas to methanol is very simple. Conversion of natural gas to methanol requires two chemical reactions, both of which are exothermic, and thus represent a loss of heating value in the feed natural gas. This loss is about 20% of the feed gas energy, and is, therefore, higher than the 10% loss in energy in natural gas liquefaction, which is a simpler physical - not a chemical - change. The energy disadvantage of the methanol option must be balanced against the advantage of a much lower capital investment requirement made possible by the new BNL synthesis. Preliminary estimates show that methanol conversion and shipping require an investment for liquefaction to methanol, and shipping liquefied methanol that can range from 35 to 50% of the capital needed for the LNG plant and LNG tanker fleet. This large reduction in capital requirements is expected to make liquefaction to methanol attractive in many cases where the LNG capital needs are prohibitive. 3 tabs.

O'Hare, T.E.; Sapienza, R.S.; Mahajan, D.; Skaperdas, G.T.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Amorphous Alloy Membranes for High Temperature Hydrogen Separation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the beginning of this project, thin film amorphous alloy membranes were considered a nascent but promising new technology for industrial-scale hydrogen gas separations from coal- derived syngas. This project used a combination of theoretical modeling, advanced physical vapor deposition fabricating, and laboratory and gasifier testing to develop amorphous alloy membranes that had the potential to meet Department of Energy (DOE) targets in the testing strategies outlined in the NETL Membrane Test Protocol. The project is complete with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), and Western Research Institute (WRI) having all operated independently and concurrently. GT studied the hydrogen transport properties of several amorphous alloys and found that ZrCu and ZrCuTi were the most promising candidates. GT also evaluated the hydrogen transport properties of V, Nb and Ta membranes coated with different transition-metal carbides (TMCs) (TM = Ti, Hf, Zr) catalytic layers by employing first-principles calculations together with statistical mechanics methods and determined that TiC was the most promising material to provide catalytic hydrogen dissociation. SwRI developed magnetron coating techniques to deposit a range of amorphous alloys onto both porous discs and tubular substrates. Unfortunately none of the amorphous alloys could be deposited without pinhole defects that undermined the selectivity of the membranes. WRI tested the thermal properties of the ZrCu and ZrNi alloys and found that under reducing environments the upper temperature limit of operation without recrystallization is ~250 C. There were four publications generated from this project with two additional manuscripts in progress and six presentations were made at national and international technical conferences. The combination of the pinhole defects and the lack of high temperature stability make the theoretically identified most promising candidate amorphous alloys unsuitable for application as hydrogen separation membranes in coal fire systems.

Coulter, K

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

210

Microsoft Word - 42643_GE_Hydrogen Turbine_Factsheet_Rev B_12-08-06.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

3 - Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine Development 3 - Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine Development Revision B 1 December 2006 FACT SHEET I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Prime Participant: General Electric Company, GE Energy B. Sub-Award Participant: General Electric Company, Global Research Center II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objective(s): The objective of this project is to design and develop a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC and FutureGen type applications that meets DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal is to conduct, by 2010, the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency (45-50% (HHV)), near-zero emissions (less than 3 ppm v NOx @ 15% O 2 ) and competitive capital cost (< $1000/kW).

211

Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or otherwise restricted information Novel Materials for High Efficiency Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Chris Roger and David Mountz October 1, 2009 2009 Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff...

212

Chapter 4 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this chapter, hydrogen and fuel cell systems are introduced. Hydrogen is closely related to fuel cells because fuel cells are very efficient devices for power generation which when supplied with hydrogen generate non-polluting effluents, mainly water or steam. A hydrogen economy is necessary in the context of continuous growth of population and per-capita energy consumption. In this context, renewable energy solutionsespecially solarbecome more important and their harvesting requires hydrogen as energy carrier. Therefore the role of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in power generation becomes very important. As detailed in the chapter, these systems are useful for converting the fluctuating and intermittent energy of renewable sources and providing power on demand. Hydrogen and fuel cell systems can work either as grid-connected or as independent power generators. Connection to the grid allows for better load leveling and major savings as well as for reduction of pollution associated with power generation. Hydrogen can also be used to power residences and to cogenerate heat or other commodities. In addition, hydrogen and fuel cell technologies are much required for the transportation sector, where they can contribute to pollution and cost reduction and increased efficiency. Hydrogen production methods are reviewed in this chapter with a focus on electrolysis and thermochemical cycles. These systems appear to be leading technologies for the future. Other revised hydrogen production methods are gasification and reforming, which are very relevant for biomass conversion into hydrogen. Photochemical and photo-biochemical hydrogen production methods are also discussed. All types of fuel cells are introduced; these include alkaline, proton-exchange-membrane, phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, direct methanol, and direct ammonia fuel cells. Construction and specific application for power generation are presented for each type. The modeling and optimization aspects of fuel cells and their systems are explained. Several power generation systems with fuel cells are discussed, in which each type of fuel cells has specific system requirements. The overall system must include various types of separators, pumps, and compressors depending on the case. In aqueous systems water must be recycled, e.g., in the case of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells water must be actually fed in excess so that the membrane is wetted. Also for a direct methanol fuel cell water must be recovered and recycled. In molten carbonate fuel cell systems carbon dioxide must be recovered and recycled. In solid oxide fuel cell systems, the fuel must be supplied in excess and is not completely consumed; therefore it is important to couple these systems with gas turbines.

Ibrahim Dincer; Calin Zamfirescu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from CO/CO2...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O Mixtures: the Source of C in Methanol and the Role of Water Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Synthesis over Cu from COCO2H2H2O...

214

Imaging Adsorbate O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). ...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Adsorbate O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). Imaging Adsorbate O-H Bond Cleavage: Methanol on TiO2(110). Abstract: We investigated methanol adsorption and dissociation on...

215

Conversion of methanol to gasoline commercial plant study. Coal to gasoline via methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the joint sponsorship of the German Federal Minister of Research and Technology (BMFT) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), a research program was initiated concerning the ''Conversion of Methanol to Gasoline (MTG), Engineering, Construction and Operation of a Demonstration Plant''. The purpose of the 100 BPD demonstration plant was to demonstrate the feasibility of and to obtain data required for scale-up of the fluid-bed MTG process to a commercial size plant. As per requirements of Annex 3 of the Governmental Agreement, this study, in addition to the MTG plant, also includes the facilities for the production of methanol. The feedstock basis for the production of methanol shall be coal. Hence this study deals with the production of gasoline from coal (CTG-Coal to Gasoline). The basic objective of this study is to assess the technical feasibility of the conversion of methanol to gasoline in a fluid-bed system and to evaluate the process economies i.e., to evlauate the price of the product in relation to the price of the feedstock and plant capacity. In connection with technical feasibility, the scale up criteria were developed from the results obtained and experience gathered over an operational period of 8600 hours of the ''100 BPD Demonstration Plant''. The scale up philosophy is detailed in chapter 4. The conditions selected for the design of the MTG unit are detailed in chapter 5. The scope of the study covers the production of gasoline from coal, in which MTG section is dealt with in detail (refer to chapter 5). Information on other plant sections in this study are limited to that sufficient to: generate overall mass balance; generate rate of by-products and effluents; incorporate heat integration; generate consumption figures; and establish plant investment cost.

Thiagarajan, N.; Nitschke, E.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Several different approaches are being pursued to develop on-board hydrogen storage systems for light-duty vehicle applications. The different approaches have different characteristics, such as: the thermal energy and temperature of charge and discharge kinetics of the physical and chemical process steps involved requirements for the materials and energy interfaces between the storage system and the fuel supply system on one hand, and the fuel user on the other Other storage system design and operating parameters influence the projected system costs as well. Argonne researchers are developing thermodynamic, kinetic, and engineering models of the various hydrogen storage systems to understand the characteristics of storage systems based on these approaches and to evaluate their potential to meet the DOE targets for on-board applications. The DOE targets for 2015 include a system gravimetric capacity of 1.8 kWh/kg (5.5 wt%) and a system volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L (40 g/L). We then use these models to identify significant component and performance issues, and evaluate alternative system configurations and design and operating parameters.

217

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite for methanol synthesis  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Methanol production from Eucalyptus wood chips. Working Document 9. Economics of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed feasibility study of producing methanol from Eucalyptus in Central Florida encompasses all phases of production - from seedling to delivery of finished methanol. The project includes the following components: (1) production of 55 million, high quality, Eucalyptus seedlings through tissue culture; (2) establishment of a Eucalyptus energy plantation on approximately 70,000 acres; and (3) engineering for a 100 million gallon-per-year methanol production facility. In addition, the potential environmental impacts of the whole project were examined, safety and health aspects of producing and using methanol were analyzed, and site specific cost estimates were made. The economics of the project are presented here. Each of the three major components of the project - tissue culture lab, energy plantation, and methanol refinery - are examined individually. In each case a site specific analysis of the potential return on investment was conducted.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Junction effect interactions in methanol synthesis catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a process of major importance for the chemicals industry. It is currently achieved by passing syngas (a mixture of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide) over a copper/zinc ... Meehan, unpublished observations). The EXAFS analysis of samples reduced in situ and reacted with syngas shows no white line from oxidized copper, and the line shape can be fitted ...

J. C. Frost

1988-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

220

Silica grain catalysis of methanol formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......molecules such as acetaldehyde (CH3CH=O), acetylene (C2H2), ethylene (C2H4) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) where the double and...Surf. Sci., 500, 823. Williams D. A. , Brown W. A., Price S. D., Rawlings J. M. C., Viti S., 2007, Astron......

T. P. M. Goumans; Adrian Wander; C. Richard A. Catlow; Wendy A. Brown

2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Hydrogen Liquefaction  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Liquid Hydrogen is 0.2% Ortho, 99.8% Para 3 Liquid Supply North America 250+ TPD Capacity Diverse Feedstocks Chlor-Alkali SMR Petro-chem Market...

222

Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen is an important energy carrier, and when used as a fuel, can be considered as an alternate to the major fossil fuels, coal, crude oil, and natural gas, and their derivatives. It has the potential to b...

Prof. Dr. Robert A. Huggins

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Hydrogen energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...use of hydrogen as an energy carrier will depend significantly...its utilization and conversion to electricity/heat...becomes an alternative energy carrier. However, various...effectively with conventional energy conversion technologies. The...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

225

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) process. Technical progress report number 11, January 1--March 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During this quarter, the third draft of the Topical Report on Process Economics Studies was issued for review. A recommendation to continue with design verification testing on the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) was made. A liquid phase dimethyl ether (LPDME) catalyst system with reasonable long-term activity and stability is being developed, and a decision to proceed with a proof-of-concept test run at the LaPorte Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) is pending the release of a memo from Air Products on the catalyst targets and corresponding economics for a commercially successful LPDME catalyst. The off-site product-use test plan is to be updated in June of 1997. During this quarter, Air Products and Acurex Environmental Corporation continued developing the listing of product-use test participants who are involved in fuel cell, transportation, and stationary power plant applications. Start-up activities (Task 3.1) began during the reporting period, and coal-derived synthesis gas (syngas) was introduced to the demonstration unit. The recycle compressor was tested successfully on syngas at line pressure of 700 psig, and the reactor loop reached 220 C for carbonyl burnout. Iron carbonyl in the balanced gas feed remained below the 10 ppbv detection limit for all samples but one. Within the reactor loop, iron carbonyl levels peaked out near 200 ppbv after about 40 hours on-stream, before decreasing to between 10--20 ppbv at 160 hours on -stream. Nickel carbonyl measurements reached a peak of about 60 ppbv, and decreased at all sampling locations to below the 10 ppbv detection limit by 70 hours on-stream. Catalyst activation of the nine 2,250 lb batches required for the initial catalyst charge began and concluded. All batches met or slightly exceeded the theoretical maximum uptake of 2.82 SCF of reducing gas/lb catalyst.

NONE

1997-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

226

Research on methanol-burning, two-stroke engines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In looking for the possibility of burning methanol in the two-stroke marine diesel engine, Mitsubishi decided that its investigations would be for a pure methanol-burning engine. Since ignition of methanol by the straight forward diesel cycle is not attainable, Mitsubishi decided to use glow plugs for ignition. The result has been the adaptation of the 450 mm bore test engine, at Nagasaki, with a special cylinder head carrying two methanol precombustion chambers and two main methanol injectors. Results from the tests at Nagasaki showed that NO[sub x] formation was no more than 500 ppm at full load, while thermal efficiency was at least equal to that of a straight diesel engine. A base model ship for Japanese coastal waters operation is being studied. Plans of the ship have been sent to the Japanese classification society, NK, and they include a separate methanol treatment room and storage tanks. The committee concluded that a methanol-engined ship of about 1000 dwt can be operated economically with a relatively small increase in freight rate. Lower crew costs are part of that equation, because of an expected decrease in machinery maintenance. Conceptual approval for the project is now being sought with NK. 2 figs.

Wilson, K.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

228

Methanol adsorption in zeolites - A first-priniciples study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methanol to gasoline (MTG) conversion process, using a zeolite catalyst, is of major commercial importance. However, the first step of the reaction, involving methanol adsorption on the zeolite catalyst, is still not well understood. This paper describes first-principles calculations performed on periodic zeolite models to investigate the nature of methanol adsorption. We have examined a number of possible geometries for this adsorption and found that the nature of the adsorbed species can depend on the particular zeolites structure. In more open ring structures, as found in chabazite, the stable form of methanol is found to be protonated, in contrast to results of previous calculations on cluster models. However, in the sodalite structure methanol is found to be simply physisorbed. The vibrational spectra of the adsorbed species have been studied and compared to experimental results. It is found that both chemisorbed methanol and physisorbed methanol give strongly red-shifted O-H stretching frequencies, but the former can be distinguished by the H-O-H bending mode. 50 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Shah, R.; Payne, M.C. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gale, J.D. [Imperial College, South Kensington (United Kingdom)] [Imperial College, South Kensington (United Kingdom)

1996-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

229

Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

230

CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

Zhen Fan

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

231

Hydrogen program overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Active Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dry hydrogen can be activated in an electric discharge if the pressure and voltage are carefully regulated. Active hydrogen reduces metallic sulphides whose heat of formation is 22 000 cal. or less. The active gas is decomposed by 3 cm of well packed glass wool. A quantitative method is given for the determination of active hydrogen. Less of the active gas is formed in a tube coated with stearic acid or phosphoric acid than when no coating is employed. The decay reaction was found to follow the expression for a unimolecular reaction. The rate of decay appears to be independent of the wall surface. The period of half?life at room temperature and 40 mm pressure is 0.2 sec. approximately. The energy of formation of active hydrogen is approximately 18 000 cal. The energy of activation for the decay of the active constituent is approximately 17 800 cal. The properties of active hydrogen are considered in relation to the properties predicted for H3.

A. C. Grubb; A. B. Van Cleave

1935-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Evaluation of platinum-based catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation in phosphoric acid electrolyte  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon-supported catalysts of Pt, Pt/Ru, Pt/Ru/W, and Pt/Ru/Pd were evaluated for the electro-oxidation of methanol in phosphoric acid at 180 C. These catalysts were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and x-ray diffraction. Addition of Ru to a 0.5 mg/cm{sup 2} Pt catalyst (1:1 atomic ratio) caused a large reduction in polarization. The open-circuit voltage was reduced by 100 mV and polarization at 400 mA/cm{sup 2} was reduced by 180 mV. A Pt/Ru (5:2) catalyst with the same Pt content lowered the open-circuit voltage 70 mV. Additions of W to form Pt/Ru/W (1:1:1, atomic ratio) and Pd to form Pt/Ru/Pd (2:2:1), all with the same platinum loading, gave the same performance as Pt/Ru (1:1) without the additions. All of the catalysts showed two Tafel slopes, 140 mV/dec at lower polarizations and 100 to 120 mV/dec at higher polarizations, indicating that the reaction mechanisms are the same for all of the catalysts. Methanol oxidation is greatly enhanced at 180 C in phosphoric acid compared to the lower operating temperatures of a perfluorosulfonic acid electrolyte. The exchange current density for methanol oxidation is higher than that for O{sub 2} reduction. Ru metal dissolves from catalysts at high potentials. Hydrogen oxidation in the presence of 1 mole percent carbon monoxide showed carbon monoxide tolerance in the order: Pt/Ru/Pd > Pt/Ru > Pt.

He, C.; Kunz, H.R.; Fenton, J.M. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

The flash pyrolysis and methanolysis of biomass (wood) for production of ethylene, benzene and methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process chemistry of the flash pyrolysis of biomass (wood) with the reactive gases, H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} and with the non-reactive gases He and N{sub 2} is being determined in a 1 in. downflow tubular reactor at pressures from 20 to 1000 psi and temperatures from 600 to 1000{degrees}C. With hydrogen, flash hydropyrolysis leads to high yields of methane and CO which can be used for SNG and methanol fuel production. With methane, flash methanolysis leads to high yields of ethylene, benzene and CO which can be used for the production of valuable chemical feedstocks and methanol transportation fuel. At reactor conditions of 50 psi and 1000{degrees}C and approximately 1 sec residence time, the yields based on pine wood carbon conversion are up to 25% for ethylene, 25% for benzene, and 45% for CO, indicating that over 90% of the carbon in pine is converted to valuable products. Pine wood produces higher yields of hydrocarbon products than Douglas fir wood; the yield of ethylene is 2.3 times higher with methane than with helium or nitrogen, and for pine, the ratio is 7.5 times higher. The mechanism appears to be a free radical reaction between CH{sub 4} and the pyrolyzed wood. There appears to be no net production or consumption of methane. A preliminary process design and analysis indicates a potentially economical competitive system for the production of ethylene, benzene and methanol based on the methanolysis of wood. 10 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.; Sundaram, M.S.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

From CO2 to Methanol via Novel Nanocatalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

have found novel nanocatalysts that lower the barrier to converting carbon dioxide (CO2)-an abundant greenhouse gas-into methanol (CH3OH)-a key commodity used to produce...

236

High Specific Power, Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Stack  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt...

237

Perovskite-Based Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perovskite-Based Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells ... The addition of Ru substantially improves the CO tolerance of the catalyst, and there has been a great deal of research on the optimization of the alloy composition and structure. ...

Aidong Lan; Alexander S. Mukasyan

2007-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

238

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation DMFCC Jump to: navigation, search Name Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corporation (DMFCC) Place Altadena, California Zip 91001 Product DMFCC is focused on providing intellectual property protection and disposable fuel cartridge for the direct methanol fuel cell industry. Coordinates 34.185405°, -118.131529° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":34.185405,"lon":-118.131529,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

239

A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane reactor coupled with a gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Hydrogen permeation data for several perovskite membranes BCN (BaCe{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-x}), SCE (SrCe{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}) and SCTm (SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}) have been successfully obtained for temperatures between 800 and 950 C and pressures from 1 to 12 bar in this project. However, it is known that the cerate-based perovskite materials can react with CO{sub 2}. Therefore, the stability issue of the proton conducting perovskite materials under CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S environments was examined. Tests were conducted in the Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit for powder and disk forms of BCN and SCE. Perovskite materials doped with zirconium (Zr) are known to be resistant to CO{sub 2}. The results from the evaluation of the chemical stability for the Zr doped perovskite membranes are presented. During this reporting period, flowsheet simulation was also performed to calculate material and energy balance based on several hydrogen production processes from coal using high temperature membrane reactor (1000 C), low temperature membrane reactor (250 C), or conventional technologies. The results show that the coal to hydrogen process employing both the high temperature and the low temperature membrane reactors can increase the hydrogen production efficiency (cold gas efficiency) by more than 50% compared to the conventional process. Using either high temperature or low temperature membrane reactor process also results in an increase of the cold gas efficiencies as well as the thermal efficiencies of the overall process.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

240

Hydrogen Analysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A A H2A: Hydrogen Analysis Margaret K. Mann DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program Systems Analysis Workshop July 28-29, 2004 Washington, D.C. H2A Charter * H2A mission: Improve the transparency and consistency of approach to analysis, improve the understanding of the differences among analyses, and seek better validation from industry. * H2A was supported by the HFCIT Program H2A History * First H2A meeting February 2003 * Primary goal: bring consistency & transparency to hydrogen analysis * Current effort is not designed to pick winners - R&D portfolio analysis - Tool for providing R&D direction * Current stage: production & delivery analysis - consistent cost methodology & critical cost analyses * Possible subsequent stages: transition analysis, end-point

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Hydrogen Technologies Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector List of Hydrogen Incentives Hydrogen Energy Data Book Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleHydrogen&oldid271963...

243

The Hype About Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

economy based on the hydrogen fuel cell, but this cannot beus to look toward hydrogen. Fuel cell basics, simplifiedthe path to fuel cell commercialization. Hydrogen production

Mirza, Umar Karim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Conceptual design study FY 1981: synfuels from fusion - using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report represents the second year's effort of a scoping and conceptual design study being conducted for the express purpose of evaluating the engineering potential of producing hydrogen by thermochemical cycles using a tandem mirror fusion driver. The hydrogen thus produced may then be used as a feedstock to produce fuels such as methane, methanol, or gasoline. The main objective of this second year's study has been to obtain some approximate cost figures for hydrogen production through a conceptual design study.

Krikorian, O.H. (ed.)

1982-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

245

Mechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported on MCM-48  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Methanol reacts reversibly, at a ratio of approximately 1 methanol per V, with one V-O-Si to produce both V-state reaction conditions, CH2O is produced as the dominant product of methanol oxidation at temperatures belowMechanistic Studies of Methanol Oxidation to Formaldehyde on Isolated Vanadate Sites Supported

Bell, Alexis T.

246

Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methanol recovery 1. Introduction A process of producing TAME via reactive distillation has been presented the bulk of the reaction between C5 and methanol to produce TAME and a reactive distillation. MethanolDesign of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

247

First principles Tafel kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Electrocatalytic methanol oxidation is of fundamental importance in electrochemistry and also a key reaction in direct methanol fuel cell. To resolve the kinetics at the atomic level, this work investigates the potential-dependent reaction kinetics of methanol oxidation on Pt(111) using the first principles periodic continuum solvation model based on modified-PoissonBoltzmann equation (CM-MPB), focusing on the initial dehydrogenation elementary steps. A theoretical model to predict Tafel kinetics (current vs potential) is established by considering that the rate-determining step of methanol oxidation (to CO) is the first CH bond breaking (CH3OH(aq)?CH2OH*+H*) according to the computed free energy profile. The first CH bond breaking reaction needs to overcome a large entropy loss during methanol approaching to the surface and replacing the adsorbed water molecules. While no apparent charge transfer is involved in this elementary step, the charge transfer coefficient of the reaction is calculated to be 0.36, an unconventional value for charge transfer reactions, and the Tafel slope is deduced to be 166mV. The results show that the metal/adsorbate interaction and the solvation environment play important roles on influencing the Tafel kinetics. The knowledge learned from the potential-dependent kinetics of methanol oxidation can be applied in general for understanding the electrocatalytic reactions of organic molecules at the solidliquid interface.

Ya-Hui Fang; Zhi-Pan Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

NETL: Gasification - Recovery Act: Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport Membranes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Recovery Act: Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport Membranes for IGCC and FutureGen Plants Recovery Act: Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport Membranes for IGCC and FutureGen Plants Eltron Research & Development Inc. Project Number: FC26-05NT42469 Project Description The Eltron Hydrogen Transport Membrane (HTM) technology uses composite metal alloy materials to separate H2 from coal-derived syngas (a mixture of H2, CO, CO2, and steam). Carbon dioxide on the feed side of the membrane remains at high pressure and in a concentrated form suitable for capture and re-use or storage. The Eltron HTM system is an enabling technology for the production of high purity H2 and the capture of CO2 at high pressure that is applicable to future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and central station H2 production plants. These novel membranes have an operating temperature of 280 to 440 degrees Celsius (°C), which is well-matched with emerging coal gas cleaning technologies and has the potential to significantly improve the overall efficiency and process economics for future gasification-based power, fuels, and chemical production plants. Eltron's membranes can withstand differential pressures of up to 1,000 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) without structural failure, allowing for successful integration into advanced, high-pressure coal gasification plants.

249

Laboratory scale studies of Pd/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbents for the removal of trace contaminants from coal-derived fuel gas at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) is a promising technology for the use of coal in a clean and efficient manner. In order to maintain the overall efficiency of the IGCC process, it is necessary to clean the fuel gas of contaminants (sulfur, trace compounds) at warm (150540 C) to hot (>540 C) temperatures. Current technologies for trace contaminant (such as mercury) removal, primarily activated carbon based sorbents, begin to lose effectiveness above 100 C, creating the need to develop sorbents effective at elevated temperatures. As trace elements are of particular environmental concern, previous work by this group has focused on the development of a Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent for Hg removal. This paper extends the research to Se (as hydrogen selenide, H{sub 2}Se), As (as arsine, AsH{sub 3}), and P (as phosphine, PH{sub 3}) which thermodynamic studies indicate are present as gaseous species under gasification conditions. Experiments performed under ambient conditions in He on 20 wt.% Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicate the sorbent can remove the target contaminants. Further work is performed using a 5 wt.% Pd/?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sorbent in a simulated fuel gas (H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) in both single and multiple contaminant atmospheres to gauge sorbent performance characteristics. The impact of H{sub 2}O, Hg and temperature on sorbent performance is explored.

Rupp, Erik C.; Granite, Evan J. [U.S. DOE; Stanko, Dennis C. [U.S. DOE

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Adsorption of hydrogen on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Copper catalysts display a high activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of various carbonyl compounds, and copper is a component of the complex catalysts for the synthesis of methanol from CO and H/sub 2/. The adsorption of H/sub 2/ on copper catalysts has been studied by means of thermal desorption. The molecular form of adsorption of H/sub 2/ has been established, the thermal desorption parameters calculated, and the heat of adsorption of H/sub 2/ on a copper surface estimated.

Pavlenko, N.V.; Tripol'skii, A.I.; Golodets, G.I.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Storage Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, neutron applications in the field of hydrogen and hydrogen-storage materials represent a large and promising research ... relevant topics from this subject area, including hydrogen bulk properties (con...

Milva Celli; Daniele Colognesi; Marco Zoppi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Hydrogen Energy System and Hydrogen Production Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen is being considered as a synthetic fuel ... . This paper contains an overview of the hydrogen production methods, those being commercially available today as well...

F. Barbir; T. N. Veziro?lu

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Hydrogen Production from Thermocatalytic Hydrogen Sulfide Decomposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental data on hydrogen production from hydrogen sulfide decomposition over various solid catalysts at ... The possibilities given by surface modification by vacuum methods (electron beam evaporation and ma...

O. K. Alexeeva

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Overview of the U.S. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program, including technical targets and research and development needs for hydrogen storage and delivery.

255

Hydrogen Analysis Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NREL factsheet that describes the general activites of the Hydrogen Analysis Group within NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

The Hype About Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

another promising solution for hydrogen storage. However,storage and delivery, and there are safety issues as well with hydrogen

Mirza, Umar Karim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Hydrogen Technology Validation  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

258

Ris Energy Report 3 Hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, hydrogen in the gaseous state has an extremely high ability to diffuse through solid materials be stored as a gas, a liquid or a solid. In the case of solid storage, the hydrogen exists as a chemical.0 70 10.0 141.0 Methanol 12.5 99 19.0 22.7 Gasoline 33.4 47.6 Lead/Acid Battery 0.2 Advanced battery 0

259

Methanol fumigation of a light duty automotive diesel engine  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An Oldsmobile 5.7 l V-8 diesel engine was fumigated with methanol in amounts up to 40% of the fuel energy. The primary objectives of this study were to determine the effect of methanol fumigation on fuel efficiency, smoke, nitric oxide emission, and the occurrence of severe knock. An assessment of the biological activity for samples of the raw exhaust particulate and its soluable organic extract was also made using both the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test and the Bacillus subtilis Comptest. Results are presented for a test matrix consisting of twelve steady state operating conditions chosen to reflect over-the-road operation of a diesel engine powered automobile. Generally methanol fumigation was found to decrease NO emission for all conditions, to have a slight effect on smoke opacity, and to have a beneficial effect on fuel efficiency at higher loads. Also at higher loads the methanol was found to induce what was defined as knock limited operation. While the biological activity of the raw particulate was generally found to be lower than that of the soluble organic fraction, the fumigation of methanol appears to enhance this activity in both cases.

Houser, K.R.; Lestz, S.S.; Dukovich, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Hydrogen Delivery...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Advanced Nuclear Research Advanced Nuclear Research Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology FY 2003 Programmatic Overview Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Henderson/2003 Hydrogen Initiative.ppt 2 Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Program Goal * Demonstrate the economic commercial-scale production of hydrogen using nuclear energy by 2015 Need for Nuclear Hydrogen * Hydrogen offers significant promise for reduced environmental impact of energy use, specifically in the transportation sector * The use of domestic energy sources to produce hydrogen reduces U.S. dependence on foreign oil and enhances national security * Existing hydrogen production methods are either inefficient or produce

262

Solar-Powered Production of Molecular Hydrogen from Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At the present time, the majority of industrial-scale hydrogen is produced by steam?methane reformation (SMR), even though the high-temperature conversion of methane to hydrogen results in the concomitant production of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. ... 7-9 The PV arrays are used to convert solar light to electricity in order to power alkaline (e.g., 27% KOH at pH 14.7) electrolyzers for producing hydrogen gas. ... Narayanan et al. describe a DC-powered hybrid system that drives a methanol fuel cell in reverse,10 while Soler et al. report on a solar-powered photo-Fenton process that produces hydrogen noncatalytically under severe conditions with a limited number of organic substrates. ...

Hyunwoong Park; Chad D. Vecitis; Wonyong Choi; Oleh Weres; Michael R. Hoffmann

2008-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

263

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

264

Methanol injection and recovery in a large turboexpander plant. [Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol is used to prevent hydrate formation in Petro-Canada's 2000 MMSCFD Empress expander plant. Injection and recovery facilities have operated essentially trouble-free since start-up late in 1979. A portion of the methanol recovery section has been modified to provide removal of the H/sub 2/S and most of the COS from the propane product stream, concurrent with methanol recovery. The Empress straddle plant strips natural gas liquids from pipeline gas leaving Alberta for eastern Canadian and U.S. markets. The original cold oil absorption plant, started up in 1964 and expanded in 1967, recovered over 90% of the propane and virtually all of the heavier components. In 1976, a market for ethane was secured as feedstock for the world-scale ethylene complex under construction in Alberta, and it was decided to replace the cold oil plant with a turboexpander facility. The plant and its operations are described in some detail. 2 refs.

Nelson, K.; Wolfe, L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Perovskite anode electrocatalysis for direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This investigation explores direct methanol fuel cells incorporating perovskite anode electrocatalysts. Preliminary electrochemical performance was addressed following incorporation of electrocatalysts into polymer electrolyte (Nafion 417) fuel cells. Perovskite electrocatalysts demonstrating activity towards direct methanol oxidation during cyclic voltammetry measurements included, respectively, SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrRu[sub 0.5]Pd[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], SrPdO[sub 3], SmCoO[sub 3], SrRuO[sub 3], La[sub 0.8]Ce[sub 0.2]CoC[sub 3],SrCo[sub 0.5]Ti[sub 0.5]O[sub 3], and La[sub 0.8]Sr[sub 0.2]CoO[sub 3] where SrRu[sub 0.5]Pt[sub 0.5]P[sub 3] gave methanol oxidation currents up to 28 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.45 V vs. SCE. Correlations were found between electrocatalyst solid-state and thermodynamic parameters corresponding to, respectively, molecular electronic polarizability, the optical dielectric constant, the perovskite spin-only magnetic moment, the number of d-electrons in perovskite A and B lattice sites, and the average metal-oxygen binding energy for the perovskite lattice, and corresponding fuel cell performance. This may have future merit for the prediction of new electrocatalyst family members for promoting direct methanol oxidation. Methanol diffusion from anode to cathode compartments appears to be a major obstacle to the development of polymer electrolyte methanol fuel cells.

White, J.H.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Pilot Scale Water Gas Shift - Membrane Device for Hydrogen from Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the project were to build pilot scale hydrogen separation systems for use in a gasification product stream. This device would demonstrate fabrication and manufacturing techniques for producing commercially ready facilities. The design was a 2 lb/day hydrogen device which included composite hydrogen separation membranes, a water gas shift monolith catalyst, and stainless steel structural components. Synkera Technologies was to prepare hydrogen separation membranes with metallic rims, and to adjust the alloy composition in their membranes to a palladium-gold composition which is sulfur resistant. Chart was to confirm their brazing technology for bonding the metallic rims of the composite membranes to their structural components and design and build the 2 lbs/day device incorporating membranes and catalysts. WRI prepared the catalysts and completed the testing of the membranes and devices on coal derived syngas. The reactor incorporated eighteen 2'' by 7'' composite palladium alloy membranes. These membranes were assembled with three stacks of three paired membranes. Initial vacuum testing and visual inspection indicated that some membranes were cracked, either in transportation or in testing. During replacement of the failed membranes, while pulling a vacuum on the back side of the membranes, folds were formed in the flexible composite membranes. In some instances these folds led to cracks, primarily at the interface between the alumina and the aluminum rim. The design of the 2 lb/day device was compromised by the lack of any membrane isolation. A leak in any membrane failed the entire device. A large number of tests were undertaken to bring the full 2 lb per day hydrogen capacity on line, but no single test lasted more than 48 hours. Subsequent tests to replace the mechanical seals with brazing have been promising, but the technology remains promising but not proven.

Barton, Tom

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

267

Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Code for Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines. B31...

268

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Targets, barriers and...

269

Hydrogen Bonded Arrays: The Power of Multiple Hydrogen Bonds...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Bonded Arrays: The Power of Multiple Hydrogen Bonds. Hydrogen Bonded Arrays: The Power of Multiple Hydrogen Bonds. Abstract: Hydrogen bond interactions in small covalent model...

270

Hydrogen from Coal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

271

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Hydrogen Codes &  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure)DescriptionMilestone #12;Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies ProgramHydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program Hydrogen Codes & Standards #12;Hydrogen Codes & Standards: Goal & Objectives Goal

272

HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to serve as "go-to" organization to catalyze PA Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Economy development #12;FundingHYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA HYDROGEN REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM IN PENNSYLVANIA Melissa Klingenberg, PhDMelissa Klingenberg, PhD #12;Hydrogen ProgramHydrogen Program Air Products

273

Hydrogen Bond Properties and Dynamics of Liquid?Vapor Interfaces of Aqueous Methanol Solutions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of the authors (A.C.) would like to thank Professor C. N. R. Rao, F.R.S., for helpful communications and enlightening discussions on surface enrichment in water?alcohol mixtures. ... (21)?Ferrario, M.; Haughney, M.; Mcdonald, I. R.; Klein, M. L. J. Chem. ...

Sandip Paul; Amalendu Chandra

2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

274

A Methanol and Hydrogen Peroxide Fuel Cell Using Non-Noble Catalysts in Alkaline Solution.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A primary goal of this work is to develop a novel liquid-based microscale fuel cell using non-noble metal catalysts. The developed fuel cell is based (more)

Sung, Woosuk

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Mechanism of Methanol Synthesis on Cu through CO2 and CO Hydrogenation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Financial support for this work was provided in part by DOE/BES and by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program at Sandia National Laboratories, LDRD 113486. ... In Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis; Ertl, G.; Knzinger, H.; Schth, F.; Weitkamp, J., Eds.; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, 2008. ...

L. C. Grabow; M. Mavrikakis

2011-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

276

On direct and indirect methanol fuel cells for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Power densities in electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cells have been achieved which are only three times lower than those achieved with similar reformate/air fuel cells. Remaining issues are: improved anode catalyst activity, demonstrated long-term stable performance, and high fuel efficiencies.

Ren, Xiaoming; Wilson, M.S.; Gottesfeld, S.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Central Versus Distributed Production Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of hydrogen production in photobioreactor Hydrogen, chemical symbol "H", is the simplest element on earth. An atom of hydrogen has only one proton and one electron. Hydrogen gas is a diatomic

278

The Transition to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

above, not all hydrogen production methods are equal inrealize hydrogens bene- ?ts fully, production methods thathydrogen vary depending on which primary source produces it and which production method

Ogden, Joan M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

The Hydrogen Economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The hydrogen economy is a vision for a future in which hydrogen replaces fossil fuels. There are a variety ... of methods for generating, storing and delivering hydrogen since no single method has yet proven supe...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Hydrogen storage methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of todays ...

Andreas Zttel

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles UCD-ITS-RR-92-14 September byet al. , 1988,1989 HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL VEHICLES: TECHNICALIn the FCEV, the hydrogen fuel cell could supply the "net"

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the hydrogen refueling station. Compressor cost: inputcost) Compressor power requirement: input data 288.80 Initial temperature of hydrogen (Compressor cost per unit of output ($/hp/million standard ft [SCF] of hydrogen/

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A new blending agent and its effects on methanol-gasoline fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major difficulty encountered with the use of methanol-gasoline blends as SI engine fuel is their tendency to phase separation due to the hydrophilic properties of methanol. Phase separation can lead to some utilization problems. Using a blending agent for the methanol-gasoline system is the common approach taken towards solving the phase separation problem. In this study introduces fraction of molasses fuel oil as an effective new blending agent for methanol-gasoline fuel.

Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation is a summary of a Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts.

Dinh, H.; Gennett, T.

2010-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

285

Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methanol adsorbates on the DMFC cathode and their effect on the cell performance J. Prabhuram, T performance was due to the permeated methanol adsorbates on platinum sites of the cathode, which impede utilized to get rid of the methanol adsorbates from the cathode electrochemically by sweeping from 0 to 1

Zhao, Tianshou

286

Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) it reduces the fuel efficiency (methanol is reacted without producing electrical current). We canChapter 50 Performance modeling and cell design for high concentration methanol fuel cells C. E The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) has become a lead- ing contender to replace the lithium-ion (Li

287

Correlating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt Nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of this process is a limiting factor in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells, which produce electricityCorrelating Catalytic Methanol Oxidation with the Structure and Oxidation State of Size-Selected Pt nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by micelle encapsulation and supported on -Al2O3 during the oxidation of methanol

Kik, Pieter

288

Towards the optimal integrated production of biodiesel with internal recycling of methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the syngas reacts to produce methanol. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the process have been long studied [18, 19, 24]. Recently a new path to produce methanol from glycerol has been proposed the design and the energy efficiency as well as to decide whether it is profitable to produce methanol

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

289

Seasonal measurements of acetone and methanol: Abundances and implications for atmospheric budgets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 2002] and photochemical produc- tion from hydrocarbon precursors. Methanol is often the most abundantSeasonal measurements of acetone and methanol: Abundances and implications for atmospheric budgets December 2005; published 21 February 2006. [1] Acetone and methanol have been measured hourly at a rural

Cohen, Ronald C.

290

Catalysis Today 53 (1999) 433441 New insights into methanol synthesis catalysts from X-ray absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

O and Cr2O3 mixtures and produced methanol in low yields from CO­H2 mixtures at high temperatures (593Catalysis Today 53 (1999) 433­441 New insights into methanol synthesis catalysts from X a consistent structural picture of methanol synthesis catalysts. Copper metal is the principal Cu species

Iglesia, Enrique

291

Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering Spring 2012 BP Methanol Separation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

issues in the well heads. To counteract this problem, methanol is injected into the produced water stream-effective system that would remove methanol from the produced water stream. Objectives Our objective was to reduce the methanol concentration of either one of two produced water samples. Specifically, our goal was to reduce

Demirel, Melik C.

292

CFD analysis of the effects of the flow distribution and heat losses on the steam reforming of methanol in catalytic (Pd/ZnO) microreactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation study of the effects of the flow distribution and the heat losses on the performance of microchannels and microslits reactors for the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) over Pd/ZnO is presented. Several flow distributing headers covering a wide range of the flow diffuser expansion angle (?) have been considered. Large values of ? lead to flow maldistribution characterized by jet flow resulting in negative effects on the SRM conversion and hydrogen yield, especially for the microslits at high reaction temperatures and space velocities. Simulations have also evidenced that heat losses constitute a critical issue for microreactors operation, particularly at low space velocities. Heat losses may reach very high values, above 8090% of the energy supplied to the microreactor, with the consequence that it may be necessary to provide up to 9times the heat of the SRM reaction to achieve high methanol conversions.

I. Uriz; G. Arzamendi; P.M. Diguez; F.J. Echave; O. Sanz; M. Montes; L.M. Ganda

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Coal-Derived Liquids to Enable HCCI Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

294

Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Demonstration of a Carbonate Fuel Cell on Coal Derived Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system has run on actual syn-gas. Consequently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a 20 kW carbonate fuel cell pilot plant that will begin operating in March at Destec Energys coal gasification plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana...

Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V.

296

Evaluation of biological conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler USA Corporation conducted an evaluation study on the biological conversion of synthesis gas to methane which is under development at the University of Arkansas. A conceptual design of an integrated coal-based SNG plant, employing the bioconversion process route, was developed together with the corresponding capital and operating costs. The economics were compared to those for a coal-based SNG plant design using the conventional catalytic route for shift and methanation. 5 refs., 10 figs., 22 tabs.

Fu, R.K.; Mazzella, G.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Hydrogen Permeation Barrier Coatings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gaseous hydrogen, H2, has many physical properties that allow it to move rapidly into and through materials, which causes problems in keeping hydrogen from materials that are sensitive to hydrogen-induced degradation. Hydrogen molecules are the smallest diatomic molecules, with a molecular radius of about 37 x 10-12 m and the hydrogen atom is smaller still. Since it is small and light it is easily transported within materials by diffusion processes. The process of hydrogen entering and transporting through a materials is generally known as permeation and this section reviews the development of hydrogen permeation barriers and barrier coatings for the upcoming hydrogen economy.

Henager, Charles H.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Technology: Hydrogen and hydrates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... . 22492258 (2004). US Department of Energy Hydrogen Posture Plan http://www.eere.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/pdfs/hydrogen_posture_plan.pdf Kuhs, W. F. , Genov, ...

Ferdi Schth

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

299

Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group of research and industry experts focuses on issues related to the cost, safety, and reliability of hydrogen pipelines. Participants represent organizations...

300

Hydrogen and fuel taxation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The competitiveness of hydrogen depends on how it is integrated in the energy tax system in Europe. This paper addresses the competitiveness of hydrogen and (more)

Hansen, Anders Chr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

CAN HYDROGEN WIN?: EXPLORING SCENARIOS FOR HYDROGEN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

such as biofuel plug-in hybrids, but did well when biofuels were removed or priced excessively. Hydrogen fuel cells failed unless costs were assumed to descend independent of demand. However, hydrogen vehicles were; Hydrogen as fuel -- Economic aspects; Technological innovations -- Environmental aspects; Climatic changes

302

Hydrogen Pipeline Discussion  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

praxair.com praxair.com Copyright © 2003, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Hydrogen Pipeline Discussion BY Robert Zawierucha, Kang Xu and Gary Koeppel PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY CENTER TONAWANDA, NEW YORK DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Workshop Augusta, GA August 2005 2 Introduction Regulatory and technical groups that impact hydrogen and hydrogen systems ASME, DOE, DOT etc, Compressed Gas Association activities ASTM TG G1.06.08 Hydrogen pipelines and CGA-5.6 Selected experience and guidance Summary and recommendations 3 CGA Publications Pertinent to Hydrogen G-5: Hydrogen G-5.3: Commodity Specification for Hydrogen G-5.4: Standard for Hydrogen Piping at Consumer Locations G-5.5: Hydrogen Vent Systems G-5.6: Hydrogen Pipeline Systems (IGC Doc 121/04/E) G-5.7: Carbon Monoxide and Syngas

303

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

<-- Back to Hydrogen Gateway <-- Back to Hydrogen Gateway Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials KIA FCEV SUNRISE MG 7955 6 7.jpg Guidance on materials selection for hydrogen service is needed to support the deployment of hydrogen as a fuel as well as the development of codes and standards for stationary hydrogen use, hydrogen vehicles, refueling stations, and hydrogen transportation. Materials property measurement is needed on deformation, fracture and fatigue of metals in environments relevant to this hydrogen economy infrastructure. The identification of hydrogen-affected material properties such as strength, fracture resistance and fatigue resistance are high priorities to ensure the safe design of load-bearing structures. To support the needs of the hydrogen community, Sandia National

304

Commercial-scale demonstration of the Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) Process. Peroxide formation of dimethyl ether in methanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic peroxides could form when dimethyl ether in methanol is stored for three to six months at a time. The objective of this work was to determine the level of peroxide formation from dimethyl ether in reagent grade methanol and raw methanol at room temperature under 3 atmospheres (45 psig) of air. Raw methanol is methanol made from syngas by the LPMEOH Process without distillation. Aliphatic ethers tend to react slowly with oxygen from the air to form unstable peroxides. However, there are no reports on peroxide formation from dimethyl ether. After 172 days of testing, dimethyl ether in either reagent methanol or raw methanol at room temperature and under 60--70 psig pressure of air does not form detectable peroxides. Lack of detectable peroxides suggests that dimethyl ether or dimethyl ether and methanol may be stored at ambient conditions. Since the compositions of {approximately} 1.3 mol% or {approximately} 4.5 mol% dimethyl ether in methanol do not form peroxides, these compositions can be considered for diesel fuel or an atmospheric turbine fuel, respectively.

Waller, F.J.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Hydrogen Energy Technology Geoff Dutton  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) Pyrolysis Water electrolysis Reversible fuel cell Hydrogen Hydrogen-fuelled internal combustion engines Hydrogen-fuelled turbines Fuel cells Hydrogen systems Overall expensive. Intermediate paths, employing hydrogen derived from fossil fuel sources, are already used

Watson, Andrew

306

DOE Permitting Hydrogen Facilities: Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Stations Stations Public-use hydrogen fueling stations are very much like gasoline ones. In fact, sometimes, hydrogen and gasoline cars can be fueled at the same station. These stations offer self-service pumps, convenience stores, and other services in high-traffic locations. Photo of a Shell fueling station showing the site convenience store and hydrogen and gasoline fuel pumps. This fueling station in Washington, D.C., provides drivers with both hydrogen and gasoline fuels Many future hydrogen fueling stations will be expansions of existing fueling stations. These facilities will offer hydrogen pumps in addition to gasoline or natural gas pumps. Other hydrogen fueling stations will be "standalone" operations. These stations will be designed and constructed to

307

A Novel Membrane Reactor for Direct Hydrogen Production From Coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute has developed a novel concept of a membrane reactor closely coupled with a coal gasifier for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes were selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimate. The overall economics of hydrogen production from this new process was assessed and compared with conventional hydrogen production technologies from coal. Several proton-conducting perovskite membranes based on the formulations of BCN (BaCe{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}), BCY (BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}), SCE (Eu-doped SrCeO{sub 3}) and SCTm (SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}) were successfully tested in a new permeation unit at temperatures between 800 and 1040 C and pressures from 1 to 12 bars. The experimental data confirm that the hydrogen flux increases with increasing hydrogen partial pressure at the feed side. The highest hydrogen flux measured was 1.0 cc/min/cm{sup 2} (STP) for the SCTm membrane at 3 bars and 1040 C. The chemical stability of the perovskite membranes with respect to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S can be improved by doping with Zr, as demonstrated from the TGA (Thermal Gravimetric Analysis) tests in this project. A conceptual design, using the measured hydrogen flux data and a modeling approach, for a 1000 tons-per-day (TPD) coal gasifier shows that a membrane module can be configured within a fluidized bed gasifier without a substantial increase of the gasifier dimensions. Flowsheet simulations show that the coal to hydrogen process employing the proposed membrane reactor concept can increase the hydrogen production efficiency by more than 50% compared to the conventional process. Preliminary economic analysis also shows a 30% cost reduction for the proposed membrane reactor process, assuming membrane materials meeting DOE's flux and cost target. Although this study shows that a membrane module can be configured within a fluidized bed gasifier, placing the membrane module outside the gasifier in a closely coupled way in terms of temperature and pressure can still offer the same performance advantage. This could also avoid the complicated fluid dynamics and heat transfer issues when the membrane module is installed inside the gasifier. Future work should be focused on improving the permeability and stability for the proton-conducting membranes, testing the membranes with real syngas from a gasifier and scaling up the membrane size.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atrosphenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

308

Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Program Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  | HydrOgEn & Our EnErgy FuturE U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov u.S. department of Energy |  www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future Contents Introduction ................................................... p.1 Hydrogen - An Overview ................................... p.3 Production ..................................................... p.5 Delivery ....................................................... p.15 Storage ........................................................ p.19 Application and Use ........................................ p.25 Safety, Codes and Standards ............................... p.33

309

Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation slides from the Energy Department webinar, Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials, held August 13, 2013.

310

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction & Compression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction & Compression Raymond Drnevich Praxair - Tonawanda, NY Strategic Initiatives for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop - May 7, 2003 #12;2 Agenda Introduction to Praxair Hydrogen Liquefaction Hydrogen Compression #12;3 Praxair at a Glance The largest industrial gas company in North

311

Metallization of fluid hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...P. Tunstall Metallization of fluid hydrogen W. J. Nellis 1 A. A. Louis 2 N...The electrical resistivity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic...which structural changes are paramount. hydrogen|metallization of hydrogen|liquid...

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

313

High specific power, direct methanol fuel cell stack  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a fuel cell stack including at least one direct methanol fuel cell. A cathode manifold is used to convey ambient air to each fuel cell, and an anode manifold is used to convey liquid methanol fuel to each fuel cell. Tie-bolt penetrations and tie-bolts are spaced evenly around the perimeter to hold the fuel cell stack together. Each fuel cell uses two graphite-based plates. One plate includes a cathode active area that is defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet manifold with an integral flow restrictor to the outlet manifold. The other plate includes an anode active area defined by serpentine channels connecting the inlet and outlet of the anode manifold. Located between the two plates is the fuel cell active region.

Ramsey, John C. (Los Alamos, NM); Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

314

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Tax Refund for Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Tax Refund for Methanol Used in Biodiesel Production on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

315

First demonstration of CdSe as a photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution from water under UV and visible lightw  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­10 but can produce H2 from aqueous solutions containing sacrificial electrons donors, such as Na2S and Na2SO3% aqueous methanol, a known sacrificial electron donor,21 the hydrogen evolution rate was about three to four times higher, producing a total H2 amount of 18.4 mmol after 5 h. The increase in the H2 rate

Osterloh, Frank

316

Composition for absorbing hydrogen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

317

Investigation of operating range in a methanol fumigated diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An experimental study was conducted to investigate the operating range and combustion characteristics in a methanol fumigated diesel engine. The test engine was a six-cylinder, turbocharged direct injection engine with methanol injected into the intake manifold of each cylinder. The experimental results showed that the viable diesel methanol dual fuel (DMDF) operating range in terms of load and methanol substitution percent (MSP) was achieved over a load range from 6% to 100%. The operating range was restricted by four bounds: partial burning, misfire, roar combustion and knock. The lower bound of the operating range was the partial burn bound, which occurred under very low load conditions with high MSP. As the load increased to medium load, MSP reached its maximum value of about 76%, and the onset of misfire provided the right bound for normal operation. At medium to high load, maximum MSP began to decrease. DMDF combustion with excessive MSP was extremely loud with high pressure rise rate, which defined the roar combustion bound. As it increased to nearly full load, measured pressure traces in-cylinder showed strong acoustic oscillations. The appearance of knock provided the upper bound of the operating range. In general, as the load increased, the characters of the combustion changed from partial burn to misfire to roar combustion and to knocking. The range between these four bounds and the neat diesel combustion bound constituted the viable operating range. Over the viable operating range, DMDF combustion worsened the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at light load while boosted it at medium and high load.

Quangang Wang; Lijiang Wei; Wang Pan; Chunde Yao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Hydrogen Storage - Current Technology | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Current on-board hydrogen storage approaches involve compressed hydrogen gas tanks, liquid hydrogen tanks, cryogenic compressed hydrogen, metal hydrides,...

319

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop...

320

New Catalysts for Direct Methanol Oxidation Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new class of efficient electrocatalytic materials based on platinum - metal oxide systems has been synthetized and characterized by several techniques. Best activity was found with NiWO{sub 4}-, CoWO{sub 4}-, and RuO{sub 2}- srpported platinum catalysts. A very similar activity at room temperature was observed with the electrodes prepared with the catalyst obtained from International Fuel Cells Inc. for the same Pt loading. Surprisingly, the two tungstates per se show a small activity for methanol oxidation without any Pt loading. Synthesis of NiWO{sub 4} and CoWO{sub 4} were carried out by solid-state reactions. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the tungstates contain a certain amount of physically adsorbed water even after heating samples at 200{degrees}C. A direct relationship between the activity for methanol oxidation and the amount of adsorbed water on those oxides has been found. The Ru(0001) single crystal shows a very small activity for CO adsorption and oxidation, in contrast to the behavior of polycrystalline Ru. In situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) showed that the OH adsorption on Ru in the Pt-Ru alloy appears to be the limiting step in methanol oxidation. This does not occur for Pt-RuO{SUB 2} electrocatalyst, which explains its advantages over the Pt-Ru alloys. The IFCC electrocatalyst has the properties of the Pt-Ru alloy.

Adzic, Radoslav

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Recent advances in high-performance direct methanol fuel cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications have been advanced significantly under DARPA- and ARO-sponsored programs over the last five years. A liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell developed under these programs, employs a proton exchange membrane as electrolyte and operates on aqueous solutions of methanol with air or oxygen as the oxidant. Power densities as high as 320 mW/cm{sup 2} have been demonstrated. Demonstration of five-cell stack based on the liquid-feed concept have been successfully performed by Giner Inc. and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Over 2000 hours of life-testing have been completed on these stacks. These fuel cells have been also been demonstrated by USC to operate on alternate fuels such as trimethoxymethane, dimethoxymethane and trioxane. Reduction in the parasitic loss of fuel across the fuel cell, a phenomenon termed as {open_quotes}fuel crossover{close_quotes} has been achieved using polymer membranes developed at USC. As a result efficiencies as high as 40% is considered attainable with this type of fuel cell. The state-of-development has reached a point where it is now been actively considered for stationary, portable and transportation applications. The research and development issues have been the subject of several previous articles and the present article is an attempt to summarize the key advances in this technology.

Narayanan, S.R.; Chun, W.; Valdez, T.I. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities National Hydrogen Storage Compressed/Liquid Hydrogen Tanks Testing and Analysis Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards

323

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Modeling Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Modeling Projects Modeling Projects Below are models grouped by topic. These models are used to analyze hydrogen technology, infrastructure, and other areas related to the development and use of hydrogen. Cross-Cutting Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER_CAM) Hydrogen Deployment System (HyDS) Model and Analysis Hydrogen Technology Assessment and Selection Model (HyTASM) Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator (RPM-Sim) Stranded Biogas Decision Tool for Fuel Cell Co-Production Energy Infrastructure All Modular Industry Growth Assessment (AMIGA) Model Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER_CAM) Hydrogen Deployment System (HyDS) Model and Analysis Hydrogen Technology Assessment and Selection Model (HyTASM)

324

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Manufacturing Fuel Cells Applications/Technology Validation Safety Codes and Standards Education Basic Research Systems Analysis Analysis Repository H2A Analysis Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center Scenario Analysis Well-to-Wheels Analysis Systems Integration U.S. Department of Energy Search help Home > Systems Analysis > Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center Printable Version Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center The Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center provides consistent and transparent data that can serve as the basis for hydrogen-related calculations, modeling, and other analytical activities. This new site features the Hydrogen Data Book with data pertinent to hydrogen infrastructure analysis; links to external databases related to

325

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline...

326

Bulk Hydrogen Storage - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bulk Hydrogen Storage Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7-8, 2003 Crystal City, Virginia Breakout Session - Bulk Hydrogen Storage Main ThemesCaveats Bulk...

327

Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22, 2002-July 22, 2002 Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping Analysis. January 22,...

328

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

L. Simpson. (2010) Contact: Thomas Gennett 303-384-6628 Printable Version Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Research Home Projects Fuel Cells Hydrogen Production & Delivery Hydrogen Storage...

329

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5037: Hydrogen Storage Materials - 2004 vs. 2006 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage Materials - 2004 vs. 2006 This program record from the Department...

330

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems- Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Systems - Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen. Design and operations standards and materials for hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

331

Methanol and methyl fuel catalysts. Final technical report, September 1978-August 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Cu/ZnO methanol synthesis catalysts were investigated for (1) the role of additives such as alumina, ceria, and lanthana, (2) the effect of carbon dioxide in the H/sub 2//CO synthesis gas, (3) the chemisorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide on the catalysts, and (4) the chemical poisoning of the catalysts by sulfur- and chlorine-containing compounds. Maximum activity and selectivity were obtained with a binary catalyst having a composition of Cu/ZnO = 30/70 metal atomic percent and with a synthesis gas of H/sub 2//CO/CO/sub 2/ = 70/28/2 volume percent in the absence of strongly reducing or strongly oxidizing chemical poisons. Both the binary and the ternary catalysts were fully characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction, electron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and surface area-pore distribution measurements. Structural and morphologic information is presented in this report in detail for very active Cu/ZnO/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts prepared from acetates and for other catalysts in which the third component caused a loss of activity.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1980-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

332

Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

produce hydrogen in a centralized coal based operation for .79kg at the plant gate with carbon sequestration. Develop advanced OTM, HTM, technology, advanced reforming and shift...

333

Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Administration ERR Estimated Recoverable Reserves FCEV fuel cell electric vehicle GHG greenhouse gas GW gigawatt GWh gigawatt-hour GWdt gigawatt-days thermal H2A Hydrogen...

334

The use of advanced steam reforming technology for hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The demand for supplementary hydrogen production in refineries is growing significantly world-wide as environmental legislation concerning cleaner gasoline and diesel fuels is introduced. The main manufacturing method is by steam reforming. The process has been developed both to reduce the capital cost and increase efficiency, reliability and ease of operation. ICI Katalco`s Leading Concept Hydrogen or LCH process continues this process of improvement by replacing the conventional fired steam reformer with a type of heat exchange reformer known as the Gas Heated Reformer or GHR. The GHR was first used in the Leading Concept Ammonia process, LCA at ICI`s manufacturing site at Severnside, England and commissioned in 1988 and later in the Leading Concept Methanol (LCM) process for methanol at Melbourne, Australia and commissioned in 1994. The development of the LCH process follows on from both LCA and LCM processes. This paper describes the development and use of the GHR in steam reforming, and shows how the GHR can be used in LCH. A comparison between the LCH process and a conventional hydrogen plant is given, showing the benefits of the LCH process in certain circumstances.

Abbishaw, J.B.; Cromarty, B.J. [ICI Katalco, Billingham (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Hydrogen storage gets new hope  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen storage gets new hope Hydrogen storage gets new hope A new method for "recycling" hydrogen-containing fuel materials could open the door to economically viable...

336

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

will trump hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. Advocates ofbenefits sooner than hydrogen and fuel cells ever could.emissions from a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle will be about

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production R&D Hydrogen Production R&D Activities to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts

338

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the U.S.  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel in the US: Options for sustainable and/or energy-secure transportation L. Bromberg and W.K. Cheng Prepared by the Sloan Automotive Laboratory Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge MA 02139 September 27, 2010 Finalized November 2, 2010 Revised November 28, 2010 Final report UT-Battelle Subcontract Number:4000096701 1 Abstract Methanol has been promoted as an alternative transportation fuel from time to time over the past forty years. In spite of significant efforts to realize the vision of methanol as a practical transportation fuel in the US, such as the California methanol fueling corridor of the 1990s, it did not succeed on a large scale. This white paper covers all important aspects of methanol as a transportation fuel.

339

Fluid-bed studies of olefin production from methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With newly developed technology, conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons represents the final link in the production of premium transportation fuels from coal or natural gas. The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process has been developed. The more readily scaled fixed-bed version is the heart of the New Zealand Gas-to-gasoline complex, which will produce 14,000 BPD high octane gasoline from 120 million SCFD gas. The fluid-bed version of the process, which is also available for commercial license, has a higher thermal efficiency and possesses substantial yield and octane advantages over the fixed-bed. Successful scale-up was completed in 1984 in a 100 BPD semi-works plant near Cologne, West Germany. The project funded jointly by the U.S. and German governments and an industrial consortium comprised of Mobil; Union Rheinsche Braunkohlen Kraftstoff, AG; and Uhde, GmbH. The 100 BPD MTG project was extended recently to demonstrate a related fluid bed process for selective conversion of methanol to light olefins (MTO). The products of the MTO reaction make an excellent feed to the commercially available Mobile-Olefins-to-Gasoline-and-Distillate process (MOGD) which selectively converts olefins to premium transportation fuels . A schematic of the combined processes is shown. Total liquid fuels production is typically greater than 90 wt% of hydrocarbon in the feed. Distillate/gasoline product ratios from the plant can be adjusted over a wide range to meet seasonal demands. This paper describes the initial scale-up of the MTO process from a micro-fluid-bed reactor (1-10 grams of catalyst) to a large pilot unit (10-25 kilograms of catalyst).

Socha, R.F.; Chang, C.D.; Gould, R.M.; Kane, S.E.; Avidan, A.A.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Catalyzed Hydrogen Spillover for Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Catalyzed Hydrogen Spillover for Hydrogen Storage ... Storing sufficient H on-board a wide range of vehicle platforms, while meeting all consumer requirements (driving range, cost, safety, performance, etc.), without compromising passenger or cargo space, is a tremendous tech. ... The authors show that for the 1st time significant amts. of H can be stored in MOF-5 and IRMOF-8 at ambient temp. ...

Ralph T. Yang; Yuhe Wang

2009-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· To develop suitable welding technology for H2 pipeline construction and repair · To develop technical basisHydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Z. Feng*, L.M. Anovitz*, J pressure permeation test · Edison Welding Institute - Pipeline materials · Lincoln Electric Company

342

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout- Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Targets, barriers and research and development priorities for gaseous delivery of hydrogen through hydrogen and natural gas pipelines.

343

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Gary P. Yoho, P.E. i l i * Green corporate philosophy and senior management commitment * Reduced greenhouse gas emissions nine years ahead of target * Alternatives to oil are a big part of BP' including natural gas, LNG, solar and hydrogen * Hydrogen Bus Project won Australia' prestigious environmental award * UK partnership opened the first hydrogen demonstration refueling station * Two hydrogen pipelines in Houston area BP Env ronmenta Comm tment s portfolio, s most BP' * li l " li i i * i l pl i i * Li l li l * " i i l i 2 i i ll i i l pl ifi i * 8" ly idl i i l s Hydrogen Pipelines Two nes, on y a brand new 12 ne s act ve Connect Houston area chem ca ant w th a ref nery nes come off a p

344

Hydrogen Production- Current Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The development of clean, sustainable, and cost-competitive hydrogen production processesis key to a viable future clean energy economy. Hydrogen production technologies fall into three general...

345

A Hydrogen Economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The history of the hydrogen economy may be broken down into three parts ... is the history of the founding of the Hydrogen Energy Society which took place in Miami,...

J. OM. Bockris

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Solar Hydrogen Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The common methods of hydrogen production impose many concerns regarding the decline in...2...emission, and ecological impacts. Subsequently, all the downstream industries that consume hydrogen involve the aforem...

Ibrahim Dincer; Anand S. Joshi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Hydrogen Fuel Quality (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Jim Ohi of NREL's presentation on Hydrogen Fuel Quality at the 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation on May 15-18, 2007 in Arlington, Virginia.

Ohi, J.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

348

Webinar: Hydrogen Refueling Protocols  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Video recording and text version of the webinar titled, Hydrogen Refueling Protocols, originally presented on February 22, 2013.

349

The Hydrogen Economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Before describing the characteristics of an economy in which hydrogen is the medium of energy, let us...

J. OM. Bockris; Z. Nagy

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

Rivkin, C.; Burgess, R.; Buttner, W.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This roadmap provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development.

352

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of Magnesium Nickel Boride for Reversible Hydrogen Storage ... Use of hydrogen for transportation applications requires materials that not only store hydrogen at high density but that can operate reversibly at temperatures and pressures below approximately 100 C and 10 bar, respectively. ... This composition is based on assuming the following complete hydrogenation reaction:which stores 2.6 wt % hydrogen. ...

Wen Li; John J. Vajo; Robert W. Cumberland; Ping Liu; Son-Jong Hwang; Chul Kim; Robert C. Bowman, Jr.

2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

353

Structures, intermolecular rotation barriers, and thermodynamic properties of chlorinated methanols and chlorinated methyl hydroperoxides.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Thermochemical property data on chlorinated methanols and methyl hydroperoxides are important in oxidation, combustion and atmospheric photochemistry of chlorocarbons, Enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacities are (more)

Sun, Hongyan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

A KINETIC S'FUDY OF METHANOL SYNTHESIS IN A SLURRY REACTOR USING  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

by industry. Air Products and Chemicals company with funding from the Department of Energy built a 5 tonday plant employing the liquid phase methanol process technique where...

355

Understanding the effect of modifying elements in supported vanadia bilayered catalysts for methanol oxidation to formaldehyde  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that methanol initially adsorbs dissociatively producingmethanol dissociatively adsorbs across a V-O- support bond, producingmethanol dissociatively adsorbs across a V-O-Si bond producing

Vining, William Collins

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A self-regulated passive fuel-feed system for passive direct methanol fuel cells.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Unlike active direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) that require liquid pumps and gas compressors to supply reactants, the design of passive DMFCs eliminates these ancillary (more)

Chan, Yeuk Him

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute methanol toxicity Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: that bind to transthyretin, a thyroxine binding protein. 12;Toxicity of Dioxins Acute Toxicity Varies... ) to acetaldehyde to acetate to acetyl CoA Methanol ...

358

Fabrication of mDMFC and Effect of Methanol Modification on its Performance.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were characterized with low operation temperature, high energy density, rapid activation, easy to obtain, easy to carry, safety, stability and (more)

Lu, Chang-Wei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Gaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or reduce the likelihood of hydrogen embrittlement Test existing high strength steel alloys for use in largeGaseous Hydrogen Delivery Breakout Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7 compression. Safety, integrity, reliability: Metal embrittlement, no H2 odorant, low ignition energy

360

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction and Compression  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction and Compression - Overview of commercial hydrogen liquefaction and compression and opportunities to improve efficiencies and reduce cost.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

New Materials for Hydrogen Pipelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Barriers to Hydrogen Delivery: Existing steel pipelines are subject to hydrogen embrittlement and are inadequate for widespread H2 distribution.

362

Desorption Kinetics of Methanol, Ethanol, and Water from Graphene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The desorption kinetics of methanol, ethanol, and water from graphene covered Pt(111) are investigated. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) spectra for both methanol and ethanol have well-resolved first, second, third, and multilayer layer desorption peaks. The alignment of the leading edges is consistent with zero-order desorption kinetics from all layers. In contrast, for water the first and second layers are not resolved. At low water coverages (< 1 ML) the initial desorption leading edges are aligned but then fall out of alignment at higher temperatures. For thicker water layers (10 to 100 ML), the desorption leading edges are in alignment throughout the desorption of the film. The coverage dependence of the desorption behavoir suggests that at low water coverages the non-alignment of the desorption leading edges is due to water dewetting from the graphene substrate. Kinetic simulations reveal that the experimental results are consistent with zero-order desorption. The simulations also show that fractional order desorption kinetics would be readily apparent in the experimental TPD spectra.

Smith, R. Scott; Matthiesen, Jesper; Kay, Bruce D.

2014-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

363

Hydrogen separation process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

Mundschau, Michael (Longmont, CO); Xie, Xiaobing (Foster City, CA); Evenson, IV, Carl (Lafayette, CO); Grimmer, Paul (Longmont, CO); Wright, Harold (Longmont, CO)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

364

Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anti-Hydrogen Jonny Martinez University of California, Berkeley #12;OUTLINE WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? HISTORY IMPORTANCE THEORY HOW TO MAKE ANTI-HYDROGEN OTHER ANTI-MATTER EXPERIMENTS CONCLUSION #12;WHAT IS ANTI-HYDROGEN? Anti-hydrogen is composed of a Positron(anti-electron) and anti-Proton. Anti-Hydrogen

Budker, Dmitry

365

4.12 - Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Transport  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This chapter reviews the several applications of hydrogen and fuel cells in transport. Early fuel cell markets have tested hydrogen for auxiliary power applications, but other fuels such as methanol, natural gas, and propane have been preferred because they are more available. Until now, the best successes have been forklifts where battery propulsion can be inflexible and hydrogen competes economically. However, the mainstream medium-term market is in buses, taxis, and fleet vehicles with passenger cars following close behind as the infrastructure of hydrogen filling stations becomes more widespread. It is becoming clear that the hybrid fuel cell/battery combination works best in such fleets because there is a need for batteries or supercapacitors providing pulse power and also for regenerative braking. Boats and ships represent a possible application in later years if the leisure market can be tapped and extended. In ports, fuel cell auxiliary power has already proved attractive in terms of emission reductions, and the same is true for airports. Aircraft applications will take longer to develop fully but small lightweight planes are using hydrogen at the present time because it can be generated via solar cells on the wings. Unmanned air vehicles driven by fuel cells are more likely to use propane because such lightweight fuel is easily available

K. Kendall; B.G. Pollet

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Hydrogen peroxide safety issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A literature survey was conducted to review the safety issues involved in handling hydrogen peroxide solutions. Most of the information found in the literature is not directly applicable to conditions at the Rocky Flats Plant, but one report describes experimental work conducted previously at Rocky Flats to determine decomposition reaction-rate constants for hydrogen peroxide solutions. Data from this report were used to calculate decomposition half-life times for hydrogen peroxide in solutions containing several decomposition catalysts. The information developed from this survey indicates that hydrogen peroxide will undergo both homogeneous and heterogeneous decomposition. The rate of decomposition is affected by temperature and the presence of catalytic agents. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is catalyzed by alkalies, strong acids, platinum group and transition metals, and dissolved salts of transition metals. Depending upon conditions, the consequence of a hydrogen peroxide decomposition can range from slow evolution of oxygen gas to a vapor, phase detonation of hydrogen peroxide vapors.

Conner, W.V.

1993-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

367

Hydrogen Use and Safety  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

USE AND SAFETY USE AND SAFETY The lightest and most common element in the universe, hydrogen has been safely used for decades in industrial applications. Currently, over 9 million tons of hydrogen are produced in the U.S. each year and 3.2 trillion cubic feet are used to make many common products. They include glass, margarine, soap, vitamins, peanut butter, toothpaste and almost all metal products. Hydrogen has been used as a fuel since the 1950s by the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) in the U.S. space program. Hydrogen - A Safe, Clean Fuel for Vehicles Hydrogen has another use - one that can help our nation reduce its consumption of fossil fuels. Hydrogen can be used to power fuel cell vehicles. When combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, hydrogen generates electricity used

368

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Production by  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Production by Photovoltaic-powered Electrolysis Production by Photovoltaic-powered Electrolysis Project Summary Full Title: Production of Hydrogen by Photovoltaic-powered Electrolysis Project ID: 91 Principal Investigator: D.L. Block Keywords: Hydrogen production; electrolysis; photovoltaic (PV) Purpose To evaluate hydrogen production from photovoltaic (PV)-powered electrolysis. Performer Principal Investigator: D.L. Block Organization: Florida Solar Energy Center Address: 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922 Telephone: 321-638-1001 Email: block@fsec.ucf.edu Sponsor(s) Name: Michael Ashworth Organization: Florida Energy Office Name: Neil Rossmeissl Organization: DOE/Advanced Utilities Concepts Division Name: H.T. Everett Organization: NASA/Kennedy Space Center Project Description Type of Project: Analysis Category: Hydrogen Fuel Pathways

369

Hydrogen Material Compatibility for Hydrogen ICE | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. pm04smith.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Materials Compatibility for the H-ICE...

370

Hydrogenation reactions in interstellar CO ice analogues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogenation reactions of CO in inter- and circumstellar ices are regarded as an important starting point in the formation of more complex species. Previous laboratory measurements by two groups on the hydrogenation of CO ices resulted in controversial results on the formation rate of methanol. Our aim is to resolve this controversy by an independent investigation of the reaction scheme for a range of H-atom fluxes and different ice temperatures and thicknesses. Reaction rates are determined by using a state-of-the-art ultra high vacuum experimental setup to bombard an interstellar CO ice analog with room temperature H atoms. The reaction of CO + H into H2CO and subsequently CH3OH is monitored by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer in a reflection absorption mode. In addition, after each completed measurement a temperature programmed desorption experiment is performed to identify the produced species. Different H-atom fluxes, morphologies, and ice thicknesses are tested. The formation of both formaldeh...

Fuchs, G W; Ioppolo, S; Romanzin, C; Bisschop, S E; Andersson, S; Van Dishoeck, E F; Linnartz, H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Testing maser-based evolutionary schemes: A new search for 37.7-GHz methanol masers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have used the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22-m antenna to search for 37.7-GHz (7(-2) - 8(-1}E) methanol masers towards a sample of thirty six class II methanol masers. The target sources are the most luminous class II methanol masers not previously searched for this transition, with isotropic peak 12.2-GHz maser luminosity greater than 250 Jy/kpc^2 and isotropic peak 6.7-GHz maser luminosity greater than 800 Jy/kpc^2. Seven new 37.7-GHz methanol masers were detected as a result of the search. The detection rate for 37.7-GHz methanol masers towards a complete sample of all such class II methanol maser sites south of declination -20 deg is at least 30 percent. The relatively high detection rate for this rare methanol transition is in line with previous predictions that the 37.7-GHz transition is associated with a late stage of the class II methanol maser phase of high-mass star formation. We find that there is a modest correlation between the ratio of the 6.7- and 37.7-GHz maser peak intensit...

Ellingsen, S P; Voronkov, M A; Dawson, J R

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane-to-Methanol Conversion by Gas-Phase Transition Metal Oxide Cations: Experiment and Theory Ricardo B. Metz Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 USA Abstract Gas such as methanol has attracted great experimental and theoretical interest due to its importance as an industrial

Metz, Ricardo B.

373

Mechanism of O2 Activation and Methanol Production by (Di(2-pyridyl)methanesulfonate)PtII  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion of methane to methanol at low temper- ature is crucial for transportation of shale gas produced it to methanol and its derivatives. In this system, the kinetics of the oxidation of Pt(II) is important because activation and selective conversion of Pt(II) monomethyl complex (dpms)PtII Me(OH2) to its monomethyl Pt

Goddard III, William A.

374

Techno-Economic Assessment and Environmental Impact of Shale Gas Alternatives to Methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Techno-Economic Assessment and Environmental Impact of Shale Gas Alternatives to Methanol ... Recent discoveries of shale gas reserves have promoted a renewed interest in gas-to-liquid technologies for the production of fuels and chemicals. ... In this work, an economic and environmental analysis for the production of methanol from shale gas is presented. ...

Laura M. Julin-Durn; Andrea P. Ortiz-Espinoza; Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi; Arturo Jimnez-Gutirrez

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

375

Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Performance and endurance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell operated on methanol reformate Samuel September 2014 Available online xxx Keywords: High temperature PEM Fuel cell Methanol Impedance spectroscopy]. The report forecasts even more success for fuel cells in the near future. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel

Kær, Søren Knudsen

376

Surface Studies of Aqueous Methanol Solutions by Vibrational Broad Bandwidth Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- bonding configuration between the methanol and the water molecules at the surface and in the bulk when the methanol molecule resides in the interfacial region. Introduction Oxygenated hydrocarbons play reactions in this atmospheric region.3 However, the sources and sinks of these oxygenated hydrocarbons

377

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

378

Single Membrane Reactor Configuration for Separation of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to develop a novel complementary membrane reactor process that can consolidate two or more downstream unit operations of a coal gasification system into a single module for production of a pure stream of hydrogen and a pure stream of carbon dioxide. The overall goals were to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiencies, lower capital costs and a smaller overall footprint than what could be achieved by utilizing separate components for each required unit process/operation in conventional coal-to-hydrogen systems. Specifically, this project was to develop a novel membrane reactor process that combines hydrogen sulfide removal, hydrogen separation, carbon dioxide separation and water-gas shift reaction into a single membrane configuration. The carbon monoxide conversion of the water-gas-shift reaction from the coal-derived syngas stream is enhanced by the complementary use of two membranes within a single reactor to separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Consequently, hydrogen production efficiency is increased. The single membrane reactor configuration produces a pure H{sub 2} product and a pure CO{sub 2} permeate stream that is ready for sequestration. This project focused on developing a new class of CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for this new process concept. Several approaches to make CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for high-temperature applications have been tested. Membrane disks using the technique of powder pressing and high temperature sintering were successfully fabricated. The powders were either metal oxide or metal carbonate materials. Experiments on CO{sub 2} permeation testing were also performed in the temperature range of 790 to 940 C for the metal carbonate membrane disks. However, no CO{sub 2} permeation rate could be measured, probably due to very slow CO{sub 2} diffusion in the solid state carbonates. To improve the permeation of CO{sub 2}, one approach is to make membranes containing liquid or molten carbonates. Several different types of dual-phase membranes were fabricated and tested for their CO{sub 2} permeation in reducing conditions without the presence of oxygen. Although the flux was quite low, on the order of 0.01-0.001 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min, the selectivity of CO{sub 2}/He was almost infinite at temperatures of about 800 C. A different type of dual-phase membrane prepared by Arizona State University (ASU) was also tested at GTI for CO{sub 2} permeation. The measured CO{sub 2} fluxes were 0.015 and 0.02 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min at 750 and 830 C, respectively. These fluxes were higher than the previous flux obtained ({approx}0.01 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min) using the dual-phase membranes prepared by GTI. Further development in membrane development should be conducted to improve the CO{sub 2} flux. ASU has also focused on high temperature permeation/separation experiments to confirm the carbon dioxide separation capabilities of the dual-phase membranes with La{sup 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF6482) supports infiltrated with a Li/Na/K molten carbonate mixture (42.5/32.5/25.0 mole %). The permeation experiments indicated that the addition of O{sub 2} does improve the permeance of CO{sub 2} through the membrane. A simplified membrane reactor model was developed to evaluate the performance of the process. However, the simplified model did not allow the estimation of membrane transport area, an important parameter for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed membrane reactor technology. As a result, an improved model was developed. Results of the improved membrane reactor model show that the membrane shift reaction has promise as a means to simplify the production of a clean stream of hydrogen and a clean stream of carbon dioxide. The focus of additional development work should address the large area required for the CO{sub 2} membrane as identified in the modeling calculations. Also, a more detailed process flow diagram should be developed that includes integration of cooling and preheating feed streams as well as particulate removal so that stea

Micheal Roberts; Robert Zabransky; Shain Doong; Jerry Lin

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

379

Methanol synthesis using a catalyst combination of alkali or alkaline earth salts and reduced copper chromite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a novel route for the synthesis of methanol, and more specifically to the production of methanol by contacting synthesis gas under relatively mild conditions in a slurry phase with a catalyst combination comprising reduced copper chromite and basic alkali salts or alkaline earth salts. The present invention allows the synthesis of methanol to occur in the temperature range of approximately 100.degree.-160.degree. C. and the pressure range of 40-65 atm. The process produces methanol with up to 90% syngas conversion per pass and up to 95% methanol selectivity. The only major by-product is a small amount of easily separated methyl formate. Very small amounts of water, carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether are also produced. The present catalyst combination also is capable of tolerating fluctuations in the H.sub.2 /CO ratio without major deleterious effect on the reaction rate. Furthermore, carbon dioxide and water are also tolerated without substantial catalyst deactivation.

Tierney, John W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Wender, Irving (Pittsburgh, PA); Palekar, Vishwesh M. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Development and demonstration of advanced technologies for direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons (methanol, methane, propane)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct methanol fuel cells use methanol directly as a fuel, rather than the reformate typically required by fuel cells, thus eliminating the reformer and fuel processing train. In this program, Giner, Inc. advanced development of two types of direct methanol fuel cells for military applications. Advancements in direct methanol proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (DMPEMFC) technology included developement of a Pt-Ru anode catalyst and an associated electrode structure which provided some of the highest DMPEMFC performance reported to date. Scale-up from a laboratory-scale single cell to a 5-cell stack of practical area, providing over 100 W of power, was also demonstrated. Stable stack performance was achieved in over 300 hours of daily on/off cycling. Direct methanol aqueous carbonate fuel cells were also advanced with development of an anode catalyst and successful operation at decreased pressure. Improved materials for the cell separator/matrix and the hardware were also identified.

Kosek, J.A.; LaConti, A.B.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dinh (PI) Dinh (PI) Thomas Gennett National Renewable Energy Laboratory October 1, 2009 Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives Develop cost-effective, reliable, durable fuel cells for portable power applications (e.g., cell phones, computers, etc.) that meet all DOE targets. Note that the energy density (Wh/L), volumetric (W/L), and specific power (W/kg) all depend on knowing the weight and volume of the entire DMFC system as well as the volume and concentration of fuel, which are system specific (power application and manufacturer dependent). In our model study the surface power density levels on HOPG will allow for indirect evaluation of our system to DOE's energy density

382

Enhanced self-diffusion of adsorbed methanol in silica aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Molecular transport of a two-component system of liquid and vapor in a porous medium can be anomalously increased owing to fast exchange between the two phases [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 43 (1989)]. We have investigated this phenomenon measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of methanol adsorbed in a 98% porosity aerogel using nuclear magnetic resonance field gradient techniques. We found enhancement of several orders of magnitude from which we determined the ballistic mean-free path in the vapor phase. We have grown globally uniform anisotropic aerogels and applied the diffusion measurements to characterize the anisotropy. Our results are important for understanding the novel properties of superfluid He3 confined within an aerogel framework and for application to other physical systems.

Jeongseop A. Lee; A. M. Mounce; Sangwon Oh; A. M. Zimmerman; W. P. Halperin

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

383

The Analysis of Hydrocarbon Products Obtained From Methanol Conversion to Gasoline Using Open Tubular GC Columns and Selective Olefin Absorption  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......SCOT column. Run conditions are...Table I. GC Run Conditions for Methanol Derived Gasolines Carrier Gas...minor amounts of straight-chain isomers...dependent upon process run conditions. These...methanol derived gasolines were similar in......

M.G. Bloch; R.B. Callen; J.H. Stockinger

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Hydrogen Codes and Standards  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Codes and Standards Codes and Standards James Ohi National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 Background The development and promulgation of codes and standards are essential if hydrogen is to become a significant energy carrier and fuel because codes and standards are critical to establishing a market-receptive environment for commercializing hydrogen-based products and systems. The Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with the help of the National Hydrogen Association (NHA) and other key stakeholders, are coordinating a collaborative national effort by government and industry to prepare, review, and promulgate hydrogen codes and standards needed to expedite hydrogen infrastructure development. The

385

President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Workshop on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Washington, DC July 13, 2005 JoAnn Milliken DOE Hydrogen Program Planning U.S. Energy Dependence is Driven By Transportation * The U.S. imports 55% of its oil; expected to grow to 68% by 2025 under the status quo. * Transportation accounts for 2/3 of the 20 million barrels of oil our nation uses each day. * Gasoline hybrid electric vehicles will help in the near -mid term; a replacement for petroleum is needed for the long-term. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 Million barrels per day Marine Rail Actual Projection Cars Air Light Trucks Heavy Vehicles U.S. Production Off-Road Projection Hydrogen Provides a Solution Producing hydrogen from domestic resources, including renewable, nuclear, and coal

386

Hydrogen Based Bacteria  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Based Bacteria Hydrogen Based Bacteria Name: Ellen Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: i was in my Biology class and a very respectable someone mentioned something about the discovery of a hydrogen based bacteria. my teacher wasnt aware of this study, and assigned me to find out about it. so i thought i would Email you and see if you people knew anything about it. Awaiting your repsonse Replies: I'm not quite sure what you mean by hydrogen based bacteria but I will take a stab that you mean bacteria that use hydrogen for energy. Some bacteria are chemolithotrophs which mean that they are autrophs but don't use the sun as their energy source; they get their energy from chemical sources. There are bacteria that use hydrogen as their energy source. They are diverse as a group and are all facultative. The overall chemical reaction looks like this:

387

Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Gas Pipelines Hydrogen embrittlement What is the relevance to hydrogen pipelines? ORNL researchHydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Team: Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, Z Pressure Permeation Testing) Hydrogen Pipeline R&D, Project Review Meeting Oak Ridge National Laboratory

389

Hydrogen Delivery Technologies and Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Issues for H2 Service Materials of Construction Hydrogen Embrittlement Presence of atomic hydrogen susceptible to Hydrogen Embrittlement. #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 7 Copyright: H2 Induced, characteristic of hydrogen embrittlement. Photo Courtesy of NASA/Kennedy Space Center Materials Lab #12;Pipeline

390

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Gary P · UK partnership opened the first hydrogen demonstration refueling station · Two hydrogen pipelines l · " i i l i 2 i i ll i i l pl ifi i · 8" ly idl i i l s Hydrogen Pipelines Two nes, on y a brand

391

Hydrogen Storage -Overview George Thomas, Hydrogen Consultant to SNL*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen Storage - Overview George Thomas, Hydrogen Consultant to SNL* and Jay Keller, Hydrogen volumetric density of gaseous fuels requires a storage method which compacts the fuel. Hence, hydrogen and cost-effective hydrogen storage? #12;4/14/03 3 Sandia National Laboratories From George Thomas, BES

392

Hydrogen powered bus  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

None

2013-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

393

Identification of the Active Species in Photochemical Hole Scavenging Reactions of Methanol on TiO2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular and dissociative methanol adsorption species were prepared on rutile TiO2(110) surfaces to study photocatalytic oxidation of methanol in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Adsorbed methoxy groups (CH3O-) were found to be the photoactive form of adsorbed methanol converted to adsorbed formaldehyde and a surface OH group by hole-mediated C-H bond cleavage. These results suggest that adsorbed methoxy is the effective hole scavenger in photochemical reactions involving methanol.

Shen, Mingmin; Henderson, Michael A.

2011-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

394

Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Z. H. Wang* and C. Y. Wang*,z  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

density and high Tafel slope.1 Methanol crossover further causes lower open-circuit voltage OCV and waste

395

Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Compatibility of Materials Compatibility of Materials August 13, 2013 DOE EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Webinar Chris San Marchi Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 SAND2013-6278P 2 Webinar Objectives * Provide context for hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen compatibility of materials - Distinguish embrittlement, compatibility and suitability - Examples of hydrogen embrittlement * Historical perspective - Previous work on hydrogen compatibility - Motivation of "Materials Guide" * Identify the landscape of materials compatibility documents

396

Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Better Engineered Solutions. Better Engineered Solutions. What Listening Generates. Better Engineered Solutions. What Listening Generates. Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis September 2004 Steve Cohen Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis September 2004 Steve Cohen NREL H 2 Electrolysis - Utility Integration Workshop NREL H 2 Electrolysis - Utility Integration Workshop 2 Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis  Intro to Teledyne Energy Systems  H 2 Generator Basics & Major Subsystems  H 2 Generating & Storage System Overview  Electrolysis System Efficiency & Economics  Focus for Attaining DOE H 2 Production Cost Goals 3 Teledyne Energy Systems Locations - ISO 9001 Teledyne Energy Systems Locations - ISO 9001 Hunt Valley, Maryland  State-of-the-art thermoelectric,

397

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA); Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Hydrogen Generator Appliance  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

lAbOrAtOry NG Workshop summary report - appeNDIX J slide presentation: hydrogen Generator appliance Gus Block, Nuvera Fuel Cells...

399

Module 2: Hydrogen Use  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This course covers the processes by which hydrogen is extracted, how it is stored and transported, and the inherent advantages and disadvantages of each method

400

Hydrogen | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

electric cooperatives* to offer net metering to customers who generate electricity using solar energy, wind energy, hydropower, hydrogen, biomass, landfill gas, geothermal energy,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hydrogen Production & Delivery  

Energy Savers [EERE]

* Address key materials needs for P&D: Membranes, Catalysts, PEC Devices, Reactors, and Tanks Hydrogen from Coal * Complete laboratory-scale development of separation and...

402

Renewable Hydrogen (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presentation about the United State's dependence on oil, how energy solutions are challenging, and why hydrogen should be considered as a long-term alternative for transportation fuel.

Remick, R. J.

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

403

Hydrogen Production & Delivery  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

"2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation H2 and Fuel Cells Plenary "

404

Hydrogen Release Behavior  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

405

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

1980-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

406

President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen Infrastructure and Fuel Cell Technologies put on an Accelerated Schedule. President Bush commits a total $1.7 billion over first 5 years

407

Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With hydrogen gaining acceptance as an energy carrier for fuel cell vehicles and stationary fuel cell applications, a new community of hydrogen users is emerging and continues to grow. With this growth has come the need to spread the word about safe practices for handling, storing, and using hydrogen. Like all energy forms, hydrogen can be used safely through proper procedures and engineering techniques. However, hydrogen involves a degree of risk that must be respected, and the importance of avoiding complacency or haste in the safe conduct and performance of projects involving hydrogen cannot be overstated. To encourage and promote the safe use of hydrogen, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed and continues to enhance two software tools in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program: the Hydrogen Safety Best Practices online manual (www.H2BestPractices.org) and the Hydrogen Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned database (www.H2Incidents.org).

Fassbender, Linda L.

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

408

Hydrogen ion microlithography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a hydrogen ion microlithography process for use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. The process comprises the steps of providing a single layer of either an amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon material. A pattern is recorded in a selected layer of amorphous silicon or hydrogenated amorphous silicon materials by preferentially implanting hydrogen ions therein so as to permit the selected layer to serve as a mask-resist wafer suitable for subsequent development and device fabrication. The layer is developed to provide a surface pattern therein adaptable for subsequent use in microelectronic fabrication and semiconductor device processing. 6 figs.

Tsuo, Y.S.; Deb, S.K.

1990-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

409

Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

410

Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

The fuel cell an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen is the key to making it happen.

411

Department of Energy - Hydrogen  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Goes to.... Lighting Up Operations with Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology http:energy.goveerearticlesand-oscar-sustainable-mobile-lighting-goes-lighting-operations-hydro...

412

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

T.A. Semelsberger

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Hydrogen Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Hydrogen Hydrogen is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from diverse domestic energy sources. Research is under way to make hydrogen vehicles practical for widespread use.

415

FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Current Technology to Current Technology to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology Thermal Processes Electrolytic Processes Photolytic Processes R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Current Technology The development of clean, sustainable, and cost-competitive hydrogen

416

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation DOE Hydrogen Program Record number11007, Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation, documents the methodology and...

417

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high-pressure stationary hydrogen storage tanks. The storagehigh-pressure gaseous hydrogen storage containers, and atrailer Compressed hydrogen storage High-pressure hydrogen

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Hydrogen Delivery - Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Delivery Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Hydrogen Delivery - Basics Photo of light-duty vehicle at hydrogen refueling station. Infrastructure is required to move hydrogen from the...

419

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Basics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Basics Photo of vehicle filling up at renewable hydrogen fueling station. NREL's hydrogen fueling station dispenses hydrogen produced via renewable...

420

Combination moisture and hydrogen getter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (1) a solid acetylenic compound and (2) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

Harrah, L.A.; Mead, K.E.; Smith, H.M.

1983-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Effect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significantly increase the methanol-crossover rate, producing an unfavorable * Corresponding author. DepartmentEffect of water concentration in the anode catalyst layer on the performance of direct methanol fuel cells operating with neat methanol Q.X. Wu a , S.Y. Shen a , Y.L. He b , T.S. Zhao a

Zhao, Tianshou

422

Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 selected Pt nanoparticles2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the performance of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), which produce electricity from11 liquid fuel without1 Correlating catalytic methanol oxidation with the structure and oxidation state of size-1 * Corresponding author: roldan@ucf.edu9 Keywords: platinum; methanol oxidation; operando; XAS; EXAFS; alumina

Kik, Pieter

423

Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not described in the previous literature for electrochemical reduction of spent fuels, have been attempted. A quantitative analytical method for measuring the concentration of sodium borohydride in alkaline aqueous solution has been developed as part of this work and is described herein. Finally, findings from stability tests for sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions of several different compositions are reported. For aminoborane, other research institutes have developed regeneration schemes involving tributyltin hydride. In this report, electrochemical reduction experiments attempting to regenerate tributyltin hydride from tributyltin chloride (a representative by-product of the regeneration scheme) are described. These experiments were performed in the non-aqueous solvents acetonitrile and 1,2-dimethoxyethane. A non-aqueous reference electrode for electrolysis experiments in acetonitrile was developed and is described. One class of boron hydrides, called polyhedral boranes, became of interest to the DOE due to their ability to contain a sufficient amount of hydrogen to meet program goals and because of their physical and chemical safety attributes. Unfortunately, the research performed here has shown that polyhedral boranes do not react in such a way as to allow enough hydrogen to be released, nor do they appear to undergo hydrogenation from the spent fuel form back to the original hydride. After the polyhedral boranes were investigated, the project goals remained the same but the hydrogen storage material was switched by the DOE to ammonia borane. Ammonia borane was found to undergo an irreversible hydrogen release process, so a direct hydrogenation was not able to occur. To achieve the hydrogenation of the spent ammonia borane fuel, an indirect hydrogenation reaction is possible by using compounds called organotin hydrides. In this process, the organotin hydrides will hydrogenate the spent ammonia borane fuel at the cost of their own oxidation, which forms organotin halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to th

Dr. Digby Macdonald

2010-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

424

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Production  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Manufacturing Fuel Cells Applications/Technology Validation Safety Codes and Standards Education Basic Research Systems Analysis Systems Integration U.S. Department of Energy Search help Home > Hydrogen Production Printable Version Hydrogen Production Hydrogen can be produced from diverse domestic feedstocks using a variety of process technologies. Hydrogen-containing compounds such as fossil fuels, biomass or even water can be a source of hydrogen. Thermochemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from biomass and from fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and petroleum. Power generated from sunlight, wind and nuclear sources can be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically. Sunlight alone can also drive photolytic production of

425

Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC (formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC) Place Rochester Hills, Michigan Zip 48309 Sector Hydro, Hydrogen, Vehicles Product It commercializes hydrogen storage technology based on metal-hydrides for portable and stationary power systems as well as fuel-cell vehicles. References Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC (formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC (formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC) is a company located in Rochester Hills, Michigan . References

426

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline

427

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Transition to Hydrogen Transportation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transition to Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Transition to Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Project Summary Full Title: A Smooth Transition to Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Project ID: 87 Principal Investigator: Gene Berry Brief Description: This project contrasts the options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Keywords: Infrastructure; costs; hydrogen production Purpose The case for hydrogen-powered transportation requires an assessment of present and prospective methods for producing, storing, and delivering hydrogen. This project examines one potential pathway: on-site production of hydrogen to fuel light-duty vehicles. Performer Principal Investigator: Gene Berry Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

428

Plasma post-hydrogenation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and germanium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Incorporation and kinetics of hydrogen during plasma post-hydrogenation and thermal treatment are discussed for a-Si:H and a-Ge:H films. For material of low hydrogen content, the hydrogen surface concentration reached by plasma treatment equals the hydrogen concentration obtained by deposition at the same temperature and under similar plasma conditions. Enhancements of the hydrogen diffusion coefficient and of hydrogen solubility observed for plasma treatment at temperatures {le}400 C and {le}300 C for a-Si:H and a-Ge:H, respectively, are attributed to a plasma induced rise of the surface hydrogen chemical potential.

Beyer, W.; Zastrow, U. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Schicht- und Ionentechnik

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop: Code for Hydrogen Pipelines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Code for Hydrogen Piping and Pipelines. B31 Hydrogen Section Committee to develop a new code for H2 piping and pipelines.

430

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen System Component...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

other hydrogen system components. Reliable components are needed to ensure the success of hydrogen fueling stations and support the commercial deployment of fuel cell electric...

431

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

5 Cost adjusted to 2007 dollars, accurate to two significant figures. Printable Version Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Research Home Projects Fuel Cells Hydrogen Production & Delivery...

432

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 5037: Hydrogen Storage...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record Record : 5037 Date: May 22, 2006 Title: Hydrogen Storage Materials - 2004 vs 2006 Originator: Sunita Satyapal Approved by: JoAnn Milliken...

433

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production and Delivery  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production and Delivery Hydrogen Production and Delivery Most of the hydrogen in the United States is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. For the near term, this production method will continue to dominate. Researchers at NREL are developing advanced processes to produce hydrogen economically from sustainable resources. NREL's hydrogen production and delivery R&D efforts, which are led by Huyen Dinh, focus on the following topics: Biological Water Splitting Fermentation Conversion of Biomass and Wastes Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Solar Thermal Water Splitting Renewable Electrolysis Hydrogen Dispenser Hose Reliability Hydrogen Production and Delivery Pathway Analysis. Biological Water Splitting Certain photosynthetic microbes use light energy to produce hydrogen from

434

The Hydrogen Backlash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from outside: the infrastructure they need to...existing electricity grid or natural gas...massive new hydrogen infrastructure to deliver the...development of hybrid cars, critics...out on page 974 , hybrid electric vehicles...separate hydrogen infrastructure. Near-term help...

Robert F. Service

2004-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

435

The Hydrogen Backlash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...paces, 200 fuel cells under...Switching from fossil fuels to hydrogen...reduce urban air pollution, lower dependence...cleaner air, lower greenhouse...cost of the fuel drops to $1.50...hydrogen from fossil fuels, DOE...none of these solutions is up to...

Robert F. Service

2004-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

436

Hydrogen Delivery- Current Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Hydrogen is transported from the point of production to the point of use via pipeline, over the road in cryogenic liquid trucks or gaseous tube trailers, or by rail or barge. Read on to learn more about current hydrogen delivery and storage technologies.

437

Hydrogen, Fuel Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

results of using hydrogen power, of course, will be energy independence for this nation... think about between hydrogen and oxygen generates energy, which can be used to power a car producing only water to taking these cars from laboratory to showroom so that the first car driven by a child born today could

438

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

439

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Current Technology to someone Current Technology to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage Challenges Status of Hydrogen Storage Technologies DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Current Technology

440

Renewable Resources for Hydrogen (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of renewable resources for hydrogen. It was presented at the National Hydrogen Association Hydrogen Conference & Expo in Long Beach, CA, May 3-6, 2010.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Today's state of the art for hydrogen storage includes 5,000- and 10,000-psi compressed gas tanks and cryogenic liquid hydrogen tanks for on-board hydrogen storage.

442

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the cost of hydrogen production, distribution, and use.accelerate R&D of zero-emission hydrogen production methods.Renewable hydrogen production is a key area for focused

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

type can be applied to hydrogen storage materials. Keywords:can be applied to hydrogen storage materials. Manuscript O-of the formalism to hydrogen storage materials. A partial

Van de Walle, Chris G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Thin Film Hydrogen Storage System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the last one decade the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier has attracted world ... on the technology involved for the production, storage and use of hydrogen. In this paper we discuss storage aspect of hydrogen

I. P. Jain; Y. K. Vijay

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

truck at hydrogen production facility. A viable hydrogen infrastructure requires that hydrogen be able to be delivered from where it's produced to the point of end-use, such as...

446

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

447

Hydrogen Storage- Overview  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- - Overview George Thomas, Hydrogen Consultant to SNL * and Jay Keller, Hydrogen Program Manager Sandia National Laboratories H 2 Delivery and Infrastructure Workshop May 7-8, 2003 * Most of this presentation has been extracted from George Thomas' invited BES Hydrogen Workshop presentation (May 13-14, 2003) Sandia National Laboratories 4/14/03 2 Sandia National Laboratories From George Thomas, BES workshop 5/13/03 H 2 storage is a critical enabling technology for H 2 use as an energy carrier The low volumetric density of gaseous fuels requires a storage method which compacts the fuel. Hence, hydrogen storage systems are inherently more complex than liquid fuels. Storage technologies are needed in all aspects of hydrogen utilization. production distribution utilization

448

Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) Pinakin Patel and Ludwig Lipp Presentation at DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage and Dispensing Workshop at ANL Argonne, IL March 20, 2013 2 * Experience with all fuel cells - MCFC, SOFC, PEM, PAFC, etc. * Excellent progress in commercialization of MCFC technology (>300 MW installed + backlog, >50 MW per year production rate, 11 MW single site unit in Korea, >1.5 billion kWh produced) * Unique internal reforming technology for high efficiency fuel cells FCE Overview $- $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 2003 2007 2011 mid-term Product cost per kW 3 H 2 Peak and Back- up Power Fuel Cell Cars DFC ® Power Plant (Electricity + Hydrogen) Solid State Hydrogen Separator (EHS) Solid State Hydrogen

449

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage On the one hand, hydrogen's great asset as a renewable energy carrier is that it is storable and transportable. On the other hand, its very low natural density requires storage volumes that are impractical for vehicles and many other uses. Current practice is to compress the gas in pressurized tanks, but this still provides only limited driving range for vehicles and is bulkier than desirable for other uses as well. Liquefying the hydrogen more than doubles the fuel density, but uses up substantial amounts of energy to lower the temperature sufficiently (-253°C at atmospheric pressure), requires expensive insulated tanks to maintain that temperature, and still falls short of desired driving range. One possible way to store hydrogen at higher density is in the spaces within the crystalline

450

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

451

Hydrogen Fuel Quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

452

Hydrogen Purity Standard  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Compressed Gas Association Compressed Gas Association Roger A. Smith Technical Director April 26, 2004 Hydrogen Purity Standard Compressed Gas Association 2 Compressed Gas Association ‹ 150 Members „ Industrial Gas Companies „ Equipment Manufacturers „ Other Gas Industry Associations „ Other SDOs ‹ Manufacturers, Fillers, Distributors, and Transporters of Industrial and Medical Gases Compressed Gas Association 3 Hydrogen Activities ‹ Committees „ Hydrogen Fuel Technology „ Bulk Distribution Equipment „ Hazardous Materials Codes „ Gas Specifications „ Cylinders, Valves & PRD's ‹ International „ Europe (EIGA) „ Japan (JIGA) „ Asia (AIGA) „ United Nations Compressed Gas Association 4 Hydrogen Purity Standard ‹ Draft hydrogen purity standard for stationary fuel cells and ICE's in 10 months

453

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Polyvinylidene Fluoride-Based Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications Wensheng He, David Mountz, Tao Zhang, Chris Roger July 17, 2012 2 Outline Background on Arkema's polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blend membrane technology Overview of membrane properties and performance Summary 3 Membrane Technology Polymer Blend * Kynar ® PVDF * Chemical and electrochemical stability * Mechanical strength * Excellent barrier against methanol * Polyelectrolyte * H + conduction and water uptake Flexible Blending Process  PVDF can be compatibilized with a number of polyelectrolytes  Process has been scaled to a pilot line Property Control * Morphology: 10-100s nm domains * Composition can be tailored to minimize methanol permeation, while optimizing

454

Polygeneration-IGCC concepts for the production of hydrogen rich fuels based on lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents three IGCC-power plant concepts for central production of a hydrogen-rich fuel (methanol, hydrogen, synthetic natural gas ?? SNG) from lignite. Each concept contains a CO2-separation, which produces a sequestration-ready CO2-rich stream. Thus, CO2-emissions caused by use of lignite are considerably reduced. Furthermore, the produced low-carbon fuels are converted in decentralised Combined Heat and Power Plants (CHPP). CHPP leads to high efficiencies of fuel utilisation between 54 and 62%, which exceed the efficiencies of single power generation. Regarding to the CO2-emissions of a natural gas fired CHPP, heat and power can be generated by lignite as clean as by natural gas. The specific CO2-emissions are even much lower in the case of hydrogen production. Costs for the centrally produced methanol and hydrogen are with 29 and 19 EUR/MWh(LHV) already within an economic range. Synthetic natural gas can be produced for 23 EUR/MWh(LHV).

Bernd Meyer; Katrin Ogriseck

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). Its made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

456

Precursors of the copper-zinc oxide methanol synthesis catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coprecipitated hydroxycarbonate precursor of the methanol synthesis and shift reaction catalyst based on 30 at.% copper and 70 at.% zinc oxide, which was previously reported to be a mixture of hydrozincite Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6 and rosasite (Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2 (R. G. Herman, K. Klier, G. W. Simmons, B. P. Finn, J. B. Bulko, and T. P. Kobylinski, J. Catal. 56, 407, 1979) or a single-phase hydrozincite (G. Petrini, F. Montino, A. Bossi, and G. Gaybassi, in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis. Preparation of Catalysis III (G. Poncelet, P. Grange, and P. A. Jacobs, Eds.), Vol. 16, p. 735. Elsevier, The Netherlands, 1983), is herein shown to be a single-phase aurichalcite (Cu0.3Zn0.7)5(CO3)2(OH)6. The orthorhombic B2212 aurichalcite is crystallograpically distinct from the monoclinic \\{C2m\\} hydrozincite, although these two compounds have the same ratio of metal ions to carbonate and hydroxyl anions. Both aurichalcite and hydrozincite are chemically and structurally distinct from the monoclinic \\{P21a\\} rosasite. The earlier erroneous assignments are attributed to the structural similarity of the three hydroxycarbonates in question. An energy-dispersive characteristic X-ray emission analysis of individual particles in the scanning transmission electron microscope reveals a uniform distribution of copper and zinc at the analytical concentration CuZn = 3070. Precursors with less than 30% copper consist of mixtures of aurichalcite and hydrozincite.

P.B. Himelfarb; G.W. Simmons; K. Klier; R.G. Herman

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

SHAPE SELECTIVE NANOCATALYSTS FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

While gold and platinum have long been recognized for their beauty and value, researchers at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) are working on the nano-level to use these elements for creative solutions to our nation's energy and security needs. Multiinterdisciplinary teams consisting of chemists, materials scientists, physicists, computational scientists, and engineers are exploring unchartered territories with shape-selective nanocatalysts for the development of novel, cost effective and environmentally friendly energy solutions to meet global energy needs. This nanotechnology is vital, particularly as it relates to fuel cells.SRNL researchers have taken process, chemical, and materials discoveries and translated them for technological solution and deployment. The group has developed state-of-the art shape-selective core-shell-alloy-type gold-platinum nanostructures with outstanding catalytic capabilities that address many of the shortcomings of the Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The newly developed nanostructures not only busted the performance of the platinum catalyst, but also reduced the material cost and overall weight of the fuel cell.

Murph, S.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

458

Low-energy electron scattering from methanol and ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measured and calculated differential cross sections for elastic (rotationally unresolved) electron scattering from two primary alcohols, methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH), are reported. The measurements are obtained using the relative flow method with helium as the standard gas and a thin aperture as the collimating target gas source. The relative flow method is applied without the restriction imposed by the relative flow pressure conditions on helium and the unknown gas. The experimental data were taken at incident electron energies of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 50, and 100eV and for scattering angles of 5130. There are no previous reports of experimental electron scattering differential cross sections for CH3OH and C2H5OH in the literature. The calculated differential cross sections are obtained using two different implementations of the Schwinger multichannel method, one that takes all electrons into account and is adapted for parallel computers, and another that uses pseudopotentials and considers only the valence electrons. Comparison between theory and experiment shows that theory is able to describe low-energy electron scattering from these polyatomic targets quite well.

M. A. Khakoo, J. Blumer, K. Keane, C. Campbell, H. Silva, M. C. A. Lopes, C. Winstead, V. McKoy, R. F. da Costa, L. G. Ferreira, M. A. P. Lima, and M. H. F. Bettega

2008-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

459

The effects of zirconia morphology on methanol synthesis from COand H2 over Cu/ZrO2 catalysts: Part I -- Steady-State Studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of zirconia phase on the activity and selectivityof Cu/ZrO2 for the hydrogenation of CO has been investigated. Relativelypure t-ZrO2 and m-ZrO2 were prepared with high surface areas (~; 145m2/g). Copper was then deposited onto the surface of these materials byeither incipient-wetness impregnation or deposition-precipitation. For afixed Cu surface area, Cu/m-ZrO2 was tenfold more active for methanolsynthesis than Cu/t-ZrO2 from a feed of 3/1 H2/CO at 3.0 MPa andtemperatures between 473 and 523 K. Cu/m-ZrO2 also exhibited a higherselectivity to methanol. Increasing the Cu surface area on m-ZrO2resulted in further improvement in activity with minimal change inselectivity. Methanol productivity increased linearly for both Cu/t-ZrO2and Cu/m-ZrO2 with increasing Cu surface area. The difference in inherentactivity of each phase paralleled the stronger and larger CO adsorptioncapacity of the Cu/m-ZrO2 as quantified by CO-TPD. The higher COadsorption capacity of Cu/m-ZrO2 is attributed to the presence of a highconcentration of anionic vacancies on the surface of m-ZrO2. Suchvacancies expose cus-Zr4+ cations, which act as Lewis acid centers andenhance the Bronsted acidity of adjacent Zr-OH groups. The presence ofcus-Zr4+ sites and adjacent Bronsted acidic Zr-OH groups contributes tothe adsorption of CO as HCOO-Zr groups, which are the initial precursorsto methanol.

Rhodes, Michael J.; Bell, Alexis T.

2005-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

460

Recombination Efficiency of Molecular Hydrogen on Interstellar Grains-II A Numerical Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A knowledge of the recombination time on the grain surfaces has been a major obstacle in deciding the production rate of molecular hydrogen and other molecules in the interstellar medium. We present a numerical study to compute this time for molecular hydrogen for various cloud and grain parameters. We also find the time dependence, particularly when a grain is freshly injected into the system. Apart from the fact that the recombination times seem to be functions of the grain parameters such as the activation barrier energy, temperature etc, our result also shows the dependence on the number of sites in the grain $S$ and the effective accretion rate per site $a_s$ of atomic hydrogen. Simply put, the average time that a pair of atomic hydrogens will take to produce one molecular hydrogen depends on how heavily the grain is already populated by atomic and molecular hydrogens and how fast the hopping and desorption times are. We show that if we write the average recombination time as $T_r \\sim S^\\alpha/A_H$, where, $A_H$ is the hopping rate, then $\\alpha$ could be much greater than 1 for all astrophysically relevant accretion rates. Thus the average formation rate of $H_2$ is also dependent on the grain parameters, temperature and the accretion rate. We believe that our result will affect the overall rate of the formation of complex molecules such as methanol which require successive hydrogenation on the grain surfaces in the interstellar medium.

Sandip Kumar Chakrabarti; Ankan Das; Kinsuk Acharyya; Sonali Chakrabarti

2008-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Conversion of methanol to light olefins on SAPO-34: kinetic modeling and reactor design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

design of an MTO reactor, accounting for the strong exothermicity of the process. Multi-bed adiabatic and fluidized bed technologies show good potential for the industrial process for the conversion of methanol into olefins....

Al Wahabi, Saeed M. H.

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

462

Study of methanol-to-gasoline process for production of gasoline from coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process is an efficient way to produce liquid ... The academic basis of the coal-to-liquid process is described and two different synthesis processes are focused on: Fixed MTG process

Tian-cai He; Xiao-han Cheng; Ling Li

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Methanol-to-gasoline(MTG)conversion over ZSM-5. A temperature programmed surface reaction study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The conversion of methanol to gasoline over zeolite ZSM-5 has been studied by temperature programmed surface reaction (TPSR). The technique is able to monitor the two steps in the process: the dehydration of m...

M. Jayamurthy; S. Vasudevan

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

The methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction : Influence of acid strength on the mechanism of olefin formation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction is a flexible alternative step in the upgrading of natural gas, coal or biomass. By tuning the catalyst and process conditions, (more)

Erichsen, Marius Westgrd

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHAPTER 9 Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells G. Lu & C, including two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport. We explain how the better understanding

466

Importance of cobalt for individual trophic groups in an anaerobic methanol-degrading consortium.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Methanol metabolism Waste Disposal, Fluid...in wastewaters, wastes, and the natural...several chemical industries, such as in the...31) and coal gasification installations...Purdue Industrial Waste Conference, Lafayette...compounds in coal-gasification condensate water...

L Florencio; J A Field; G Lettinga

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Design of high-ionic conductivity electrodes for direct methanol fuel cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Carbon-supported porous electrodes are used in low-temperature fuel cells to provide maximum catalyst surface area, while taking up little volume and using minimum catalyst material. In Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs), ...

Schrauth, Anthony J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Reaction of a Fluorine Atom with Methanol: Potential Energy Surface Considerations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reaction of a Fluorine Atom with Methanol: Potential Energy Surface Considerations ... The latter two energetic features nicely explain why 40% of the laboratory products follow the less exothermic pathway A. ...

Hao Feng; Katherine R. Randall; Henry F. Schaefer; III

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

NREL's Hydrogen Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research and development taking place today at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is paving the way for nature's most plentiful elementhydrogento power the next generation. NREL researchers are working to unlock the potential of hydrogen and to advance the fuel cell technologies that will power the automobiles, equipment, and buildings of tomorrow. Hydrogen and fuel cells are a fundamental part of the broader portfolio of renewable technologies that are moving our nation toward its goals of energy independence and sustainability.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrogen plasma enhanced crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon films K. Pangal,a) J. C August 1998; accepted for publication 21 October 1998 We report that a room temperature hydrogen plasma thermal crystallization of amorphous silicon time by a factor of five. Exposure to hydrogen plasma reduces

471

Development of microprocessor control for a V-6 engine fueled by prevaporized methanol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEVELOPMENT OF MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL FOR A V 6 ENGINE FUELED BY PREVAPORIZED METHANOL A Thesis by DONALD F. SCHNEIDER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 19SS Major Subject: Chemical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL FOR A V 6 ENGINE FUELED BY PREVAPORIZED METHANOL A Thesis by DONALD F. SCHNEIDER Approved as to style and content by: JP& r~ R. R. Davison...

Schneider, Donald F.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

472

Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

The Influence of Chain Dynamics on theFar-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular interactions in liquid methanol. Using an intense source of far-infrared radiation, modes are elucidated at approximately 30 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in the absorption spectrum. These modes are believed to arise from intermolecular bending and librational motions respectively and are successfully reproduced in an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of methanol.

Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL; ,

2005-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

474

Conversion of synthesis gas and methanol to hydrocarbons using zeolite catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conversion on siiicalite were studied. Various catalysts based on the small-pore zeolites chabazite and erionite, combined with a methanol synthesis component, zinc oxide, were prepared. Certain of the catalysts contained either sulfur or selenium as a... conversion on siiicalite were studied. Various catalysts based on the small-pore zeolites chabazite and erionite, combined with a methanol synthesis component, zinc oxide, were prepared. Certain of the catalysts contained either sulfur or selenium as a...

Matthews, Michael Anthony

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

475

Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment III. Florida's eucalyptus energy farm and methanol refinery: the background environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A wide array of general background information is presented on the Central Florida area in which the eucalyptus energy plantation and methanol refinery will be located. Five counties in Central Florida may be affected by the project, DeSoto, Hardee, Hillsborough, Manatee, and Polk. The human resources of the area are reviewed. Included are overviews of population demographic and economic trends. Land use patterns and the transportation are system described, and the region's archeological and recreational resources are evaluated. The region's air quality is emphasized. The overall climate is described along with noise and air shed properties. An analysis of the region's water resources is included. Ground water is discussed first followed by an analysis of surface water. Then the overall quality and water supply/demand balance for the area is evaluated. An overview of the region's biota is presented. Included here are discussions of the general ecosystems in Central Florida, and an analysis of areas with important biological significance. Finally, land resources are examined.

Fishkind, H.H.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Hydrogen: The ultimate fuel and energy carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hydrogen: The ultimate fuel and energy carrier ... Some of the questions include: 1)Why choose hydrogen as a fuel, 2) How is hydrogen produced, 3)Why is this combustion nonpolluting, 4) How is hydrogen stored? ... Hydrogen ...

Gustav P. Dinga

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Panama coal to methanol project. Phase I. Feasibility Study. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Technical Progress Report contains the results of the investigations performed for the Panama Coal to Methanol Project: Technical efforts associated with the gasification technology evaluation; evaluation of other related process technologies; results of the venture analyses, including the efforts made for structuring the project; results of the ongoing financial analyses and cost projections, including potential and use applications of methanol in Japan primarily for combustion turbine-combined cycle steam/electric utilization. At this time, and for the next few years, the Panama-based methanol fuel is more expensive than oil. However, when measured in terms of KWH production cost in Japan, the use of methanol fuel in combustion turbine, combined-cycle operations appears to create less expensive electric power than that produced from conventional coal direct fired operations using imported coal. This cost advantage arises from significantly lower capital costs and enhanced performance efficiencies associated with combined cycle power generators as contrasted with conventional coal plants equipped with scrubbers. Environmental and social land-use benefits are also much greater for the methanol fuel plant. The cost of electricity from a methanol-fueled combined cycle plant is also expected to compare favorably in Japan with electrical costs from a future liquefied natural gas fired plant.

Not Available

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Word Pro - Untitled1  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

chemical chemical compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The series of molecules vary in chain length and are composed of a hydrocarbon plus a hydroxyl group; CH(3)-(CH(2)) n -OH (e.g., methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol). See Fuel Ethanol. Alternative Fuel: Alternative fuels, for transportation applications, include the following: methanol; denatured ethanol, and other alcohols; fuel mixtures containing 85 percent or more by volume of methanol, denatured ethanol, and other alcohols with motor gasoline or other fuels; natural gas; liquefied petroleum gas (propane); hydro- gen; coal-derived liquid fuels; fuels (other than alcohol) derived from biological materials (biofuels such as soy diesel fuel); electricity (including electricity from solar

479

hydrogen | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

hydrogen hydrogen Dataset Summary Description Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Source Sandia National Laboratories Date Released June 03rd, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated September 27th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords Compatibility of Materials hydrogen NREL Sandia Technical Database Technical Reference Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon 1100_cia85_ten_fra_fat.xlsx (xlsx, 60.9 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon 1100_san10_fra_fat.xlsx (xlsx, 58.5 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon 1100_san10b_fra_fat.xlsx (xlsx, 59.4 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon 1100_san11_fra_fat.xlsx (xlsx, 48.4 KiB)

480

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Production  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Production Production The simplest and most common element, hydrogen is all around us, but always as a compound with other elements. To make it usable in fuel cells or otherwise provide energy, we must expend energy or modify another energy source to extract it from the fossil fuel, biomass, water, or other compound in which it is found. Nearly all hydrogen production in the United States today is by steam reformation of natural gas. This, however, releases carbon dioxide in the process and trades one relatively clean fuel for another, with associated energy loss, so it does little to meet national energy needs. Hydrogen can also be produced by electrolysis-passing an electrical current through water to break it into hydrogen and oxygen-but electrolysis is inefficient and is only as clean

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen methanol coal-derived" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Sustainable Hydrogen Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Today, hydrogen is mainly produced from natural gas via steam methane reforming, and although this process can sustain an initial...operating, or maintenance costs are included in the calculation. HHV, higher heating value. System efficiencies of commercial electrolyzers...

John A. Turner

2004-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

482

Hydrogen Production Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As hydrogen appears to be a potential solution for a carbon-free society, its production plays a critical role in showing how well it fulfills the criteria of being environmentally benign and sustainable. Of c...

Ibrahim Dincer; Anand S. Joshi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Hydrogen Production Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Commercially available hydrogen production methods such as steam reforming of natural gas, ... process that are based on fossil hydrocarbons and methods in the stage of development, like thermolysis ... radiolysi...

Y. Yrm

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Bacterial Fermentative Hydrogen Production  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation by Melanie Mormile, Missouri University of Science and Technology, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

485

Electrolytic Hydrogen Generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The energy crisis and associated fuel shortages have propagated many proposals to attain energy independence and develop new sources of energy. The approach of a Hydrogen Economy is one of these proposals. The ...

J. B. Laskin

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

A Hydrogen Economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For some time, people have envisioned an economy where the only source of energy was hydrogen. The idea may have originated in Jules...Mysterious Island....There, a shipwrecked engineer says that once they ran ou...

Sidney Borowitz

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

The Hydrogen Economy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the 1970s a concept grew up: one of the better ways to reduce the spread of pollutants from the burning of fossil fuels would be to replace these with hydrogen. Thoughts concerning this were expressed in t...

J. OM. Bockris

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Energy Security Through Hydrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy and environmental security are major problems facing our global economy. Fossil fuels, particularly crude oil, are ... energy sources. In the long term, a hydrogen-based economy will have an impact on all ...

Professor John W. Sheffield

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489