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1

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

2

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

Stephen Bergin

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were compared to similar fuel samples produced from petroleum. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal-derived liquids and were removed in the refining process. Trace quantities of organo-oxygenate compounds were suspected to be present in the refined fuels. Compounds were identified and quantified as part of an effort to determine the effect of these compounds in fuel instability. Results of the analysis showed trace levels of phenols, naphthols, benzofurans, hexanol, and hydrogenated naphthols were present in levels below 100 ppM. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Knudson, C.L.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Process for removal of mineral particulates from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Suspended mineral solids are separated from a coal-derived liquid containing the solids by a process comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said coal-derived liquid containing solids with a molten additive having a melting point of 100.degree.-500.degree. C. in an amount of up to 50 wt. % with respect to said coal-derived liquid containing solids, said solids present in an amount effective to increase the particle size of said mineral solids and comprising material or mixtures of material selected from the group of alkali metal hydroxides and inorganic salts having antimony, tin, lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, beryllium, aluminum, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium or iron cations and chloride, iodide, bromide, sulfate, phosphate, borate, carbonate, sulfite, or silicate anions; and (b) maintaining said coal-derived liquid in contact with said molten additive for sufficient time to permit said mineral matter to agglomerate, thereby increasing the mean particle size of said mineral solids; and (c) recovering a coal-derived liquid product having reduced mineral solids content. The process can be carried out with less than 5 wt. % additive and in the absence of hydrogen pressure.

McDowell, William J. (Knoxville, TN)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. In addition to the maximum jet fuel schemes, conceptual designs have also been formulated for maximizing profits from refining of the Great Plains by-products. Conceptual processing schemes for profitable production of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X have been developed, as has a maximum profit'' case. All four of these additional cases have now been transferred to Lummus for design and integration studies. Development of these schemes required the use of linear programming technology. This technology includes not only conventional refining processes which have been adapted for use with coal-derived liquids (e.g. hydrotreating, hydrocracking), but also processes which may be uniquely suited to the Great Plains by-products such as cresylic acid extraction, hydordealkylation, and needle coking. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

10

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

11

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

12

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

13

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

14

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the sixth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) Autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (2) Catalyst deactivation, (3) Steam reformer transient response, and (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

Paul A. Erickson

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Method for improving the sedimentation and filterability of coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

An improvement in the separation of suspended solids from coal-derived liquids by a separations process in which solids size is a separations parameter is achieved by contacting the coal-derived liquid containing suspended solids with an effective amount of an additive selected from the group of sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, phosphoric anhydride and salts of sulfuric and phosphoric acid, and maintaining the contacted liquid at a temperature within the range of about 150.degree.-400.degree. C and for a time sufficient to achieve the desired separation rate.

Katz, Sidney (Oak Ridge, TN); Rodgers, Billy R. (Concord, TN)

1979-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

17

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the seventh report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in these areas. These areas are: (1) Steam reformer transient response, (2) Heat transfer enhancement, (3) Catalyst degradation, (4) Catalyst degradation with bluff bodies, and (5) Autothermal reforming of coal-derived methanol. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the eighth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005 and includes an entire review of the progress for year 2 of the project. This year saw progress in eight areas. These areas are: (1) steam reformer transient response, (2) steam reformer catalyst degradation, (3) steam reformer degradation tests using bluff bodies, (4) optimization of bluff bodies for steam reformation, (5) heat transfer enhancement, (6) autothermal reforming of coal derived methanol, (7) autothermal catalyst degradation, and (8) autothermal reformation with bluff bodies. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

Paul A. Erickson

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

20

Production of jet fuels from coal derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus Crest have developed seven cases for upgrading by-product liquids from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels, and in several of the cases, saleable chemicals in addition to jet fuels. The analysis shows that the various grades of jet fuel can be produced from the Great Plains tar oil, but not economically. However, the phenolic and naphtha streams do have the potential to significantly increase (on the order of $10--15 million/year) the net revenues at Great Plains by producing chemicals, especially cresylic acid, cresol, and xylenol. The amount of these chemicals, which can be marketed, is a concern, but profits can be generated even when oxygenated chemical sales are limited to 10 percent of the US market. Another concern is that while commercial processes exist to extract phenolic mixtures, these processes have not been demonstrated with the Great Plains phenolic stream. 9 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

Fleming, B.A.; Fox, J.D.; Furlong, M.W.; Masin, J.G.; Sault, L.P.; Tatterson, D.F. (Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (USA). Research and Development Dept.); Fornoff, L.L.; Link, M.A.; Stahlnecker, E.; Torster, K. (Lummus Crest, Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (USA))

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design. Samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels have been manufactured from the Great Plains tar oil. Larger samples of JP-8 have also been produced and shipped to the US Air Force for further testing. Lummus-Crest Inc. is now completing a preliminary process design for the profitable production of JP-8 and has made recommendations for a production run to produce larger quantities of JP-8. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design in the later phases of the contract. Samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels have been manufactured from the Great Plains tar oil. Larger samples of JP-8 are nearly completed. Specification of a design basis for profitable production of JP-8 is under way. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels, for maximizing profits, and for profitable production of each of the three jet fuels from the by-product liquids have been developed. Economic analyses of the designs show that jet fuel can be produced from the by-products, but not economically. However, jet fuel production could be subsidized profitably by processing the phenolic and naphtha streams to cresols, phenols, BTX, and other valuable chemical by-products. Uncertainties in the studies are marketability of the chemical by-products, replacement fuel costs, and viable schemes to process the phenol stream, among others. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design in the later phases of the contract. Experimental work to date has shown that the tar oil stream requires substantially more severe processing than the preliminary design estimates indicated. A new design basis is now being tested and samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X are in production, based on that new, more severe processing scheme. Six barrels of tar oil have been hydrotreated according to the first step of the processing scheme and will be used to produce barrel quantities of JP-8. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

Solids precipitation and polymerization of asphaltenes in coal-derived liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The precipitation and removal of particulate solids from coal-derived liquids by adding a process-derived anti-solvent liquid fraction and continuing the precipitation process at a temperature above the melting point of the mixed liquids for sufficient time to allow the asphaltenes to polymerize and solids to settle at atmospheric pressure conditions. The resulting clarified light hydrocarbon overflow liquid contains less than about 0.02 W % ash and is suitable as turbine fuel or as boiler fuel for burning without particulate emission control equipment. An underflow liquid fraction containing less than about 0.1 W % solids along with low sulfur and nitrogen concentrations is suitable as a boiler fuel with emission control equipment.

Kydd, Paul H. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases  

SciTech Connect

The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

2001-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

28

Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the third report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of April 1-June 30, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) External evaluation of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design, set up and initial testing of the autothermal reactor, (3) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (4) Catalyst degradation studies, and (5) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

29

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

31

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the first such report that will be submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1--December 31, 2003. This quarter saw progress in three areas. These areas are: (1) Evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor, as well as (3) Set up and data collection of baseline performance using the steam reformer. All of the projects are proceeding on schedule. During this quarter one conference paper was written that will be presented at the ASME Power 2004 conference in March 2004, which outlines the research direction and basis for looking at the coal to hydrogen pathway.

Paul A. Erickson

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. [Butyribacterium methylotrophicum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

www.elsevier.com/locate/fuel Trace elements in coal derived liquids: analysis by ICP-MS and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concentrations of trace elements in coal derived liquids have been investigated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by Mssbauer spectroscopy. Liquefaction extracts prepared from the Argonne Premium Coals and a coal tar pitch have been examined. Microwave digestion in concentrated nitric acid has been shown as a suitable method for determining trace element concentrations in coal derived liquids by ICP-MSfor sample sizes as small as 320 mg. High concentrations of Fe were found for all extract samples (?2651474 ppm). Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ga, Sb, Cs and Ba were measurable. Concentration distributions of trace elements found in the extracts bore little relation to the corresponding distributions in the original coals. The proportions of individual trace elements present in the original coals and found in the extracts, varied widely. Mssbauer spectroscopy of the extracts indicated that the high Fe-concentrations corresponded to the presence of organometallic-Fe compoundsand not to pyritic iron. There is evidence suggesting the presence of material derived from iron-storage proteins such as ferritin, but final proof is lacking. Our data suggest that other metallic ions detected in these coal derived liquids may be present in association with the organic material. Concentrations of paramagnetic metal species were found to be of the same order of magnitude as ESR spin-densities already found in coal liquids. Both types of paramagnetic species are suspected of causing loss of signal in

Mssbauer Spectroscopy; R. Richaud A; H. Lachas A; M. -j. Lazaro A; L. J. Clarke B; K. E. Jarvis B; A. A. Herod A; T. C. Gibb C; R. Kandiyoti A

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A linear relationship represents the hydrogenation activity decay of catalysts used in four experimental runs reported previously. The weight percent hydrogen in the reactor product oils plotted against oil-catalyst contact time for experimental runs ZBB, ZBC, ZBD, and ZBE reveals a linear decay rate of 0.0083 wt% hydrogen per hour. This is one quantitative measure of catalyst activity decay. The data for the plot incorporate three different catalysts or combinations used to process a PAMCO liquid at 1500 psig, 435C and LVHST of 2 hours. The data set covers run duration of up to 120 hours of oil-catalyst contact. An air driven hydrogen compressor was installed in the Catalyst Life Test Unit to reduce the costs associated with bottle hydrogen. Minor repairs were made on the oil feed pump. Five experimental runs were made with Shell 324 NiMo/Al catalyst using two feedstocks: (1) 40 wt% EDS/EDS raw solvent and (2) 30 wt% SRC-I creosote oil. The EDS feed oil proved to be rather easily hydrotreated as evidenced by 82 to 100% nitrogen removal, essentially complete desulfurization and no catalyst activity decay during 260 hours of continuous operation. Rapid coking resulted from the highly hydrogen deficient SRC/creosote mixture. The Shell 324 catalyst gave excellent hydrogenation of both liquids by increasing the hydrogen content of the product oils by about 3.8 wt%. This catalyst will be used in future studies; however, a new feedstock consisting of 30 wt% SRC-I/PAMCO process solvent will be assessed for use in catalyst decay mechanism studies.

Crynes, B.L.

1981-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

35

Effect of Impurities in Coal-Derived Syngas on Hydrogen Separation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy has established a set of performance targets for hydrogen separation membranes for the syngas applications in its Hydrogen...

36

The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Apparatus and method for pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in coal derived, water immiscible liquid  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus for and method of pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in a coal derived, water immiscible liquid to higher pressure involves the use of a motive fluid which is miscible with the liquid of the slurry. The apparatus includes a pump 12, a remote check valve 14 and a chamber 16 between and in fluid communication with the pump 12 and check valve 14 through conduits 18,20. Pump 12 exerts pressure on the motive fluid and thereby on the slurry through a concentration gradient of coal solids within chamber 16 to alternately discharge slurry under pressure from the outlet port of check valve 14 and draw slurry in through the inlet port of check valve 14.

Ackerman, Carl D. (Olympia, WA)

1983-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

38

Enthalpy measurement of coal-derived liquids. Combined quarterly technical progress reports, April-June 1979 and July-September 1979. [Effect of association  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Enthalpy measurements on a coal-derived naphtha and middle distillate, both produced by the SRC-II process, were made using flow calorimetry. The accuracy of the measurements, as reported by Omid, was within +- 1% of the measured enthalpy differences, ..delta..H. Experimental data for the naphtha were obtained over a pressure range of 100-300 psia and temperatures from 148/sup 0/ to 456/sup 0/F. The middle distillate enthalpy measurements were made in the pressure and temperature ranges of 130 to 1000 psia, and 157/sup 0/ to 675/sup 0/F, respectively. The methods of prediction of enthalpy developed for petroleum fractions were unsatisfactory when applied to the above data. A negative bias was observed in the predicted enthalpy values for several of the coal-liquids. Based on these results, it was theorized that the high experimental enthalpy values for coal-liquids were due to an energy of association attributed, primarily, to hydrogen-bonding effects. The petroleum-fraction enthalpy correlations were then tested on the experimental data for pure compounds, both associating and non-associating. The predicted values compared very well with the experimental results for non-associating model compounds. However, for associating model compounds the predicted enthalpy values were considerably lower than their experimental data. This served to confirm the basic premise that the high experimental enthalpy values, for model compounds and coal liquids, were a direct consequence of an energy of association attributed, primarily, to hydrogen-bonding effects.

Kidnay, A.J.; Yesavage, V.F.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

40

PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION FROM COAL-DERIVED GAS STREAMS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For hydrogen from coal gasification to be used economically, processing approaches that produce a high purity gas must be developed. Palladium and its alloys, nickel, platinum and the metals in Groups 3 to 5 of the Periodic Table are all permeable to hydrogen. Hydrogen permeable metal membranes made of palladium and its alloys are the most widely studied due to their high hydrogen permeability, chemical compatibility with many hydrocarbon containing gas streams, and infinite hydrogen selectivity. Our Pd composite membranes have demonstrated stable operation at 450 C for over 70 days. Coal derived synthesis gas will contain up to 15000 ppm H{sub 2}S as well as CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and other gases. Highly selectivity membranes are necessary to reduce the H{sub 2}S concentration to acceptable levels for solid oxide and other fuel cell systems. Pure Pd-membranes are poisoned by sulfur, and suffer from mechanical problems caused by thermal cycling and hydrogen embrittlement. Recent advances have shown that Pd-Cu composite membranes are not susceptible to the mechanical, embrittlement, and poisoning problems that have prevented widespread industrial use of Pd for high temperature H{sub 2} separation. These membranes consist of a thin ({le} 5 {micro}m) film of metal deposited on the inner surface of a porous metal or ceramic tube. With support from this DOE Grant, we have fabricated thin, high flux Pd-Cu alloy composite membranes using a sequential electroless plating approach. Thin, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} films exhibit a hydrogen flux more than ten times larger than commercial polymer membranes for H{sub 2} separation, resist poisoning by H{sub 2}S and other sulfur compounds typical of coal gas, and exceed the DOE Fossil Energy target hydrogen flux of 80 ml/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min = 0.6 mol/m{sup 2} {center_dot} s for a feed pressure of 40 psig. Similar Pd-membranes have been operated at temperatures as high as 750 C. We have developed practical electroless plating procedures for fabrication of thin Pd-Cu composite membranes at any scale.

J. Douglas Way

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goals of Office of Clean Coal are: (1) Improved energy security; (2) Reduced green house gas emissions; (3) High tech job creation; and (4) Reduced energy costs. The goals of the Hydrogen from Coal Program are: (1) Prove the feasibility of a 40% efficient, near zero emissions IGCC plant that uses membrane separation technology and other advanced technologies to reduce the cost of electricity by at least 35%; and (2) Develop H{sub 2} production and processing technologies that will contribute {approx}3% in improved efficiency and 12% reduction in cost of electricity.

O.N. Dogan; B.H. Howard; D.E. Alman

2012-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Bioconversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of coal-derived synthesis gas as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels and chemicals has become an increasingly attractive alternative to present petroleum-based chemicals production. However, one of the major limitations in developing such a process is the required removal of catalyst poisons such as hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and other trace contaminants from the synthesis gas. Purification steps necessary to remove these are energy intensive and add significantly to the production cost, particularly for coals having a high sulfur content such as Illinois coal. A two-stage, anaerobic bioconversion process requiring little or no sulfur removal is proposed, where in the first stage the carbon monoxide (CO) gas is converted to butyric and acetic acids by the CO strain of Butyribacterium methylotrophicum. In the second stage, these acids along with the hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas are converted to butanol, ethanol, and acetone by an acid utilizing mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum. 18 figs., 18 tabs.

Jain, M.K.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

43

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications  

SciTech Connect

The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

Joseph Rabovitser

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

45

Bioconversion of coal derived synthesis gas to liquid fuels. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April--30 June 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project is to develop an integrated two-stage fermentation process for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to a mixture of alcohols. This is achieved in two steps. In the first step, Butyribacterium methylotrophicum converts carbon monoxide (CO) to butyric and acetic acids. Subsequent fermentation of the acids by Clostridium acetobutylicum leads to the production of butanol and ethanol. The tasks for this quarter were: development/isolation of superior strains for fermentation of syngas; evaluation of bioreactor configuration for improved mass transfer of syngas; recovery of carbon and electrons from H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2}; initiation of pervaporation for recovery of solvents; and selection of solid support material for trickle-bed fermentation. Technical progress included the following. Butyrate production was enhanced during H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} (50/50) batch fermentation. Isolation of CO-utilizing anaerobic strains is in progress. Pressure (15 psig) fermentation was evaluated as a means of increasing CO availability. Polyurethane foam packing material was selected for trickle bed solid support. Cell recycle fermentation on syngas operated for 3 months. Acetate was the primary product at pH 6.8. Trickle bed and gas lift fermentor designs were modified after initial water testing. Pervaporation system was constructed. No alcohol selectivity was shown with the existing membranes during initial start-up.

Jain, M.K.; Worden, R.M.; Grethlein, A.

1994-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

46

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the last quarter, we developed procedures for producing free-standing, defect free films using rigid silicon and glass substrates over areas up to 12 square inches. Since formation of contiguous Pd-Cu films in the 2-3 {micro}m-thick range is ultimately governed by the size of the particle contamination on the supporting substrate surface, we have adopted techniques utilized by the semiconductor industry to reduce and eventually eliminate particle contamination. We have found these techniques to be much more effective on rigid substrates and have made a down select decision on removal methods (a key milestone) based on these results and the performance of membranes fabricated by this technique. The path to fabricating even larger membranes is straightforward and will be demonstrated in the coming months. Hydrogen permeation tests were also conducted this quarter on as-deposited, Pd-Cu membranes, between 6-14 {micro}m-thick. In the case of a 6 {micro}m-thick film, the pure hydrogen flux at 20 psig and {approx}260 C was 36 cm{sup 3}(STP)/cm{sup 2} min. This flux corresponds to a pure hydrogen permeability of 7.4 {center_dot} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 3} cm cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} cm Hg{sup -1/2} at 250 C. This value is within 20% of the pure hydrogen permeability at 250 C reported in the McKinley patent. In the case of a 14 {micro}m-thick membrane tested at 350 C, the pure hydrogen flux, measured before initiating a pinhole-size leak, was 2.1 {center_dot} 10{sup -5} cm{sup 3}(STP) {center_dot} cm/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s {center_dot} cm Hg{sup 0.5}. This value is considerably lower than the expected permeability of Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} materials at 400 C. To date, essentially all of the sputtered deposited Pd-Cu thin film membranes have had palladium compositions that were as much as 3% greater than the ideal 60 weight percent composition (this is a direct consequence of sputtering from a 60/40, Pd/Cu alloy target). As the concentration of Pd is increased beyond the optimum 60% value, a less desirable two-phase structure forms at the higher temperatures (in this case, above 260-280 C). As we continue development of procedures for producing thinner Pd-Cu films next quarter, we will also be optimizing alloy composition and corresponding hydrogen permeation flux as well.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

47

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Over the last quarter, we continued to optimize procedures for producing free-standing, defect free films using rigid silicon and glass substrates. A strong correlation was observed between sputter power and formation of defects (pinholes) in the film; i.e., lower power, and correspondingly lower deposition rate, results in a lower defect density. Films less than 1 {micro}m-thick have been successfully released from both silicon and glass substrates although the minimum thickness for pinhole-free films over a 4-inch diameter disc is still on the order of 3-4 {micro}m. Results from hydrogen permeation testing over the last quarter have shown a marked increase in membrane performance primarily due to proper alloy composition and pre-treatment procedures. As an example, the hydrogen flux at 400 C and 20 psi trans-membrane pressure, for a 5 {micro}m-thick membrane, was 120 cm{sup 3} (STP)/cm{sup 2} min. The productivity of this membrane exceeds the 2015 DOE Fossil Energy targets. Hydrogen permeability was calculated to be 2.0 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} cm{sup 3}(STP) {center_dot} cm/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s {center_dot} cm Hg{sup 0.5}. Permeation tests were then repeated on a sibling membrane sample and the measured hydrogen flow rate at 400 C and 20 psi was 58 cm{sup 3} (STP)/min. Although lower than the flow rate of the first sample, the hydrogen flow rate increased to 175 cm{sup 3} (STP)/min after two oxidation treatments. Finally, with the attendance of John Shen and the rest of the program team members at the IdaTech facility in Bend, OR, we presented an overview of program activities. Subsequently, we prepared detailed written responses to John Shen's questions with regard to technical feasibility, maturity, scale-up and commercialization potential in comparison to competing hydrogen separation methods such as pressure swing absorption and ionic conducting membranes.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Combustion-Turbine Design Guidelines Based on Deposition-Corrosion Considerations, Volume 2: Coal-Derived Liquid Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Middle-distillate coal liquids test out as acceptable gas turbine fuels in terms of deposition and corrosion. Solid-liquid slurries would also be acceptable if turbine cleaning techniques were fully used.This series of tests provided design and operating guidelines that would minimize ash deposition and turbine corrosion.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the last quarter, new procedures were developed and implemented to improve reliability and repeatability of release characteristics from the temporary substrate (i.e., silicon wafer) and to minimize through-thickness defects in a 6-inch diameter film, 3 microns in thickness. With the new procedures, we have been able to consistently produce essentially stress free films, with zero or minimal defects (less than 5) across a 6-inch diameter area. (It is important to note that for those films containing pinholes, a procedure has been developed to repair the pinholes to form a gas tight seal). The films are all within the identified tolerance range for composition (i.e., 60 {+-} 0.2 % Pd). A number of these films have subsequently been shipped to IdaTech for evaluation and integration into their test module. Colorado School of Mines continued their high temperature evaluation of 6 micron thick, sputtered Pd-Cu films. Pure hydrogen permeability increased up to 400 C while the membrane was in the {beta}-phase and dropped once the temperature increased to over 450 C. Above this temperature, as confirmed by the binary phase diagram, the film transforms into either a mixed {alpha}/{beta} or pure {alpha} phase. The same trend was observed for a baseline 25 micron-thick foil (from Wilkinson) where the pure hydrogen permeability increased with temperature while the membrane was in the {beta}-phase and then decreased upon transformation to the {alpha} phase.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

50

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, significant progress has been made in optimize the deposition and release characteristics of ultrathin (less than 4 micron) membranes from rigid silicon substrates. Specifically, we have conducted a series of statistically designed experiments to examine the effects of plasma cleaning and compliant layer deposition conditions on the stress, release and pinhole density of membranes deposited on 4 inch and 6 inch round substrates. With this information we have progressed to the deposition and release of ultra-thin membranes from 12-inch diameter (113 sq. in.) rigid substrates, achieving a key milestone for large-area membrane fabrication. Idatech received and is beginning preparations to test the Pd alloy membranes fabricated at SwRI the previous quarter. They are currently evaluating alternate gasketing methods and support materials that will allow for effective sealing and mounting of such thin membranes. David Edlund has also recently left Idatech and Bill Pledger (Chief Engineer) has replaced him as the primary technical point of contact. At Idetech's request a small number of additional 16 sq. in, samples were provided in a 2 in. by 8 in. geometry for use in a new module design currently under development. Recent work at the Colorado School of Mines has focused on developing preconditioning methods for thin Pd alloy membranes (6 microns or less) and continuing tests of thin membranes produced at SwRI. Of particular note, a 300-hour short-term durability study was completed over a range of temperatures from 300-450 C on a foil that showed perfect hydrogen selectivity throughout the entire test. With a 20 psi driving force, pure hydrogen flow rates ranged from 500 to 700 cc/min. Calculated at DOE specified conditions, the H{sub 2} flux of this membrane exceeded the 2010 Fossil target value of 200 SCFH/ft{sup 2}.

J. Arps

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In continuation of efforts from last quarter, processing parameters, used in the formation of Pd-Cu alloy films, were being optimized in a drum (web) coater system with the goal of producing large-area, contiguous, pinhole-free films for H{sub 2} separation membranes. Since the (pre-treatment) functionality of the surface of the plastic backing material is sub-optimal, they tended to produce films in the drum coater that were either not contiguous (disseminates upon release from the polymer backing material) or contain pinholes. Alternative approaches, such as direct deposition onto thermally oxidized silicon wafers, have been attempted to yield pinhole-free films; i.e., formation of a poorly adherent Pd-Cu film on silicon will then directly release from the silicon substrate. Permeation characteristics of a 25 {micro}m-thick, Pd{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} alloy foil were conducted. After pre-treating the sample to stabilize the FCC {beta}-phase, the hydrogen permeability was determined to be 5.4 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 3} cmcm{sup -2}s{sup -1}cm Hg{sup -1/2}. Thin, 1-3 {micro}m-thick Pd-Cu alloy films have been prepared on PS films and samples will be prepared and tested in the next quarter.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Liquid metal hydrogen barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

Grover, George M. (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Thurman G. (Los Alamos, NM); Keddy, Edward S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Annual technical progress report, September 19, 1979-September 18, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Twelve supported iron and cobalt catalysts were prepared, including three boride-promoted catalysts, by a procedure developed previously in this laboratory. Each was characterized by H/sub 2/ and CO chemisorption measurements. Construction and testing of a high pressure laboratory microreactor system were completed. The system features a 0.65 cm tubular reactor, ice-temperature liquid traps, and a gas chromatograhic system for complete product analysis. Eight catalysts were tested at 90 kPa, 450 to 500/sup 0/K H/sub 2//CO = 2 to obtain product distribution, selectivity, and turnover number data. The results show that supports and promoters significantly affect specific activity and product selectivity of iron and cobalt in CO hydrogenation.

Bartholomew, C H

1980-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

54

Chemicals from coal. Utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article provides an overview for possible utilization of coal-derived phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are abundant in coal-derived liquids. Coal-derived phenolic compounds include phenol, cresol, catechol, methylcatechol, naphthol, and their derivatives. Liquids from coal liquefaction, pyrolysis, gasification, and carbonization are potential sources of phenolic chemicals, although certain processing and separation are needed. There are opportunities for coal-based phenolic chemicals, because there are existing industrial applications and potential new applications. Currently the petrochemical industry produces phenol in multi-step processes, and new research and development has resulted in a one-step process. Selective methylation of phenol can produce a precursor for aromatic engineering plastics. Catalytic oxidation of phenol has been commercialized recently for catechol production. There are potential new uses of phenol that could replace large-volume multi-step chemical processes that are based on benzene as the starting material. New chemical research on coal and coal-derived liquids can pave the way for their non-fuel uses for making chemicals and materials.

Song, C.; Schobert, H.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A Liquid-Hydrogen Cerenkov Counter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

^BsS A LIQUID-HYDROGEN CERENKOV COUNTER t > f lf ,f X'i Si -tel A LIQUID-HYDROGEN CERENKOV COUNTER t V Berkeley,

Zipi, T.F.; Chamberlain, Owen; Kadyk, John A.; York, Carl M.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Filtering coal-derived oil through a filter media precoated with particles partially solubilized by said oil  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solids such as char, ash, and refractory organic compounds are removed from coal-derived liquids from coal liquefaction processes by the pressure precoat filtration method using particles of 85-350 mesh material selected from the group of bituminous coal, anthracite coal, lignite, and devolatilized coals as precoat materials and as body feed to the unfiltered coal-derived liquid.

Rodgers, Billy R. (Concord, TN); Edwards, Michael S. (Knoxville, TN)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Final technical progress report, September 19, 1979-October 22, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The effects of support and of boron or potassium promoters on the adsorption properties, CO hydrogenation activity/selectivity behavior, and sulfur resistance of iron (and to a lesser extent cobalt) were investigated. Iron catalysts supported on alumina, silica, and silicalite and promoted with potassium were prepared by conventional impregnation techniques. Cobalt and iron borides were prepared by chemical reduction with NaBH/sub 4/. The adsorptions of CO and H/sub 2/ on these catalysts were studied by static adsorption and temperature-programmed desorption techniques. Activity, selectivity, and sulfur-resistance during CO hydrogenation on these catalysts were determined using a laboratory microreactor. The results indicate that support, promoter, and catalyst pretreatment significantly influence adsorption, activity, selectivity, and sulfur resistance behavior of these catalysts. Hydrogen adsorption on these catalysts is highly activated; moreover the degree of activation varies with support, promoter and pretreatment. Specific activities of iron catalysts on different supports vary 40 fold; selectivities of these catalysts for CO/sub 2/ and different hydrocarbons also vary significantly with support. Calcination at 473/sup 0/K of potassium promoted Fe/silica shifts selectivity from conventional Fisher-Tropsch products (C/sub 1/-C/sub 10/ hydrocarbons and CO/sub 2/) to mainly methane, ethylene and propylene. These and other significant results are presented and discussed. An account of technical communications and publications is also included. 24 references, 20 tables, 9 figures.

Bartholomew, C.H.

1984-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

58

Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Quarterly technical progress report, March 19-June 18, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 15% Fe-3% K/sub 2/O on SiO/sub 2/ catalyst, a 15% Co-3% K/sub 2/O on SiO catalyst and a 15% CoB/SiO/sub 2/ catalyst were prepared. H/sub 2/ and CO chemisorption uptakes were measured for the catalysts prepared to date. It was noted that calcining the iron catalysts in air before reduction in flowing H/sub 2/ aided in increasing metal dispersion. Liquid and wax traps for use in the reactor system were completed as were plans for chromatographic product analysis.

Bartholomew, C H

1980-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

59

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand the relationship between macroscopic thermodynamic properties and the various types of intermolecular forces. Since coal-derived liquids contain a wide variety of compounds, a theory capable of successfully predicting the thermophysical properties for coal processes must take into account the molecular shapes and all significant intermolecular forces: dispersion forces, anisotropic forces due to dipoles and quadrupoles, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions. We have developed the Acid-Base-Perturbed-Anisotropic-Chain Theory (ABPACT), a comprehensive theory that is capable of predicting the thermophysical properties for many systems where these different intermolecular forces are present. The ABPACT can treat non-polar compounds, polar compounds and compounds that associate through Lewis acid-base interactions. In addition to our theoretical work, we have used computer simulations to evaluate (and in some cases correct) the assumptions made in this theory. We also have conducted experiments to help us better understand the interplay of different kinds of interactions in multicomponent mixtures.

Donohue, M.D.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Annual technical progress report, September 19, 1980-September 18, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the past contract year, considerable progress was made in characterization and activity/selectivity testing of iron and cobalt catalysts. Preparation of boride promoted cobalt and iron catalysts was refined and nearly completed. H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption and oxygen titration measurements were performed on a number of supported and unsupported catalysts, especially several boride promoted cobalt and iron catalysts. Activity/selectivity tests of 3 and 15% Fe/SiO/sub 2/ and Co/SiO/sub 2/ and of 6 borided cobalt and iron catalysts were completed. The product distributions for iron and cobalt boride catalysts are unusual and interesting. Boron promoted iron is more active and stable than iron/silica; cobalt boride has an unusually high selectivity for alcohols. Tests to determine effects of H/sub 2/S poisoning on activity/selectivity properties of 15% Co/SiO/sub 2/ indicate that a significant loss of activity occurs over a period of 24 to 28 h in the presence of 10 to 20 ppM H/sub 2/S. Product selectivity to liquids increased through a maximum during the gradual addition of sulfur. Reactant CO and H/sub 2/S interact partially to form COS which is less toxic than H/sub 2/S. H/sub 2/ and CO adsorption data were obtained for 3, 6 and 9% Co/ZSM-5 catalysts prepared and reactor tested by PETC. The unusual and interesting results suggest that metal-support interactions may have an important influence on reactant adsorption properties.

Bartholomew, C.H.

1981-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers, and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels development Unit (AFDU). The program will initially involve a continuation of the work performed under the Liquid Phase Methanol Program but will later draw upon information and technologies generated in current and future DOE-funded contracts, as well as test commercially available catalysts. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1991-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

62

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Alternate Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Alternate Hydrogen Production In the Alternate Production technology pathway, clean syngas from coal is converted to high-hydrogen-content liquid...

63

A Liquid-Hydrogen Cerenkov Counter  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two models of a liquid-hydrogen (?-illegible) Cherenkov counter (illegible) been constructed (illegible). The first served as a prototype (?-illegible) and was (illegible) to demonstrate the feasibility (?-illegible) of the (illegible) concept (?-illegible) (illegible) liquid hydrogen does not give scintillation (?-illegible) (illegible) that of Cherenkov light. The second, final version (?-illegible), (illegible) in an experiment (?-illegible) in which particles brought to rest (?-illegible) (illegible) (illegible) electrons. In this second counter, the efficiency (?-illegible) (illegible) relativistic (?-illegible) particles (?-illegible) by their Cherenkov radiation in liquid hydrogen (?-illegible) was measured by stopping (illegible) mesons in the hydrogen and detecting their decay electrons outside (?-illegible) of the flask (?-illegible) after a suitable time delay. An average detection (?-illegible) efficiency (?-illegible) of 75% (?-illegible) was (illegible) taken over the volume of the hydrogen (?-illegible).

Zipi, T.F.; Chamberlain, Owen; Kadyk, John A.; York, Carl M.

1963-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

64

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

From Bio-Derived Liquids From Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen From Bio Hydrogen From Bio - - Derived Liquids Derived Liquids Dave King, Yong Wang, PNNL BILIWIG Meeting Laurel, Maryland November 6, 2007 Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Innovation / Overview Project comprises two components z Ethanol steam reforming z Aqueous phase reforming (APR) Importance to small scale hydrogen production for distributed reforming for hydrogen production ‹ Ethanol is rapidly becoming an infrastructure fuel and is a logical feedstock ‹ APR provides vehicle for facile reforming of a variety of bio-derived feedstocks available in the biorefinery that are not conducive to conventional vapor phase reforming Distinctive technology approach/innovation z We are investigating single step ethanol reforming with emphasis on lower

65

Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogen Energy Hydrogen Energy Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy Name Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy Address 6, Rue Cognacq-Jay Place Paris, France Zip 75321 Sector Hydrogen Year founded 2009 Website http://www.airliquide-hydrogen Coordinates 48.8617579°, 2.3047757° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":48.8617579,"lon":2.3047757,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

66

Safety of liquid hydrogen in air transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Safety is an important consideration in the use of hydrogen in air transportation. The use of cryogenic hydrogen involves the hazards arising from low temperatures as well as those of combustibles. An understanding of safety-related properties and their consequences is necessary for safe design and operation. Here we discuss hydrogen properties and their effect upon airline operation. Several safety problems require additional experimental work before they can be sufficiently understood. To maintain the good safety record associated with the previous use of liquid hydrogen requires a continuing safety engineering effort including planning, design, construction of equipment, and continuous training of personnel.

Edeskuty, F.J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 6. Preliminary analysis of upgrading alternatives for the Great Plains liquid by-production streams. Interim report, March 1987-February 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest have developed seven cases for upgrading by-product liquids from the Great Plains Coal Gasification plant to jet fuels, and in several of the cases, saleable chemicals in addition to jet fuels. The analysis shows that the various grades of jet fuel can be produced from the Great Plains tar oil, but not economically. However the phenolic and naptha streams do have the potential to significantly increase (on the order of $10-15 million/year) the net revenues at Great Plains by producing chemicals, especially cresylic acid, cresol, and xylenol. The amount of these chemicals, which can be marketed, is a concern, but profits can be generated even when oxygenated chemical sales are limited to 10% of the U.S. market. Another concern is that while commercial processes exist to extract phenolic mixtures, these processes have not been demonstrated with the Great Plains phenolic stream.

Fleming, B.A.; Fox, J.D.; Furlong, M.W.; Masin, J.G.; Sault, L.P.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, vehicles can still drive with gasoline/diesel derived from tar sand, oil shale, and coal derived liquids

69

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

2001-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

70

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from the bottom of a condenser attached to the second stagereturned to the top of the condenser. Hydrogen is explosivetank, and condensed in a condenser attached to the Sumitomo

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Liquid Hydrogen Target Experience at SLAC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid hydrogen targets have played a vital role in the physics program at SLAC for the past 40 years. These targets have ranged from small ''beer can'' targets to the 1.5 m long E158 target that was capable of absorbing up to 800 W without any significant density changes. Successful use of these targets has required the development of thin wall designs, liquid hydrogen pumps, remote positioning and alignment systems, safety systems, control and data acquisition systems, cryogenic cooling circuits and heat exchangers. Detailed operating procedures have been created to ensure safety and operational reliability. This paper surveys the evolution of liquid hydrogen targets at SLAC and discusses advances in several of the enabling technologies that made these targets possible.

Weisend, J.G.; Boyce, R.; Candia, A.; Kaminskas, W.; Mark, J.; Racine, M.; St. Lorant, S.; Weber, T.; /SLAC; Arnold, R.; Bosted, P.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Carr, R.; Gao, J.; Jones, C.E.; McKeown, R.; /Caltech

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

73

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas Description Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology offers a means to utilize coal -the most abundant fuel in the United States-to produce a host of products, ranging from electricity to value-added chemicals like transportation fuels and hydrogen, in an efficient, environmentally friendly manner. However, the overall cost (capital, operating,

74

Room Temperature Hydrogen Storage in Nano-Confined Liquids -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

measurements of * hydrogen solubility in volatile liquid solvents in both bulk form and nano-confined liquidscaffold composites. Demonstrate volumetric measurements of hydrogen *...

75

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE's LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products' laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively benign'' system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE's program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

Brown, D.M.

1992-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

76

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes

77

Liquid hydrogen flow problems in Kiwi reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Kiwi series of reactors were the first ones tested in the US Rover Program in the development of nuclear rocket engines for space propulsion. The early experiments with liquid hydrogen showed that parallel flow systems were prone to uneven flow distributions and violent fluctuations in pressure and flow that were capable of destroying a reactor core. Kiwi flow distribution problems were solved by using multiple feed lines into the nozzle cooling system and carefully balancing impedance among them. The violent pressure and flow fluctuations were eliminated after their cause was identified as resonance phenomena driven by the response to flow disturbances of heat transfer through a superheated hydrogen layer. Smooth flow operations were assured by rapidly bringing operating pressures beyond several times the critical pressure of hydrogen. After this initial rough start, solid core nuclear rocket engines successfully passed milestones of achievements during the remainder of the Rover program.

Thurston, R.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand and model the effect of the different intermolecular forces on the thermodynamic properties of systems containing pure compounds and mixtures. The compounds under consideration vary considerably in size, shape and energy. Therefore in order to develop a theory capable of describing accurately the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of such systems over a wide range of temperature and pressure, one has to take into account explicitly the differences in shape and size among the various compounds as well as the different type of intermolecular interactions. In order to get a better understanding of the intermolecular forces and to test some of our recent models, we have performed considerable experimental work. We used FTIR to examine hydrogen bonding interactions between small molecules and between small molecules and polymers. In addition, we investigated experimentally the high pressure phase behavior of ternary and quaternary systems exhibiting polar and hydrogen bonding interactions.

Donohue, M.D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Hydrogenation of coal liquid utilizing a metal carbonyl catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Coal liquid having a dissolved transition metal, catalyst as a carbonyl complex such as Co.sub.2 (CO.sub.8) is hydrogenated with hydrogen gas or a hydrogen donor. A dissociating solvent contacts the coal liquid during hydrogenation to form an immiscible liquid mixture at a high carbon monoxide pressure. The dissociating solvent, e.g. ethylene glycol, is of moderate coordinating ability, while sufficiently polar to solvate the transition metal as a complex cation along with a transition metal, carbonyl anion in solution at a decreased carbon monoxide pressure. The carbon monoxide pressure is reduced and the liquids are separated to recover the hydrogenated coal liquid as product. The dissociating solvent with the catalyst in ionized form is recycled to the hydrogenation step at the elevated carbon monoxide pressure for reforming the catalyst complex within fresh coal liquid.

Feder, Harold M. (Hinsdale, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting - November 2007 to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting - November 2007 on...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on October 24, 2006 Review of Working Group Charter & DOE RD&D Targets for Hydrogen Production from Renewable Liquid Fuels, Arlene Anderson, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies...

82

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by reforming bio-liquids such as sugars, ethanol, or bio-oils or through gasification or pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks. In the near term, distributed hydrogen production...

83

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand and model the effect of the different intermolecular forces on the thermodynamic properties of systems containing pure compounds and mixtures. The compounds under consideration vary considerably in size, shape and energy. Therefore in order to develop a theory capable of describing accurately the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of such systems over a wide range of temperature and pressure, one has to take into account explicitly the differences in shape and size among the various compounds as well as the different type of intermolecular interactions. We have developed equations of state for pure-component chain molecules. We have shown that the excellent performance of complicated theories such as the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory can be mimicked by simpler equations, if certain assumptions for the shape parameters are made. We developed engineering correlations based on the GFD theory, using local composition theory to take into account the attractive contribution. We compared various methods for the calculation of the repulsive and attractive contributions against computer simulation data for hard and square-well chains, and experimental data from the literature. We also have studied microstructure and local order in fluids that contain asymmetric molecules. In addition, simple cubic equations of state have been applied to calculate physical and chemical-reaction equilibria in non-ideal systems. In order to obtain a better understanding of the intermolecular forces and to test some of our recent models, we have performed considerable experimental work. We used FT-IR to examine the self-association of aliphatic alcohols due to hydrogen bonding. In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy was used to investigate Lewis acid-base interactions between probe and entrainer-cosolvent molecules.

Donohue, M.D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Safety Aspects of the E158 Liquid Hydrogen Target System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The E158 experiment, currently underway at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) scatters a high power 45 GeV polarized electron beam off a large liquid hydrogen target. The total volume of liquid hydrogen in the target is 55 liters, which, if detonated, could produce an explosive yield corresponding to more than 10 kg of TNT. This paper describes the requirements, design and performance of the E158 hydrogen target safety system. The methodology of the design and the safety review process is also described. The experience with the E158 target may be valuable for other sizable liquid hydrogen target systems.

Weisend, John G.

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

85

Production of jet fuels from coal derived liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company has conducted bench- and pilot plant-scale experiments to produce jet fuels from the tar oil from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task 1 are not severe enough to saturate the aromatics in the tar oil to meet jet fuel specifications. Alternatives were investigated. Jet fuel specifications can be achieved when the tar oil is: hydrotreated in an expanded-bed hydrotreater to lower aromatics and heteroatom content; the effluent is then hydrotreated in a second, fixed bed hydrotreater; and, finally, the 550{degree}F boiling fraction from the two hydrotreaters is hydrocracked to extinction. The process was verified by pilot-plant production of 2 barrels of JP-8 turbine fuel, which met all but the flash point specification for JP-8. In addition, small samples of JP-4, JP-8, and high-density fuel were produced as a part of Task 2. 13 figs., 21 tabs.

Furlong, M.; Fox, J.; Masin, J.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Task 1 of the work, in which processes to produce each of the three jet fuels, JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X, were designed, has been completed. The formal Task 1 report should issue next quarter. Task 2 work was initiated this quarter. In Task 2, process conditions for producing jet fuel from the Great Plains tar oil stream will be verified and samples of each of the three jet fuels will be produced. Experimental work shows that the hydrotreating conditions specified in Task 1 will not convert sufficient aromatics in the tar oil to produce jet fuel. Alternative schemes have been proposed and are being tested in the laboratories at Amoco Research Center. The simplest of these schemes, in which the heavy ends from the hydrotreater are recycled to extinction, was tested and proved infeasible. A second stage, fixed bed hydrotreater will be added to the process along with the expanded bed, first-stage hydrotreater and the hydrocracker specified in the Task 1 design. Future work will include additional experiments to specify the best process configuration and production of samples of each of the three grades of jet fuel. 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A superconductor to superfluid phase transition in liquid metallic hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although hydrogen is the simplest of atoms, it does not form the simplest of solids or liquids. Quantum effects in these phases are considerable (a consequence of the light proton mass) and they have a demonstrable and often puzzling influence on many physical properties, including spatial order. To date, the structure of dense hydrogen remains experimentally elusive. Recent studies of the melting curve of hydrogen indicate that at high (but experimentally accessible) pressures, compressed hydrogen will adopt a liquid state, even at low temperatures. In reaching this phase, hydrogen is also projected to pass through an insulator-to-metal transition. This raises the possibility of new state of matter: a near ground-state liquid metal, and its ordered states in the quantum domain. Ordered quantum fluids are traditionally categorized as superconductors or superfluids; these respective systems feature dissipationless electrical currents or mass flow. Here we report an analysis based on topological arguments of the projected phase of liquid metallic hydrogen, finding that it may represent a new type of ordered quantum fluid. Specifically, we show that liquid metallic hydrogen cannot be categorized exclusively as a superconductor or superfluid. We predict that, in the presence of a magnetic field, liquid metallic hydrogen will exhibit several phase transitions to ordered states, ranging from superconductors to superfluids.

Egor Babaev; Asle Sudbo; N. W. Ashcroft

2004-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

88

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

89

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

90

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

91

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

used the H2A model to analyze data and produce cost estimates. Conclusion: "...the hydrogen total cost the estimated range." Transition to Bio-Derived Liquids Independent Validation of progress towards 2006 interim. Bio-Derived Renewable Liquids Dist. Electrolysis Central Wind Electrolysis Biomass Gasification Solar

92

Catalytic hydrogenation process and apparatus with improved vapor liquid separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous hydrogenation process and apparatus wherein liquids are contacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst reaction zone with the liquids and gas flowing vertically upwardly through that zone into a second zone substantially free of catalyst particles and wherein the liquid and gases are directed against an upwardly inclining surface through which vertical conduits are placed having inlet ends at different levels in the liquid and having outlet ends at different levels above the inclined surface, such that vapor-rich liquid is collected and discharged through conduits terminating at a higher level above the inclined surface than the vapor-poor liquid which is collected and discharged at a level lower than the inclined surface.

Chervenak, Michael C. (Pennington, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Trenton, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2007-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

94

Process for hydrogen isotope concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for hydrogen isotope exchange and concentration between liquid water and hydrogen gas, wherein liquid water and hydrogen gas are contacted, in an exchange section, with one another and with at least one catalyst body comprising at least one metal selected from Group VIII of the Periodic Table and preferably a support therefor, the catalyst body has a liquid-water-repellent, gas permeable polymer or organic resin coating, preferably a fluorinated olefin polymer or silicone coating, so that the isotope concentration takes place by two simultaneously occurring steps, namely, ##EQU1## WHILE THE HYDROGEN GAS FED TO THE EXCHANGE SECTION IS DERIVED IN A REACTOR VESSEL FROM LIQUID WATER THAT HAS PASSED THROUGH THE EXCHANGE SECTION.

Stevens, William H. (Deep River, CA)

1976-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

95

Liquid Hydrogen Delivery - Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Hydrogen Delivery Strategic Directions for Hydrogen Delivery Workshop May 7-8, 2003 Crystal City, Virginia Main Themes/Caveats Will be challenging (if not impossible) to meet the 2010 cost target with today's technology Without significant growth in product demand, progress will likely be slow even with incremental technology Group a little light on technical expertise, but feel captured main ideas required Less "weeding" of ideas, but more divergent thinking Targets/Objectives 2003 Status: $1.11/kg May be a bit lower than actual costs Baseline needs to be revisited 2005 Target: $1.01/kg Technically (10% improvement) could be met, but unlikely demand drivers will be present to encourage meeting target Likely no plant will be built in 2005

96

Liquid-hydrogen-fueled-vehicle tests. Executive summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program for the development of a baseline liquid-hydrogen fueled vehicle and a liquid-hydrogen-refueling system was completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on September 30, 1981. This program involved the cooperative efforts of the Laboratory (funded by the US Department of Energy), the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DFVLR) of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the State of New Mexico through the New Mexico Energy Institute (NMEI). The results of the program provide a reference point from which future progress and improvements in liquid-hydrogen on-board storage and refueling capabilities may be measured. The NMEI provided the program a 1979 Buick Century 4-door sedan with 3.8-L (231-in./sup 3/) displacement turbocharged V6 engine and automatic transmission. The DFVLR provided an on-board liquid-hydrogen storage tank and a refueling station. The DFVLR tank, and the engine modifications for operation on hydrogen rather than gasoline, represented readily available, state-of-the-art capabilities when the program began in March 1979. The original tank provided by the DFVLR was replaced with a larger capacity tank, which was fabricated using more advanced cryogenic engineering technology. The vehicle was refueled at least 60 times with liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and the semiautomatic refueling station designed and built by the DFVLR. At the end of program, the engine had been operated for 133 h and the car driven for 3540 km (2200 miles) on hydrogen without any major difficulties. The vehicle obtained 2.4 km/L (5.7 miles/gal) of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L (21 miles/gal) of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis for driving in the high-altitude Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Albuquerque areas. Without refueling, the car had a range of about 274 km (170 miles) with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km (225 miles) with the second tank.

Stewart, W.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Liquid-hydrogen-fueled-vehicle tests. Executive summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program for the development of a baseline liquid-hydrogen fueled vehicle and a liquid-hydrogen-refueling system was completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on September 30, 1981. This program involved the cooperative efforts of the Laboratory (fundd by the US Department of Energy), the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DFVLR) of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the State of New Mexico through the New Mexico Energy Institute (NMEI). The results of the program provide a reference point from which future progress and improvements in liquid-hydrogen on-board storage and refueling capabilities may be measured. The NMEI provided the program a 1979 Buick Century 4-door sedan with 3.8-L (231-in./sup 3/) displacement turbocharged V6 engine and automatic transmission. The DFVLR provided an on-board liquid-hydrogen storage tank and a refueling station. The DFVLR tank, and the engine modifications for operation on hydrogen rather than gasoline, represented readily available, state-of-the-art capabilities when the program began in March 1979. The original tank provided by the DFVLR was replaced with a larger capacity tank, which was fabricated using more advanced cryogenic engineering technology. The vehicle was refueled at least 60 times with liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and the semiautomatic refueling station designed and built by the DFVLR. At the end of program, the engine had been operated for 133 h and the car driven for 3540 km (2200 miles) on hydrogen without any major difficulties. The vehicle obtained 2.4 km/L (5.7 miles/gal) of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L (21 miles/gal) of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis for driving in the high-altitude Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Albuquerque areas. Without refueling, the car had a range of about 274 km (170 miles) with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km (225 miles) with the second tank.

Stewart, W.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Potential Application of Coal-Derived Fuel Gases for the Glass...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitretek Technical Report Potential Application of Coal-Derived Fuel Gases for the Glass Industry: A Scoping Analysis December 2004 David Gray Salvatore Salerno Glen Tomlinson...

99

Demonstration of a Carbonate Fuel Cell on Coal Derived Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several studies indicate that carbonate fuel cell systems have the potential to offer efficient, cost competitive, and environmentally preferred power plants operating on natural gas or coal derived gas (syn-gas). To date, however, no fuel cell system has run on actual syn-gas. Consequently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has sponsored a 20 kW carbonate fuel cell pilot plant that will begin operating in March at Destec Energys coal gasification plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the effect of syn-gas contaminants on the performance and life of the carbonate fuel cell. This paper will describe the project objectives, design aspects of the pilot facility, and the status of the project.

Rastler, D. M.; Keeler, C. G.; Chi, C. V.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. The research team has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, we are currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (January-March/99), in-situ formaldehyde generation and condensation with methyl propionate were tested over various catalysts and reaction conditions. The patent application is in preparation and the results are retained for future reports.

Makarand R. Gogate; James J. Spivey; Joseph R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Gerald N. Choi; Samuel S. Tam

1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Hydrogen permeation resistant layers for liquid metal reactors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reviewing the literature in the tritium diffusion field one can readily see a wide divergence in results for both the response of permeation rate to pressure, and the effect of oxide layers on total permeation rates. The basic mechanism of protective oxide layers is discussed. Two coatings which are less hydrogen permeable than the best naturally occurring oxide are described. The work described is part of an HEDL-ANL cooperative research program on Tritium Permeation in Liquid Metal Cooled Reactors. This includes permeation work on hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium with the hydrogen-deuterium research leading to the developments presented.

McGuire, J.C.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Microprocessor-based controller for a liquid hydrogen target refrigerator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A microprocessor-based cryogenic refrigerator controller developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory provides automatic cooldown and subsequent monitoring of liquid hydrogen targets. The controller performs the initial cooldown of the cryogenic system and provides continuous monitoring of the important system parameters. An alarm is sounded to summon an operator in the event of any parameter exceeding predetermined limits.

Gjovig, A.J.; Little, J.D.; Novak, J.K.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate from Coal-Derived Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last month, RTI has finalized the design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI incorporated some design changes to the feed blending system, so as to be able to blend varying proportions of DME and oxygen. RTI has also examined the flammability limits of DME-air mixtures. Since the lower flammability limit of DME in air is 3.6 volume percent, RTI will use a nominal feed composition of 1.6 percent in air, which is less than half the lower explosion limit for DME-air mixtures. This nominal feed composition is thus considered operationally safe, for DME partial oxidation reactions. RTI is also currently developing an analytical system for DME partial oxidation reaction system.

Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Makarand R. Gogate; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

1998-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

104

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid WaterMicrojets  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for generating molecular hydrogen directly from the charge separation effected via rapid flow of liquid water through a metal orifice, wherein the input energy is the hydrostatic pressure times the volume flow rate. Both electrokinetic currents and hydrogen production rates are shown to follow simple equations derived from the overlap of the fluid velocity gradient and the anisotropic charge distribution resulting from selective adsorption of hydroxide ions to the nozzle surface. Pressure-driven fluid flow shears away the charge balancing hydronium ions from the diffuse double layer and carries them out of the aperture. Downstream neutralization of the excess protons at a grounded target electrode produces gaseous hydrogen molecules. The hydrogen production efficiency is currently very low (ca. 10-6) for a single cylindrical jet, but can be improved with design changes.

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

105

Synthesis of acrylates and Methacrylates from Coal-Derived Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the propionate synthesis step. The resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees} C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis step is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. Eastman and Bechtel have also compared the RTI- Eastman-Bechtel three-step methanol route to five other process routes to MMA. The results show that the product MMA can be produced at 520/lb, for a 250 Mlb/year MMA plant, and this product cost is competitive to all other process routes to MMA, except propyne carbonylation. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-SI-P tertiary metal oxide catalysts, Nb/Si0{sub 2}, and Ta/Si0{sub 2} catalysts for condensation of propionic anhydride or propionic acid with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst performance. Eastman and Bechtel have used the RTI experimental results of a 20 percent Nb/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, in terms of reactant conversions, MAA selectivities, and MAA yield, for their economic analysis. Recent research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields, a better understanding of the acid-base property correlation and enhancing the catalyst lifetime.

NONE

1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

106

Synthesis of Methyl Methacrylate From Coal-Derived Syngas  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter(April-June, 1998), RTI has modified the reactor system including a new preheater and new temperature settings for the preheater. Continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid were carried out over 10% Nb O /SiO at 300C without 2 5 2 interruption. Five activity and four regeneration cycles have been completed without plugging or material balance problems. The results show that 10% Nb O /SiO deactivates slowly with time 2 5 2 but can be regenerated, at least four times, to 100% of its original activity with 2% O in nitrogen 2 at 400C. The cycles continue with consistent 90-95% of carbon balance. The reaction is scheduled to complete with 6 activity cycles and 5 regenerations. Used catalysts will be analyzed with TGA and XPS to determine bulk and surface coke content and coke properties. RTI will start the investigation of effects of propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb O /SiO catalysts.

Ben W.-L. Jang; Gerald N. Choi; James J. Spivey; Jospeh R. Zoeller; Richard D. Colberg; Samuel S. Tam

1998-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

107

Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing at realistic conditions (e.g., elevated pressures) and differential conversions (to measure true kinetics, to avoid deactivation, and to avoid condensable concentrations of products in the outlet gas).

James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

108

Integrated gasifier combined cycle polygeneration system to produce liquid hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

An integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) system which simultaneously produces electricity, process steam, and liquid hydrogen was evaluated and compared to IGCC systems which cogenerate electricity and process steam. A number of IGCC plants, all employing a 15 MW gas turbine and producing from 0 to 20 tons per day of liquid hydrogen and from 0 to 20 MW of process steam were considered. The annual revenue required to own and operate such plants was estimated to be significantly lower than the potential market value of the products. The results indicate a significant potential economic benefit to configuring IGCC systems to produce a clean fuel in addition to electricity and process steam in relatively small industrial applications.

Burns, R.K.; Staiger, P.J.; Donovan, R.M.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A High Power Liquid Hydrogen Target for Parity Violation Experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Parity-violating electron scattering measurements on hydrogen and deuterium, such as those underway at the Bates and CEBAF laboratories, require luminosities exceeding 10{sup 38} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, resulting in large beam power deposition into cryogenic liquid. Such targets must be able to absorb 500 watts or more with minimal change in target density. A 40 cm long liquid hydrogen target, designed to absorb 500 watts of beam power without boiling, has been developed for the SAMPLE experiment at Bates. In recent tests with 40 {micro}A of incident beam, no evidence was seen for density fluctuations in the target, at a sensitivity level of better than 1%. A summary of the target design and operational experience will be presented.

Mark, John W.

2003-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

110

Coal hydrogenation and deashing in ebullated bed catalytic reactor  

SciTech Connect

An improved process for hydrogenation of coal containing ash with agglomeration and removal of ash from an ebullated bed catalytic reactor to produce deashed hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, a flowable coal-oil slurry is reacted with hydrogen in an ebullated catalyst bed reaction zone at elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The upward velocity and viscosity of the reactor liquid are controlled so that a substantial portion of the ash released from the coal is agglomerated to form larger particles in the upper portion of the reactor above the catalyst bed, from which the agglomerated ash is separately withdrawn along with adhering reaction zone liquid. The resulting hydrogenated hydrocarbon effluent material product is phase separated to remove vapor fractions, after which any ash remaining in the liquid fraction can be removed to produce substantially ash-free coal-derived liquid products.

Huibers, Derk T. A. (Pennington, NJ); Johanson, Edwin S. (Princeton, NJ)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

A Sensitivity Study for a MICE Liquid Hydrogen Absorber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is devoted to a study of a muon cooling channel capable of giving the desired performance for a Neutrino Factory. One of the goals is achieving an absolute accuracy of measurements of emittance reduction as high as 0.1%. The paper describes results of a Monte Carlo study on allowed density variations of liquid hydrogen corresponding to the desired accuracy of the measurements. 1

D. Errede; I. Rakhno

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A Sensitivity study for a MICE liquid hydrogen absorber  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is devoted to a study of a muon cooling channel capable of giving the desired performance for a Neutrino Factory. One of the goals is achieving an absolute accuracy of measurements of emittance reduction as high as {+-} 0.1%. The paper describes results of a Monte Carlo study on allowed density variations of liquid hydrogen corresponding to the desired accuracy of the measurements.

Errede, D.; /Illinois U., Urbana; Rakhno, I.; /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

System for exchange of hydrogen between liquid and solid phases  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The reversible reaction M + x/2 H/sub 2/ reversible MH/sub x/, wherein M is a reversible metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under an inert liquid, thereby reducing contamination, providing better temperature control, providing in situ mobility of the reactants, and increasing flexibility in process design. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to a temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen and to release previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the actual H/sub 2/ pressure is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the actual pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Johnson, J.R.; Winsche, W.E.

1985-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

114

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 7. GPGP jet-fuels production program. Evaluation of technical uncertainties for producing jet fuels from liquid by-products of the Great Plains gasification plant. Interim report, 2 October 1987-30 September 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to analyze GPGP operations and develop correlations for the liquid by-products and plant operating factors such as coal feed rate and coal characteristics.

Fraser, M.D.; Rossi, R.J.; Wan, E.I.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

SYNTHESIS OF METHYL METHACRYLATE FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel three-step process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of the steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde to form methacrylic acid (MAA), and esterification of MAA with methanol to produce MMA. RTI has completed the research on the three-step methanol-based route to MMA. Under an extension to the original contract, RTI is currently evaluating a new DME-based process for MMA. The key research need for DME route is to develop catalysts for DME partial oxidation reactions and DME condensation reactions. Over the last quarter (July-September, 1998), the project team has completed the continuous condensation of formaldehyde with propionic acid over 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} at 300 C. Six activity and five regeneration cycles have been completed. The results show that 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} deactivates slowly with time but can be regenerated to its original activity with 2% O{sub 2} in nitrogen over night at 400 C. We have investigated the effects of regeneration, propionic acid/formaldehyde ratio (PA/HCHO = 4.5/1 to 1.5/1) and reaction temperature(280-300 C) on reaction activity and product selectivity over 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} catalysts. The regeneration effect on 20% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} is similar to the effect on 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. The regeneration can bring the deactivated catalyst to its original activity. However, the selectivity to MAA decreases with regeneration while the selectivity to DEK and CO{sub 2} increases. When PA/HCHO ratio is decreased from 4.5/1 to 2.25/1 then to 1.5/1 at 300 C the MAA yield decreases but the MAA selectivity first increases then decreases. Decreasing the reaction temperature from 300 C to 280 C decreases the MAA yield from 39.5% to 30.7% but increases the MAA selectivity from 73.7% to 82.2%. The results indicate that both temperature and PA/HCHO ratio are important parameters to optimize the economic of the condensation between propionic acid and formaldehyde.

BEN W.-L. JANG; GERALD N. CHOI; JAMES J. SPIVEY; JOSPEH R. ZOELLER; RICHARD D. COLBERG

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

116

Synthesis of Acrylates and Methacrylates from Coal-Derived Syngas.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the U.S. Department of Energy/Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE/FETC). This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, RTI carried out activity tests on a pure (99 percent) Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst, received from Alfa Aesar, under the following experimental conditions: T=300 C; P=4 atm, 72:38:16:4:220 mmol/h, PA:H{sub 2}0:HCHO:CH{sub 3}0H:N{sub 2}; 5-g catalyst charge. For the pure material, the MAA yields (based on HCHO and PA) were at 8.8 and 1.5 percent, clearly inferior compared to those for a 10-percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst (20.1 and 4.5 percent). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of pure Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and 20-percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} that while pure Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is very highly crystalline, Si0{sub 2} support for an amorphous nature of the 20 percent Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst the last quarter, RTI also began research on the use of dimethyl ether (DME), product of methanol dehydrocondensation, as an alternate feedstock in MMA synthesis. As a result, formaldehyde is generated either externally or in situ, from DME, in the process envisaged in the contract extension. The initial work on the DME extension of the contract focuses on a tradeoff analysis that will include a preliminary economic analysis of the DME and formaldehyde routes and catalyst synthesis and testing for DME partial oxidation and condensation reactions. Literature guides exist for DME partial oxidation catalysts; however, there are no precedent studies on catalyst development for DME-methyl propionate (MP) condensation reactions, thereby making DME-MP reaction studies a challenge. The design of a fixed-bed microreactor system for DME feedstock studies was also finalized over the last quarter. The system is designed to be operated either in DME partial oxidation mode (for formaldehyde synthesis) or DME-MP condensation mode (for MMA synthesis).

Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.; Colberg, R.D.; Choi, G.N.; Tam, S.S.

1997-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

117

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. Final technical report, September 1, 1987--February 28, 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand the relationship between macroscopic thermodynamic properties and the various types of intermolecular forces. Since coal-derived liquids contain a wide variety of compounds, a theory capable of successfully predicting the thermophysical properties for coal processes must take into account the molecular shapes and all significant intermolecular forces: dispersion forces, anisotropic forces due to dipoles and quadrupoles, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions. We have developed the Acid-Base-Perturbed-Anisotropic-Chain Theory (ABPACT), a comprehensive theory that is capable of predicting the thermophysical properties for many systems where these different intermolecular forces are present. The ABPACT can treat non-polar compounds, polar compounds and compounds that associate through Lewis acid-base interactions. In addition to our theoretical work, we have used computer simulations to evaluate (and in some cases correct) the assumptions made in this theory. We also have conducted experiments to help us better understand the interplay of different kinds of interactions in multicomponent mixtures.

Donohue, M.D.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Low-pressure hydrocracking of coal-derived Fischer-Tropsch waxes to diesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal-derived low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch (LTFT) wax was hydrocracked at pressures of 3.5-7.0 MPa using silica-alumina-supported sulfided NiW/NiMo and an unsulfided noble metal catalyst, modified with MoO{sub 3}. A low-pressure operation at 3.5 MPa produced a highly isomerized diesel, having low cloud points (from -12 to -28{sup o}C) combined with high cetane numbers (69-73). These properties together with the extremely low sulfur ({lt}5 ppm) and aromatic ({lt}0.5%) contents place coal/liquid (CTL) derived distillates as highly valuable blending components to achieve Eurograde diesel specifications. The upgrading of coal-based LTFT waxes through hydrocracking to high-quality diesel fuel blend components in combination with commercial-feasible coal-integrated gasification combined cycle (coal-IGCC) CO{sub 2} capture and storage schemes should make CTL technology more attractive. 28 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

119

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

2006-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

120

Laser-induced separation of hydrogen isotopes in the liquid phase  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen isotope separation is achieved by either (a) dissolving a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound in a liquid solvent, or (b) liquefying a hydrogen-bearing feedstock compound, the liquid phase thus resulting being kept at a temperature at which spectral features of the feedstock relating to a particular hydrogen isotope are resolved, i.e., a clear-cut isotope shift is delineated, irradiating the liquid phase with monochromatic radiation of a wavelength which at least preferentially excites those molecules of the feedstock containing a first hydrogen isotope, inducing photochemical reaction in the excited molecules, and separating the reaction product containing the first isotope from the liquid phase.

Freund, Samuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Maier, II, William B. (Los Alamos, NM); Beattie, Willard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Holland, Redus F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 40 EZ Paint Thinner Kingsford Odorless Charcoal Lighter 2 ... the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived-liquid ... of S-8, Final Report for MIPR ...

2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

122

Catalytic Process for the Conversion of Coal-derived Syngas to Ethanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The catalytic conversion of coal-derived syngas to C{sub 2+} alcohols and oxygenates has attracted great attention due to their potential as chemical intermediates and fuel components. This is particularly true of ethanol, which can serve as a transportation fuel blending agent, as well as a hydrogen carrier. A thermodynamic analysis of CO hydrogenation to ethanol that does not allow for byproducts such as methane or methanol shows that the reaction: 2 CO + 4 H{sub 2} {yields} C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH + H{sub 2}O is thermodynamically favorable at conditions of practical interest (e.g,30 bar, {approx}< 250 C). However, when methane is included in the equilibrium analysis, no ethanol is formed at any conditions even approximating those that would be industrially practical. This means that undesired products (primarily methane and/or CO{sub 2}) must be kinetically limited. This is the job of a catalyst. The mechanism of CO hydrogenation leading to ethanol is complex. The key step is the formation of the initial C-C bond. Catalysts that are selective for EtOH can be divided into four classes: (a) Rh-based catalysts, (b) promoted Cu catalysts, (c) modified Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, or (d) Mo-sulfides and phosphides. This project focuses on Rh- and Cu-based catalysts. The logic was that (a) Rh-based catalysts are clearly the most selective for EtOH (but these catalysts can be costly), and (b) Cu-based catalysts appear to be the most selective of the non-Rh catalysts (and are less costly). In addition, Pd-based catalysts were studied since Pd is known for catalyzing CO hydrogenation to produce methanol, similar to copper. Approach. The overall approach of this project was based on (a) computational catalysis to identify optimum surfaces for the selective conversion of syngas to ethanol; (b) synthesis of surfaces approaching these ideal atomic structures, (c) specialized characterization to determine the extent to which the actual catalyst has these structures, and (d) testing at realistic conditions (e.g., elevated pressures) and differential conversions (to measure true kinetics, to avoid deactivation, and to avoid condensable concentrations of products in the outlet gas).

James Spivery; Doug Harrison; John Earle; James Goodwin; David Bruce; Xunhau Mo; Walter Torres; Joe Allison Vis Viswanathan; Rick Sadok; Steve Overbury; Viviana Schwartz

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

123

Hydrogen gettering the overpressure gas from highly radioactive liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Remediation of current inventories of high-activity radioactive liquid waste (HALW) requires transportation of Type-B quantities of radioactive material, possibly up to several hundred liters. However, the only currently certified packaging is limited to quantities of 50 ml (0.01 gal) quantities of Type-B radioactive liquid. Efforts are under way to recertify the existing packaging to allow the shipment of up to 4 L (1.1 gal) of Type-B quantities of HALW, but significantly larger packaging could be needed in the future. Scoping studies and preliminary designs have identified the feasibility of retrofitting an insert into existing casks, allowing the transport of up to 380 L (100 gal) of HALW. However, the insert design and ultimate certification strategy depend heavily on the gas-generating attributes of the HALW. A non-vented containment vessel filled with HALW, in the absence of any gas-mitigation technologies, poses a deflagration threat and, therefore, gas generation, specifically hydrogen generation, must be reliably controlled during all phases of transportation. Two techniques are available to mitigate hydrogen accumulation: recombiners and getters. Getters have an advantage over recombiners in that oxides are not required to react with the hydrogen. A test plan was developed to evaluate three forms of getter material in the presence of both simulated HALW and the gases that are produced by the HALW. These tests demonstrated that getters can react with hydrogen in the presence of simulated waste and in the presence of several other gases generated by the HALW, such as nitrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, and carbon monoxide. Although the use of such a gettering system has been shown to be technically feasible, only a preliminary design for its use has been completed. No further development is planned until the requirement for bulk transport of Type-B quantities of HALW is more thoroughly defined.

Riley, D.L. [Walla Walla Coll., College Place, WA (United States). School of Engineering; McCoy, J.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Schicker, J.R. [AlliedSignal Inc. Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Programs Multiyear Re

125

Modeling Free Convection Flow of Liquid Hydrogen within a Cylindrical Heat Exchanger Cooled to 14 K  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A liquid hydrogen in a absorber for muon cooling requires that up to 300 W be removed from 20 liters of liquid hydrogen. The wall of the container is a heat exchanger between the hydrogen and 14 K helium gas in channels within the wall. The warm liquid hydrogen is circulated down the cylindrical walls of the absorber by free convection. The flow of the hydrogen is studied using FEA methods for two cases and the heat transfer coefficient to the wall is calculated. The first case is when the wall is bare. The second case is when there is a duct some distance inside the cooled wall.

Green, Michael A.; Oxford U.; Yang, S.W.; Green, M.A.; Lau, W.

2004-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

126

Laser-shock compression and Hugoniot measurements of liquid hydrogen to 55 GPa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The principal Hugoniot for liquid hydrogen was obtained up to 55 GPa under laser-driven shock loading. The pressure and density of compressed hydrogen were determined by impedance matching to a quartz standard. The shock temperature was independently measured from the brightness of the shock front. Hugoniot data of hydrogen provide a good benchmark to modern theories of condensed matter. The initial number density of liquid hydrogen is lower than that for liquid deuterium, and this results in shock-compressed hydrogen having a higher compression and higher temperature than deuterium at the same shock pressure.

Sano, T.; Shigemori, K.; Shiroshita, A.; Hironaka, Y.; Kadono, T.; Nakai, M.; Mima, K. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ozaki, N.; Kimura, T.; Miyanishi, K.; Endo, T.; Jitsui, T.; Kodama, R. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakaiya, T.; Takahashi, H.; Kondo, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ikoma, M.; Hori, Y. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Iwamoto, A. [National Institute of Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Okuchi, T. [Institute for Study of the Earth's Interior, Okayama University, Misasa, Tottori 682-0193 (Japan)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Materials exposure test facilities for varying low-Btu coal-derived gas  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the United States Department of Energy's High Temperature Turbine Technology Readiness Program, the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is participating in the Ceramics Corrosion/Erosion Materials Study. The objective is to create a technology base for ceramic materials which could be used by stationary gas power turbines operating in a high-temperature, coal-derived, low-Btu gas products of combustion environment. Two METC facilities have been designed, fabricated and will be operated simultaneously exposing ceramic materials dynamically and statically to products of combustion of a coal-derived gas. The current studies will identify the degradation of ceramics due to their exposure to a coal-derived gas combustion environment.

Nakaishi, C.V.; Carpenter, L.K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Process for stabilizing the viscosity characteristics of coal derived materials and the stabilized materials obtained thereby  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for stabilizing the viscosity of coal derived materials such as an SRC product by adding up to 5.0% by weight of a light volatile phenolic viscosity repressor. The viscosity will remain stabilized for a period of time of up to 4 months.

Bronfenbrenner, James C. (Allentown, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Allentown, PA); Tewari, Krishna (Allentown, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Agenda for Tuesday, November 6, 2007 Location: BCS Incorporated, 8929 Stephens Road, Laurel, MD. 20723 410-997-7778 8:30 - 9:00 Continental Breakfast 9:00 DOE Targets, Tools and Technology o Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets DOE, Arlene Anderson o H2A Overview, NREL, Darlene Steward o Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Cost Analysis DTI, Brian James 10:00 Research Review o Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production Systems, H2Gen, Sandy Thomas o Integrated Short Contact Time Hydrogen Generator, GE Global Research, Wei Wei o Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, NREL, Darlene Steward o High Pressure Steam Ethanol Reforming, ANL, Romesh Kumar

130

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by reacting steam with natural gas at high temperatures, a process called steam methane reforming (SMR). Pressurized hydrogen storage tank by Quantum Hydrogen has a high...

131

Operating experience with a liquid-hydrogen fueled Buick and refueling system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An investigation of liquid-hydrogen storage and refueling systems for vehicular applications was made in a recently completed project. The vehicle used in the project was a 1979 Buick Century sedan with a 3.8-L displacement turbocharged V6 engine and an automatic transmission. The vehicle had a fuel economy for driving in the high altitude Los Alamos area that was equivalent to 2.4 km/L of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis. About 22% less energy was required using hydrogen rather than gasoline to go a given distance based on the Environmental Protection Agency estimate of 7.2 km/L of gasoline for this vehicle. At the end of the project the engine had been operated for 138 h and the car driven 3633 km during the 17 months that the vehicle was operated on hydrogen . Two types of onboard liquid-hydrogen storage tanks were tested in the vehicle: the first was an aluminum Dewar with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 110 L; the second was a Dewar with an aluminum outer vessel, two copper vapor-cooled thermal radiation shields, and a stainless steel inner vessel with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 155 L. The Buick had an unrefueled range of about 274 km with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km with the second. The Buick was fueled at least 65 times involving a minimum of 8.1 kL of liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and a semiautomatic refueling station. A refueling time of nine minutes was achieved, and liquid hydrogen losses during refueling were measured. The project has demonstrated that liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle, and its refueling, can be accomplished over an extended period without any major difficulties; nevertheless, appropriate testing is still needed to quantitatively address the question of safety for liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle.

Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Polymer formulation for removing hydrogen and liquid water from an enclosed space  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention describes a solution to the particular problem of liquid water formation in hydrogen getters exposed to quantities of oxygen. Water formation is usually desired because the recombination reaction removes hydrogen without affecting gettering capacity and the oxygen removal reduces the chances for a hydrogen explosion once free oxygen is essentially removed. The present invention describes a getter incorporating a polyacrylate compound that can absorb up to 500% of its own weight in liquid water without significantly affecting its hydrogen gettering/recombination properties, but that also is insensitive to water vapor.

Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA)

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

133

Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of hydrogen and nitrogen. CLICK ON IMAGE TO SEE LARGER VIEW Hydrogen is produced from coal in a process that is similar to SMR but more complex because coal is not a single...

135

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group Meeting - November 2007 Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group participated in a Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review on November 6, 2007. The meeting provided the opportunity for researchers to share their experiences in converting bio-derived liquids to hydrogen with members of the Department of Energy Hydrogen Production Technical Team. The following meeting documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader. Proceedings Agenda, discussion points, and participant list (PDF 146 KB) Action items and meeting highlights (PDF 104 KB) 2007 Annual Merit Review Report excerpts on bio-derived liquids to hydrogen distributed reforming research (PDF 3.9 MB) Presentations DOE Targets, Tools, and Technology

136

Hydrogen embrittlement in pulse-plated Nickel material of liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Multiscale Approaches to Hydrogen-assisted Degradation of Metals.

137

Environmental information volume: Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH{trademark}) project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the commercial viability of the Liquid Phase Methanol Process using coal-derived synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This report describes the proposed actions, alternative to the proposed action, the existing environment at the coal gasification plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, environmental impacts, regulatory requirements, offsite fuel testing, and DME addition to methanol production. Appendices include the air permit application, solid waste permits, water permit, existing air permits, agency correspondence, and Eastman and Air Products literature.

NONE

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived syngas. Quarterly status report No. 6, January 1--March 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The overall objectives of this program are to investigate potential technologies for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated fuels, hydrocarbon fuels, fuel intermediates, and octane enhancers; and to demonstrate the most promising technologies at DOE`s LaPorte, Texas, Slurry Phase Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU). BASF continues to have difficulties in scaling-up the new isobutanol synthesis catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories. Investigations are proceeding, but the proposed operation at LaPorte in April is now postponed. DOE has accepted a proposal to demonstrate Liquid Phase Shift (LPS) chemistry at LaPorte as an alternative to isobutanol. There are two principal reasons for carrying out this run. First, following the extensive modifications at the site, operation on a relatively ``benign`` system is needed before we start on Fischer-Tropsch technology in July. Second, use of shift catalyst in a slurry reactor will enable DOE`s program on coal-based Fischer-Tropsch to encompass commercially available cobalt catalysts-up to now they have been limited to iron-based catalysts which have varying degrees of shift activity. In addition, DOE is supportive of continued fuel testing of LaPorte methanol-tests of MIOO at Detroit Diesel have been going particularly well. LPS offers the opportunity to produce methanol as the catalyst, in the absence of steam, is active for methanol synthesis.

Brown, D.M.

1992-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

139

Development of the Liquid Hydrogen Cold Neutron Source for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 2 . The hydrogen condenser, ballast tank, refrigerator and I&C ... expansion volume of nearly 15 m3 (8 times our ballast tank) ...

2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

140

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Technical Assessment of Organic Liquid Carrier Hydrogen Storage Systems for Automotive Applications R. K. Ahluwalia, T. Q. Hua, and J-K Peng Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 M. Kromer, S. Lasher, K. McKenney, K. Law, and J. Sinha TIAX LLC, Lexington, MA 02421 June 21, 2011 Executive Summary In 2007-2009, the DOE Hydrogen Program conducted a technical assessment of organic liquid carrier based hydrogen storage systems for automotive applications, consistent with the Program's Multiyear Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. This joint performance (ANL) and cost analysis (TIAX) report summarizes the results of this assessment. These results should be considered only in conjunction with the assumptions used in selecting, evaluating, and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Toward new solid and liquid phase systems for the containment, transport and delivery of hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new solid and liquid phase systems new solid and liquid phase systems for the containment, transport and delivery of hydrogen By Guido P. Pez Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure for Fuel Cell Vehicle Transportation Scenario A: Distributed H 2 from a Large Scale Plant (150-230 tonne/day) Large Scale H 2 Plant (300-800 psi H 2 ) H 2 Buffer Storage Tube Trailer Liquid H 2 Truck H 2 Pipeline Multi-vehicle filling stations Feedstock: N. gas, Coal, Biomass Pet. Coke, Resids. Future: Carbon sequestration Storage: Underground well? Output: Depends on the vehicle's H 2 storage technology Currently H 2 up to >6000 psi for 5000 psi tanks Scenario B: Hydrogen by a small scale reforming of pipeline natural gas and compression Natural Gas Pipeline Reformer Liquid H 2 Backup Compressor H 2 (>6000 psig) H 2 Production: 100-400 kg/day; 4-5Kg H

142

Development of a Practical Hydrogen Storage System Based on Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers and a Homogeneous Catalyst - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 5 FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Craig Jensen 1 (Primary Contact), Daniel Brayton 1 , and Scott Jorgensen 2 1 Hawaii Hydrogen Carriers, LLC 531 Cooke Street Honolulu, HI 96813 Phone: (808) 339-1333 Email: hhcllc@hotmail.com 2 General Motors Technical Center DOE Managers HQ: Ned Stetson Phone: (202) 586-9995 Email: Ned.Stetson@ee.doe.gov GO: Katie Randolph Phone: (720) 356-1759 Email: Katie.Randolph@go.doe.gov Contract Number: DE-EE0005020 Project Start Date: July 1, 2011 Project End Date: June 30, 2013 *Congressionally directed project Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 Objectives The objective of this project is to optimize a hydrogen storage media based on a liquid organic carrier (LOC) for hydrogen and design a commercially viable hydrogen

143

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group includes individuals from DOE, the national laboratories, industry, and academia. Corn Stover Harvest Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming Distributed reforming of biomass derived...

144

Catalytic two-stage coal hydrogenation process using extinction recycle of heavy liquid fraction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for catalytic two-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal with selective extinction recycle of all heavy liquid fractions boiling above a distillation cut point of about 600--750 F to produce increased yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid and gas products. In the process, the particulate coal feed is slurried with a process-derived liquid solvent normally boiling above about 650 F and fed into a first stage catalytic reaction zone operated at conditions which promote controlled rate liquefaction of the coal, while simultaneously hydrogenating the hydrocarbon recycle oils. The first stage reactor is maintained at 710--800 F temperature, 1,000--4,000 psig hydrogen partial pressure, and 10-90 lb/hr per ft[sup 3] catalyst space velocity. Partially hydrogenated material withdrawn from the first stage reaction zone is passed directly to the second stage catalytic reaction zone maintained at 760--860 F temperature for further hydrogenation and hydroconversion reactions. A 600--750 F[sup +] fraction containing 0--20 W % unreacted coal and ash solids is recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, the cut point lower boiling fraction can be further catalytically hydrotreated. By this process, the coal feed is successively catalytically hydrogenated and hydroconverted at selected conditions, to provide significantly increased yields of desirable low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products and minimal production of hydrocarbon gases, and no net production of undesirable heavy oils and residuum materials. 2 figs.

MacArthur, J.B.; Comolli, A.G.; McLean, J.B.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

145

Cryogenic, compressed, and liquid hydrogen fuel storage in vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the viable energy carrier of future energy and transportation systems due to its clean emissions, light weight, and abundance. Its extremely low volumetric density, however, presents significant challenges to ...

Reyes, Allan B

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strategies Central Hydrogen Production Coal Supply Regions CLICK ON IMAGE TO SEE LARGER VIEW Coal is a plentiful domestic resource, and is available in several major regions of the...

147

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

force). The illustration at right is an artists conception of a hydrogen atom; quantum physics shows that the electron does not appear in one place, but behaves as a...

148

Hydrogen recovery by novel solvent systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop a novel method for purification of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas. The study involved a search for suitable mixtures of solvents for their ability to separate hydrogen from the coal derived gas stream in significant concentration near their critical point of miscibility. The properties of solvent pairs identified were investigated in more detail to provide data necessary for economic evaluation and process development.

Shinnar, R.; Ludmer, Z.; Ullmann, A.

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production High Hydrogen, Low Methane Syngas from Low-Rank Coals for Coal-to-Liquids Production Southern Research Institute (SRI) Project Number: FE0012054 Project Description The focus of the project will be to develop, test, and optimize steam-reforming catalysts for converting tars, C2+ hydrocarbons, NH3, and CH4 in high-temperature and sulfur environments, increasing the ratio of hydrogen in syngas, as part of a modified, advanced gasification platform for the conversion of low-rank coals to syngas for coal-to-liquid and integrated gasification combined cycle applications. Project Details Program Background and Project Benefits Project Scope and Technology Readiness Level Accomplishments Contacts, Duration, and Cost Project Images Abstract Performer website: Southern Research Institute

150

Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of research on the development of new catalytic pathways for the hydrogenation of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons and the hydrotreating of coal liquids at The University of Chicago under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-91PC91056. The work, which is described in three parts, is primarily concerned with the research on the development of new catalytic systems for the hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and for the improvement of the quality of coal liquids by the addition of dihydrogen. Part A discusses the activation of dihydrogen by very basic molecular reagents to form adducts that can facilitate the reduction of multiring aromatic hydrocarbons. Part B examines the hydrotreating of coal liquids catalyzed by the same base-activated dihydrogen complexes. Part C concerns studies of molecular organometallic catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions.

Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

650 mm long liquid hydrogen target for use in a high intensity electron beam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a 650 mm long liquid hydrogen targetr constructed for use in the high intensity electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The main design problem was to construct a target that would permit the heat deposited by the electron beam to be removed rapidly without boiling the hydrogen so as to maintain constant target density for optimum data taking. Design requirements, cosntruction details and operating experience are discussed.

Mark, J.W.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

650 mm long liquid hydrogen target for use in a high intensity electron beam  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes a 650 mm long liquid hydrogen target constructed for use in the high intensity electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The main design problem was to construct a target that would permit the heat deposited by the electron beam to be removed rapidly without boiling the hydrogen so as to maintain constant target density for optimum data taking. Design requirements, construction details and operating experience are discussed.

Mark, J.W.

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. Final technical report, March 1, 1991--February 28, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed new equations of state for pure-component chain molecules. The excellent performance of complicated theories, such as the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory can be mimicked by simpler equations, if assumptions for the shape parameters are made. We developed engineering correlations based on GFD theory, using local composition theory to take into account attractive forces. During this period, we compared methods for calculating repulsive and attractive contributions to equation of state against computer simulation data for hard and square-well chains, and against experimental data from the literature. We also have studied microstructure and local order in fluids that contain asymmetric molecules. We developed a thermodynamic model for polar compounds based on a site-site interaction approach. We have shown the equivalence of various classes of theories for hydrogen bonding, and used this equivalence to derive a multiple site model for water. In addition, simple cubic equations of state have been applied to calculate physical and chemical-reaction equilibria in nonideal systems. We measured infinite dilution activity coefficients using HPLC. We also measured high pressure vapor liquid equilibria of ternary and quaternary systems containing supercritical solvents. We used FT-IR spectroscopy to examine self-association of aliphatic alcohols due to hydrogen bonding, and to investigate the hydrogen bonding in polymer-solvent mixtures.

Donohue, M.D.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Modeling of Plasma-Assisted Conversion of Liquid Ethanol into Hydrogen Enriched Syngas in the Nonequilibrium Electric Discharge Plasma-Liquid System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we report recent results of our experimental and theoretical studies related to plasma conversion of liquid ethanol into hydrogen-enriched syngas in the plasma-liquid system with the electric discharge in a gas channel with liquid wall using available diagnostics and numerical modeling.

Levko, Dmitry; Naumov, Vadim; Chernyak, Valery; Yukhymenko, Vitaly; Prysiazhnevych, Irina; Olszewski, Sergey

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Evaluation of alternative uses of coal and coal-derived fuels: industry, government, and public viewpoints  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers a study by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories to identify viewpoints representative of various interest groups on alternative uses of coal and coal-derived fuels. The study was conducted for the ERDA Fossil Energy Department to provide background inputs to the R and D planning process. A series of nine structured workshops was conducted with selected representatives of the various interest groups. The individual workshops included representation of industrial and utility companies, state and federal governments, and public interest groups. Viewpoints were recorded on (1) the relative importance of five specific evaluation criteria, (2) the evaluation of seven fuel categories against the criteria, (3) a forecast of future fuel utilization by categories, and (4) suggested R and D emphasis for the fuel categories. This report, Volume I, is a summary and appraisal of workshop results. Volume II contains appendices with more detailed records from the workshops.

Locklin, D.W.; Malone, D.W.; Molnar, D.E.; Sander, L.K.; Morrison, D.L.

1975-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

156

Analysis of the market and product costs for coal-derived high Btu gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

DOE analyzed the market potential and economics of coal-derived high-Btu gas using supply and demand projections that reflect the effects of natural gas deregulation, recent large oil-price rises, and new or pending legislation designed to reduce oil imports. The results indicate that an increasingly large market for supplemental gas should open up by 1990 and that SNG from advanced technology will probably be as cheap as gas imports over a wide range of assumptions. Although several studies suggest that a considerable market for intermediate-Btu gas will also exist, the potential supplemental gas demand is large enough to support both intermediate - and high-Btu gas from coal. Advanced SNG-production technology will be particularly important for processing the US's abundant, moderately to highly caking Eastern coals, which current technology cannot handle economically.

Not Available

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD Gokhan O. Alptekin, PhD Robert Copeland, PhD (Primary Contact) TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: copeland@tda.com Email: galptekin@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2323 Tel: (303) 940-2349 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Margarita Dubovik Yevgenia Gershanovich TDA Research, Inc TDA Research, Inc 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue 12345 W. 52 nd Avenue Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 Email: dubovik@tda.com Email: ygershan@tda.com Tel: (303) 940-2316 Tel: (303) 940-2346 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Fax: (303) 422-7763 Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas

158

Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Direct experimental evidence for a negative heat capacity in the liquid-to-gas like phase transitionin hydrogen cluster ions backbending of the caloric curve  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct experimental evidence for a negative heat capacity in the liquid-to-gas like phase transitionin hydrogen cluster ions

Gobet, F; Farizon, M; Gaillard, M J; Buchet, J P; Carr, M; Schreier, P; Mrk, T D

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Preliminary analysis of gain measurements at the HFBR liquid hydrogen moderator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a 60 MW steady state neutron source. As part of the facility a cold neutron source is included in one of the beam tubes (H-9). The arrangement of this source is shown in Figure 1, which shows the reactor core, beam tube H-9, and the cold source with its attached helium cooling lines and hydrogen feed lines. The liquid hydrogen chamber is in the shape of an oblate spheroid and has a volume of 1.466 liters, and an aspect ratio of 1:3. Aluminum is used as the material of construction. The wall thickness of the chamber varies, with the thinnest value being on the flatter parts of the oblate spheroid. This design minimizes the amount of metal in the direction of the neutron beam of interest. Gain is defined as the ratio of the flux at a specific wave length leaking from the front face of the cold source, with and without the liquid hydrogen present. Measurements of the gain were made at several wavelength for the HFBR cold source. The change in the neutron spectrum at a particular wave length is a strong function of the scattering kernel of the moderator. Thus, these measurements can be used as integral data to validate calculational models and scattering kernel data for liquid hydrogen, and shed light on the actual mixture of ortho/para hydrogen in the cold source. Two scattering kernels for each of the states of liquid hydrogen (ortho and para) were available at the beginning of the study. The total scattering cross section for each of these are shown. The two ortho kernels are seen to be quite similar. However, in the case of para-hydrogen there is seen to be a significant difference between the two cross sections at lower energies or longer wavelengths. This difference implies a similar difference in the scattering kernel. In the following analysis both para-hydrogen kernels and only one ortho-hydrogen kernel will be used. In addition, a free proton gas kernel (no molecular binding) will be used for comparison purposes.

Ludewig, H.; Aronson, A.; Todosow, M.; Passell, L.; Wildgruber, U.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

Gerald P. Huffman

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

164

Modeling the Thermal Mechanical Behavior of a 300 K Vacuum Vesselthat is Cooled by Liquid Hydrogen in Film Boiling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses the results from the rupture of a thin window that is part of a 20-liter liquid hydrogen vessel. This rupture will spill liquid hydrogen onto the walls and bottom of a 300 K cylindrical vacuum vessel. The spilled hydrogen goes into film boiling, which removes the thermal energy from the vacuum vessel wall. This report analyzes the transient heat transfer in the vessel and calculates the thermal deflection and stress that will result from the boiling liquid in contact with the vessel walls. This analysis was applied to aluminum and stainless steel vessels.

Yang, S.Q.; Green, M.A.; Lau, W.

2004-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

165

Synthesis of methyl methacrylate from coal-derived syngas: Quarterly report,, October 1-December 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas that consists of three steps of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Over the last quarter, Eastman developed two new processes which have resulted in two new invention reports. One process deals with carbonylation of benzyl ether which represents a model for coal liquefaction and the second focuses on the acceleration of carbonylation rates for propionic acid synthesis, via use of polar aprotic solvents. These two inventions are major improvements in the novel Mo-catalyzed homogeneous process for propionic acid synthesis technology, developed by Eastman. Over the last quarter, RTI completed three reaction cycles and two regeneration cycles as a part of long-term reaction regeneration cycle study on a 10% Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si0{sub 2} catalyst, for vapor phase condensation reaction of formaldehyde with propionic acid.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Synthesis of acrylates and methacrylates from coal-derived syngas. Quarterly report, October--December 1996  

SciTech Connect

Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Eastman Chemical Company, and Bechtel collectively are developing a novel process for the synthesis of methyl methacrylate (MMA) from coal-derived syngas, under a contract from the US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Technology Center. This three-step process consists of synthesis of a propionate, its condensation with formaldehyde, and esterification of resulting methacrylic acid (MAA) with methanol to produce MMA. Eastman has focused on the propionate synthesis step. the resultant Mo catalysts work efficiently at much less severe conditions (170{degrees}C and 30 atm) than the conventional Ni catalysts (270{degrees}C and 180 atm). Bechtel has performed an extensive cost analysis which shows that Eastman`s propionate synthesis step is competitive with other technologies to produce the anhydride. In the second step, RTI and Eastman have developed active and stable V-Si-P ternary metal oxide catalysts Nb/SiO{sub 2} and Ta/SiO{sub 2} catalysts for the condensation of propionic anhydride and acid with formaldehyde. RTI has demonstrated a novel correlation among the catalyst acid-base properties, condensation reaction yield, and long-term catalyst activity. Current research focuses on enhancing the condensation reaction yields by better understanding of the acid-base property correlation, in situ condensation in a high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) slurry reactor, and alternate formaldehyde feedstocks. Based on Eastman and RTI laboratory data, a cost estimate is also being developed for the integrated process.

NONE

1997-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

167

Combustion rates and mechanisms of pulverized coals and coal-derived fuels  

SciTech Connect

Increased use of coal, our most abundant fossil fuel resource, will be required to meet both immediate and long-term energy demands. Improvement in existing technologies of steam raising and industrial process heating through the clean, direct firing of pulverized coal will have major and immediate impact. Improvements are required because of the unacceptably high emissions from present coal combustion systems and because of the need to couple considerations of pollutant emissions and carbon conversion efficiencies. The rates and mechanisms of coal devolatilization and combustion are extremely sensitive to local details of the combustion process. Similarly, pollutants formed during the process are sensitive to the initial coal composition and local time and temperature histories of individual particles. Very little useful information is available by which the influence of combustion modifications on both the efficiency and pollutant emission characteristics can be predicted. The present understanding of the rates of coal and char combustion is summarized with the conclusion that heterogeneous chemical kinetic rates strongly influence the rates and mechanisms of coal and char combustion. If understood, adjustment and control of the rates and mechanisms by judicious adjustment of the combustion process and the initial fuel character should be possible. A proposal for a detailed theoretical and experimental study of the combustion rates of pulverized coal and coal-derived fuels is discussed.

Hardesty, D.R.

1976-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

A high power liquid hydrogen target for the Mainz A4 parity violation experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new powerful liquid hydrogen target developed for the precise study of parity violating electron scattering on hydrogen and deuterium. This target has been designed to have minimal target density fluctuations under the heat load of a 20$\\mu$A CW 854.3 MeV electron beam without rastering the electron beam. The target cell has a wide aperture for scattered electrons and is axially symmetric around the beam axis. The construction is optimized to intensify heat exchange by a transverse turbulent mixing in the hydrogen stream, which is directed along the electron beam. The target is constructed as a closed loop circulating system cooled by a helium refrigerator. It is operated by a tangential mechanical pump with an optional natural convection mode. The cooling system supports up to 250 watts of the beam heating removal. Deeply subcooled liquid hydrogen is used for keeping the in-beam temperature below the boiling point. The target density fluctuations are found to be at the level 10$^{-3}$ at a beam current of 20 $\\mu$A.

I. Altarev; E. Schilling; S. Baunack; L. Capozza; J. Diefenbach; K. Grimm; Th. Hammel; D. vonHarrach; Y. Imai; E. M. Kabuss; R. Kothe; J. H. Lee; A. LopesGinja; F. E. Maas; A. SanchezLorente; G. Stephan; C. Weinrich

2005-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

169

Design Issues for the Superconducting Magnet that Goes Around the Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3) the size of the heat exchanger around the liquid hydrogendo not require a large heat exchanger to get the heat out ofMICE hydrogen absorber heat exchanger was designed to remove

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Design Issues for the Superconducting Magnet that Goes Around the Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the absorber body and pipes and the heat conduction down theheat transfer into the absorber to about 19 kW. The absorber vent pipeheat transfer into the liquid hydrogen to about 54 kW. The vent pipes

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Hydrogen Delivery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mark Paster Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology Program Hydrogen Production and Delivery Team Hydrogen Delivery Goal Hydrogen Delivery Goal Liquid H 2 & Chem. Carriers Gaseous Pipeline Truck Hydrides Liquid H 2 - Truck - Rail Other Carriers Onsite reforming Develop Develop hydrogen fuel hydrogen fuel delivery delivery technologies that technologies that enable the introduction and enable the introduction and long long - - term viability of term viability of hydrogen as an energy hydrogen as an energy carrier for transportation carrier for transportation and stationary power. and stationary power. Delivery Options * End Game - Pipelines - Other as needed * Breakthrough Hydrogen Carriers * Truck: HP Gas & Liquid Hydrogen

172

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

173

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

174

Sorbents for High Temperature Removal of Arsenic from Coal-Derived...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the catalysts used in the conversion of synthesis gas to methanol and other liquid fuels (Fischer-Tropsch liquids) have been found to be very sensitive to the low levels of...

175

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Method and apparatus for electrokinetic co-generation of hydrogen and electric power from liquid water microjets  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for producing both a gas and electrical power from a flowing liquid, the method comprising: a) providing a source liquid containing ions that when neutralized form a gas; b) providing a velocity to the source liquid relative to a solid material to form a charged liquid microjet, which subsequently breaks up into a droplet spay, the solid material forming a liquid-solid interface; and c) supplying electrons to the charged liquid by contacting a spray stream of the charged liquid with an electron source. In one embodiment, where the liquid is water, hydrogen gas is formed and a streaming current is generated. The apparatus comprises a source of pressurized liquid, a microjet nozzle, a conduit for delivering said liquid to said microjet nozzle, and a conductive metal target sufficiently spaced from said nozzle such that the jet stream produced by said microjet is discontinuous at said target. In one arrangement, with the metal nozzle and target electrically connected to ground, both hydrogen gas and a streaming current are generated at the target as it is impinged by the streaming, liquid spray microjet.

Saykally, Richard J; Duffin, Andrew M; Wilson, Kevin R; Rude, Bruce S

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

178

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this program in its third year, as briefly summarized below. (1) Nanoscale iron-based catalysts containing molybdenum, palladium, or nickel and supported on alumina have been developed that are very effective for the dehydrogenation of methane and ethane to produce pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. Some of the nanotube structures are being investigated as a safe storage medium for hydrogen. Dehydrogenation of higher hydrocarbons, including several liquids that are compatible with vehicular transportation under fuel cell power, is currently under investigation. (2) Operation of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis under supercritical fluid (SCF) solvent conditions increases liquid fuel yields and improves the selectivity of the process to produce desired products. (3) Small additions ({approx}1%) of organic probe molecules with carbon-carbon triple bonds to the FT reaction markedly shift the molecular weight distribution and increase the oxygenate content of the products. The goal is to develop better technology for producing cleaner burning diesel fuel and other fuels. (4) Several different types of catalyst are under investigation to develop better control of FT fuel product distributions. (5) C1 processes have been developed for producing ethylene and propylene, two high-value products, from methanol. Novel silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) catalysts containing nickel and other metals are used. (6) Binary tungsten-cobalt carbide catalysts have been found to have excellent activities and lifetimes for reforming of methane into synthesis gas using carbon dioxide. This type of catalyst is being further investigated for synthesis gas reactions relevant to the goal of producing hydrogen from coal.

Gerald P. Huffman

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

179

The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases and thus reduce three temperature losses in the system associated with (1) heat transfer from the fuel to the reactor coolant, (2) temperature rise across the reactor core, and (3) heat transfer across the heat exchangers between the reactor and H2 production plant. Lowering the peak reactor temperatures and thus reducing the high-temperature materials requirements may make the AHTR the enabling technology for low-cost nuclear hydrogen production.

Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

180

REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS IN A NOVEL HYDROGEN-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE-BASED FUEL PROCESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose to develop an inorganic metal-metal composite membrane to study reforming of liquid hydrocarbons and methanol by equilibrium shift in membrane-reactor configuration, viewed as fuel processor. Based on our current understanding and experience in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane, we propose to further develop this membrane to a Pd and Pd-Ag alloy membrane on microporous stainless steel support to provide structural reliability from distortion due to thermal cycling. Because of the metal-metal composite structure, we believe that the associated end-seal problem in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane in tubular configuration would not be an issue at all. We plan to test this membrane as membrane-reactor-separator for reforming liquid hydrocarbons and methanol for simultaneous production and separation of high-purity hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications. To improve the robustness of the membrane film and deep penetration into the pores, we have used osmotic pressure field in the electroless plating process. Using this novel method, we deposited thin Pd-film on the inside of microporous stainless steel tube and the deposited film appears to robust and defect free. Work is in progress to evaluate the hydrogen perm-selectivity of the Pd-stainless steel membrane.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenations of complex carbonaceous substrates. [16 references  

SciTech Connect

Results of homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of complex unsaturated substrates including coal and coal-derived materials are reported, with organic soluble molecular complexes as catalysts. Among the substrates used were Hvab coal, solvent-refined coal, and COED pyrolysate. The hydrogenations were carried out in an autoclave. The results are summarized in tables.

Cox, J L; Wilcox, W A; Roberts, G L

1976-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

A Liquid Hydrogen Target for Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering at SLAC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 150 cm long liquid hydrogen target has been built for the SLAC End Station A E158 experiment. The target loop volume is 55 liters, and the maximum target heat load deposited by the electron beam is {approx} 700 W. The liquid hydrogen density fluctuation with full beam current (120 Hz repetition rate, 6 x 10{sup 11} electrons/spill) on target is well below 10{sup -4} level, which fulfills the requirement for a precision measurement of the weak mixing angle in the polarized electron-electron scattering process.

Weisend, John G

2002-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

183

Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

None

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, we have conducted additional characterization and permeation tests on different Pd alloy membranes including PdCuTa ternary alloy materials. We attempted to address some discrepancies between SwRI{reg_sign} and CSM relating to PdCu stoichiometry by preparing a range of PdCu membranes with compositions from {approx}58-65 at% Pd (bal. Cu). While some difficulties in cutting and sealing these thin membranes at CSM continue, some progress has been made in identifying improved membrane support materials. We have also completed an initial cost analysis for large-scale vacuum deposition and fabrication of thin Pd ally membranes and project that the process can meet DOE cost targets. Minimal progress was made in the past quarter relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules at Idatech. In the past quarter Idatech was acquired by a UK investment firm, which we believe may have impacted the ability of key technical personnel to devote sufficient time to support this effort. We are hopeful their work can be completed by the end of the calendar year.

J. Arps; K. Coulter

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

185

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, no technical work has been completed and a ''no cost'' time extension was requested and granted to allow IdaTech time to complete task 5 relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules. The scheduled completion date is now October 31, 2007.

K. Coulter

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}) has utilized its expertise in large-area vacuum deposition methods to conduct research into the fabrication of dense, freestanding Pd-alloy membranes that are 3-5 microns thick and over 100 in{sup 2} in area. The membranes were deposited onto flexible and rigid supports that were subsequently removed and separated using novel techniques developed over the course of the project. Using these methods, the production of novel alloy compositions centered around the Pd-Cu system were developed with the objective of producing a thermally stable, nano-crystalline grain structure with the highest flux recorded as 242 SCFH/ft{sup 2} for a 2 {micro}m thick Pd{sub 53}Cu{sub 47} at 400 C and 20 psig feed pressure which when extrapolated is over twice the 2010 Department of Energy pure H{sub 2} flux target. Several membranes were made with the same permeability, but with different thicknesses and these membranes were highly selective. Researchers at the Colorado School of Mines supported the effort with extensive testing of experimental membranes as well as design and modeling of novel alloy composite structures. IdaTech provided commercial bench testing and analysis of SwRI-manufactured membranes. The completed deliverables for the project include test data on the performance of experimental membranes fabricated by vacuum deposition and several Pd-alloy membranes that were supplied to IdaTech for testing.

K. Coulter

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

187

COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR PRODUCING SELF SUPPORTED PALLADIUM ALLOY MEMBRANES FOR USE IN EFFICIENT PRODUCTION OF COAL DERIVED HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Extending upon development efforts last quarter to produce ''free-standing'', copper and palladium alloy films, the goal this quarter has been to produce pinhole-free, Pd-Cu alloy films up to 5 x 5 inches in area (1-3 microns thick) using both magnetron sputtering and e-beam evaporation on PVA (Solublon) and polystyrene backing materials. A set of experiments were conducted to assess processing methods/solutions chemistry for removing the polymer backing material from the Pd-Cu film. For all of the alloy films produced to this point, we were unable to produce pinhole-free films on plastic although we were able to produce free-standing Pd-Cu films at less than 0.5 microns thick with minimal intrinsic stress. Subsequently, to evaluate gas permeation and leakage across the films, two films were sandwiched together on top of a porous Monel support disc (25 mm in diameter) and then tested in a leak test apparatus. Using two Cu films (10 micron thickness total) in the sandwich configuration, leak rates were about 20% of the background leak rate.

B. Lanning; J. Arps

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Cost-Effective Method for Producing Self Supported Palladium Alloy Membranes for Use in Efficient Production of Coal Derived Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past quarter, no technical work has been completed and two ''no cost'' time extensions have been requested and granted to allow Idatech time to complete Task 5 relating to the testing of prototype membrane modules. The scheduled completion date of April 7, 2007 has been confirmed by Idatech.

K. Coulter

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Hydrogen  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Hydrogen production ...

190

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

191

The effect of a micro bubble dispersed gas phase on hydrogen isotope transport in liquid metals under nuclear irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work intend to be a first step towards the understanding and quantification of the hydrogen isotope complex phenomena in liquid metals for nuclear technology. Liquid metals under nuclear irradiation in,e.g., breeding blankets of a nuclear fusion reactor would generate tritium which is to be extracted and recirculated as fuel. At the same time that tritium is bred, helium is also generated and may precipitate in the form of nano bubbles. Other liquid metal systems of a nuclear reactor involve hydrogen isotope absorption processes, e.g., tritium extraction system. Hence, hydrogen isotope absorption into gas bubbles modelling and control may have a capital importance regarding design, operation and safety. Here general models for hydrogen isotopes transport in liquid metal and absorption into gas phase, that do not depend on the mass transfer limiting regime, are exposed and implemented in OpenFOAMR CFD tool for 0D to 3D simulations. Results for a 0D case show the impact of a He dispersed phase of na...

Fradera, Jorge

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. Annual technical report, March 1, 1991--February 28, 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand and model the effect of the different intermolecular forces on the thermodynamic properties of systems containing pure compounds and mixtures. The compounds under consideration vary considerably in size, shape and energy. Therefore in order to develop a theory capable of describing accurately the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of such systems over a wide range of temperature and pressure, one has to take into account explicitly the differences in shape and size among the various compounds as well as the different type of intermolecular interactions. In order to get a better understanding of the intermolecular forces and to test some of our recent models, we have performed considerable experimental work. We used FTIR to examine hydrogen bonding interactions between small molecules and between small molecules and polymers. In addition, we investigated experimentally the high pressure phase behavior of ternary and quaternary systems exhibiting polar and hydrogen bonding interactions.

Donohue, M.D.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

194

"Kohn-Shamification" of the classical density-functional theory of inhomogeneous polar molecular liquids with application to liquid hydrogen chloride  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Gordian knot of density-functional theories for classical molecular liquids remains finding an accurate free-energy functional in terms of the densities of the atomic sites of the molecules. Following Kohn and Sham, we show how to solve this problem by considering noninteracting molecules in a set of effective potentials. This shift in perspective leads to an accurate and computationally tractable description in terms of simple three-dimensional functions. We also treat both the linear- and saturation- dielectric responses of polar systems, presenting liquid hydrogen chloride as a case study.

Johannes Lischner; T. A. Arias

2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

195

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels must be reformed in a series of steps to provide hydrogen for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Preferential oxidation (PROX) is one method to reduce the CO concentration to less than 10 ppm in the presence of {approx}40% H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and steam. This will prevent CO poisoning of the PEMFC anode. Structured supports, such as ceramic monoliths, can be used for the PROX reaction. Alternatively, metal foams offer a number of advantages over the traditional ceramic monolith.

Paul Chin; Xiaolei Sun; George W. Roberts; Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Sourabh Pansare; James G. Goodwin Jr; Richard W. Rice; James J. Spivey

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

197

Production of low-cost hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the proposed effort is to verify at the laboratory scale, the ability of the MTCI indirectly heated fluid-bed gasifier to economically produce a hydrogen-rich product gas from liquefaction by-product streams and from char produced in mild gasification processes. Specifically, the proposed effort is aimed at developing an experimental technology data base by defining the process characteristics that would be required for process integration into an overall liquefaction system. This would result in substantial decreases in the cost of hydrogen for the production of competitively priced coal-derived liquid fuels. During this quarter, shakedown tests of the reactor were completed. Subbituminous coals from Black Thunder mine and Eagle Butte mine were obtained for use in mild gasification to produce char. During the initial shakedown tests, it was determined that a new pulse combustor was needed. A pulse combustor with a large aerovalve was fabricated and tested. Three shakedown tests with limestone as the fluid-bed medium were carried out at temperature from 1450{degree}F to 1550{degree}F.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Chemistry and structure of coal-derived asphaltenes, Phase III. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1978  

SciTech Connect

The solubility limits of Synthoil and PAMCO asphaltenes have been measured as a function of Hildebrand solubility parameters and hydrogen bonding. Solvents with moderate hydrogen bonding capacity such as dioxane, ethyl benzoate and dibutyl phthalate were found to be most effective in dissolving asphaltenes over the widest range of solubility parameters. VPO molecular weight studies of coal liquid derived carbenes, as a function of concentration in the solvent THF, indicate that these fractions are more strongly self-associated than the corresponding asphaltenes, and generally afford high infinite dilution number average molecular weights: Synthoil, 861; HRI H-Coal, 1156; Cat. Inc. SRC, 1228; PAMCO SRC, 1054. The variable ESR temperature dependence of the spin intensity for a Synthoil asphaltene-I/sub 2/ charge transfer followed a 1/T (Curie--Weiss) dependence over the temperature range from 25/sup 0/ to -114/sup 0/C suggesting that independent, non-interacting donor and acceptor doublets were formed. Weight percent OH values, determined from 'H NMR analysis of silylated asphaltenes, were found to provide a reasonably linear correlation with the absorbance of the monomeric OH infrared stretching bands of the asphaltenes.

Yen, T. F.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids --Hydrogen Storage Materials --Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis --Thermochemical Hydrogen * Fuel Cells --Polymer Electrolyte --Modeling & Analysis --Fuel...

200

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several different catalytic reactions must be carried out in order to convert hydrocarbons (or alcohols) into hydrogen for use as a fuel for polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Each reaction in the fuel-processing sequence has a different set of characteristics, which influences the type of catalyst support that should be used for that particular reaction. A wide range of supports are being evaluated for the various reactions in the fuel-processing scheme, including porous and non-porous particles, ceramic and metal straight-channel monoliths, and ceramic and metal monolithic foams. These different types of support have distinctly different transport characteristics. The best choice of support for a given reaction will depend on the design constraints for the system, e.g., allowable pressure drop, and on the characteristics of the reaction for which the catalyst is being designed. Three of the most important reaction characteristics are the intrinsic reaction rate, the exothermicity/endothermicity of the reaction, and the nature of the reaction network, e.g., whether more than one reaction takes place and, in the case of multiple reactions, the configuration of the network. Isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to study the surface intermediates. The preferential oxidation of low concentrations of carbon monoxide in the presence of high concentrations of hydrogen (PROX) is an important final step in most fuel processor designs. Data on the behavior of straight-channel monoliths and foam monolith supports will be presented to illustrate some of the factors involved in choosing a support for this reaction.

Mr. Paul Chin; Dr. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts; Professor James J. Spivey; Mr. Amornmart Sirijarhuphan; Dr. James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Dr. Richard W. Rice

2002-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Regenerable Sorbent Development for Sulfur, Chloride and Ammonia Removal from Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A large number of components in coal form corrosive and toxic compounds during coal gasification processes. DOEs NETL aims to reduce contaminants to parts per billion in order to utilize gasification gas streams in fuel cell applications. Even more stringent requirements are expected if the fuel is to be utilized in chemical production applications. Regenerable hydrogen sulfide removal sorbents have been developed at NETL. These sorbents can remove the hydrogen sulfide to ppb range at 316 C and at 20 atmospheres. The sorbent can be regenerated with oxygen. Reactivity and physical durability of the sorbent did not change during the multi-cycle tests. The sorbent development work has been extended to include the removal of other major impurities, such as HCl and NH3. The sorbents for HCl removal that are available today are not regenerable. Regenerable HCl removal sorbents have been developed at NETL. These sorbents can remove HCl to ppb range at 300 C to 500 C. The sorbent can be regenerated with oxygen. Results of TGA and bench-scale flow reactor tests with both regenerable and non-regenerable HCl removal sorbents will be discussed in the paper. Bench-scale reactor tests were also conducted with NH3 removal sorbents. The results indicated that the sorbents have a high removal capacity and good regenerability during the multi-cycle tests. Future emphasis of the NETL coal gasification/cleanup program is to develop multi-functional sorbents to remove multiple impurities in order to minimize the steps involved in the cleanup systems. To accomplish this goal, a regenerable sorbent capable of removing both HCl and H2S was developed. The results of the TGA conducted with the sorbent to evaluate the feasibility of both H2S and HCl sorption will be discussed in this paper.

Siriwardane, R.V.; Tian, H.; Simonyi, T.; Webster, T.

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

NREL: Regulatory Support - What is the Energy Policy Act?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas and liquid fuels domestically produced from natural gas Liquefied petroleum gas (propane) Coal-derived liquid fuels Hydrogen Electricity Biodiesel (B100) P-Series The...

203

Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through June 1998.

NONE

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

NONE

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through January 2000.

NONE

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through December 1999.

NONE

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through October 1999.

NONE

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through November 1999.

NONE

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through February 1999.

NONE

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF CERAMIC MEMBRANE REACTOR SYSTEM FOR CONVERTING NATURAL GAS TO HYDROGEN AND SYNTHESIS GAS FOR LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through September 1999.

NONE

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Development of Disposable Sorbents for Chloride Removal from High-Temperature Coal-Derived Gases  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle approach is an efficient process for producing electric power from coal by gasification, followed by high-temperature removal of gaseous impurities, then electricity generation by gas turbines. Alternatively, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) may be used instead of gas turbine generators. The coal gas must be treated to remove impurities such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), a reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas, which is produced during gasification from chloride species in the coal. HCl vapor must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipments such as fuel cells or gas turbines, and to minimize deterioration of hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. The objectives of this study are to: (1) investigate methods to fabricate reactive sorbent pellets or granules that are capable of reducing HCl vapor in high-temperature coal gas streams to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range 400{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C and the pressure range 1 to 20 atm; (2) testing their suitability in bench-scale fixed- or fluidized-bed reactors; (3) testing a superior sorbent in a circulating fluidized- bed reactor using a gas stream from an operating coal gasifier; and (4) updating the economics of high temperature HCl removal.

Krishnan, G.N.; Canizales, A. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gupta, R. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ayala, R. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Prediction of thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. Annual technical report, March 1, 1992--February 28, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this research program is to understand and model the effect of the different intermolecular forces on the thermodynamic properties of systems containing pure compounds and mixtures. The compounds under consideration vary considerably in size, shape and energy. Therefore in order to develop a theory capable of describing accurately the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of such systems over a wide range of temperature and pressure, one has to take into account explicitly the differences in shape and size among the various compounds as well as the different type of intermolecular interactions. We have developed equations of state for pure-component chain molecules. We have shown that the excellent performance of complicated theories such as the Generalized Flory Dimer (GFD) theory can be mimicked by simpler equations, if certain assumptions for the shape parameters are made. We developed engineering correlations based on the GFD theory, using local composition theory to take into account the attractive contribution. We compared various methods for the calculation of the repulsive and attractive contributions against computer simulation data for hard and square-well chains, and experimental data from the literature. We also have studied microstructure and local order in fluids that contain asymmetric molecules. In addition, simple cubic equations of state have been applied to calculate physical and chemical-reaction equilibria in non-ideal systems. In order to obtain a better understanding of the intermolecular forces and to test some of our recent models, we have performed considerable experimental work. We used FT-IR to examine the self-association of aliphatic alcohols due to hydrogen bonding. In addition, FT-IR spectroscopy was used to investigate Lewis acid-base interactions between probe and entrainer-cosolvent molecules.

Donohue, M.D.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The final report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during length of the project. The goal of this project was to integrate coal into a refinery in order to produce coal-based jet fuel, with the major goal to examine the products other than jet fuel. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal-based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. The main goal of Task 1 was the production of coal-based jet fuel and other products that would need to be utilized in other fuels or for non-fuel sources, using known refining technology. The gasoline, diesel fuel, and fuel oil were tested in other aspects of the project. Light cycle oil (LCO) and refined chemical oil (RCO) were blended, hydrotreated to removed sulfur, and hydrogenated, then fractionated in the original production of jet fuel. Two main approaches, taken during the project period, varied where the fractionation took place, in order to preserve the life of catalysts used, which includes (1) fractionation of the hydrotreated blend to remove sulfur and nitrogen, followed by a hydrogenation step of the lighter fraction, and (2) fractionation of the LCO and RCO before any hydrotreatment. Task 2 involved assessment of the impact of refinery integration of JP-900 production on gasoline and diesel fuel. Fuel properties, ignition characteristics and engine combustion of model fuels and fuel samples from pilot-scale production runs were characterized. The model fuels used to represent the coal-based fuel streams were blended into full-boiling range fuels to simulate the mixing of fuel streams within the refinery to create potential 'finished' fuels. The representative compounds of the coal-based gasoline were cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane, and for the coal-base diesel fuel they were fluorine and phenanthrene. Both the octane number (ON) of the coal-based gasoline and the cetane number (CN) of the coal-based diesel were low, relative to commercial fuels ({approx}60 ON for coal-based gasoline and {approx}20 CN for coal-based diesel fuel). Therefore, the allowable range of blending levels was studied where the blend would achieve acceptable performance. However, in both cases of the coal-based fuels, their ignition characteristics may make them ideal fuels for advanced combustion strategies where lower ON and CN are desirable. Task 3 was designed to develop new approaches for producing ultra clean fuels and value-added chemicals from refinery streams involving coal as a part of the feedstock. It consisted of the following three parts: (1) desulfurization and denitrogenation which involves both new adsorption approach for selective removal of nitrogen and sulfur and new catalysts for more effective hydrotreating and the combination of adsorption denitrogenation with hydrodesulfurization; (2) saturation of two-ring aromatics that included new design of sulfur resistant noble-metal catalysts for hydrogenation of naphthalene and tetralin in middle distillate fuels, and (3) value-added chemicals from naphthalene and biphenyl, which aimed at developing value-added organic chemicals from refinery streams such as 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 4,4{prime}-dimethylbiphenyl as precursors to advanced polymer materials. Major advances were achieved in this project in designing the catalysts and sorbent materials, and in developing fundamental understanding. The objective of Task 4 was to evaluate the effect of introducing coal into an existing petroleum refinery on the fuel oil product, specifically trace element emissions. Activities performed to accomplish this objective included analyzing two petroleum-based commercial heavy fuel oils (i.e., No. 6 fuel oils) as baseline fuels and three co-processed fuel oils, characterizing the atomization performance of a No. 6 fuel oil, measuring the combustion performance and emissions of the five fuels, specifically major, minor, and trace elements when fired in a watertube boiler designed for natural gas/fuel oil, and determining the boiler performance when firing the five fuels. Two

Caroline Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Development of an extraction process for removal of heteroatoms from coal liquids. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main goal of this contract was to develop an extraction process for upgrading coal liquids; and in doing so, to reduce the hydrogen requirement in downstream upgrading processes and to yield valuable byproducts. This goal was to be achieved by developing a novel carbon dioxide extraction process for heteroatom removal from coal-derived naphtha, diesel, and jet fuel. The research plan called for the optimization of three critical process variables using a statistically-designed experimental matrix. The commercial potential of the new process was to be evaluated by demonstrating quantitatively the effectiveness of heteroatom removal from three different feedstocks and by conducting a comparative economic analysis of alternate heteroatom removal technologies. Accomplishments are described for the following tasks: food procurement and analysis process variable screening studies; and process assessment.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

217

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the key obstacles for the introduction of commercial gasification technology for the production of power with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants or the production of value added chemicals, transportation fuels, and hydrogen has been the cost of these systems. This situation is particularly challenging because the United States has ample coal resources available as raw materials and effective use of these raw materials could help us meet our energy and transportation fuel needs while significantly reducing our need to import oil. One component of the cost of these systems that faces strong challenges for continuous improvement is removing the undesirable components present in the syngas. The need to limit the increase in cost of electricity to oil and natural gas. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing sorbent technologies that enable capture of trace contaminants and CO{sub 2} at temperatures above 400 °F that achieve better capture performance, lower costs and higher thermal efficiency. This report describes the specific work of sorbent development for mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorous (P) and CO{sub 2} removal. Because the typical concentrations of Hg, As, Se, Cd, and P are less than 10 ppmv, the focus has been on single-use sorbents with sufficient capacity to ensure replacement costs are cost effective. The research in this report describes the development efforts which expand this sorbent development effort to include Se, Cd, and P as well as Hg and As. Additional research has focused on improving removal performance with the goal of achieving effluent concentrations that are suitable for chemical production applications. By contrast, sorbent development for CO{sub 2} capture has focused on regenerable sorbents that capture the CO{sub 2} byproduct at higher CO{sub 2} pressures. Previous research on CO{sub 2} sorbents has demonstrated that the most challenging aspect of developing CO{sub 2} sorbents is regeneration. The research documented in this report investigates options to improve regeneration of the CO{sub 2} capture sorbents. This research includes effort on addressing existing regeneration limitations for sorbents previously developed and new approaches that focus initially on the regeneration performance of the sorbent.

Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

Integrated Warm Gas Multicontaminant Cleanup Technologies for Coal-Derived Syngas  

SciTech Connect

One of the key obstacles for the introduction of commercial gasification technology for the production of power with Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants or the production of value added chemicals, transportation fuels, and hydrogen has been the cost of these systems. This situation is particularly challenging because the United States has ample coal resources available as raw materials and effective use of these raw materials could help us meet our energy and transportation fuel needs while significantly reducing our need to import oil. One component of the cost of these systems that faces strong challenges for continuous improvement is removing the undesirable components present in the syngas. The need to limit the increase in cost of electricity to < 35% for new coal-based power plants which include CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration addresses both the growing social concern for global climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gas and in particular CO{sub 2} and the need to control cost increases to power production necessary to meet this social objective. Similar improvements to technologies for trace contaminants are getting similar pressure to reduce environmental emissions and reduce production costs for the syngas to enable production of chemicals from coal that is cost competitive with oil and natural gas. RTI, with DOE/NETL support, has been developing sorbent technologies that enable capture of trace contaminants and CO{sub 2} at temperatures above 400 °F that achieve better capture performance, lower costs and higher thermal efficiency. This report describes the specific work of sorbent development for mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and phosphorous (P) and CO{sub 2} removal. Because the typical concentrations of Hg, As, Se, Cd, and P are less than 10 ppmv, the focus has been on single-use sorbents with sufficient capacity to ensure replacement costs are cost effective. The research in this report describes the development efforts which expand this sorbent development effort to include Se, Cd, and P as well as Hg and As. Additional research has focused on improving removal performance with the goal of achieving effluent concentrations that are suitable for chemical production applications. By contrast, sorbent development for CO{sub 2} capture has focused on regenerable sorbents that capture the CO{sub 2} byproduct at higher CO{sub 2} pressures. Previous research on CO{sub 2} sorbents has demonstrated that the most challenging aspect of developing CO{sub 2} sorbents is regeneration. The research documented in this report investigates options to improve regeneration of the CO{sub 2} capture sorbents. This research includes effort on addressing existing regeneration limitations for sorbents previously developed and new approaches that focus initially on the regeneration performance of the sorbent.

Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir; Sharma, Pradeepkumar; Albritton, Johnny; Jamal, Aqil

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

219

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2} in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is mai

K. C. Kwon

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

220

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

K. C. Kwon

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

K.C. Kwon

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

222

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation: Analysis of coal-derived synthetic crude from HRI CTSL Run CC-15 and HRI Run CMSL-2  

SciTech Connect

Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (US DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-89PC89883), IIT Research Institute, National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research applied a suite of petroleum inspection tests to two direct coal liquefactions net product oils produced in two direct coal liquefaction processing runs. Two technical reports, authored by NIPER, are presented here. The following assessment briefly describes the two coal liquefaction runs and highlights the major findings of the project. It generally is concluded that the methods used in these studies can help define the value of liquefaction products and the requirements for further processing. The application of these methods adds substantially to our understanding of the coal liquefaction process and the chemistry of coal-derived materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of this contract.

Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Kim, J.; Shay, J. [National Inst. for Petroleum and Energy Research, Bartlesville, OK (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Temperature-programmed decomposition desorption of mercury species over activated carbon sorbents for mercury removal from coal-derived fuel gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mercury (Hg{sup 0}) removal process for coal-derived fuel gas in the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process will be one of the important issues for the development of a clean and highly efficient coal power generation system. Recently, iron-based sorbents, such as iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}), supported iron oxides on TiO{sub 2}, and iron sulfides, were proposed as active mercury sorbents. The H{sub 2}S is one of the main impurity compounds in coal-derived fuel gas; therefore, H{sub 2}S injection is not necessary in this system. HCl is also another impurity in coal-derived fuel gas. In this study, the contribution of HCl to the mercury removal from coal-derived fuel gas by a commercial activated carbon (AC) was studied using a temperature-programmed decomposition desorption (TPDD) technique. The TPDD technique was applied to understand the decomposition characteristics of the mercury species on the sorbents. The Hg{sup 0}-removal experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor at 80-300{sup o}C using simulated fuel gas and a commercial AC, and the TPDD experiments were carried out in a U-tube reactor in an inert carrier gas (He or N{sub 2}) after mercury removal. The following results were obtained from this study: (1) HCl contributed to the mercury removal from the coal-derived fuel gas by the AC. (2) The mercury species captured on the AC in the HCl{sup -} and H{sub 2}S-presence system was more stable than that of the H{sub 2}S-presence system. (3) The stability of the mercury surface species formed on the AC in the H{sub 2}S-absence and HCl-presence system was similar to that of mercury chloride (HgClx) species. 25 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

M. Azhar Uddin; Masaki Ozaki; Eiji Sasaoka; Shengji Wu [Okayama University, Okayama (Japan). Faculty of Environmental Science and Technology

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

225

Self-Assembly and Orientation of Hydrogen-Bonded Oligothiophene Polymorphs at Liquid?Membrane?Liquid Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the challenges in organic systems with semiconducting function is the achievement of molecular orientation over large scales. We report here on the use of self-assembly kinetics to control long-range orientation of a quarterthiophene derivative designed to combine intermolecular {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding among amide groups. Assembly of these molecules in the solution phase is prevented by the hydrogen-bond-accepting solvent tetrahydrofuran, whereas formation of H-aggregates is facilitated in toluene. Rapid evaporation of solvent in a solution of the quarterthiophene in a 2:1:1 mixture of 1,4-dioxane/tetrahydrofuran/toluene leads to self-assembly of kinetically trapped mats of bundled fibers. In great contrast, slow drying in a toluene atmosphere leads to the homogeneous nucleation and growth of ordered structures shaped as rhombohedra or hexagonal prisms depending on concentration. Furthermore, exceedingly slow delivery of toluene from a high molecular weight polymer solution into the system through a porous aluminum oxide membrane results in the growth of highly oriented hexagonal prisms perpendicular to the interface. The amide groups of the compound likely adsorb onto the polar aluminum oxide surface and direct the self-assembly pathway toward heterogeneous nucleation and growth to form hexagonal prisms. We propose that the oriented prismatic polymorph results from the synergy of surface interactions rooted in hydrogen bonding on the solid membrane and the slow kinetics of self-assembly. These observations demonstrate how self-assembly conditions can be used to guide the supramolecular energy landscape to generate vastly different structures. These fundamental principles allowed us to grow oriented prismatic assemblies on transparent indium-doped tin oxide electrodes, which are of interest in organic electronics.

Tevis, Ian D.; Palmer, Liam C.; Herman, David J.; Murray, Ian P.; Stone, David A.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Reactions of Hydrogen Atoms in the Ionic Liquid R4NNTf2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neta and James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. A 107, 9794-9799 (2003). Find paper at ACS Publications or use ACS Articles on Request Abstract: Reactions of hydrogen atoms with...

227

Modeling Free Convection Flow of Liquid Hydrogen within a Cylindrical Heat Exchanger Cooled to 14 K  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lau, W, and Yang, S. , A Heat Exchanger between Forced FlowWITHIN A CYLINDRICAL HEAT EXCHANGER COOLED TO 14 K S. Qof the container is a heat exchanger between the hydrogen

Yang, S.W.; Oxford U.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Characterization of coal-derived materials by field desorption mass spectrometry, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, supercritical fluid extraction, and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Under contract from the DOE , and in association with CONSOL Inc., Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated four principal and several complementary techniques for the analysis of non-distillable direct coal liquefaction materials in support of process development. Field desorption mass spectrometry (FDMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods were examined for potential usefulness as techniques to elucidate the chemical structure of residual (nondistillable) direct coal liquefaction derived materials. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SFC/MS) were evaluated for effectiveness in compound-class separation and identification of residual materials. Liquid chromatography (including microcolumn) separation techniques, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and GC/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods were applied to supercritical fluid extracts. The full report authored by the PNL researchers is presented here. The following assessment briefly highlights the major findings of the project, and evaluates the potential of the methods for application to coal liquefaction materials. These results will be incorporated by CONSOL into a general overview of the application of novel analytical techniques to coal-derived materials at the conclusion of CONSOL`s contract.

Campbell, J.A.; Linehan, J.C.; Robins, W.H. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Liquid-liquid reaction of hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite for the production of singlet oxygen in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to produce gas-phase singlet oxygen O{sub 2}(a{sup 1{Delta}}{sub g}) in a liquid-liquid reaction between acidic hydrogen peroxide (AHP) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The attempt arises from the fact that basic hydrogen peroxide (BHP) has long been the prime source for producing singlet delta oxygen through its reaction with chlorine. However, BHP suffers from the defect of being unstable during storage. Exploratory experiments were performed in a centrifugal flow singlet oxygen generator (CF-SOG) with two streams of solutions, AHP and NaOCl, mixed in a slit nozzle and then injected into the arc-shaped concavity in the CF-SOG to form a rotating liquid flow with a remarkable centrifugal force. With the help of this centrifugal force, the product of the O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) reaction was quickly separated from the liquid phase. The gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) was detected via the spectrum of O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) cooperative dimolecular emission with a CCD spectrograph. Experimental results show that it is feasible to produce gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) from the AHP + NaOCl reaction, and the stronger the acidity, the more efficient the O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) production. However, since in the AHP + NaOCl reaction, Cl{sub 2} unavoidably appears as a byproduct, its catalytic action on the decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} into ground-state O{sub 2} remains a major obstacle to utilising the AHP + NaOCl reaction in producing gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}). Qualitative interpretation shows that the AHP + NaOCl reaction is virtually the reaction of interaction of molecular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with molecular HOCl, its mechanism being analogous to that of reaction of BHP with Cl{sub 2}, where HOOCl is the key intermediate. It is difficult to form the intermediate HOOCl via the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} + NaOCl reaction in a basic medium, thus gas-phase O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) cannot be obtained in appreciable quantities. (active media)

Cui Rongrong; Deng Liezheng; Shi Wenbo; Yang Heping; Sha Guohe; Zhang Cunhao [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

230

STATEMENT OF CONSIDERATIONS REQUEST BY HEADWATERS TECHNOLOGY...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of work entitled, "Production and Optimization of Coal-Derived High Hydrogen Content Fischer-Tropsch Liquids". The purpose of the cooperative agreement is to select the...

231

Hydrogen production from liquid hydrocarbons demonstration program. Final report, 26 August 1985-1 September 1986  

SciTech Connect

The Air Force now uses diesel-engine generators as sources of heat and electricity at selected remotes sites. Simultaneously, it has investigated alternative cogeneration candidates that offer improved reliability, maintain ability, and economics. One system that shows high potential is a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant consisting of a fuel conditioner to convert logistic fuels such as DEF-2, DF-a and JP-4 to a hydrogen-rich gas, and a power conditioner to convert the direct-current power to alternating current. The objective of the project work was to define, and demonstrate, a fuel conditioner to meet performance criteria established for the Air Force Remote Site Fuel Cell Power Plant program. Key criteria included high fuel-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, rapid startup and load-following capability, and minimum water consumption during operations. A process configuration which has the potential to produce a minimum of 0.365 pound of hydrogen per pound of feed diesel consumed is described. The hydrogen-containing product is a suitable fuel for phosphoric-acid fuel-cell power plant. A 2 mole per hour (hydrogen) demonstration plant was designed, constructed and started up. Results are summarized.

O'Hara, J.B.; Chow, T.K.; Ling, J.K.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Densities in the Liquid Hydrogen Chloride Solvent System Heather Brooks Shapiro and Donald R. Sadoway*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for electrodeposition of several reactive metals and silicon from liquefied halogenous gases at subambient temperatures requires more cooling power than simple dry ice slush baths but much less than standard liquid nitrogen

Sadoway, Donald Robert

233

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 8, 1 July, 1993--30 September, 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Task 1, the preparation of catalyst materials, is proceeding actively. At WVU, catalysts based on Mo are being prepared using a variety of approaches to alter the oxidation state and environment of the Mo. At UCC and P, copper-based zinc chromite spinel catalysts will be prepared and tested. The modeling of the alcohol-synthesis reaction in a membrane reactor is proceeding actively. Under standard conditions, pressure drop in the membrane reactor has been shown to be negligible. In Task 2, base case designs had previously been completed with a Texaco gasifier. Now, similar designs have been completed using the Shell gasifier. A comparison of the payback periods or production cost of these plants shows significant differences among the base cases. However, a natural gas only design, prepared for comparison purposes, gives a lower payback period or production cost. Since the alcohol synthesis portion of the above processes is the same, the best way to make coal-derived higher alcohols more attractive economically than natural gas-derived higher alcohols is by making coal-derived syngas less expensive than natural gas-derived syngas. The maximum economically feasible capacity for a higher alcohol plant from coal-derived syngas appears to be 32 MM bbl/yr. This is based on consideration of regional coal supply in the eastern US, coal transportation, and regional product demand. The benefits of economics of scale are illustrated for the base case designs. A value for higher alcohol blends has been determined by appropriate combination of RVP, octane number, and oxygen content, using MTBE as a reference. This analysis suggests that the high RVP of methanol in combination with its higher water solubility make higher alcohols more valuable than methanol.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has continued the work of the National Center for Hydrogen Technology (NCHT) Program Year 6 Task 1.12 project to expose hydrogen separation membranes to coal-derived syngas. In this follow-on project, the EERC has exposed two membranes to coal-derived syngas produced in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU). Western Research Institute (WRI), with funding from the State of Wyoming Clean Coal Technology Program and the North Dakota Industrial Commission, contracted with the EERC to conduct testing of WRIs coal-upgrading/gasification technology for subbituminous and lignite coals in the EERCs TRDU. This gasifier fires nominally 200500 lb/hour of fuel and is the pilot-scale version of the full-scale gasifier currently being constructed in Kemper County, Mississippi. A slipstream of the syngas was used to demonstrate warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation using membrane technology. Two membranes were exposed to coal-derived syngas, and the impact of coal-derived impurities was evaluated. This report summarizes the performance of WRIs patent-pending coalupgrading/ gasification technology in the EERCs TRDU and presents the results of the warm-gas cleanup and hydrogen separation tests. Overall, the WRI coal-upgrading/gasification technology was shown to produce a syngas significantly lower in CO2 content and significantly higher in CO content than syngas produced from the raw fuels. Warm-gas cleanup technologies were shown to be capable of reducing sulfur in the syngas to 1 ppm. Each of the membranes tested was able to produce at least 2 lb/day of hydrogen from coal-derived syngas.

Stanislowski, Joshua; Tolbert, Scott; Curran, Tyler; Swanson, Michael

2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

235

System Study of Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL) Catalytic Combustion for Natural Gas and Coal-Derived Syngas Combustion Turbines  

SciTech Connect

Rich Catalytic/Lean burn (RCL{reg_sign}) technology has been successfully developed to provide improvement in Dry Low Emission gas turbine technology for coal derived syngas and natural gas delivering near zero NOx emissions, improved efficiency, extending component lifetime and the ability to have fuel flexibility. The present report shows substantial net cost saving using RCL{reg_sign} technology as compared to other technologies both for new and retrofit applications, thus eliminating the need for Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) in combined or simple cycle for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and natural gas fired combustion turbines.

Shahrokh Etemad; Lance Smith; Kevin Burns

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

COAL DERIVED MATRIX PITCHES FOR CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE MANUFACTURE/PRODUCTION OF FIBERS AND COMPOSITES FROM COAL-BASED PRECURSORS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Consortium for premium Carbon Products from Coal, with funding from the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory continue with the development of innovative technologies that will allow coal or coal-derived feedstocks to be used in the production of value-added carbon materials. In addition to supporting eleven independent projects during budget period 3, three meetings were held at two separate locations for the membership. The first was held at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort on May 15-16, 2000. This was followed by two meetings at Penn State, a tutorial on August 11, 2000 and a technical progress meeting on October 26-27.

Peter G. Stansberry; John W. Zondlo

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbons in a Novel Hydrogen-Selective Membrane-Based Fuel Processor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work, asymmetric dense Pd/porous stainless steel composite membranes were fabricated by depositing palladium on the outer surface of the tubular support. The electroless plating method combined with an osmotic pressure field was used to deposit the palladium film. Surface morphology and microstructure of the composite membranes were characterized by SEM and EDX. The SEM and EDX analyses revealed strong adhesion of the plated pure palladium film on the substrate and dense coalescence of the Pd film. Membranes were further characterized by conducting permeability experiments with pure hydrogen, nitrogen, and helium gases at temperatures from 325 to 450 C and transmembrane pressure differences from 5 to 45 psi. The permeation results showed that the fabricated membranes have both high hydrogen permeability and selectivity. For example, the hydrogen permeability for a composite membrane with a 20 {micro}m Pd film was 3.02 x 10{sup -5} moles/m{sup 2}.s.Pa{sup 0.765} at 450 C. Hydrogen/nitrogen selectivity for this composite membrane was 1000 at 450 C with a transmembrane pressure difference of 14.7 psi. Steam reforming of methane is one of the most important chemical processes in hydrogen and syngas production. To investigate the usefulness of palladium-based composite membranes in membrane-reactor configuration for simultaneous production and separation of hydrogen, steam reforming of methane by equilibrium shift was studied. The steam reforming of methane using a packed-bed inert membrane tubular reactor (PBIMTR) was simulated. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model with parallel flow configuration was developed for steam reforming of methane. The shell volume was taken as the feed and sweep gas was fed to the inside of the membrane tube. Radial diffusion was taken into account for concentration gradient in the radial direction due to hydrogen permeation through the membrane. With appropriate reaction rate expressions, a set of partial differential equations was derived using the continuity equation for the reaction system and then solved by finite difference method with appropriate boundary and initial conditions. An iterative scheme was used to obtain a converged solution. Membrane reactor performance was compared to that in a traditional non-membrane packed-bed reactor (PBR). Their performances were also compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values achievable in a conventional non-membrane reactor. Numerical results of the models show that the methane conversions in the PBIMTR are always higher than that in the PBR, as well as thermodynamic equilibrium conversions. For instance, at a reaction pressure of 6 atm, a temperature of 650 C, a space velocity of 900/16.0 SCCM/gm{sub cat}, a steam to methane molar feed ratio of 3.0, a sweep ratio of 0.15, the conversion in the membrane reactor is about 86.5%, while the conversion in the non-membrane reactor is about 50.8%. The corresponding equilibrium conversion is about 56.4%. The effects on the degree of conversion and hydrogen yield were analyzed for different parameters such as temperature, reactor pressure, feed and sweep flow rate, feed molar ratio, and space time. From the analysis of the model results, it is obvious that the membrane reactor operation can be optimized for conversion or yield through the choice of proper operating and design parameters. Comparisons with available literature data for both membrane and non-membrane reactors showed a good agreement.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2006-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

238

Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

Mysels, Karol J. (La Jolla, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

A proposal to study Lambda0 polarization in the inclusive reaction p + p --> Lambda0 + anything with a liquid hydrogen target  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is proposed that the {Lambda}{sup 0} polarization recently observed in inclusive production of {Lambda}{sup 0} by 300 GeV protons on beryllium be studied with 400 GeV protons in liquid hydrogen. A range of scaling variables 0 {le} p{sub +} {le} 2.3 GeV/c and .1 {le} X {le} 1 will be covered with good statistics. A total run of 150 hours is requested.

Bunce, G.; Pondrom, L.; March, R.; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Devlin, T.; Edwards, R.; /Rutgers U.; Heller, K.; Overseth, O.; /Michigan U.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Task 1 is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extender and octane enhancers. Task 1 is subdivided into three separate subtasks: laboratory and equipment setup; catalysis research; and reaction engineering and modeling. Research at West Virginia University (WVU) is focused on molybdenum-based catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis. Parallel research carried out at Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) is focused on transition-metal-oxide catalysts. During this time period, at WVU, we tried several methods to eliminate problems related to condensation of heavier products when reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C catalysts. We have also obtained same preliminary results in our attempts to analyze quantitatively the temperature-programmed reduction spectra for C- supported Mo-based catalysts. We have completed the kinetic study for the sulfided Co-K-MoS{sub 2}/C catalyst. We have compared the results of methanol synthesis using the membrane reactor with those using a simple plug-flow reactor. At UCC, the complete characterization of selected catalysts has been completed. The results suggest that catalyst pretreatment under different reducing conditions yield different surface compositions and thus different catalytic reactivities.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

243

Investigation of sulfur-tolerant catalysts for selective synthesis of hydrocarbon liquids from coal-derived gases. Quarterly technical progress report, December 19, 1979-March 18, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 15% Fe/SiO/sub 2/ catalyst was prepared. H/sub 2/ and CO chemisorption uptakes were measured for the catalysts prepared to date. Very small uptakes were noted for the silica supported iron catalysts. Reactor activity tests in synthesis gas were conducted for 3% Fe/SiO/sub 2/, 15% Fe/SiO/sub 2/ and 10% Co-B/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts. These preliminary tests aided the final development of a laboratory microreactor system. Criteria for avoiding heat and mass transfer limitations on intrinsic rate measurements were examined and applied to the catalyst activity tests.

Bartholomew, C H

1980-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

244

Synthesis of acrylates and methacrlyates from coal-derived syngas. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective Task 1, Synthesis of Propionates, is to develop the technology for the synthesis of low-cost propionates. These propionates are the basic feedstock for the subsequent reaction with formaldehyde to produce the target molecule, methyl methacrylate (MMA). Eastman has explored several possible routes to the propionates and has concluded that the most promising is the synthesis of propionic anhydride from the reaction of propionic acid from and ethylene (and also hydrogen in some cases). The main advantage of the anhydride over the acid is that its subsequent reaction with formaldehyde does not produce water, which can lead to undesired byproducts. Bechtel is carrying out a cost analysis of the Eastman route to the anhydride to determine if it is potentially competitive with commercially practiced routes to the same molecule. The answer is expected next quarter. The objective Task 2, Condensation Catalysis to develop catalysts for the condensation of the propionate (propionic anhydride is our target molecule) with formaldehyde. This reaction produces methacrylic acid (MAA), which would then be reacted with methanol to produce MMA in the slurry reactor. We have synthesized a wide range of catalysts and the results show that there is substantial byproduct formation, including 3-pentanone and some propionic acid. Our results show the highest yields of MAA using an alkalized alumina (1%Na/{sub y}-AI{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Although the condensation of propionic acid with formaldehyde is well studied in the literature, little is reported on the condensation of the anhydride. Although it is likely that the same general types of acid/base catalysts that promote the acid condensation will also promote that of the anhydride, the strength and balance of the acid and base sites is likely to be different. We plan to explore the relationship of the catalyst properties and MMA yields using the Altamira system, due to be delivered this next quarter.

Tischer, R.E.; Spivey, J.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Chemistry and structure of coal-derived asphaltenes, Phase II. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1977. [15 refs  

SciTech Connect

Separations of Synthoil liquefied coal by solvent fractionation and high pressure liquid chromatography have been compared. Solvent fractionation is believed to give more distinctive fractions. The asphaltene fraction obtained by use of hplc was found to be a mixture of resin, asphaltene, carbene, and carboid. Solvent elution chromatrogrphy of asphaltenes on silica gel has been scaled up, and recoveries of 98-99 wt. % are generally obtained. VPO molecular weight studies of coal asphaltenes, as a function of concentration, in the solvents benzene and THF indicate that association of asphaltenes takes place in both solvents, but is more significant in benzene. Structural parameters obtained from modified Brown-Ladner treatment of proton NMR data suggest that solvent fractions: oil, resin, asphaltene, and carboid have structural characteristics which are sequentially related. X-ray diffraction patterns for asphaltene, carbene, and carboid fractions reveal progressively sharpened (002) and (11) bands indicative of increasing carbonization in this series. Methyl iodide addition to a basic fraction of Synthoil asphaltene (diethyl ether-eluted from silica gel) suggests, in conjunction with infrared results, that essentially all of the nitrogen in this fraction is present in basic pyridine-like compounds.

Yen, T. F.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C.L.; Russell, L.H.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

247

Hydrogen-Evolving Organic Compounds - Energy Innovation Portal  

Benefits A hydrogen storage method that requires neither pressurized gas nor liquid hydrogen. Applications and Industries Transportation Patents and ...

248

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities National Hydrogen Storage Compressed/Liquid Hydrogen Tanks Testing and Analysis Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards

250

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthsis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 10, 1 January 1994--31 March 1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The WVU plug-flow microreactor system is now complete. Screening runs with this system will commence. Computer control is being installed in the second WVU unit. Additional hardware has been suggested for this system so that it can be used either to screen additional catalysts or to obtain kinetic data on selected catalyst samples. Synthetic preparations and characterizations of molybdenum-based sulfide and nitride catalysts are ongoing. Modelling studies are continuing satisfactorily. A more detailed model of the reaction kinetics, to account for individual alcohols rather than a lumped highter-alcohol, has been inserted into the model of a plug-flow reactor. A solution methodology to maximize the profitability of alcohol production, separation and blending has been developed. The temperatures, pressures, flowrates, and key component recoveries in the separation steps are the optimization variables. The probability of this process becoming economically feasible in the near future appears to be extremely small given the low return on capital investment associated with the production of alcohol from coal. If coal derived alcohols are to become alternative transportation fuels, then the capital cost associated with the process must be reduced, specifically the cost of the gasifiers, or significant changes need to be made in the composition of the mixed alcohol product. A methodology for performing Monte Carlo studies to determine quantitatively the uncertainties relevant to future decisions to build an alcohol-fuels plant is still being developed.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Development of alcohol-based synthetic transportation fuels from coal-derived synthesis gases. First quarterly progress report, September 14-December 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chem Systems is carrying out an experimental program for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gases to a mixture of C/sub 1/-C/sub 4/ alcohols. The objectives of this contract are to: (1) develop a catalyst and reactor system for producing a mixture of C/sub 1/-C/sub 4/ alcohols, which we call Alkanol fuel, to be used as a synthetic transportation fuel and (2) assess the technical and economic feasibility of scaling the process concept to a commercial-scale application. Some of the accomplishments made this quarter were: (1) a small (75cc) fixed-bed, plug-flow, vapor phase reaction system was set up and operated utilizing catalyst bed dilution with inert media to help limit the large exotherm associated with the synthesis gas conversion reactions; (2) a total of fifteen (15) catalysts containing varying amounts of Cu, Co, Zn, Cr and K were prepared and seven of these catalysts were tested; (3) we have identified at least one promising catalyst composition which has resulted in a 30% conversion of carbon monoxide per pass (synthesis gas had a 3.5 H/sub 2//CO ratio) with a carbon selectivity to alcohols of about 80%.

None

1980-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

252

Infrared Spectroscopy and Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics of Liquid Water from Centroid Molecular Dynamics with an Ab Initio-Based Force Field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A molecular-level description of the unique properties of hydrogen-bond networks is critical for understanding many fundamental physico-chemical processes in aqueous environments. In this article a novel simulation approach, combining an ab-initio based force field for water with a quantum treatment of the nuclear motion, is applied to investigate hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquid water with a specific focus on the relationship of these dynamics to vibrational spectroscopy. Linear and nonlinear infrared (IR) spectra are calculated for liquid water, HOD in D2O and HOD in H2O and discussed in the context of the results obtained using other approaches that have been employed in studies of water dynamics. A comparison between the calculated spectra and the available experimental data yields an overall good agreement, indicating the accuracy of the present simulation approach in describing the properties of liquid water at ambient conditions. Possible improvements on the representation of the underlying water interactions as well as the treatment of the molecular motion at the quantum-mechanical level are also discussed. This research was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, US Department of Energy. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

Paesani, Francesco; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Voth, Gregory A.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Process for blending coal with water immiscible liquid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous process for blending coal with a water immiscible liquid produces a uniform, pumpable slurry. Pulverized raw feed coal and preferably a coal derived, water immiscible liquid are continuously fed to a blending zone (12 and 18) in which coal particles and liquid are intimately admixed and advanced in substantially plug flow to form a first slurry. The first slurry is withdrawn from the blending zone (12 and 18) and fed to a mixing zone (24) where it is mixed with a hot slurry to form the pumpable slurry. A portion of the pumpable slurry is continuously recycled to the blending zone (12 and 18) for mixing with the feed coal.

Heavin, Leonard J. (Olympia, WA); King, Edward E. (Gig Harbor, WA); Milliron, Dennis L. (Lacey, WA)

1982-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

254

Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content-Fueled Turbines - University of California, Irvine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation Mechanisms Underpinning Degradation of Protective Oxides and Thermal Barrier Coatings in High Hydrogen Content-Fueled Turbines-University of California, Irvine Background Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and components in the hot section of gas turbines are degraded by coal-derived high hydrogen content (HHC) synthesis gas (syngas). In this project the University of California, Irvine (UCI) will provide an improved mechanistic understanding of the degradation of critical turbine system materials in HHC-fueled

255

Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

Kabadi, V.N.

1995-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Doe Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting August 31, 2005 #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Air Liquide Pipeline Inventory Breakdown by gases 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 KM N2 2956 km O2 3447 km H2 1736

257

Coal and Biomass to Liquids | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Coal to Liquids » Coal and Coal to Liquids » Coal and Biomass to Liquids Coal and Biomass to Liquids Over the last several decades, the Office of Fossil Energy performed RD&D activities that made significant advancements in the areas of coal conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals. Technology improvements and cost reductions that were achieved led to the construction of demonstration-scale facilities. The program is now supporting work to reduce the carbon footprint of coal derived liquids by incorporating the co-feeding of biomass and carbon capture. In the area of direct coal liquefaction, which is the process of breaking down coal to maximize the correct size of molecules for liquid products, the U.S. DOE made significant investments and advancements in technology in the 1970s and 1980s. Research enabled direct coal liquefaction to produce

258

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

storing and transporting hydrogen. Golden, CO: NREL; 1998. [V. Survey of the economics of hydrogen technologies. Golden,liquid or gaseous form. Hydrogen can be produced from a va-

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Distributed Ethanol Reforming  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids Bio-derived liquid fuels can be produced from renewable agricultural products, such as wood chips. Background Bio-derived renewable fuels are attractive for their high energy density and ease of transport. One scenario for a sustainable hydrogen economy considers that these bio-derived liquid fuels will be produced at plants close to the biomass resource, and then transported to distributed hydrogen production centers (e.g., hydrogen refueling stations), where the fuels will be reformed via the steam reforming process, similar to the current centralized production of hydrogen by the steam reforming of natural gas. Hydrogen produced by reforming these fuels must first be purified and compressed to appropriate storage and dispensing pressures. Compressing

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261

Engineering Development of Ceramic Membrane Reactor System for Converting Natural Gas to Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas for Liquid Transportation Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An Air Products-led team successfully developed ITM Syngas technology from the concept stage to a stage where a small-scale engineering prototype was about to be built. This technology produces syngas, a gas containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, by reacting feed gas, primarily methane and steam, with oxygen that is supplied through an ion transport membrane. An ion transport membrane operates at high temperature and oxygen ions are transported through the dense membrane's crystal lattice when an oxygen partial pressure driving force is applied. This development effort solved many significant technical challenges and successfully scaled-up key aspects of the technology to prototype scale. Throughout the project life, the technology showed significant economic benefits over conventional technologies. While there are still on-going technical challenges to overcome, the progress made under the DOE-funded development project proved that the technology was viable and continued development post the DOE agreement would be warranted.

Air Products and Chemicals

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

262

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current Technology to someone Current Technology to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage Challenges Status of Hydrogen Storage Technologies DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Current Technology

263

NETL: News Release - Enabling Turbine Technologies for Hydrogen Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September 8, 2005 September 8, 2005 Enabling Turbine Technologies for Hydrogen Fuels Turbine Program Advances Ultra-Clean, Coal-Based Systems WASHINGTON, DC - The Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy Turbine Technology R&D Program was recently expanded with the selection of 10 new projects valued at $130 million. The new program will advance turbines and turbine subsystems for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants, and address the use of hydrogen in small-scale turbines for industrial applications. Resulting technologies will operate cleanly and efficiently when fueled with coal-derived hydrogen or synthesis gas. Turbines can generate electrical power on a large scale-in central power stations sized 250 megawatts and larger-or on a small scale-in local, industrial power systems sized 1-100 megawatts. Small-scale systems also produce mechanical power for jet engines, compressors, heating systems, and other applications.

264

Test of the consistency of various linearized semiclassical initial value time correlation functions in application to inelastic neutron scattering from liquid para-hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The linearized approximation to the semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR) is used to calculate time correlation functions relevant to the incoherent dynamic structure factor for inelastic neutron scattering from liquid para-hydrogen at 14 K. Various time correlations functions were used which, if evaluated exactly, would give identical results, but they do not because the LSC-IVR is approximate. Some of the correlation functions involve only linear operators, and others involve non-linear operators. The consistency of the results obtained with the various time correlation functions thus provides a useful test of the accuracy of the LSC-IVR approximation and its ability to treat correlation functions involving both linear and nonlinear operators in realistic anharmonic systems. The good agreement of the results obtained from different correlation functions, their excellent behavior in the spectral moment tests based on the exact moment constraints, and their semi-quantitative agreement with the inelastic neutron scattering experimental data all suggest that the LSC-IVR is indeed a good short-time approximation for quantum mechanical correlation functions.

Miller, William; Liu, Jian; Miller, William H.

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Catalytic hydroprocessing of coal-derived gasification residues to fuel blending stocks: effect of reaction variables and catalyst on hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), and hydrodesulfurization (HDS)  

SciTech Connect

Gas liquors, tar oils, and tar products resulting from the coal gasification of a high-temperature Fischer-Tropsch plant can be successfully refined to fuel blending components by the use of severe hydroprocessing conditions. High operating temperatures and pressures combined with low space velocities ensure the deep hydrogenation of refractory oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. Hydrodeoxygenation, particularly the removal of phenolic components, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation were obtained at greater than 99% levels using the NiMo and NiW on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts. Maximum deoxygenation activity was achieved using the NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst having a maximum pore size distribution in the range of 110-220{angstrom}. The NiMo/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, which also has a relatively high proportion of smaller pore sizes (35-60 {angstrom}), displays lower hydrogenation activity. 30 refs., 1 fig. 8 tabs.

Dieter Leckel [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Hydrogen vehicle fueling station  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and probably for some time to come. The model for liquid transfer to a 120-liter vehicle tank shows that transfer times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The model for compressed gas transfer shows that underfilling of nearly 30% can occur during rapid filling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates underfilling.

Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Development of Inorganic Membranes for Hydrogen Separation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to improve the method of fabricating tubular metal supported microporous inorganic membranes. Earlier work focused on the original development of inorganic membranes for the purification of hydrogen. These membranes are now being scaled up for demonstration in a coal gasification plant for the separation of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gas for a project funded by the Office of Fossil Energy's Gasification and Coal Fuels programs [1]. This project is part of FutureGen, an initiative to build the world's first integrated sequestration and hydrogen production research power plant. Although previous work in the Advanced Research Materials Program project led to development of a tubular metal supported microporous membrane which was approved by the Department of Energy for testing, the membranes generally have lower than desired selectivities for hydrogen over other gases common in synthesis gas including carbon dioxide. The work on this project over three years will lead to general improvements in fabrication techniques that will result in membranes having higher separation factors and higher fluxes. Scanning electron microscopy and profilometry data will be presented to show qualitatively and quantitatively the surface roughness of the support tubes. We will discuss how the roughness affects membrane quality and methods to improve the quality of the support tube surface.

Bischoff, Brian L [ORNL; Adcock, Kenneth Dale [ORNL; Powell, Lawrence E [ORNL; Sutton, Theodore G [ORNL; Miller, Curtis Jack [ORNL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hydrogen-Assisted IC Engine Combustion as a Route to Hydrogen Implementation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 'Freedom Car' Initiative announced by the Bush Administration has placed a significant emphasis on development of a hydrogen economy in the United States. While the hydrogen-fueled fuel-cell vehicle that is the focus of the 'Freedom Car' program would rely on electrochemical energy conversion, and despite the large amount of resources being devoted to its objectives, near-term implementation of hydrogen in the transportation sector is not likely to arise from fuel cell cars. Instead, fuel blending and ''hydrogen-assisted'' combustion are more realizable pathways for wide-scale hydrogen utilization within the next ten years. Thus, a large potential avenue for utilization of hydrogen in transportation applications is through blending with natural gas, since there is an existing market for natural-gas vehicles of various classes, and since hydrogen can provide a means of achieving even stricter emissions standards. Another potential avenue is through use of hydrogen to 'assist' diesel combustion to permit alternate combustion strategies that can achieve lower emissions and higher efficiency. This project focused on developing the underlying fundamental information to support technologies that will facilitate the introduction of coal-derived hydrogen into the market. Two paths were envisioned for hydrogen utilization in transportation applications. One is for hydrogen to be mixed with other fuels, specifically natural gas, to enhance performance in existing natural gas-fueled vehicles (e.g., transit buses) and provide a practical and marketable avenue to begin using hydrogen in the field. A second is to use hydrogen to enable alternative combustion modes in existing diesel engines, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition, to permit enhanced efficiency and reduced emissions. Thus, this project on hydrogen-assisted combustion encompassed two major objectives: (1) Optimization of hydrogen-natural gas mixture composition and utilization through laboratory studies of spark-ignition engine operation on H{sub 2}-NG and numerical simulation of the impact of hydrogen blending on the physical and chemical processes within the engine; and (2) Examination of hydrogen-assisted combustion in advanced compression-ignition engine processes. To that end, numerical capabilities were applied to the study of hydrogen assisted combustion and experimental facilities were developed to achieve the project objectives.

Andre Boehman; Daniel Haworth

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

269

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 18, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At West Virginia University, preliminary studies were completed on the use of a membrane reactor for a BASF methanol synthesis catalyst, and the results were compared qualitatively with those from a non- permeable stainless steel tubular reactor. Promising non-sulfided Mo- based catalyst was screened and detailed parametric studies begun on selected non-sulfided catalysts. Kinetic study of a sulfided carbon- supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst in the Rotoberty reactor continued. Post analyses of screening runs of previous promising non-sulfide molybdenum-based catalysts were completed by analyzing the liquid products collected using a GC/MS. At Union Carbide Corporation, the effect of high-temperature heat treatments of selected catalysts was tested. In all cases, heat treatments resulted in decreased total alcohol selectivity and decreased space time yield to all products affected. Also, catalyst screening was completed. Reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were found to be promising catalysts for high alcohol synthesis.

NONE

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Task 1 is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. Task 1 is subdivided into three separate subtasks: laboratory setup; catalysis research; and reaction engineering and modeling. Research at West Virginia University (WVU) is focused on molybdenum-based catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS). Parallel research carried out at Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics (UCC&P) is focused on transition-metal-oxide catalysts. Accomplishments to date are discussed in this report. In Task 2, during the past three months, much has been accomplished in fuel testing. Several tests have been run on pure indolene, and the data have been analyzed from these tests. The two limiting alcohol blends have been made, sent out for analysis and the results obtained. The emissions sampling system is undergoing changes necessary for running alcohol fuels. A cylinder pressure measurement system has been installed.

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Integration of a Structural Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst with a Vanadium Alloy Hydrogen Transport Device  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

9 9 The InTegraTIon of a STrucTural WaTer- gaS-ShIfT caTalyST WITh a VanadIum alloy hydrogen TranSporT deVIce Description The purpose of this project is to produce a scalable device that simultaneously performs both water-gas-shift (WGS) and hydrogen separation from a coal-derived synthesis gas stream. The justification of such a system is the improved efficiency for the overall production of hydrogen. Removing hydrogen from the synthesis gas (syngas) stream allows the WGS reaction to convert more carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and maximizes the total hydrogen produced. An additional benefit is the reduction in capital cost of plant construction due to the removal of one step in the process by integrating WGS with the membrane separation device.

273

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines: Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Issues on Hydrogen Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Doe Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting August 31, 2005 Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Air Liquide Pipeline Inventory Breakdown by gases 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 KM N2 2956 km O2 3447 km H2 1736 km CO/Syngas 61 km TOTAL 8200 km Pipeline Inventory 2004 Asie Pacific America Europe Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 4 Copyright: 3. Special structures River Crossings (culvert): 6 (Rhein, Ruhr, Rhein-Herne-Kanal) River crossing (on bridge): 1 (Rhein-Herne-Kanal) Motorway Crossings: 26 Overground Pipelines: approx 21 km Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 5 Copyright: 5. Mining areas Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 6 Copyright: France & Netherlands

274

Hydrogen Sensor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sensor for detectingquantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces...

275

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 19, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of Task I is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. In Task 1, during this reporting period, we encountered and solved a problem in the analysis of the reaction products containing a small amount of heavy components. Subsequently, we continued with the major thrusts of the program. We analyzed the results from our preliminary studies on the packed-bed membrane reactor using the BASF methanol synthesis catalyst. We developed a quantitative model to describe the performance of the reactor. The effect of varying permeances and the effect of catalyst aging are being incorporated into the model. Secondly, we resumed our more- detailed parametric studies on selected non-sulfide Mo-based catalysts. Finally, we continue with the analysis of data from the kinetic study of a sulfided carbon-supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst in the Rotoberty reactor. We have completed catalyst screening at UCC. The complete characterization of selected catalysts has been started. In Task 2, the fuel blends of alcohol and unleaded test gas 96 (UTG 96) have been made and tests have been completed. The testing includes knock resistance tests and emissions tests. Emissions tests were conducted when the engine was optimized for the particular blend being tested (i.e. where the engine produced the most power when running on the blend in question). The data shows that the presence of alcohol in the fuel increases the fuel`s ability to resist knock. Because of this, when the engine was optimized for use with alcohol blends, the engine produced more power and lower emission rates.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: MiniCAM  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oil, Gas, Biomass, Hydro, Nuclear, Wind, Solar PV), Hydrogen production (Coal, Oil, Gas, Biomass, Electrolysis), synthetic fuels (liquids and gases from coal, oil, gas,...

277

FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current Technology to someone Current Technology to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Current Technology Today, hydrogen is transported from the point of production to the point of use via pipeline, over the road in cryogenic liquid trucks or gaseous tube

278

The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 17, September 1, 1995--December 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this reporting period, there were three major thrusts in the WVU portion. First, we started a preliminary investigation on the use of a membrane reactor for HAS. Accordingly, the plug-flow reactor which had been isolated from sulfides was substituted by a membrane reactor. The tubular membrane was first characterized in terms of its permeation properties, i.e., the fluxes, permeances and selectivities of the components. After that, a BASF methanol-synthesis catalyst was tested under different conditions on the membrane reactor. The results will be compared with those from a non-permeable stainless steel tubular reactor under the same conditions. Second, we started a detailed study of one of the catalysts tested during the screening runs. Accordingly, a carbon-supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst was selected to be run in the Rotoberty reactor. Finally, we have started detailed analyses of reaction products from some earlier screening runs in which non-sulfide molybdenum-based catalysts were employed and much more complicated product distributions were generally observed. These products could not hitherto be analyzed using the gas chromatograph which was then available. A Varian gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) is being used to characterize these liquid products. At UCC, we completed a screening of an Engelhard support impregnated with copper and cesium. We have met or exceeded three of four catalyst development targets. Oxygenate selectivity is our main hurdle. Further, we tested the effect of replacing stainless-steel reactor preheater tubing and fittings with titanium ones. We had hoped to reduce the yield of hydrocarbons which may have been produced at high temperatures due to Fischer-Tropsch catalysis with the iron and nickel in the preheater tube walls. Results showed that total hydrocarbon space time yield was actually increased with the titanium preheater, while total alcohol space time yield was not significantly affected.

NONE

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Hydrogen Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. ... These articles, of interest to the hydrogen community, can be viewed by clicking on the title. ...

280

Properties Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. PROPERTIES, ... For information on a PC database that includes hydrogen property information click here. ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

Schneider, Abraham (Overbrook Hills, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE); Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Scheibel, Edward G. (Media, PA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

283

Process for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing hydrogen by an electrolysis of water with an aqueous solution of an alkali hydroxide is provided. It is to use an electrolytic cell prepared by bonding a gas and liquid permeable anode on one surface of a cation-exchange membrane of a fluorinated polymer and a gas and liquid permeable cathode on the other surface of the membrane. An economical metal can be used as the substance for the electrolytic cell. Hydrogen can be produced at a low voltage in stable for a long time.

Oda, Y.; Morimoto, T.; Suzuki, K.

1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of Chicago team. On-board hydrogen storage is critical to the development of future high energy efficiency transportation technologies, such as hydrogen-powered fuel...

285

Hydrogen Storage- Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- - Overview George Thomas, Hydrogen Consultant to SNL * and Jay Keller, Hydrogen Program Manager Sandia National Laboratories H 2 Delivery and Infrastructure Workshop May 7-8, 2003 * Most of this presentation has been extracted from George Thomas' invited BES Hydrogen Workshop presentation (May 13-14, 2003) Sandia National Laboratories 4/14/03 2 Sandia National Laboratories From George Thomas, BES workshop 5/13/03 H 2 storage is a critical enabling technology for H 2 use as an energy carrier The low volumetric density of gaseous fuels requires a storage method which compacts the fuel. Hence, hydrogen storage systems are inherently more complex than liquid fuels. Storage technologies are needed in all aspects of hydrogen utilization. production distribution utilization

286

Single Membrane Reactor Configuration for Separation of Hydrogen, Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to develop a novel complementary membrane reactor process that can consolidate two or more downstream unit operations of a coal gasification system into a single module for production of a pure stream of hydrogen and a pure stream of carbon dioxide. The overall goals were to achieve higher hydrogen production efficiencies, lower capital costs and a smaller overall footprint than what could be achieved by utilizing separate components for each required unit process/operation in conventional coal-to-hydrogen systems. Specifically, this project was to develop a novel membrane reactor process that combines hydrogen sulfide removal, hydrogen separation, carbon dioxide separation and water-gas shift reaction into a single membrane configuration. The carbon monoxide conversion of the water-gas-shift reaction from the coal-derived syngas stream is enhanced by the complementary use of two membranes within a single reactor to separate hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Consequently, hydrogen production efficiency is increased. The single membrane reactor configuration produces a pure H{sub 2} product and a pure CO{sub 2} permeate stream that is ready for sequestration. This project focused on developing a new class of CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for this new process concept. Several approaches to make CO{sub 2}-selective membranes for high-temperature applications have been tested. Membrane disks using the technique of powder pressing and high temperature sintering were successfully fabricated. The powders were either metal oxide or metal carbonate materials. Experiments on CO{sub 2} permeation testing were also performed in the temperature range of 790 to 940 C for the metal carbonate membrane disks. However, no CO{sub 2} permeation rate could be measured, probably due to very slow CO{sub 2} diffusion in the solid state carbonates. To improve the permeation of CO{sub 2}, one approach is to make membranes containing liquid or molten carbonates. Several different types of dual-phase membranes were fabricated and tested for their CO{sub 2} permeation in reducing conditions without the presence of oxygen. Although the flux was quite low, on the order of 0.01-0.001 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min, the selectivity of CO{sub 2}/He was almost infinite at temperatures of about 800 C. A different type of dual-phase membrane prepared by Arizona State University (ASU) was also tested at GTI for CO{sub 2} permeation. The measured CO{sub 2} fluxes were 0.015 and 0.02 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min at 750 and 830 C, respectively. These fluxes were higher than the previous flux obtained ({approx}0.01 cc STP/cm{sup 2}/min) using the dual-phase membranes prepared by GTI. Further development in membrane development should be conducted to improve the CO{sub 2} flux. ASU has also focused on high temperature permeation/separation experiments to confirm the carbon dioxide separation capabilities of the dual-phase membranes with La{sup 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (LSCF6482) supports infiltrated with a Li/Na/K molten carbonate mixture (42.5/32.5/25.0 mole %). The permeation experiments indicated that the addition of O{sub 2} does improve the permeance of CO{sub 2} through the membrane. A simplified membrane reactor model was developed to evaluate the performance of the process. However, the simplified model did not allow the estimation of membrane transport area, an important parameter for evaluating the feasibility of the proposed membrane reactor technology. As a result, an improved model was developed. Results of the improved membrane reactor model show that the membrane shift reaction has promise as a means to simplify the production of a clean stream of hydrogen and a clean stream of carbon dioxide. The focus of additional development work should address the large area required for the CO{sub 2} membrane as identified in the modeling calculations. Also, a more detailed process flow diagram should be developed that includes integration of cooling and preheating feed streams as well as particulate removal so that stea

Micheal Roberts; Robert Zabransky; Shain Doong; Jerry Lin

2008-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

287

Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

Pez, Guido Peter (Allentown, PA); Cooper, Alan Charles (Macungie, PA); Scott, Aaron Raymond (Allentown, PA)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

288

Development of alternative fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Final topical report, demonstration of one-step slurry-phase process for the co-production of methanol and isobutanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid phase co-production of methanol and isobutanol (LPIBOH) was de, demonstrated at DOE`s Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Methanol and isobutanol are key intermediates in a synthesis gas-based route to methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The technology was demonstrated in a new 18 in. slurry bubble-column reactor that was designed to demonstrate higher pressures and temperatures,higher gas superficial velocities, and lower gas hourly space velocities--all of which are conducive to obtaining optimal isobutanol yield. The integration of the new reactor into the AFDU included the addition of a high-pressure synthesis gas compressor, a high-pressure hydrogen feed source, and a closed-loop methanol- solvent absorption system to remove CO{sub 2} from the unconverted synthesis gas. These modifications were completed in January 1994. The LPIBOH run followed after a short turnaround. It employed a cesium- promoted Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst developed in Air Products` laboratories and subsequently scaled up to a production- sized batch. Over a thirteen day campaign on simulated Shell gasifier gas, the catalyst and reactor system were tested at a matrix of pressures (750, 1300, 1735 psig) and space velocities (3000, 5000, 8200 sL/kg-hr), representing numerous first-of-a-kind run conditions for the AFDU. Inlet gas superficial velocities spanned an impressive 0.16 to 1.0 ft/sec. Stable reactor performance for a full twelve-hour data period at 1.0 ft/sec was another significant milestone for the liquid phase technology program. Apart from the catalyst deactivation, the run successfully demonstrated mixed alcohol synthesis in a slurry bubble-column reactor, as well as all of the new equipment installed for the trial. Although the full capabilities of the new oxygenates system will not be tested until future runs, the design objectives for the modifications were met with respect to the LPIBOH run.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Hydrogen Highways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joan Ogden, The Hope for Hydrogen, Issues in Science andand James S. Cannon. The Hydrogen Energy Transition: MovingHydrogen Highways BY TIMOTHY LIPMAN H 2 T H E S TAT E O F C

Lipman, Timothy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Hydrogen Production From Metal-Water Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Current methods of hydrogen storage in automobiles are either too bulky (large storage space for gas phase) or require a high input energy (cooling or pressurization systems for liquid hydrogen), making widespread use abundance, high- energy content, and large surface area, is able to combine with water to produce hydrogen

Barthelat, Francois

291

Hydrogen Production  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Research in DOE Databases Energy Citations Database Information Bridge Science.gov WorldWideScience.org Increase your H2IQ More information Making...

292

Hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

293

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Hydrogen Delivery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 #12;This.................................................................................. 13 6. Hydrogen Storage and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary, nonbinding, and nonlegal

294

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the development of fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensors for monitoring dissolved hydrogen gas in transformer oil. The concentration of hydrogen gas is a measure of the corona and spark discharge within the transformer and reflects the state of health of the transformer. Key features of the instrument include use of palladium alloys to enhance hydrogen sensitivity, a microprocessor controlled instrument with RS-232, liquid crystal readout, and 4-20 ma. current loop interfaces. Calibration data for both sensors can be down loaded to the instrument through the RS-232 interface. This project was supported by the Technology Transfer Initiative in collaboration with J. W. Harley, Inc. through the mechanism of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA).

Butler, M.A.; Sanchez, R.; Dulleck, G.R.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Introduction Developing and implementing fuel quality specifications for hydrogen are prerequisites to the widespread deployment of hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles. Several organizations are addressing this fuel quality issue, including the International Standards Organization (ISO), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP), and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)/Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). All of their activities, however, have focused on the deleterious effects of specific contaminants on the automotive fuel cell or on-board hydrogen storage systems. While it is possible for the energy industry to provide extremely pure hydrogen, such hydrogen could entail excessive costs. The objective of our task is to develop a process whereby the hydrogen quality requirements may be determined based on life-cycle costs of the complete hydrogen fuel cell vehicle "system." To accomplish this objective, the influence of different contaminants and their concentrations in fuel hydrogen on the life-cycle costs of hydrogen production, purification, use in fuel cells, and hydrogen analysis and quality verification are being assessed.

296

Hydrogen from Coal | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquids » Hydrogen Liquids » Hydrogen from Coal Hydrogen from Coal Technicians make adjustments to equipment in the hydrogen membrane testing unit at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory. NETL researchers in the Office of Research and Development are testing different types of materials that might be used to separate hydrogen from other gases. Photo courtesy of NETL. Technicians make adjustments to equipment in the hydrogen membrane testing unit at FE's National Energy Technology Laboratory. NETL researchers in the Office of Research and Development are testing different types of materials that might be used to separate hydrogen from other gases. Photo courtesy of NETL. Hydrogen from coal research supports goals of increasing energy security, reducing environmental impact of energy use, promoting economic

297

NETL: Gasification - Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Syngas Processing Systems Syngas Processing Systems Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Coal Gasification Praxair Inc. Project Number: FE0004908 Project Description Praxair is conducting research to develop hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) technology to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2) in coal-derived syngas for IGCC applications. The project team has fabricated palladium based membranes and measured hydrogen fluxes as a function of pressure, temperature, and membrane preparation conditions. Membranes are a commercially-available technology in the chemical industry for CO2 removal and H2 purification. There is, however, no commercial application of membrane processes that aims at CO2 capture for IGCC syngas. Due to the modular nature of the membrane process, the design does not exhibit economy of scale-the cost of the system will increase linearly as the plant system scale increases making the use of commercially available membranes, for an IGCC power plant, cost prohibitive. For a membrane process to be a viable CO2 capture technology for IGCC applications, a better overall performance is required, including higher permeability, higher selectivity, and lower membrane cost.

298

Ultrafast 2D IR anisotropy of water reveals reorientation during hydrogen-bond switching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rearrangements of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water are believed to involve rapid and concerted hydrogen bond switching events, during which a hydrogen bond donor molecule undergoes large angle molecular reorientation ...

Ramasesha, Krupa

299

Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

300

Method and means for producing solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen Production Argonne researchers are studying thermochemical cycles to determine their potential...

302

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 9013: Energy requirements...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

6 Peschka, W. (1992). "Liquid Hydrogen." Springer-Verlag, New York. 7 Active Magnetic Regenerative Liquefier, John Barclay, Prometheus Energy DOE Annual Merit Review, May 2009...

303

Metallic hydrogen research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Theoretical studies predict that molecular hydrogen can be converted to the metallic phase at very high density and pressure. These conditions were achieved by subjecting liquid hydrogen to isentropic compression in a magnetic-flux compression device. Hydrogen became electrically conducting at a density of about 1.06 g/cm/sup 3/ and a calculated pressure of about 2 Mbar. In the experimental device, a cylindrical liner, on implosion by high explosive, compresses a magnetic flux which in turn isentropically compresses a hydrogen sample; coaxial conical anvils prevent escape of the sample during compression. One anvil contains a coaxial cable that uses alumina ceramic as an insulator; this probe allows continuous measurement of the electrical conductivity of the hydrogen. A flash x-ray radiograph exposed during the experiment records the location of the sample-tube boundaries and permits calculation of the sample density. The theoretical underpinnings of the metallic transition of hydrogen are briefly summarized, and the experimental apparatus and technique, analytical methods, and results are described. 9 figures.

Burgess, T.J.; Hawke, R.S.

1978-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

304

Use of once-through treat gas to remove the heat of reaction in solvent hydrogenation processes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a coal liquefaction process wherein feed coal is contacted with molecular hydrogen and a hydrogen-donor solvent in a liquefaction zone to form coal liquids and vapors and coal liquids in the solvent boiling range are thereafter hydrogenated to produce recycle solvent and liquid products, the improvement which comprises separating the effluent from the liquefaction zone into a hot vapor stream and a liquid stream; cooling the entire hot vapor stream sufficiently to condense vaporized liquid hydrocarbons; separating condensed liquid hydrocarbons from the cooled vapor; fractionating the liquid stream to produce coal liquids in the solvent boiling range; dividing the cooled vapor into at least two streams; passing the cooling vapors from one of the streams, the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range, and makeup hydrogen to a solvent hydrogenation zone, catalytically hydrogenating the coal liquids in the solvent boiling range and quenching the hydrogenation zone with cooled vapors from the other cooled vapor stream.

Nizamoff, Alan J. (Convent Station, NJ)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Hydrogen Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These...

307

Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

308

Hydrogen Radialysis  

INL scientists have invented a process of forming chemical compositions, such as a hydrides which can provide a source of hydrogen. The process exposes the chemical composition decaying radio-nuclides which provide the energy to with a hydrogen source ...

309

Hydrogen Safety  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

310

Hydrogen wishes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen Wishes, presented at MIT's Center for Advanced Visual Studies, explores the themes of wishes and peace. It dramatizes the intimacy and power of transforming one's breath and vocalized wishes into a floating sphere, a bubble charged with hydrogen. ...

Winslow Burleson; Paul Nemirovsky; Dan Overholt

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2012 Annual Progress Report - Hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Printable Version 2012 Annual Progress Report II. Hydrogen Production This section of the 2012 Annual Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program focuses on hydrogen production. Hydrogen Production Sub-Program Overview, Sara Dillich, U.S. Department of Energy A. Distributed Bio-Derived Liquid Production Biomass-Derived Liquids Distributed (Aqueous Phase) Reforming, David King, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, Stefan Czernik, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Back to Top B. Biomass Gasification One Step Biomass Gas Reforming-Shift Separation Membrane Reactor, Mike Roberts, Gas Technology Institute Back to Top C. Separations Development of Hydrogen Selective Membranes/Modules as Reactors/Separators for Distributed Hydrogen Production, Paul Liu, Media

312

Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy...

313

Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications: Hydrogen Storage Program Organizers: Zhenguo "Gary" Yang, Pacific Northwest...

314

Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applied Neutron Scattering in Engineering and Materials Science Research: Hydrogen Storage Sponsored by: Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of...

315

Flash hydrogenation of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is proposed to obtain process chemistry information on the rapid hydrogenation of biomass (wood and other agricultural products) to produce light liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels and feedstocks. The process is referred to as Flash Hydropyrolysis. The information will be of use in the design and evaluation of processes for the conversion of biomass to synthetic fuels and petrochemical feedstocks. Results obtained in an initial experiment are discussed.

Steinberg, M

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Hydrogen--electric power drives  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen--electric power drives would consist of most or all of these: chilled hydrogen gas tank, liquid oxygen tank, a bank of fuel cells, dc/ac inverter, ac drive motors, solid state ac speed control, dc sputter-ion vacuum pumps, steam turbine generator set and steam condenser. Each component is described. Optional uses of low pressure extraction steam and warm condensate are listed. Power drive applications are listed. Impact on public utilities, fuel suppliers, and users is discussed.

Hall, F.F.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes: Achieving a 10,000 GPU Permeance for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture with Gelled Ionic Liquid-Based Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: Alongside Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Electric Power Research Institute, CU-Boulder is developing a membrane made of a gelled ionic liquid to capture CO2 from the exhaust of coal-fired power plants. The membranes are created by spraying the gelled ionic liquids in thin layers onto porous support structures using a specialized coating technique. The new membrane is highly efficient at pulling CO2 out of coal-derived flue gas exhaust while restricting the flow of other materials through it. The design involves few chemicals or moving parts and is more mechanically stable than current technologies. The team is now working to further optimize the gelled materials for CO2 separation and create a membrane layer that is less than 1 micrometer thick.

None

2011-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

318

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2011 Annual Progress Report - Hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Printable Version 2011 Annual Progress Report II. Hydrogen Production This section of the 2011 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program focuses on hydrogen production. Each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Hydrogen Production Sub-Program Overview, Sara Dillich, DOE A. Distributed Bio-Derived Liquid Production Biomass-Derived Liquids Distributed (Aqueous Phase) Reforming, David King, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming, Stefan Czernik, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Distributed Reforming of Renewable Liquids Using Oxygen Transport Membranes (OTMs), Balu Balachandran, Argonne National Laboratory Back to Top B. Biomass Gasification A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process, Sean Emerson, United

319

Dynamic simulation of nuclear hydrogen production systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear hydrogen production processes have been proposed as a solution to rising CO 2 emissions and low fuel yields in the production of liquid transportation fuels. In these processes, the heat of a nuclear reactor is ...

Ramrez Muoz, Patricio D. (Patricio Dario)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Fusion energy for hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approximately 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

322

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Hydrogen production from municipal solid waste  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have modified a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) hydrothermal pretreatment pilot plant for batch operation and blowdown of the treated batch to low pressure. We have also assembled a slurry shearing pilot plant for particle size reduction. Waste paper and a mixture of waste paper/polyethylene plastic have been run in the pilot plant with a treatment temperature of 275{degrees}C. The pilot-plant products have been used for laboratory studies at LLNL. The hydrothermal/shearing pilot plants have produced acceptable slurries for gasification tests from a waste paper feedstock. Work is currently underway with combined paper/plastic feedstocks. When the assembly of the Research Gasification Unit at Texaco (feed capacity approximately 3/4-ton/day) is complete (4th quarter of FY96), gasification test runs will commence. Laboratory work on slurry samples during FY96 has provided correlations between slurry viscosity and hydrothermal treatment temperature, degree of shearing, and the presence of surfactants and admixed plastics. To date, pumpable slurries obtained from an MSW surrogate mixture of treated paper and plastic have shown heating values in the range 13-15 MJ/kg. Our process modeling has quantified the relationship between slurry heating value and hydrogen yield. LLNL has also performed a preliminary cost analysis of the process with the slurry heating value and the MSW tipping fee as parameters. This analysis has shown that the overall process with a 15 MJ/kg slurry gasifier feed can compete with coal-derived hydrogen with the assumption that the tipping fee is of the order $50/ton.

Wallman, P.H.; Richardson, J.H.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1996-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

324

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2009 Annual Progress Report - Hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Printable Version 2009 Annual Progress Report II. Hydrogen Production This section of the 2009 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program focuses on hydrogen production. Each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Download Adobe Reader. Hydrogen Production Sub-Program Overview, Richard Farmer, U.S. Department of Energy (PDF 76 KB) A. Distributed Production from Bio-Derived Liquids Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development (PDF 246 KB), Frank Lomax, H2Gen Innovations, Inc. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Biomass Reforming (PDF 485 KB), Yong Wang, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via the Aqueous-Phase Reforming (APR) Process (PDF 234 KB), Greg Keenan, Virent

325

Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

Wilson, Jr., Edward L. (Baytown, TX); Mitchell, Willard N. (Baytown, TX)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Hydrogen Safety  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ASHRAE 62.1, 7 air changes per hour, 100 ... I, Division II, Group B: testing and research laboratory; ... Planning Guidance for Hydrogen Projects as a ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

327

Novel hydrogen separation device development for coal gasification system applications. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study was undertaken for the development of a novel Electrochemical Hydrogen Separator (EHS) technology for low-cost hydrogen separation from coal derived gases. Design and operating parameter testing was performed using subscale cells (25 cm{sup 2}). High H{sub 2} purity, >99% is one of the main features of the EHS. It was found that N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} behave as equivalent inerts; EHS performance is not affected by the balance of feed gas containing these components. This product purity level is not sacrificed by increased H{sub 2} recovery. CO, however, does adversely affect EHS performance and therefore feed stream pretreatment is recommended. Low levels of H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} were added to the feed gas stream and it was verified that these impurities did not affect EHS performance. Task 2 demonstrated the scale-up to full size multi-cell module operation while maintaining a stable energy requirement. A 10-cell full-size module (1050 cm{sup 2} cell active area) was operated for over 3,800 hours and gave a stable baseline performance. Several applications for the EHS were investigated. The most economically attractive systems incorporating an EHS contain low pressure, dilute hydrogen streams, such as coal gasification carbonate fuel cell systems, hydrogen plant purification and fluid catalytic cracker units. In addition, secondary hydrogen recovery from PSA or membrane tailstreams using an EHS may increase overall system efficiency.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Fuel Cells Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen...

329

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Hydrogen Sector List of Hydrogen Incentives Hydrogen Energy Data Book Retrieved from...

330

"Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic Hydrogen Isotopes and Ions" Leonid E. Zakharov and Charles Gentile The system is comprised of a stationary closed...

331

Microsoft Word - 42643_GE_Hydrogen Turbine_Factsheet_Rev B_12-08-06.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 - Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine Development 3 - Advanced IGCC/H2 Gas Turbine Development Revision B 1 December 2006 FACT SHEET I. PROJECT PARTICIPANTS A. Prime Participant: General Electric Company, GE Energy B. Sub-Award Participant: General Electric Company, Global Research Center II. PROJECT DESCRIPTION A. Objective(s): The objective of this project is to design and develop a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC and FutureGen type applications that meets DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal is to conduct, by 2010, the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency (45-50% (HHV)), near-zero emissions (less than 3 ppm v NOx @ 15% O 2 ) and competitive capital cost (< $1000/kW).

332

The Cooling of a Liquid Absorber using a Small Cooler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorber is to use a gravity heat pipe. Liquid hydrogen (orcirculates the liquid. A heat pipe can have a very low DT (heat pipe. A copper strap shown is

Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Liggins, N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the performances of the candidate membranes under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit has been constructed in this project. During this reporting period, the unit has been fully commissioned and is operational. The unit is capable of operating at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. A double-seal technique has been developed and tested successfully to achieve leak-tight seal for the membranes. Initial data for a commercial Palladium-Gold membrane were obtained at temperatures to 450 C and pressures to 13 atm. Tests for the perovskite membranes are being performed and the results will be reported in the next quarter. A membrane gasification reactor model was developed to consider the H{sub 2} permeability of the membrane, the kinetics and the equilibriums of the gas phase reactions in the gasifier, the operating conditions and the configurations of the membrane reactor. The results show that the hydrogen production efficiency using the novel membrane gasification reactor concept can be increased by about 50% versus the conventional gasification process. This confirms the previous evaluation results from the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. A rigorous model for hydrogen permeation through mixed proton-electron conducting ceramic membranes was also developed based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The results from the simulation work confirm that the hydrogen flux increases with increasing partial pressure of hydrogen. The presence of steam in the permeate side can have a small negative effect on the hydrogen flux, in the order of 10%. When the steam partial pressure is greater than 1 atm, the hydrogen flux becomes independent of the steam pressure.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2004-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

334

Hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrogen by reacting an ash containing material with water and at least one halogen selected from the group consisting of chlorine, bromine and iodine to form reaction products including carbon dioxide and a corresponding hydrogen halide is claimed. The hydrogen halide is decomposed to separately release the hydrogen and the halogen. The halogen is recovered for reaction with additional carbonaceous materials and water, and the hydrogen is recovered as a salable product. In a preferred embodiment the carbonaceous material, water and halogen are reacted at an elevated temperature. In accordance with another embodiment, a continuous method for the production of hydrogen is provided wherein the carbonaceous material, water and at least one selected halogen are reacted in one zone, and the hydrogen halide produced from the reaction is decomposed in a second zone, preferably by electrolytic decomposition, to release the hydrogen for recovery and the halogen for recycle to the first zone. There also is provided a method for recovering any halogen which reacts with or is retained in the ash constituents of the carbonaceous material.

Darnell, A.J.; Parkins, W.E.

1978-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

335

Hydrogen Bibliography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11 Annual Progress Report 11 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. Hydrogen Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 II.0 Hydrogen Production Sub-Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 II.A Distributed BDL Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 II.A.1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Biomass-Derived Liquids Distributed (Aqueous Phase) Reforming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

337

Separation and recovery of hydrogen and normally gaseous hydrocarbons from net excess hydrogen from a catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons in the presence of hydrogen, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products. An improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from the net excess hydrogen is realized by chilling and contacting said hydrogen with a normally liquid hydrocarbon stream in a plural stage absorption zone at an elevated pressure.

Scheifele, C.A.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

338

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FY 2012 Annual Progress Report FY 2012 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1 II. Hydrogen Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II-1 II.0 Hydrogen Production Sub-Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II-3 II.A Distributed Biomass-Derived Liquids Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II-11 II.A.1 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory: Biomass-Derived Liquids Distributed (Aqueous Phase) Reforming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

339

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Basic Research for the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Institution Project Title Category A: Novel Hydrogen Storage Materials Massachusetts Institute of Technology Theory and Modeling of Materials for Hydrogen Storage Washington University In Situ NMR Studies of Hydrogen Storage Systems University of Pennsylvania Chemical Hydrogen Storage in Ionic Liquid Media Colorado School of Mines Molecular Hydrogen Storage in Novel Binary Clathrate Hydrates at Near-Ambient Temperatures and Pressures Georgia Institute of Technology First-Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides Louisiana Tech University Understanding the Local Atomic-Level Effect of Dopants In Complex Metal Hydrides Using Synchrotron X-ray Absorption

340

Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

Urban, P.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2004 Annual Progress Report - Hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage Printable Version 2004 Annual Progress Report III. Hydrogen Storage Each individual technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF for easier use. Download Adobe Reader. Hydrogen Storage Sub-Program Review, JoAnn Milliken, DOE (PDF 227 KB) A. Compressed/Liquid H2 Tanks Low-Cost, High-Efficiency, High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage, Jui Ko, Quantum (PDF 373 KB) Optimum Utilization of Available Space in a Vehicle through Conformable Hydrogen Tanks, Salvador Aceves, LLNL (PDF 614 KB) Next Generation Physical Hydrogen Storage, Andrew Weisberg, LLNL (PDF 1 MB) Back to Top B. Chemical Hydrides Low-Cost, Off-Board Regeneration of Sodium Borohydride, Ying Wu, Millennium Cell (PDF 420 KB) Hydrogen Storage: Radiolysis for Borate Regeneration, Bruce Wilding,

343

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2008 Annual Progress Report - Hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Printable Version 2008 Annual Progress Report II. Hydrogen Production This section of the 2008 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program focuses on hydrogen production. Each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Download Adobe Reader. Hydrogen Production Sub-Program Overview, Richard Farmer, U.S. Department of Energy (PDF 319 KB) A. Distributed Production from Bio-Derived Liquids Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development, Frank Lomax, H2Gen Innovations, Inc. (PDF 298 KB) Distributed Hydrogen Production from Biomass Reforming, David King, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PDF 372 KB) Analysis of Ethanol Reforming System Configurations, Brian James, Directed Technologies, Inc. (PDF 515 KB)

344

Hydrogen: Helpful Links & Contacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Helpful Links & Contacts. Helpful Links. Hydrogen Information, Website. ... Contacts for Commercial Hydrogen Measurement. ...

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Several different approaches are being pursued to develop on-board hydrogen storage systems for light-duty vehicle applications. The different approaches have different characteristics, such as: the thermal energy and temperature of charge and discharge kinetics of the physical and chemical process steps involved requirements for the materials and energy interfaces between the storage system and the fuel supply system on one hand, and the fuel user on the other Other storage system design and operating parameters influence the projected system costs as well. Argonne researchers are developing thermodynamic, kinetic, and engineering models of the various hydrogen storage systems to understand the characteristics of storage systems based on these approaches and to evaluate their potential to meet the DOE targets for on-board applications. The DOE targets for 2015 include a system gravimetric capacity of 1.8 kWh/kg (5.5 wt%) and a system volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L (40 g/L). We then use these models to identify significant component and performance issues, and evaluate alternative system configurations and design and operating parameters.

346

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will test ionization cooling of muons. In order to have effective ionization cooling, one must use an absorber that is made from a low-z material. The most effective low z materials for ionization cooling are hydrogen, helium, lithium hydride, lithium and beryllium, in that order. In order to measure the effect of material on cooling, several absorber materials must be used. This report describes a liquid-hydrogen absorber that is within a pair of superconducting focusing solenoids. The absorber must also be suitable for use with liquid helium. The following absorber components are discussed in this report; the absorber body, its heat exchanger, the hydrogen system, and the hydrogen safety. Absorber cooling and the thin windows are not discussed here.

Baynham, D.E.; Bish, P.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Cummings, M.A.; Green,M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivaniouchenkov, I.; Lau, W.; Yang, S.Q.; Zisman, M.S.

2005-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

347

Hydrogen ICE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD Hydrogen ICE 1 Conversion Vehicle Specifications Engine: 6.0 L V8 Fuel Capacity: 10.5 GGE Nominal Tank Pressure: 5,000 psi Seatbelt Positions: Five...

348

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

349

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Biomass to Liquids Hydrogen-from-Coal RD&D ENERGY ANALYSIS About Us Search Products Contacts SMART GRID ANALYSIS BASELINE STUDIES QUALITY GUIDELINES NETL-RUA About NETL-RUA...

350

Safety aspects of large-scale handling of hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the decade of the 1950s, there has been a large increase in the quantity of hydrogen, especially liquid hydrogen, that has been produced, transported, and used. The technology of hydrogen, as it relates to safety, has also developed at the same time. The possible sources of hazards that can arise in the large-scale handling of hydrogen are recognized, and for the most part, sufficiently understood. These hazard sources are briefly discussed. 26 refs., 4 figs.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Stewart, W.F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Measurements for Hydrogen Storage Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements for Hydrogen Storage Materials. Summary: ... Hydrogen is promoted as petroleum replacement in the Hydrogen Economy. ...

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

352

A Novel Membrane Reactor for Direct Hydrogen Production from Coal  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the performances of the candidate membranes under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit has been constructed in this project. The unit is designed to operate at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. Several perovskite membranes based on the formulations of BCN (BaCe{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}) and BCY (BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}) were prepared by GTI and successfully tested in the new permeation unit. During this reporting period, two different types of membranes, Eu-doped SrCeO{sub 3} (SCE) and SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (SCTm) provided by the University of Florida and the University of Cincinnati, respectively were tested in the high pressure permeation unit. The SCTm membrane, with a thickness of 1.7 mm, showed the highest hydrogen permeability among the perovskite membranes tested in this project so far. The hydrogen flux measured for the SCTm membrane was close to 0.8 cc/min/cm{sup 2} at a hydrogen feed pressure of about 4 bar at 950 C. SEM and EDX analysis for the tested SCTm membrane showed a separate Ce-rich phase deposited along the grain boundaries in the region towards the feed side of the membrane. No such phase separation was observed towards the permeate side. Partial reduction of the SCTm perovskite material by the high pressure hydrogen, especially in the feed side of the membrane, was postulated to be the possible reason for the phase separation. Further investigation of the stability issue of the perovskite membrane is needed.

Shain Doong, Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Robers

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

353

CERAMIC MEMBRANES FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The preparation and performance of membranes for application to hydrogen separation from coal-derived gas is described. The membrane material investigated was dense amorphous silica deposited on a suitable support by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Two types of support materials were pursued. One type consisted of a two-layer composite, zeolite silicalite/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, in the form of tubes approximately 0.7 cm in diameter. The other type was porous glass tubes of diameter below 0.2 cm. The first type of support was prepared starting from {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tubes of 1{micro}m mean pore diameter and growing by hydrothermal reaction a zeolite silicalite layer inside the pores of the alumina at the OD side. After calcination to remove the organic template used in the hydrothermal reaction, CVD was carried out to deposit the final silica layer. CVD was carried out by alternating exposure of the surface with silicon tetrachloride and water vapor. SEM and N2 adsorption measurements were employed to characterize the membranes at several stages during their preparation. Permeation measurements of several gases yielded H{sub 2}:N{sub 2} ideal selectivity of 150-200 at room temperature declining to 110 at 250 C. The second type of support pursued was porous glass tubes prepared by a novel extrusion technique. A thick suspension of borosilicate glass powder in a polyethersulfone solution was extruded through a spinneret and after gelation the glass-polymer tube was heat treated to obtain a gas-tight glass tube. Leaching of the glass tube in hot water yielded connected pores with diameter on the order of 100 nm. CVD of the final silica layer was not carried out on these tubes on account of their large pore size.

George R. Gavalas

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Table of Contents; DOE Hydrogen Program FY 2008 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 Annual Progress Report 8 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen Program Table of Contents I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. Hydrogen Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 II.0 Hydrogen Production Sub-Program Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 II.A Distributed Production from Bio-Derived Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 II.A.1 H 2 Gen Innovations, Inc: Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

355

Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane andPropane  

SciTech Connect

The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs.

Green, Michael A.

2005-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

356

Hydrogen Safety Issues Compared to Safety Issues with Methane andPropane  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydrogen economy is not possible if the safety standards currently applied to liquid hydrogen and hydrogen gas by many laboratories are applied to devices that use either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Methane and propane are commonly used by ordinary people without the special training. This report asks, 'How is hydrogen different from flammable gasses that are commonly being used all over the world?' This report compares the properties of hydrogen, methane and propane and how these properties may relate to safety when they are used in both the liquid and gaseous state. Through such an analysis, sensible safety standards for the large-scale (or even small-scale) use of liquid and gaseous hydrogen systems can be developed. This paper is meant to promote discussion of issues related to hydrogen safety so that engineers designing equipment can factor sensible safety standards into their designs.

Green, Michael A.

2005-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

357

Electrokinetic Hydrogen Generation from Liquid Water Microjets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

process also generates electrical power, which could becurrents to generate electrical power, 9-11 with Kwokat the nozzle, the electrical power is found to be ~210 -4

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Storing Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Hydrogen Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A A H2A: Hydrogen Analysis Margaret K. Mann DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program Systems Analysis Workshop July 28-29, 2004 Washington, D.C. H2A Charter * H2A mission: Improve the transparency and consistency of approach to analysis, improve the understanding of the differences among analyses, and seek better validation from industry. * H2A was supported by the HFCIT Program H2A History * First H2A meeting February 2003 * Primary goal: bring consistency & transparency to hydrogen analysis * Current effort is not designed to pick winners - R&D portfolio analysis - Tool for providing R&D direction * Current stage: production & delivery analysis - consistent cost methodology & critical cost analyses * Possible subsequent stages: transition analysis, end-point

360

CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

Zhen Fan

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Hydrogen Technologies Group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production:...

363

The Transition to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure,and James S. Cannon. The Hydrogen Energy Transition: Movingof Energy, National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, November 2002.

Ogden, Joan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Hydrogen SRNL Connection  

hydrogen storage. Why is Savannah River National Laboratory conducting hydrogen research and development? ... Both the Department of Energys hydrogen ...

365

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on...

366

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap...

367

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen...

368

Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Design and Development of New Carbon-Based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a summary for work performed under cooperative agreement DE FC36 04GO14006 (Design and Development of New Carbon-based Sorbent Systems for an Effective Containment of Hydrogen). The project was directed to discover new solid and liquid materials that use reversible catalytic hydrogenation as the mechanism for hydrogen capture and storage. After a short period of investigation of solid materials, the inherent advantages of storing and transporting hydrogen using liquid-phase materials focused our attention exclusively on organic liquid hydrogen carriers (liquid carriers). While liquid carriers such as decalin and methylcyclohexane were known in the literature, these carriers suffer from practical disadvantages such as the need for very high temperatures to release hydrogen from the carriers and difficult separation of the carriers from the hydrogen. In this project, we were successful in using the prediction of reaction thermodynamics to discover liquid carriers that operate at temperatures up to 150 C lower than the previously known carriers. The means for modifying the thermodynamics of liquid carriers involved the use of certain molecular structures and incorporation of elements other than carbon into the carrier structure. The temperature decrease due to the more favorable reaction thermodynamics results in less energy input to release hydrogen from the carriers. For the first time, the catalytic reaction required to release hydrogen from the carriers could be conducted with the carrier remaining in the liquid phase. This has the beneficial effect of providing a simple means to separate the hydrogen from the carrier.

Alan C. Cooper

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

370

A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane reactor coupled with a gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. Hydrogen permeation data for several perovskite membranes BCN (BaCe{sub 0.9}Nd{sub 0.1}O{sub 3-x}), SCE (SrCe{sub 0.9}Eu{sub 0.1}O{sub 3}) and SCTm (SrCe{sub 0.95}Tm{sub 0.05}O{sub 3}) have been successfully obtained for temperatures between 800 and 950 C and pressures from 1 to 12 bar in this project. However, it is known that the cerate-based perovskite materials can react with CO{sub 2}. Therefore, the stability issue of the proton conducting perovskite materials under CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S environments was examined. Tests were conducted in the Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit for powder and disk forms of BCN and SCE. Perovskite materials doped with zirconium (Zr) are known to be resistant to CO{sub 2}. The results from the evaluation of the chemical stability for the Zr doped perovskite membranes are presented. During this reporting period, flowsheet simulation was also performed to calculate material and energy balance based on several hydrogen production processes from coal using high temperature membrane reactor (1000 C), low temperature membrane reactor (250 C), or conventional technologies. The results show that the coal to hydrogen process employing both the high temperature and the low temperature membrane reactors can increase the hydrogen production efficiency (cold gas efficiency) by more than 50% compared to the conventional process. Using either high temperature or low temperature membrane reactor process also results in an increase of the cold gas efficiencies as well as the thermal efficiencies of the overall process.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2005-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

371

Analysis of hydrogen vehicles with cryogenic high pressure storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Insulated pressure vessels are cryogenic-capable pressure vessels that can be fueled with liquid hydrogen (LIQ) or ambient-temperature compressed hydrogen (CH2). Insulated pressure vessels offer the advantages of liquid hydrogen tanks (low weight and volume), with reduced disadvantages (lower energy requirement for hydrogen liquefaction and reduced evaporative losses). This paper shows an evaluation of the applicability of the insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles. The paper shows an evaluation of evaporative losses and insulation requirements and a description of the current experimental plans for testing insulated pressure vessels. The results show significant advantages to the use of insulated pressure vessels for light-duty vehicles.

Aceves, S. M.; Berry, G. D.

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

372

Assessment of environmental and safety problems in hydrogen energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous suggestions have been made for the use of hydrogen as a portable or transportable fuel. To effect safely an expanded use of hydrogen requires fundamental knowledge of the appropriate safety problems as well as mechanisms to ensure the proper design of equipment and techniques used in its storage, shipment, and use. Most likely methods of shipment consist of an extension of existing technology; namely, gas transmission by pipeline and bulk transportation of hydrogen as a cryogenic liquid. While these are well developed, safety and technological problems still exist and include such issues as dispersion of hydrogen releases, behavior of hydrogen on combustion, and hydrogen embrittlement. Safe transportation and handling of hydrogen can be enhanced by uniformity of codes and regulations. Hydrogen use as a fuel is not totally benign from an environmental standpoint; however, the combination of production and end use is generally more acceptable for hydrogen than for alternative fuels.

Edeskuty, F.J.; Bartlit, J.R.; Carlson, R.V.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

374

Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Objectives - Develop and verify: On-board hydrogen storage systems achieving: 1.5 kWhkg (4.5 wt%), 1.2 kWhL, and 6kWh by 2005 2 kWhkg (6 wt%), 1.5 kWhL, and 4kWh by...

375

California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a ???¢????????real-world???¢??????? retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation???¢????????s hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations with a focus on safe, convenient, fast-fills. These potential areas were then compared to and overlaid with suitable sites from various energy companies and other potential station operators. Work continues to match vehicle needs with suitable fueling station locations. Once a specific site was identified, the necessary agreements could be completed with the station operator and expected station users. Detailed work could then begin on the site drawings, permits, safety procedures and training needs. Permanent stations were successfully installed in Irvine (delivered liquid hydrogen), Torrance (delivered pipeline hydrogen) and Fountain Valley (renewable hydrogen from anaerobic digester gas). Mobile fueling stations were also deployed to meet short-term fueling needs in Long Beach and Placerville. Once these stations were brought online, infrastructure data was collected and reported to DOE using Air Products???¢???????? Enterprise Remote Access Monitoring system. Feedback from station operators was incorporated to improve the station user???¢????????s fueling experience.

Edward C. Heydorn

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

376

Hydrogen Systems Analysis | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Coal » Coal to Liquids » Hydrogen Clean Coal » Coal to Liquids » Hydrogen Systems Analysis Hydrogen Systems Analysis Energy analyses provide valuable information, input, and guidance into the decision-making process on important issues such as national energy security and environmental policies, research and development programs and plans, technology options, and potential technical, economic, market, and social barriers to technology deployment. The Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels Program, working with the NETL Office of Systems, Analyses, and Planning, supports systems, techno-economic, and benefits analysis activities to provide guidance and input for its research and development program portfolio, assess the progress made by Program-funded research, and measure the energy security, economic and

377

NETL: Gasification - Recovery Act: Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport Membranes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recovery Act: Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport Membranes for IGCC and FutureGen Plants Recovery Act: Scale-Up of Hydrogen Transport Membranes for IGCC and FutureGen Plants Eltron Research & Development Inc. Project Number: FC26-05NT42469 Project Description The Eltron Hydrogen Transport Membrane (HTM) technology uses composite metal alloy materials to separate H2 from coal-derived syngas (a mixture of H2, CO, CO2, and steam). Carbon dioxide on the feed side of the membrane remains at high pressure and in a concentrated form suitable for capture and re-use or storage. The Eltron HTM system is an enabling technology for the production of high purity H2 and the capture of CO2 at high pressure that is applicable to future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and central station H2 production plants. These novel membranes have an operating temperature of 280 to 440 degrees Celsius (°C), which is well-matched with emerging coal gas cleaning technologies and has the potential to significantly improve the overall efficiency and process economics for future gasification-based power, fuels, and chemical production plants. Eltron's membranes can withstand differential pressures of up to 1,000 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) without structural failure, allowing for successful integration into advanced, high-pressure coal gasification plants.

378

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Distributed Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

government interests, a variety of vendors, and numerous utilities. Keywords: Hydrogen production, natural gas, costs Purpose Assess progress toward the 2005 DOE Hydrogen...

379

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Futures Simulation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

hydrogen scenarios will affect carbon and other environmental effluents and U.S. oil import requirements Outputs: Delivered hydrogen costs (cost per gallon of gas...

380

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Cost Analysis Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Cost Analysis Project ID: 273 Principal Investigator: Marc Melaina...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Infrastructure Market...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Analysis Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Analysis Project ID: 268 Principal Investigator: Marc Melaina...

382

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Electrolytic Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Principal Investigator Projects by Date U.S. Department of Energy Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Project Summary Full Title: Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production:...

383

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis Option Analysis DOE and FreedomCAR & Fuel Partnership Hydrogen Delivery and On-Board Storage Analysis Workshop January 25, 2005 Washington DC This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Tan-Ping Chen Nexant Jim Campbell Bhadra Grover Air Liquide Stefan Unnasch TIAX Glyn Hazelden GTI Graham Moore Chevron Matt Ringer NREL Ray Hobbs Pinnacle West 2 Presentation Outline Project Background Knowledge Collected and Preliminary Results for Each Delivery Option Summary of Observations Next Step Project Background Project Background 4 Delivery Options Option 1* GH delivery by new pipelines Option 2 Converting NG/oil pipelines for GH delivery Option 3 Blending GH into NG pipelines Option 4* GH tube trailers

384

Hydrogen Analysis Group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL factsheet that describes the general activites of the Hydrogen Analysis Group within NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Hydrogen Technology Validation  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

386

Integrated Quantum/Classical Modeling of Hydrogenic Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Path integral Monte Carlo simulations and calculations were performed on molecular hydrogen liquids. The equation-of-state, internal energies, and vapor liquid phase diagrams from simulation were found to be in quantitative agreement with experiments. Analytical calculations were performed on,H2 liquids using integral equation methods to study the degree of localization of the hydrogen molecules. Very little self-trapping or localization was found as a function of temperature and density. Good qualitative agreement was found between the integral equation calculations and the quantum Monte Carlo simulations for the radius of gyration of the hydrogen molecules. Path integral simulations were also performed on molecular hydrogen on graphite surfaces, slit pores, and in carbon nanotubes. Significant quantum effects on the adsorption of hydrogen were observed.

CURRO,JOHN G.; VAN SWOL,FRANK B.; FYE,RICHARD M.; WANG,Q.; JOHNSON,J.K.; PATRA,C.; YETHIRAJ,A.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Fusion reactors for hydrogen production via electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

Fillo, J A; Powell, J R; Steinberg, M

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2004 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4 4 Printable Version 2004 Annual Progress Report The 2004 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program summarizes the hydrogen and fuel cell R&D and analysis activities and accomplishments for FY 2004. Published in November 2004, the full document is very large; each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Download Adobe Reader. Front Cover (PDF 203 KB) Table of Contents (PDF 432 KB) I. Introduction (PDF 350 KB) II. Hydrogen Production and Delivery Distributed Production Technologies Separations Biomass Gasification/Pyrolysis Photobiological Production Photoelectrochemical Production Electrolysis High-Temperature Thermochemical Processes Hydrogen Delivery Analysis III. Hydrogen Storage Compressed/Liquid H2 Tanks Chemical Hydrides Metal Hydrides

389

Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Nuclear Research Advanced Nuclear Research Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology FY 2003 Programmatic Overview Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Henderson/2003 Hydrogen Initiative.ppt 2 Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Program Goal * Demonstrate the economic commercial-scale production of hydrogen using nuclear energy by 2015 Need for Nuclear Hydrogen * Hydrogen offers significant promise for reduced environmental impact of energy use, specifically in the transportation sector * The use of domestic energy sources to produce hydrogen reduces U.S. dependence on foreign oil and enhances national security * Existing hydrogen production methods are either inefficient or produce

390

Hydrogen Sensor Testing, Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Factsheet describing the hydrogen sensor testing laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Not Available

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Using Metal Hydride to Store Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen is the lightest element. At ambient conditions on a volume basis it stores the least amount of energy compared to other fuel carriers such as natural gas and gasoline. For hydrogen to become a practical fuel carrier, a way must be found to increase its volumetric energy density to a practical level. Present techniques being developed include compressed gas, cryogenic liquid and absorbed solid. Each of these techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. And none of them appears to be satisfactory for use in a hydrogen economy. In the interim all of them are used for demonstration purposes. Metal hydrides store hydrogen in a solid form under moderate temperature and pressure that gives them a safety advantage. They require the least amount of energy to operate. Their stored hydrogen density is nearing that of liquid hydrogen. But they are heavy and the weight is their main disadvantage. Current usable metal hydrides can hold no more than about 1.8 percent hydrogen by weight. However much effort is underway to find lighter materials. These include other solid materials other than the traditional metal hydrides. Their operation is expected to be similar to that of metal hydride and can use the technology developed for metal hydrides.

Heung, L.K.

2003-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

392

Recovery of purified helium or hydrogen from gas mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for the removal of helium or hydrogen from gaseous mixtures also containing contaminants. The gaseous mixture is contacted with a liquid fluorocarbon in an absorption zone maintained at superatomspheric pressure to preferentially absorb the contaminants in the fluorocarbon. Unabsorbed gas enriched in hydrogen or helium is withdrawn from the absorption zone as product. Liquid fluorocarbon enriched in contaminants is withdrawn separately from the absorption zone. (10 claims)

Merriman, J.R.; Pashley, J.H.; Stephenson, M.J.; Dunthorn, D.I.

1974-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

393

Hydrogen as a fuel  

SciTech Connect

A panel of the Committee on Advanced Energy Storage Systems of the Assembly of Engineering has examined the status and problems of hydrogen manufacturing methods, hydrogen transmission and distribution networks, and hydrogen storage systems. This examination, culminating at a time when rapidly changing conditions are having noticeable impact on fuel and energy availability and prices, was undertaken with a view to determining suitable criteria for establishing the pace, timing, and technical content of appropriate federally sponsored hydrogen R and D programs. The increasing urgency to develop new sources and forms of fuel and energy may well impact on the scale and timing of potential future hydrogen uses. The findings of the panel are presented. Chapters are devoted to hydrogen sources, hydrogen as a feedstock, hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen as a heating fuel, automotive uses of hydrogen, aircraft use of hydrogen, the fuel cell in hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen research and development evaluation, and international hydrogen programs.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2010 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 0 Printable Version 2010 Annual Progress Report The 2010 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program summarizes the hydrogen and fuel cell R&D activities and accomplishments for FY 2010. Published in February 2011, the full document is very large; each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Front Cover Table of Contents I. Introduction, Sunita Satyapal, U.S. Department of Energy II. Hydrogen Production Distributed Bio-Derived Liquid Production Biomass Gasification Separations Hydrogen from Coal Electrolysis Hi-Temp Thermochemical Photoelectrochemical Biological Production Cross-Cutting/Production III. Hydrogen Delivery IV. Hydrogen Storage Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence

395

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2011 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Printable Version 2011 Annual Progress Report The 2011 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program summarizes the hydrogen and fuel cell R&D activities and accomplishments for FY 2011. Published in November 2011, the full document is very large; each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Front Cover and Title Page Table of Contents I. Introduction, Sunita Satyapal, U.S. Department of Energy II. Hydrogen Production Distributed Bio-Derived Liquid Production Biomass Gasification Separations Hydrogen from Coal Electrolysis Hi-Temp Thermochemical Photoelectrochemical Biological Production Analysis Production Basic Energy Sciences III. Hydrogen Delivery IV. Hydrogen Storage Metal Hydride Chemical Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Sorption

396

THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998  

SciTech Connect

This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

None

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Search help Home > Hydrogen Storage Printable Version Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power...

399

FCT Hydrogen Storage: The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project' to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project' on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: The...

400

Methods of using ionic liquids having a fluoride anion as solvents  

SciTech Connect

A method in one embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having a fluoride anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of about 90.degree. C. or less during the contacting. A method in another embodiment includes contacting a strongly hydrogen bonded organic material with an ionic liquid having an acetate or formate anion for solubilizing the strongly hydrogen bonded organic material; and maintaining the ionic liquid at a temperature of less than about 90.degree. C. during the contacting.

Pagoria, Philip (Livermore, CA); Maiti, Amitesh (San Ramon, CA); Gash, Alexander (Brentwood, CA); Han, Thomas Yong (Pleasanton, CA); Orme, Christine (Oakland, CA); Fried, Laurence (Livermore, CA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells ■ Hydrogen Energy ■ Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US ■ Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

402

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

404

Introduction to hydrogen energy  

SciTech Connect

The book comprises the following papers: primary energy sources suitable for hydrogen production, thermochemical and electrolytic production of hydrogen from water, hydrogen storage and transmission methods, hydrogen-oxygen utilization devices, residential and industrial utilization of energy, industrial utilization of hydrogen, use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation, an assessment of hydrogen-fueled navy ships, mechanisms and strategies of market penetration for hydrogen, and fossil/hydrogen energy mix and population control. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (LK)

Veziroglu, T.N. (ed.)

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Development of a Novel Efficient Solid-Oxide Hybrid for Co-generation of Hydrogen and Electricity Using Nearby Resources for Local Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Developing safe, reliable, cost-effective, and efficient hydrogen-electricity co-generation systems is an important step in the quest for national energy security and minimized reliance on foreign oil. This project aimed to, through materials research, develop a cost-effective advanced technology cogenerating hydrogen and electricity directly from distributed natural gas and/or coal-derived fuels. This advanced technology was built upon a novel hybrid module composed of solid-oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), both of which were in planar, anode-supported designs. A SOFEC is an electrochemical device, in which an oxidizable fuel and steam are fed to the anode and cathode, respectively. Steam on the cathode is split into oxygen ions that are transported through an oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte (i.e. YSZ) to oxidize the anode fuel. The dissociated hydrogen and residual steam are exhausted from the SOFEC cathode and then separated by condensation of the steam to produce pure hydrogen. The rationale was that in such an approach fuel provides a chemical potential replacing the external power conventionally used to drive electrolysis cells (i.e. solid oxide electrolysis cells). A SOFC is similar to the SOFEC by replacing cathode steam with air for power generation. To fulfill the cogeneration objective, a hybrid module comprising reversible SOFEC stacks and SOFC stacks was designed that planar SOFECs and SOFCs were manifolded in such a way that the anodes of both the SOFCs and the SOFECs were fed the same fuel, (i.e. natural gas or coal-derived fuel). Hydrogen was produced by SOFECs and electricity was generated by SOFCs within the same hybrid system. A stand-alone 5 kW system comprising three SOFEC-SOFC hybrid modules and three dedicated SOFC stacks, balance-of-plant components (including a tailgas-fired steam generator and tailgas-fired process heaters), and electronic controls was designed, though an overall integrated system assembly was not completed because of limited resources. An inexpensive metallic interconnects fabrication process was developed in-house. BOP components were fabricated and evaluated under the forecasted operating conditions. Proof-of-concept demonstration of cogenerating hydrogen and electricity was performed, and demonstrated SOFEC operational stability over 360 hours with no significant degradation. Cost analysis was performed for providing an economic assessment of the cost of hydrogen production using the targeted hybrid technology, and for guiding future research and development.

Tao, Greg, G.; Virkar, Anil, V.; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Thangamani, Nithyanantham; Anderson, Harlan, U.; Brow, Richard, K.

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

406

Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

407

A NOVEL MEMBRANE REACTOR FOR DIRECT HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Gas Technology Institute is developing a novel concept of membrane gasifier for high efficiency, clean and low cost production of hydrogen from coal. The concept incorporates a hydrogen-selective membrane within a gasification reactor for direct extraction of hydrogen from coal-derived synthesis gases. The objective of this project is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this concept by screening, testing and identifying potential candidate membranes under high temperature, high pressure, and harsh environments of the coal gasification conditions. The best performing membranes will be selected for preliminary reactor design and cost estimates. To evaluate the performances of the candidate membranes under the gasification conditions, a high temperature/high pressure hydrogen permeation unit has been constructed in this project. The unit is designed to operate at temperatures up to 1100 C and pressures to 60 atm for evaluation of ceramic membranes such as mixed ionic conducting membrane. The unit was fully commissioned and is operational. Several perovskite membranes based on the formulations of BCN (BaCe{sub 0.8}Nd{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}) and BCY (BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-x}) were prepared by GTI and tested in the new permeation unit. These membranes were fabricated by either uniaxial pressing or tape casting technique with thickness ranging from 0.2 mm to 0.7 mm. Hydrogen permeation data for the BCN perovskite membrane have been successfully obtained for temperatures between 800 and 950 C and pressures from 1 to 12 bar. The highest hydrogen flux was measured at 1.6 STPcc/min/cm{sup 2} at a hydrogen feed pressure of 12 bar and 950 C with a membrane thickness of 0.22 mm. A membrane gasification reactor model was developed to consider the H{sub 2} permeability of the membrane, the kinetics and the equilibriums of the gas phase reactions in the gasifier, the operating conditions and the configurations of the membrane reactor. The results show that the hydrogen production efficiency using the novel membrane gasification reactor concept can be increased by about 50% versus the conventional gasification process. This confirms the previous evaluation results from the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. A rigorous model for hydrogen permeation through mixed proton-electron conducting ceramic membranes was also developed based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The hydrogen flux predicted from the modeling results are in line with the data from the experimental measurement. The simulation also shows that the presence of steam in the permeate side or the feed side of the membrane can have a small negative effect on the hydrogen flux, in the order of 10%.

Shain Doong; Estela Ong; Mike Atroshenko; Francis Lau; Mike Roberts

2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

408

FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Central Versus Distributed Production Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of hydrogen production in photobioreactor Hydrogen, chemical symbol "H", is the simplest element on earth. An atom of hydrogen has only one proton and one electron. Hydrogen gas is a diatomic

409

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal,...

410

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen...

411

Solar Hydrogen Conversion Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Hydrogen Conversion Background: The photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen has drawn properties In order to develop better materials for solar energy applications, in-depth photoelectrochemical simulated solar irradiance. Hydrogen production experiments are conducted in a sealed aluminum cell

Raftery, Dan

412

The Hype About Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: The Hype About Hydrogen By Joseph J. Romm ReviewedJ. Romm. The Hype About Hydrogen. Washington, DC: IslandEmissions. The Hype About Hydrogen describes in detail what

Mirza, Umar Karim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Google...

414

Hydrogen Storage in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework with Exposed Mn2+ Coordination Sites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Storage in a Microporous Metal-Organic Framework with Exposed Mn2+ Coordination Sites and 90 bar, which at 60 g H2/L provides a storage density 85% of that of liquid hydrogen. The material-358. (2) EERE: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, & Infrastructure Technologies Program Homepage, www.eere.energy

415

Ris Energy Report 3 Hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5.2 Risø Energy Report 3 Hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures, but it can be stored as a gas, a liquid or a solid. In the case of solid storage, the hydrogen exists as a chemical. Compared to fossil fuels such as gasoline, hydrogen has a very obvious shortfall in the amount of energy

416

Recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from net excess hydrogen in a catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A process is disclosed for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons in the presence of hydrogen, preferably to produce high quality gasoline boiling range products. An improved recovery of normally gaseous hydrocarbons from the net excess hydrogen is realized by chilling and contacting said hydrogen with a normally liquid hydrocarbon stream in a plural stage absorption zone at an elevated pressure.

Scheifele, C.A.

1982-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

417

Hydrogen (H2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen (H2) Hydrogen (H2) Historical Records from Ice Cores Deuterium Record from Dome C, Antarctica Continuous Measurements Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE,...

418

Hydrogen Program Overview  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: Why Hydrogen?

419

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

420

Coal to Liquids | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquids Liquids Coal to Liquids Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Located in Charleston, WV, the Yeager facility was constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. Major General Allen Tackett of the National Guard's 130th Airlift Wing dispenses the first fill-up of hydrogen fuel from the Yeager facility. Located in Charleston, WV, the Yeager facility was constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. The Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels Program supports DOE's strategic goals of increasing energy security, reducing environmental impact of energy use,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen coal-derived liquid" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.