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1

Ideally Glassy Hydrogen Bonded Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The axiomatic theory of ideally glassy networks, which has proved effective in describing phase diagrams and properties of chalcogenide and oxide glasses and their foreign interfaces, is broadened here to include intermolecular interactions in hydrogen-bonded polyalcohols such as glycerol, monosaccharides (glucose), and the optimal bioprotective hydrogen-bonded disaccharide networks formed from trehalose. The methods of Lagrangian mechanics and Maxwellian scaffolds are useful at the molecular level when bonding hierarchies are characterized by constraint counting similar to the chemical methods used by Huckel and Pauling. Whereas Newtonian molecular dynamical methods are useful for simulating large-scale interactions for times of order 10 ps, constraint counting describes network properties on glassy (almost equilibrated) time scales, which may be of cosmological order for oxide glasses, or years for trehalose. The ideally glassy network of trehalose may consist of extensible tandem sandwich arrays.

J. C. Phillips

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

2

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

3

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

4

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) network structure and its associated dynamics. However, despite intense experimental and theoretical scrutiny, a complete description of this structure has been elusive. Recently, with the help of their novel liquid microjet apparatus, a University of California, Berkeley, group derived a new energy criterion for H-bonds based on experimental data. With this new criterion based on analysis of the temperature dependence of the x-ray absorption spectra of normal and supercooled liquid water, they concluded that the traditional structural model of water is valid.

5

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

Martin Chaplin

2007-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

6

Ultrafast 2D IR anisotropy of water reveals reorientation during hydrogen-bond switching  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rearrangements of the hydrogen bond network of liquid water are believed to involve rapid and concerted hydrogen bond switching events, during which a hydrogen bond donor molecule undergoes large angle molecular reorientation ...

Ramasesha, Krupa

7

Cooperative Roles of Charge Transfer and Dispersion Terms in Hydrogen-Bonded Networks of (H2O)n, n = 6, 11, and 16  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The perturbation expansion based on the locally-projected molecular orbital (LPMO PT) was applied to the study of the hydrogenbonded networks of water clusters with up to 16 molecules. Utilizing the local nature of the occupied and excited MOs on each monomer, the chargetransfer and dispersion terms are evaluated for every pair of molecules. The two terms are strongly correlated with each other for the hydrogen-bonded pairs. The strength of the hydrogen bonds in the clusters is further classified by the types of the hydrogen donor and acceptor water molecules. The relative energies evaluated with th LPMO PT among the isomers of (H2O)6, (H2O)11, and (H2O)16 agree very well with those obtained from CCSD(T) calculations with large basis sets. The binding energy of the LPMO PT is approximately free of the basis set superposition errors caused both by the orbital basis inconsistency and by the configuration basis inconsistency.

Iwata, Suehiro; Bandyopadhyay, Pradipta; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

New Phases of Hydrogen-Bonded Systems at Extreme Conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We study the behavior of hydrogen-bonded systems under high-pressure and temperature. First principle calculations of formic acid under isotropic pressure up to 70 GPa reveal the existence of a polymerization phase at around 20 GPa, in support of recent IR, Raman, and XRD experiments. In this phase, covalent bonding develops between molecules of the same chain through symmetrization of hydrogen bonds. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations of water at pressures up to 115 GPa and 2000 K. Along this isotherm, we are able to define three different phases. We observe a molecular fluid phase with superionic diffusion of the hydrogens for pressure 34 GPa to 58 GPa. We report a transformation to a phase dominated by transient networks of symmetric O-H hydrogen bonds at 95-115 GPa. As in formic acid, the network can be attributed to the symmetrization of the hydrogen bond, similar to the ice VII to ice X transition.

Manaa, M R; Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

9

Probing the hydrogen-bond network of water via time-resolved soft x-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We report time-resolved studies of hydrogen bonding in liquid H2O, in response to direct excitation of the O-H stretch mode at 3 mu m, probed via soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the oxygen K-edge. This approach employs a newly developed nanofluidic cell for transient soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquid phase. Distinct changes in the near-edge spectral region (XANES) are observed, and are indicative of a transient temperature rise of 10K following transient laser excitation and rapid thermalization of vibrational energy. The rapid heating occurs at constant volume and the associated increase in internal pressure, estimated to be 8MPa, is manifest by distinct spectral changes that differ from those induced by temperature alone. We conclude that the near-edge spectral shape of the oxygen K-edge is a sensitive probe of internal pressure, opening new possibilities for testing the validity of water models and providing new insight into the nature of hydrogen bonding in water.

Huse, Nils; Wen, Haidan; Nordlund, Dennis; Szilagyi, Erzsi; Daranciang, Dan; Miller, Timothy A.; Nilsson, Anders; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

10

Hydrogen Bonding Penalty upon Ligand Binding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ligand binding involves breakage of hydrogen bonds with water molecules and formation of new hydrogen bonds between protein and ligand. In this work, the change of hydrogen bonding energy in the binding process, namely hydrogen bonding penalty, is evaluated with a new method. The hydrogen bonding penalty can not only be used to filter unrealistic poses in docking, but also improve the accuracy of binding energy calculation. A new model integrated with hydrogen bonding penalty for free energy calculation gives a root mean square error of 0.7 kcal/mol on 74 inhibitors in the training set and of 1.1 kcal/mol on 64 inhibitors in the test set. Moreover, an application of hydrogen bonding penalty into a high throughput docking campaign for EphB4 inhibitors is presented, and remarkably, three novel scaffolds are discovered out of seven tested. The binding affinity and ligand efficiency of the most potent compound is about 300 nM and 0.35 kcal/mol per non-hydrogen atom, respectively.

Hongtao Zhao; Danzhi Huang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond...

12

Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In Search of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in Proton Bridgedand J.A. Gerlt, The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond in EnzymaticShow That Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not Offer a

Khodagholian, Sevana

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

DOI: 10.1021/bi101428e Hydrogen Bonding in the Active Site of Ketosteroid Isomerase: Electronic Inductive Effects and Hydrogen Bond Coupling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ABSTRACT: Computational studies are performed to analyze the physical properties of hydrogen bonds donated by Tyr16 and Asp103 to a series of substituted phenolate inhibitors bound in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase (KSI). As the solution pKa of the phenolate increases, these hydrogen bond distances decrease, the associated nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts increase, and the fraction of protonated inhibitor increases, in agreement with prior experiments. The quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical calculations provide insight into the electronic inductive effects along the hydrogen bonding network that includes Tyr16, Tyr57, and Tyr32, as well as insight into hydrogen bond coupling in the active site. The calculations predict that the most-downfield NMR chemical shift observed experimentally corresponds to the Tyr16-phenolate hydrogen bond and that Tyr16 is the proton donor when a bound naphtholate inhibitor is observed to be protonated in electronic absorption experiments. According to these calculations, the electronic inductive effects along the hydrogen bonding network of tyrosines cause the Tyr16 hydroxyl to be more acidic than the Asp103 carboxylic acid moiety, which is immersed in a relatively nonpolar environment. When one of the distal tyrosine residues in the network is mutated to phenylalanine, thereby diminishing this inductive effect, the Tyr16-phenolate hydrogen bond becomes longer and the Asp103-phenolate hydrogen bond shorter, as observed in NMR experiments. Furthermore, the calculations suggest that

Philip Hanoian; Paul A. Sigala; Daniel Herschlag; Sharon Hammes-schiffer

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Hydrogen bond reorganization and vibrational relaxation in water studied with ultrafast infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water consists of an extended hydrogen bond network that is constantly evolving. More than just a description of the time averaged structure is necessary to understand any process that occurs in water. In this thesis we ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca Anne

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Hydrogen bond rearrangements and the motion of charge defects in water viewed using multidimensional ultrafast infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Compared with other molecular liquids, water is highly structured due to its ability to form up to four hydrogen bonds to its nearest neighbors, resulting in a tetrahedral network of molecules. However, this network is ...

Roberts, Sean T. (Sean Thomas)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Optimization of refinery hydrogen network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tighter environmental regulations and more heavy-end upgrading in the petroleum industry lead to increased demand for hydrogen in oil refineries. In this paper, the method proposed to optimize the refinery hydrogen network is based upon mathematical ... Keywords: hydrogen management, optimization, refinery, superstructure

Yunqiang Jiao; Hongye Su

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via hydrogen bonds. Recently, a team of Berkeley Lab and University of Southern California researchers, using the ALS, discovered to their surprise that in some cases, protons can find ways to transfer even when hydrogen bonds are blocked. Sometimes You Have to

18

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print A Surprising Path for Proton Transfer Without Hydrogen Bonds Print Hydrogen bonds are found everywhere in chemistry and biology and are critical in DNA and RNA. A hydrogen bond results from the attractive dipolar interaction of a chemical group containing a hydrogen atom with a group containing an electronegative atom, such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, in the same or a different molecule. Conventional wisdom has it that proton transfer from one molecule to another can only happen via hydrogen bonds. Recently, a team of Berkeley Lab and University of Southern California researchers, using the ALS, discovered to their surprise that in some cases, protons can find ways to transfer even when hydrogen bonds are blocked. Sometimes You Have to

19

Semi-flexible hydrogen-bonded and non-hydrogen bonded lattice polymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the addition of stiffness to the lattice model of hydrogen-bonded polymers in two and three dimensions. We find that, in contrast to polymers that interact via a homogeneous short-range interaction, the collapse transition is unchanged by any amount of stiffness: this supports the physical argument that hydrogen bonding already introduces an effective stiffness. Contrary to possible physical arguments, favouring bends in the polymer does not return the model's behaviour to that comparable to the semi-flexible homogeneous interaction model, where the canonical $\\theta$-point occurs for a range of parameter values. In fact, for sufficiently large bending energies the crystal phase disappears altogether, and no phase transition of any type occurs. We also compare the order-disorder transition from the globule phase to crystalline phase in the semi-flexible homogeneous interaction model to that for the fully-flexible hybrid model with both hydrogen and non-hydrogen like interactions. We show that these phase transitions are of the same type and are a novel polymer critical phenomena in two dimensions. That is, it is confirmed that in two dimensions this transition is second-order, unlike in three dimensions where it is known to be first order. We also estimate the crossover exponent and show that there is a divergent specific heat, finding $\\phi=0.7(1)$ or equivalently $\\alpha=0.6(2)$. This is therefore different from the $\\theta$ transition, for which $\\alpha=-1/3$.

J Krawczyk; AL Owczarek; T Prellberg

2008-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

20

Exchange of bonded hydrogen in amorphous silicon by deuterium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We show that bonded hydrogen in a-Si:H is readily exchanged by atomic deuterium when exposed to a deuterium plasma discharge. The effective diffusion coefficient for the D,H exchange 10/sup -14/ cm/sup 2//sec at 160/sup 0/C, is comparable to that of interstitial hydrogen in c-Si.

Abeles, B.; Yang, L.; Leta, D.P.; Majkrzak, C.F.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Do Main Chain Hydrogen Bonds Create Dominant Electron Transfer Pathways?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Main Chain Hydrogen Bonds Create Dominant Electron Transfer Pathways? An Main Chain Hydrogen Bonds Create Dominant Electron Transfer Pathways? An Investigation in Designed Proteins Yongjian Zheng, Martin A. Case, James F. Wishart, and George L. McLendon J. Phys. Chem. B, 107, 7288-7292 (2003). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: We have investigated the contribution of main chain hydrogen bond (H-bond) pathways to the tunneling matrix elements which control electron transfer (ET) rates across an alpha-helical protein matrix. The paradigm system for these investigations is a metal ion-assembled parallel three-helix bundle protein that contains a ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridyl) electron donor and a ruthenium(III) pentammine electron acceptor separated by a direct metal to metal distance of ca. 19 Å, requiring tunneling through 15 Å of

22

Neutron diffraction of alpha, beta and gamma cyclodextrins: hydrogen bonding patterns  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cyclodextrins (CD's) have proved useful as model systems. They are torus-shaped molecules composed of six (..cap alpha..), seven (..beta..) or eight (..gamma..) (1 to 4) linked glucoses. In order to understand the hydrogen bonding in these enzyme models, neutron diffraction data were collected to unambiguously determine the hydrogen atom positions, which could not be done from x-ray diffraction data alone. ..cap alpha..-CD has been shown to have two different structures with well-defined hydrogen bonds, one tense and the other relaxed. An induced-fit-like mechanism for ..cap alpha..-CD complex formation has been proposed. Circular and infinite chain hydrogen bond networks have also been observed, which are energetically favored due to the cooperative effect. ..beta..-CD with a disordered water structure possesses an unusual flip-flop hydrogen bonding system of the type O-H . . . H-O representing an equilibrium between two states: O-H . . . O and O . . . H-O. ..gamma..-CD has now been studied at room temperature by neutron diffraction and also possesses the flip-flop hydrogen bond. Data have been collected to 0.62 A resolution at the ORNL reactor (HFIR). 235 atoms have been refined to R=0.077 for 4816 observed reflections (I > sigma) and R=0.099 for all 5864 reflections. Low temperature neutron data will be collected. This study demonstrates that hydrogen bonds are operative in disordered systems and display dynamics even in the solid state. 17 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

Hingerty, B.; Betzel, C.; Saenger, W.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Phase equilibrium predictions for polar and hydrogen bonding mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Perturbed-Hard-Chain Theory (PHCT) has been generalized to treat pure compounds and mixtures with polar forces (dipoles and quadrupoles) as well as hydrogen bonding. The generalization to polar compounds is based on the perturbation expansion for anisotropic molecules by Gubbins and coworkers. The effects of hydrogen bonding are taken into account using an approach similar to that of Heidemann and Prausnitz. With these two generalizations, accurate mixture VLE and LLE predictions can be made, even for highly non-ideal systems, using pure component parameters alone. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Donohue, M.D.; Vimalchand, P.; Ikonomou, G.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Effect of hydrogen bond cooperativity on the behavior of water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Four scenarios have been proposed for the low--temperature phase behavior of liquid water, each predicting different thermodynamics. The physical mechanism which leads to each is debated. Moreover, it is still unclear which of the scenarios best describes water, as there is no definitive experimental test. Here we address both open issues within the framework of a microscopic cell model by performing a study combining mean field calculations and Monte Carlo simulations. We show that a common physical mechanism underlies each of the four scenarios, and that two key physical quantities determine which of the four scenarios describes water: (i) the strength of the directional component of the hydrogen bond and (ii) the strength of the cooperative component of the hydrogen bond. The four scenarios may be mapped in the space of these two quantities. We argue that our conclusions are model-independent. Using estimates from experimental data for H bond properties the model predicts that the low-temperature phase diagram of water exhibits a liquid--liquid critical point at positive pressure.

Kevin Stokely; Marco G. Mazza; H. Eugene Stanley; Giancarlo Franzese

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

25

Chemical bonding of hydrogen molecules to transition metal complexes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The complex W(CO){sub 3}(PR{sub 3}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}) (CO = carbonyl; PR{sub 3} = organophosphine) was prepared and was found to be a stable crystalline solid under ambient conditions from which the hydrogen can be reversibly removed in vacuum or under an inert atmosphere. The weakly bonded H{sub 2} exchanges easily with D{sub 2}. This complex represents the first stable compound containing intermolecular interaction of a sigma-bond (H-H) with a metal. The primary interaction is reported to be donation of electron density from the H{sub 2} bonding electron pair to a vacant metal d-orbital. A series of complexes of molybdenum of the type Mo(CO)(H{sub 2})(R{sub 2}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}PR{sub 2}){sub 2} were prepared by varying the organophosphine substitutent to demonstrate that it is possible to bond either dihydrogen or dihydride by adjusting the electron-donating properties of the co-ligands. Results of infrared and NMR spectroscopic studies are reported. 20 refs., 5 fig.

Kubas, G.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

''Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Periodic Density Functional Studies of Hydrogen Bonded Structures''  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is directed at a fundamental understanding of hydrogen bonding, the primary reversible interaction leading to defined geometries, networks and supramolecular aggregates formed by organic molecules. Hydrogen bonding is still not sufficiently well understood that the geometry of such supramolecular aggregates can be predicted. In the approach taken existing quantum chemical methods capable of treating periodic solids have been applied to hydrogen bonded systems of known structure. The equilibrium geometry for the given space group and packing arrangement were computed and compared to that observed. The second derivatives and normal modes of vibration will then be computed and from this inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra were computed using the normal mode eigenvectors to compute spectral intensities. Appropriate inclusion of spectrometer line width and shape was made in the simulation and overtones, combinations and phonon wings were be included. These computed spectra were then compared with experimental results obtained for low-temperature polycrystalline samples at INS spectrometers at several facilities. This procedure validates the computational methodology for describing these systems including both static and dynamic aspects of the material. The resulting description can be used to evaluate the relative free energies of two or more proposed structures and so ultimately to be able to predict which structure will be most stable for a given building block.

Bruce S. Hudson

2004-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Metal-and hydrogen-bonding competition during water absorption on Pd(111) and Ru(0001)  

SciTech Connect

The initial stages of water adsorption on the Pd(111) and Ru(0001) surfaces have been investigated experimentally by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy in the temperature range between 40 K and 130 K, and theoretically with Density Functional Theory (DFT) total energy calculations and STM image simulations. Below 125 K water dissociation does not occur at any appreciable rate and only molecular films are formed. Film growth starts by the formation of flat hexamer clusters where the molecules bind to the metal substrate through the O-lone pair while making H-bonds with neighboring molecules. As coverage increases, larger networks of linked hexagons are formed with a honeycomb structure, which requires a fraction of the water molecules to have their molecular plane perpendicular to the metal surface with reduced water-metal interaction. Energy minimization favors the growth of networks with limited width. As additional water molecules adsorb on the surface they attach to the periphery of existing islands, where they interact only weakly with the metal substrate. These molecules hop along the periphery of the clusters at intermediate temperatures. At higher temperatures they bind to the metal to continue the honeycomb growth. The water-Ru interaction is significantly stronger than the water-Pd interaction, which is consistent with the greater degree of hydrogen-bonded network formation and reduced water-metal bonding observed on Pd relative to Ru.

Tatarkhanov, Mouslim; Ogletree, D. Frank; Rose, Franck; Mitsui, Toshiyuki; Fomin, Evgeny; Rose, Mark; Cerda, Jorge I.; Salmeron, Miquel

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

28

California Hydrogen Highway Network October 3, 2007  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Highway Hydrogen Highway Network April 3, 2008 California Air Resources Board California Blueprint Plan * Phased approach to infrastructure implementation * Environmental goals * Shared risk CaH2Net Background * Governor's Executive Order, S-7-04 formed the CaH2Net in April 2004 * A Blueprint Plan, May 2005 * Legislative Authority - SB76, $6.5 Million, stations, vehicles, support - Budget Act 2006, $6.5 Million, ZBuses, stations - Budget Act 2007, $6 Million, stations, support The State's Contribution * Vehicles * Stations * CaH2Net Membership * Hydrogen Fuel Quality Standard * Environmental Standards for Hydrogen * Public outreach and education Over 90% of Californians Breathe Unhealthy Air at Times 0-5 Days >100 Days 6-50 Days 50-100 Days Days Over State 24-Hour PM10 Standard

29

DLTS study of bonded interface in silicon-on-insulator structures annealed in hydrogen atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of the comparative Charge Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy study of Si/SiO2 interfaces in silicon-on-insulator structures prepared by wafer bonding and hydrogen slicing and annealed in hydrogen ambient in the temperature range ... Keywords: Si/SiO2 interface, annealing, bonded interface, silicon-on-insulator, traps

I. V. Antonova; J. Stano; O. V. Naumova; V. P. Popov; V. A. Skuratov

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Ultrafast conversions between hydrogen bonded structures in liquid water observed by femtosecond x-ray spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present the first femtosecond soft x-ray spectroscopy in liquids, enabling the observation of changes in hydrogen bond structures in water via core-hole excitation. The oxygen K-edge of vibrationally excited water is probed with femtosecond soft x-ray pulses, exploiting the relation between different water structures and distinct x-ray spectral features. After excitation of the intramolecular OH stretching vibration, characteristic x-ray absorption changes monitor the conversion of strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures to more disordered structures with weaker hydrogen-bonding described by a single subpicosecond time constant. The latter describes the thermalization time of vibrational excitations and defines the characteristic maximum rate with which nonequilibrium populations of more strongly hydrogen-bonded water structures convert to less-bonded ones. On short time scales, the relaxation of vibrational excitations leads to a transient high-pressure state and a transient absorption spectrum different from that of statically heated water.

Wen, Haidan; Huse, Nils; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Hydrogen-bond equilibria and life times in a supercooled monohydroxy alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dielectric loss spectra covering 13 decades in frequency were collected for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a monohydroxy alcohol that exhibits a prominent Debye-like relaxation, typical for several classes of hydrogen-bonded liquids. The thermal variation of the dielectric absorption amplitude agrees well with that of the hydrogen-bond equilibrium population, experimentally mapped out using near infrared (NIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Despite this agreement, temperature-jump NIR spectroscopy reveals that the hydrogen-bond switching rate does not define the frequency position of the prominent absorption peak. This contrasts with widespread notions and models based thereon, but is consistent with a recent approach.

C. Gainaru; S. Kastner; F. Mayr; P. Lunkenheimer; S. Schildmann; H. J. Weber; W. Hiller; A. Loidl; R. Bhmer

2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

32

Water Under the Extreme Conditions of Planetary Interiors: Symmetric Hydrogen Bonding in the Superionic Phase  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0-3.0 g/cc (34 -115 GPa) along the 2000K isotherm.We find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic (bcc) O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. We find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

33

Water Under the Extreme Conditions of Planetary Interiors: Symmetric Hydrogen Bonding in the Superionic Phase  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0-3.0 g/cc (34-115 GPa) along the 2000 K isotherm. They find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic (bcc) O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. They find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

34

Hydrogen Bond Rearrangements in Water Probed with Temperature-Dependent 2D IR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use temperature-dependent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) of dilute HOD in H2O to investigate hydrogen bond rearrangements in water. The OD stretching frequency is sensitive to its environment, and loss ...

Nicodemus, Rebecca A.

35

Hydrogen-bond acidic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with covalently-bound hexafluoroisopropanol groups  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fluorinated hydrogen-bond acidic groups are directly attached to the backbone of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) without the introduction of intermediate electron donating surface groups. Hexafluoroalcohol functional groups are exceptionally strong hydrogen bond acids, and are added to the nanotube surface using the aryl diazonium approach to create hydrogen-bond acidic carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces. These groups can promote strong hydrogen-bonding interactions with matrix materials in composites or with molecular species to be concentrated and sensed. In the latter case, this newly developed material is expected to find useful application in chemical sensors and in CNT-based preconcentrator devices for the detection of pesticides, chemical warfare agents and explosives.

Fifield, Leonard S.; Grate, Jay W.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

be introduced into the network. This would be an issue in cases where the hydrogen production system does not produce pure hydrogen. In most research programs, the focus of...

37

Seeking for ultrashort "non-bonded" hydrogen-hydrogen contacts in some rigid hydrocarbons and their derivatives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this communication a systematic computational survey is done on some rigid hydrocarbon skeletons and their chlorinated derivatives in order to seek for the so-called ultrashort "non-bonded" hydrogen-hydrogen contacts. It is demonstrated that upon a proper choice of the main hydrocarbons backbone and adding some bulky chlorine atoms instead of the original hydrogen atoms in parts of the employed hydrocarbons, the resulting strain triggers structural changes that yields ultrashort hydrogen-hydrogen contacts with distances as small as 1.38 Angstrom. Such ultrashort contacts is clearly less than the world record of a ultrashort non-bonded hydrogen-hydrogen contact, 1.56 Angstrom, very recently realized experimentally by Pascal and coworkers in in,in-bis(hydrosilane) [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 13235 (2013)]. Accordingly, it is demonstrated that various backbones, e.g. half-cage pentacyclododecanes and tetracyclododecanes, after proper structural modifications, are capable to reveal ultrashort non-bonded hydrogen-h...

Firouzi, Rohoullah

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Study of Hydrogen Bonding in Small Water Clusters with Density Functional Theory Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The unique characteristics of hydrogen bonding have left our understanding of liquid water far from complete in terms of its structure and properties. In order to better describe the hydrogen bond in water, we seek to understand the electronic states which show sensitivity to hydrogen bonding. We investigate the structure of unoccupied valence states by performing X-ray Absorption calculations on water clusters using Density Functional Theory. For each water cluster, studying how valence electronic structure is perturbed by changes in the local hydrogen bonding environment facilitates our description of the hydrogen bond. Also in this framework, we move toward a depiction of local structures in liquid water by comparison to experimental X-ray absorption spectra. We find consistent localization along internal bonds in the electronic structures of pre- and post-edge states for single-donor species. In addition, we propose a molecular orbital bonding-antibonding picture to explain this directional localization from dimer calculations, and show that the pre- and post-edge spectral regions have a resulting relationship.

Wendlandt, Johanna; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC, SSRL

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Hydrogen bonding and coordination in normal and supercritical water from X-ray inelastic scattering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A direct measure of hydrogen bonding in water under conditions ranging from the normal state to the supercritical regime is derived from the Compton scattering of inelastically-scattered X-rays. First, we show that a measure of the number of electrons $n_e$ involved in hydrogen bonding at varying thermodynamic conditions can be directly obtained from Compton profile differences. Then, we use first-principles simulations to provide a connection between $n_e$ and the number of hydrogen bonds $n_{HB}$. Our study shows that over the broad range studied the relationship between $n_e$ and $n_{HB}$ is linear, allowing for a direct experimental measure of bonding and coordination in water. In particular, the transition to supercritical state is characterized by a sharp increase in the number of water monomers, but also displays a significant number of residual dimers and trimers.

Patrick H. -L. Sit; Christophe Bellin; Bernardo Barbiellini; D. Testemale; J. -L. Hazemann; T. Buslaps; Nicola Marzari; Abhay Shukla

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

40

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Wednesday, 28 June 2006 00:00 Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and chemists. To realize hydrogen-powered transport, for example, it is necessary to find ways to store hydrogen onboard vehicles efficiently and safely. Nanotechnology in the form of single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a candidate storage medium. A U.S., German, and Swedish collaboration led by researchers from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) used ALS Beamline 11.0.2 and SSRL Beamline 5-1 to investigate the chemical interaction of hydrogen with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs). Their findings demonstrate substantial hydrogen storage is both feasible and reversible.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Hydrogen-bond Dynamics and Fermi Resonance in High-pressure Methane Filled Ice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High-pressure, variable temperature infrared spectroscopy and first-principles calculations on the methane filled ice structure (MH-III) at high pressures are used to investigate the vibrational dynamics related to pressure induced modifications in hydrogen bonding. Infrared spectroscopy of isotopically dilute solutions of H{sub 2}O in D{sub 2}O is employed together with first-principles calculations to characterize proton dynamics with the pressure induced shortening of hydrogen bonds. A Fermi resonance is identified and shown to dominate the infrared spectrum in the pressure region between 10 and 30 GPa. Significant differences in the effects of the Fermi resonance observed between 10 and 300 K arise from the double-well potential energy surface of the hydrogen bond and quantum effects associated with the proton dynamics.

Klug,D.; Tse, J.; Liu, Z.; Hemley, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and chemists. To realize hydrogen-powered transport, for example, it is necessary to find ways to store hydrogen onboard vehicles efficiently and safely. Nanotechnology in the form of single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a candidate storage medium. A U.S., German, and Swedish collaboration led by researchers from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) used ALS Beamline 11.0.2 and SSRL Beamline 5-1 to investigate the chemical interaction of hydrogen with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs). Their findings demonstrate substantial hydrogen storage is both feasible and reversible.

43

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and chemists. To realize hydrogen-powered transport, for example, it is necessary to find ways to store hydrogen onboard vehicles efficiently and safely. Nanotechnology in the form of single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a candidate storage medium. A U.S., German, and Swedish collaboration led by researchers from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) used ALS Beamline 11.0.2 and SSRL Beamline 5-1 to investigate the chemical interaction of hydrogen with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs). Their findings demonstrate substantial hydrogen storage is both feasible and reversible.

44

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and chemists. To realize hydrogen-powered transport, for example, it is necessary to find ways to store hydrogen onboard vehicles efficiently and safely. Nanotechnology in the form of single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a candidate storage medium. A U.S., German, and Swedish collaboration led by researchers from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) used ALS Beamline 11.0.2 and SSRL Beamline 5-1 to investigate the chemical interaction of hydrogen with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs). Their findings demonstrate substantial hydrogen storage is both feasible and reversible.

45

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and chemists. To realize hydrogen-powered transport, for example, it is necessary to find ways to store hydrogen onboard vehicles efficiently and safely. Nanotechnology in the form of single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a candidate storage medium. A U.S., German, and Swedish collaboration led by researchers from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) used ALS Beamline 11.0.2 and SSRL Beamline 5-1 to investigate the chemical interaction of hydrogen with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs). Their findings demonstrate substantial hydrogen storage is both feasible and reversible.

46

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil fuels and the global warming and potential climate changes that result from their ever-increasing use. One possible solution to these problems is to use an energy carrier such as hydrogen, and ways to produce and store hydrogen in electric power plants and vehicles is a major research focus for materials scientists and chemists. To realize hydrogen-powered transport, for example, it is necessary to find ways to store hydrogen onboard vehicles efficiently and safely. Nanotechnology in the form of single-walled carbon nanotubes provides a candidate storage medium. A U.S., German, and Swedish collaboration led by researchers from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) used ALS Beamline 11.0.2 and SSRL Beamline 5-1 to investigate the chemical interaction of hydrogen with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNs). Their findings demonstrate substantial hydrogen storage is both feasible and reversible.

47

Mediation of hydrogen-bond coupling interactions by programmable heating and salting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that programmable heating and salting share the same effect on the frequency shift of the O:H and the H-O stretching phonons of the O:H-O hydrogen bond, which revealed that both heating and salting lengthens and softens the O:H bond and shortens and stiffens the H-O bond due to the weakening of the Coulomb repulsion between electron pairs of adjacent oxygen atoms. Understanding provides possible mechanism for the Hofmeister series and the detergent effect on cloth cleaning.

Zhang, Xi; Ma, Zengsheng; Zhou, Yichun; Sun, Chang Q

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Mediation of hydrogen-bond coupling interactions by programmable heating and salting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that programmable heating and salting share the same effect on the frequency shift of the O:H and the H-O stretching phonons of the O:H-O hydrogen bond, which revealed that both heating and salting lengthens and softens the O:H bond and shortens and stiffens the H-O bond due to the weakening of the Coulomb repulsion between electron pairs of adjacent oxygen atoms. Understanding provides possible mechanism for the Hofmeister series and the detergent effect on cloth cleaning.

Xi Zhang; Yongli Huang; Zengsheng Ma; Yichun Zhou; Chang Q Sun

2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

49

Manifestation of hydrogen bonds of aqueous ethanol solutions in the Raman scattering spectra  

SciTech Connect

Spectra of Raman scattering of light by aqueous ethanol solutions in the range of concentrations from pure water to 96% alcohol are studied. For water, 25%, and 40% solutions of ethanol in water, as well as for 96% alcohol the Raman spectra are measured at temperatures from the freezing point to nearly the boiling point. The changes in the shape of the stretching OH band are interpreted in terms of strengthening or weakening of hydrogen bonds between the molecules in the solution. The strongest hydrogen bonding of hydroxyl groups is observed at the ethanol content from 20 to 25 volume percent, which is explained by formation of ethanol hydrates of a definite type at the mentioned concentrations of alcohol. This is confirmed by means of the method of multivariate curve resolution, used to analyse the Raman spectra of aqueous ethanol solutions. With growing temperature the weakening of hydrogen bonding occurs in all studied systems, which consists in reducing the number of OH groups, linked by strong hydrogen bonds. (laser applications and other problems in quantum electronics)

Dolenko, T A; Burikov, S A; Patsaeva, S V; Yuzhakov, V I [Department of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

50

Missing short-range interactions in the hydrogen bond of compressed ice  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining the Lagrangian-Laplace mechanics and the known pressure dependence of the length-stiffness relaxation dynamics, we have determined the critical, yet often-overlooked, short-range interactions in the hydrogen bond of compressed ice. This approach has enabled determination of the force constant, cohesive energy, potential energy of the vdW and the covalent segment at each quasi-equilibrium state as well as their pressure dependence. Evidencing the essentiality of the inter-electron-pair Coulomb repulsion and the segmental strength disparity in determining the asymmetric H-bond relaxation dynamics and the anomalous properties of ice, results confirmed that compression shortens and stiffens the OH bond and meanwhile lengthens and softens the covalent bond.

Chang Q Sun

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

51

Hydrogen-bond driven loop-closure kinetics in unfolded polypeptide chains  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Characterization of the length dependence of end-to-end loop-closure kinetics in unfolded polypeptide chains provides an understanding of early steps in protein folding. Here, loop-closure in poly-glycine-serine peptides is investigated by combining single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy with molecular dynamics simulation. For chains containing more than 10 peptide bonds loop-closing rate constants on the 20-100 nanosecond time range exhibit a power-law length dependence. However, this scaling breaks down for shorter peptides, which exhibit slower kinetics arising from a perturbation induced by the dye reporter system used in the experimental setup. The loop-closure kinetics in the longer peptides is found to be determined by the formation of intra-peptide hydrogen bonds and transient beta-sheet structure, that accelerate the search for contacts among residues distant in sequence relative to the case of a polypeptide chain in which hydrogen bonds cannot form. Hydrogen-bond-driven polypeptide-chain collapse in unfolded peptides under physiological conditions found here is not only consistent with hierarchical models of protein folding, that highlights the importance of secondary structure formation early in the folding process, but is also shown to speed up the search for productive folding events.

Daidone, Isabella [University of Heidelberg; Neuweiler, H [University of Heidelberg; Doose, S [University of Heidelberg; Sauer, M [University of Heidelberg; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

characterized in previous experiments by the group. Comparison of the TEY x-ray absorption spectra taken at two different temperatures. The solid black curve was recorded...

53

Controlling Secondary Structures of Bio-Polymers with Hydrogen-Like Bonding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results for a lattice model of bio-polymers where the type of $\\beta$-sheet formation can be controlled by different types of hydrogen bonds depending on the relative orientation of close segments of the polymer. Tuning these different interaction strengths leads to low-temperature structures with different types of orientational order. We perform simulations of this model and so present the phase diagram, ascertaining the nature of the phases and the order of the transitions between these phases.

J. Krawczyk; A. L. Owczarek; T. Prellberg; A. Rechnitzer

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

54

From ab initio quantum chemistry to molecular dynamics: The delicate case of hydrogen bonding in ammonia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ammonia dimer (NH3)2 has been investigated using high--level ab initio quantum chemistry methods and density functional theory (DFT). The structure and energetics of important isomers is obtained to unprecedented accuracy without resorting to experiment. The global minimum of eclipsed C_s symmetry is characterized by a significantly bent hydrogen bond which deviates from linearity by about 20 degrees. In addition, the so-called cyclic C_{2h} structure is extremely close in energy on an overall flat potential energy surface. It is demonstrated that none of the currently available (GGA, meta--GGA, and hybrid) density functionals satisfactorily describe the structure and relative energies of this nonlinear hydrogen bond. We present a novel density functional, HCTH/407+, designed to describe this sort of hydrogen bond quantitatively on the level of the dimer, contrary to e.g. the widely used BLYP functional. This improved functional is employed in Car-Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liq...

Boese, A D; Martin, J M L; Marx, D; Chandra, Amalendu; Martin, Jan M.L.; Marx, Dominik

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A trajectory-based approach to modeling nonlinear infrared spectra : interrogating strong hydrogen bonds and proton transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work describes a phenomenological approach for modeling linear and nonlinear infrared spectroscopy of condensed phase chemical systems, focusing on applications to strongly hydrogen bonded complexes. To overcome the ...

Hornng, Andrew D. (Andrew Davis)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipeline

57

Thermal generation and mobility of charge carriers in collective proton transport in hydrogen-bonded chains  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transport of protons in hydrogen-bonded systems is a long standing problem which has not yet obtained a satisfactorily theoretical description. Although this problem was examined first for ice, it is relevant in many systems and in particular in biology for the transport along proteins or for proton conductance across membranes, an essential process in cell life. The broad relevance makes the study of proton conduction very appealing. Since the original work of Bernal and Fowler on ice, the idea that the transport occurs through chains of hydrogen bonds has been well accepted. Such proton wires'' were invoked by Nagle and Morowitz for proton transport across membranes proteins and more recently across lipid bilayers. In this report, we assume the existence of such an hydrogen-bonded chain and discuss its consequences on the dynamics of the charge carriers. We show that this assumption leads naturally to the idea of soliton transport and we put a special emphasis on the role of the coupling between the protons and heavy ions motions. The model is presented. We show how the coupling affects strongly the dynamics of the charge carriers and we discuss the role it plays in the thermal generation of carriers. The work presented has been performed in 1986 and 87 with St. Pnevmatikos and N. Flyzanis and was then completed in collaboration with D. Hochstrasser and H. Buettner. Therefore the results presented in this part are not new but we think that they are appropriate in the context of this multidisciplinary workshop because they provide a rather complete example of the soliton picture for proton conduction. This paper discusses the thermal generation of the charge carriers when the coupling between the protons and heavy ions dynamics is taken into account. The results presented in this part are very recent and will deserve further analysis but they already show that the coupling can assist for the formation of the charge carriers.

Peyrard, M.; Boesch, R.; Kourakis, I. (Dijon Univ., 21 (France). Faculte des Sciences)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Thermal generation and mobility of charge carriers in collective proton transport in hydrogen-bonded chains  

SciTech Connect

The transport of protons in hydrogen-bonded systems is a long standing problem which has not yet obtained a satisfactorily theoretical description. Although this problem was examined first for ice, it is relevant in many systems and in particular in biology for the transport along proteins or for proton conductance across membranes, an essential process in cell life. The broad relevance makes the study of proton conduction very appealing. Since the original work of Bernal and Fowler on ice, the idea that the transport occurs through chains of hydrogen bonds has been well accepted. Such proton wires'' were invoked by Nagle and Morowitz for proton transport across membranes proteins and more recently across lipid bilayers. In this report, we assume the existence of such an hydrogen-bonded chain and discuss its consequences on the dynamics of the charge carriers. We show that this assumption leads naturally to the idea of soliton transport and we put a special emphasis on the role of the coupling between the protons and heavy ions motions. The model is presented. We show how the coupling affects strongly the dynamics of the charge carriers and we discuss the role it plays in the thermal generation of carriers. The work presented has been performed in 1986 and 87 with St. Pnevmatikos and N. Flyzanis and was then completed in collaboration with D. Hochstrasser and H. Buettner. Therefore the results presented in this part are not new but we think that they are appropriate in the context of this multidisciplinary workshop because they provide a rather complete example of the soliton picture for proton conduction. This paper discusses the thermal generation of the charge carriers when the coupling between the protons and heavy ions dynamics is taken into account. The results presented in this part are very recent and will deserve further analysis but they already show that the coupling can assist for the formation of the charge carriers.

Peyrard, M.; Boesch, R.; Kourakis, I. (Dijon Univ., 21 (France). Faculte des Sciences)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Soluble Hydrogen-bonding Interpolymer Complexes in Water: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The hydrogen-bonding interpolymer complexation between poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMAM) side chains of the negatively charged graft copolymer poly(acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid)-graft-poly(N, N dimethylacrylamide) (P(AA-co-AMPSA)-g-PDMAM), containing 48 wt % of PDMAM, and shortly designated as G48, has been studied by small-angle neutron scattering in aqueous solution. Complexation occurs at low pH (pH hydrogen-bonding interpolymer complexes, whose radius is estimated to be around 165 A. As these particles involve more than five graft copolymer chains, they act as stickers between the anionic chains of the graft copolymer backbone. This can explain the characteristic thickening observed in past rheological measurements with these mixtures in the semidilute solution, with decreasing pH. We have also examined the influence of pH and PAA molecular weight on the formation of these nanoparticles.

Maria Sotiropoulou; Julian Oberdisse; Georgios Staikos

2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

60

Cellulose solventbased biomass pretreatment breaks highly ordered hydrogen bonds in cellulose fibers of switchgrass  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solvent-Based Solvent-Based Biomass Pretreatment Breaks Highly Ordered Hydrogen Bonds in Cellulose Fibers of Switchgrass Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh, 1,2 Zhiguang Zhu, 1 Sungsool Wi, 3 Y.-H. Percival Zhang 1,2,4 1 Biological Systems Engineering Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech), 210-A Seitz Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061; telephone: 540-231-7414, fax: 540-231-3199; e-mail: ypzhang@vt.edu 2 Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS), Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 3 Chemistry Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 4 DOE BioEnergy Science Center (BESC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee Received 25 June 2010; revision received 23 August 2010; accepted 4 October 2010 Published online 21 October 2010 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com).

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Hydrogen induced C-C, C-N, and C-S bond activation on Pt and Ni surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The work has focussed on hydrogen induced bond activation in adsorbed organic molecules and intermediates containin C-S and C-N and C-C bonds on Ni(100), Ni(111), and Pt(111) surfaces. Fluorescence Yield Near Edge Spectroscopy (FYNES) above the carbon K edge was used for adsorbed organic reactants and in-situ kinetic studies of bond activation. Results indicate that the activation is enhanced on Ni relative to Pt. Methylthiolate and methylamine adsorbed on Pt(111) were studied.

Gland, J.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Hydrogen induced C-C, C-N, and C-S bond activation on Pt and Ni surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The work has focussed on hydrogen induced bond activation in adsorbed organic molecules and intermediates containin C-S and C-N and C-C bonds on Ni(100), Ni(111), and Pt(111) surfaces. Fluorescence Yield Near Edge Spectroscopy (FYNES) above the carbon K edge was used for adsorbed organic reactants and in-situ kinetic studies of bond activation. Results indicate that the activation is enhanced on Ni relative to Pt. Methylthiolate and methylamine adsorbed on Pt(111) were studied.

Gland, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Neutron and x-ray structural studies of short hydrogen bonds in photoactive yellow protein (PYP).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) from Halorhodospira halophila is a soluble 14 kDa blue-light photoreceptor. It absorbs light via its para-coumaric acid chromophore (pCA), which is covalently attached to Cys69 and is believed to be involved in the negative phototactic response of the organism to blue light. The complete structure (including H atoms) of PYP has been determined in D{sub 2}O-soaked crystals through the application of joint X-ray (1.1 {angstrom}) and neutron (2.5 {angstrom}) structure refinement in combination with cross-validated maximum-likelihood simulated annealing. The resulting XN structure reveals that the phenolate O atom of pCA accepts deuterons from Glu46 O{sup {epsilon}2} and Tyr42 O{sup {eta}} in two unusually short hydrogen bonds. This arrangement is stabilized by the donation of a deuteron from Thr50 O{sup {gamma}1} to Tyr42 O{sup {eta}}. However, the deuteron position between pCA and Tyr42 is only partially occupied. Thus, this atom may also interact with Thr50, possibly being disordered or fluctuating between the two bonds.

Fisher, S. Z.; Langan, P.; Anderson, S.; Henning, R.; Moffat, K.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Schultz, A. J.; LANL; Univ. of Chicago; Northwestern Univ.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Hydrogen-bond breaking by O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/. II. Melting curves of DNA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evidence for hydrogen bond breaking (HBB) by O/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ in the denaturation or melting of DNA is presented. It was found that air and oxygen significantly reduce the temperature of the DNA melting process. The possible relationship of this HBB ability of oxygen and nitrogen to phenomena observed in vivo are discussed. (ACR)

Mathers, T.L.; Schoeffler, G.; McGlynn, S.P.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Infrared Spectroscopy and Hydrogen-Bond Dynamics of Liquid Water from Centroid Molecular Dynamics with an Ab Initio-Based Force Field  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A molecular-level description of the unique properties of hydrogen-bond networks is critical for understanding many fundamental physico-chemical processes in aqueous environments. In this article a novel simulation approach, combining an ab-initio based force field for water with a quantum treatment of the nuclear motion, is applied to investigate hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquid water with a specific focus on the relationship of these dynamics to vibrational spectroscopy. Linear and nonlinear infrared (IR) spectra are calculated for liquid water, HOD in D2O and HOD in H2O and discussed in the context of the results obtained using other approaches that have been employed in studies of water dynamics. A comparison between the calculated spectra and the available experimental data yields an overall good agreement, indicating the accuracy of the present simulation approach in describing the properties of liquid water at ambient conditions. Possible improvements on the representation of the underlying water interactions as well as the treatment of the molecular motion at the quantum-mechanical level are also discussed. This research was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Biosciences and Geosciences, US Department of Energy. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

Paesani, Francesco; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Voth, Gregory A.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Bonding in boranes and their interaction with molecular hydrogen at extreme conditions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of high pressure and temperature on the bonding in ammonia borane (AB), NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3} and decaborane (DB), B{sub 10}H{sub 14} and their interactions with molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) were investigated using Raman spectroscopy in a diamond anvil cell. At 0.7 GPa, AB becomes amorphous between 120 and 127 C, indicating a positive Clapeyron slope. Heated to 140 C, AB begins to undergo decomposition to polyaminoborane. The amorphous and decomposed AB does not recrystallize back to AB during slow cooling to room temperature or upon application of high pressure up to 3 GPa, underscoring the challenge of rehydrogenation of decomposed AB. The molecular Raman modes broaden in the reacted phase, and the NH{sub 3} modes show no pressure dependence. DB was studied at room temperature up to 11 GPa. The observed frequency dependence with pressure (d{sub {nu}}/dP) and mode Grueneisen parameters varied for different spectral groups, and a new transition was identified at approximately 3 GPa. In both DB and heated AB, we found that they could store additional H{sub 2} with the application of pressure. We estimate that we can store approximately 3 wt % H{sub 2} in heated AB at 3 GPa and 1 wt % H{sub 2} in DB at 4.5 GPa.

Wang, S.

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

67

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

SciTech Connect

The United States has 11 distinct natural gas pipeline corridors: five originate in the Southwest, four deliver natural gas from Canada, and two extend from the Rocky Mountain region. This study assesses the potential to deliver hydrogen through the existing natural gas pipeline network as a hydrogen and natural gas mixture to defray the cost of building dedicated hydrogen pipelines.

Melaina, M. W.; Antonia, O.; Penev, M.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Hydrogen Bond-Assisted Supramolecular Self-Assembly of Doubly Discotic Supermolecules Based on Porphyrin and Triphenylene  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen bonding is a powerful driving force for the supramolecular self-assembly of discotic mesogens, and molecular shape also plays an important role in such systems. To study these effects, doubly discotic supermolecules have been synthesized by linking a meso-tetraphenylporphine-4,4{prime},4{double_prime},4(triple prime)-tetracarboxylic acid (Py) core with four triphenylenes (Tp) arms via either amide or ester bonds. The spacer length between the Py core and Tp disks was C6 and C10, and the alkyl arm length in the Tp disks was C5 and C12, respectively. Compared to the ester-linked Py(Tp){sub 4} supermolecules, the amide-linked samples exhibited rich crystalline and liquid-crystalline phases, suggesting that the intracolumnar hydrogen-bonding among trans amide bonds was the primary driving force for the self-assembly. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to understand the supramolecular self-assembly of the amide-linked Py(Tp){sub 4} doubly discotic supermolecules. When the spacer length was no shorter than or similar to the triphenylene alkyl arm length, a rectangular boardlike molecular shape was adopted and thus lamellar structures were obtained. When the spacer length was much shorter than the triphenylene alkyl arms, an ellipsoidal overall molecular shape resulted, and thus a regular columnar phase was obtained. From this study, we speculated that hydrogen-bond-induced microphase separation between moieties with different electron affinities in doubly discotic supermolecules may be useful for the practical applications of organic electronics.

Miao, J.; Zhu, L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Probabilistic approach to the length-scale dependence of the effect of water hydrogen bonding on hydrophobic hydration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a probabilistic approach to water-water hydrogen bonding that allows one to obtain an analytic expression for the number of bonds per water molecule as a function of both its distance to a hydrophobic particle and hydrophobe radius. This approach can be used in the density functional theory (DFT) and computer simulations to examine particle size effects on the hydration of particles and on their solvent-mediated interaction. For example, it allows one to explicitly identify a water hydrogen bond contribution to the external potential whereto a water molecule is subjected near a hydrophobe. The DFT implementation of the model predicts the hydration free energy per unit area of a spherical hydrophobe to be sharply sensitive to the hydropobe radius for small radii and weakly sensitive thereto for large ones; this corroborates the vision of the hydration of small and large length-scale particles as occurring via different mechanisms. On the other hand, the model predicts that the hydration of even apolar particles of small enough radii may become thermodynamically favorable owing to the interplay of the energies of pairwise (dispersion) water-water and water-hydrophobe interactions. This sheds light on previous counterintuitive observations (both theoretical and simulational) that two inert gas molecules would prefer to form a solvent-separated pair rather than a contact one.

Yuri S. Djikaev; Eli Ruckenstein

2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

70

Supply chain network for hydrogen transportation in Spain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen fuel is considered one of the major emerging renewable substitutes for fossil fuel. A crucial factor as to whether hydrogen will be successful depends on its cost as a substitute. Recently, there has been a growing ...

Liang, Li

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Self-Assembly and Orientation of Hydrogen-Bonded Oligothiophene Polymorphs at Liquid?Membrane?Liquid Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the challenges in organic systems with semiconducting function is the achievement of molecular orientation over large scales. We report here on the use of self-assembly kinetics to control long-range orientation of a quarterthiophene derivative designed to combine intermolecular {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding among amide groups. Assembly of these molecules in the solution phase is prevented by the hydrogen-bond-accepting solvent tetrahydrofuran, whereas formation of H-aggregates is facilitated in toluene. Rapid evaporation of solvent in a solution of the quarterthiophene in a 2:1:1 mixture of 1,4-dioxane/tetrahydrofuran/toluene leads to self-assembly of kinetically trapped mats of bundled fibers. In great contrast, slow drying in a toluene atmosphere leads to the homogeneous nucleation and growth of ordered structures shaped as rhombohedra or hexagonal prisms depending on concentration. Furthermore, exceedingly slow delivery of toluene from a high molecular weight polymer solution into the system through a porous aluminum oxide membrane results in the growth of highly oriented hexagonal prisms perpendicular to the interface. The amide groups of the compound likely adsorb onto the polar aluminum oxide surface and direct the self-assembly pathway toward heterogeneous nucleation and growth to form hexagonal prisms. We propose that the oriented prismatic polymorph results from the synergy of surface interactions rooted in hydrogen bonding on the solid membrane and the slow kinetics of self-assembly. These observations demonstrate how self-assembly conditions can be used to guide the supramolecular energy landscape to generate vastly different structures. These fundamental principles allowed us to grow oriented prismatic assemblies on transparent indium-doped tin oxide electrodes, which are of interest in organic electronics.

Tevis, Ian D.; Palmer, Liam C.; Herman, David J.; Murray, Ian P.; Stone, David A.; Stupp, Samuel I. (NWU)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

72

Optimum network on future hydrogen supply chain in Peninsular Malaysia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main objective of this study is to presents the overview ideas on the infrastructure planning of hydrogen energy in Malaysia as potential future use of hydrogen as an energy carrier in the transportation sector. Finally the results will give the ... Keywords: Malaysia, economy, fuel, hydrogen energy

S. K. Kamarudin; Z. Yaakob; W. R. W. Daud; W. Anuar; A. Zaharim

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Electron spin-lattice relaxation in solid ethanol: the effect of nitroxyl radical hydrogen bonding and matrix disorder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electron spin-lattice relaxation of TEMPO and TEMPONE was measured at temperatures between 5 and 80 K in crystalline and glassy ethanol using X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The experimental data at the lowest temperatures studied were explained in terms of electron-nuclear dipolar interaction between the paramagnetic center and the localized excitations, whereas at higher temperatures low-frequency vibrational modes from the host matrix and Raman processes should be considered. The strong impact of hydrogen bonding between the dopant molecule and ethanol host on the spin relaxation was observed in ethanol glass whereas in crystalline ethanol both paramagnetic guest molecules behaved similarly.

Kveder, Marina; Joki?, Milan; Makarevi?, Janja; Rakvin, Boris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Electron spin-lattice relaxation in solid ethanol: the effect of nitroxyl radical hydrogen bonding and matrix disorder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electron spin-lattice relaxation of TEMPO and TEMPONE was measured at temperatures between 5 and 80 K in crystalline and glassy ethanol using X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The experimental data at the lowest temperatures studied were explained in terms of electron-nuclear dipolar interaction between the paramagnetic center and the localized excitations, whereas at higher temperatures low-frequency vibrational modes from the host matrix and Raman processes should be considered. The strong impact of hydrogen bonding between the dopant molecule and ethanol host on the spin relaxation was observed in ethanol glass whereas in crystalline ethanol both paramagnetic guest molecules behaved similarly.

Marina Kveder; Dalibor Merunka; Milan Joki?; Janja Makarevi?; Boris Rakvin

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

75

Distal hydrogen-bonding effects and cofacial bimetallic salen architectures for oxygen activation chemistry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two distinct structural scaffolds elaborated from Schiff-base macrocycles were designed to study the proton-coupled electron transfer chemistry of 0-0 bond forming and activation chemistry. The "Hangman" architecture is ...

Yang, Jenny Yue-fon

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

From Waste to Hydrogen: An Optimal Design of Energy Production and Distribution Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 From Waste to Hydrogen: An Optimal Design of Energy Production and Distribution Network Nathan and distribution systems for hydrogen production from agricultural residues, which is a representative green energy of producing clean energy from renewable resources. This paper focuses on the optimal design of the production

Fan, Yueyue

77

Bioinspired Molecular Co-Catalysts Bonded to a Silicon Photocathode for Solar Hydrogen Evolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of fuels from sunlight represents one of the main challenges in the development of a sustainable energy system. Hydrogen is the simplest fuel to produce and although platinum and other noble metals are efficient catalysts for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution earth-abundant alternatives are needed for large-scale use. We show that bioinspired molecular clusters based on molybdenum and sulphur evolve hydrogen at rates comparable to that of platinum. The incomplete cubane-like clusters (Mo{sub 3}S{sub 4}) efficiently catalyse the evolution of hydrogen when coupled to a p-type Si semiconductor that harvests red photons in the solar spectrum. The current densities at the reversible potential match the requirement of a photoelectrochemical hydrogen production system with a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency in excess of 10% (ref. 16). The experimental observations are supported by density functional theory calculations of the Mo{sub 3}S{sub 4} clusters adsorbed on the hydrogen-terminated Si(100) surface, providing insights into the nature of the active site.

Hou, Yidong

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

78

Base-Catalyzed Insertion of Dioxygen into Rhodium-Hydrogen Bonds: Kinetics and Mechanism  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reaction between molecular oxygenm and rhodium hydrides L(OH)RhH{sup +} (L = (NH{sub 3}){sub 4}, trans-L{sup 1}, and cis-L{sup 1}, where L{sup 1} = cyclam) in basic aqueous solutions rapidly produces the corresponding hydroperoxo complexes. Over the pH range 8 < pH < 12, the kinetics exhibit a first order dependence on [OH{sup -}]. The dependence on [O{sub 2}] is less than first order and approaches saturation at the highest concentrations used. These data suggest an attack by OH{sup -} at the hydride with k = (1.45 {+-} 0.25) x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} for trans-L{sup 1}(OH)RhH{sup +} at 25 C, resulting in heterolytic cleavage of the Rh-H bond and formation of a reactive Rh(I) intermediate. A competition between O{sub 2} H{sub 2}O for Rh(I) is the source of the observed dependence on O{sub 2}.

Szajna-Fuller, Ewa; Bakac, Andreja

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

79

Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Blending Hydrogen into Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Blending Hydrogen into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues M. W. Melaina, O. Antonia, and M. Penev Prepared under Task No. HT12.2010 Technical Report NREL/TP-5600-51995 March 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

80

[Hydrogen induced C-C, C-N, and C-S bond activities on Pi and Ni surfaces]: Summary  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes research applied to chemical bond activation studies. Topics summarized include: Carbon nitrogen bonds experimentation with aniline on Ni(111), Mi(100), and Pt(111) surfaces; carbon sulfur bonds experimentation with methanethiol, phenylthiol, and dimethyl disulfide on Pt(111) and Ni(111) surfaces; carbon-carbon bonds experimentation on Ni(100), Ni(111) and Pt(111) surfaces; and in-situ fluorescence yield near edge spectroscopy.

Gland, J.L.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A series of Cd(II) complexes with {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions: Structural diversities by varying the ligands  

SciTech Connect

Seven new Cd(II) complexes consisting of different phenanthroline derivatives and organic acid ligands, formulated as [Cd(PIP){sub 2}(dnba){sub 2}] (1), [Cd(PIP)(ox)].H{sub 2}O (2), [Cd(PIP)(1,4-bdc)(H{sub 2}O)].4H{sub 2}O (3), [Cd(3-PIP){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].4H{sub 2}O (4), [Cd{sub 2}(3-PIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O (5), [Cd(3-PIP)(nip)(H{sub 2}O)].H{sub 2}O (6), [Cd{sub 2}(TIP){sub 4}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].3H{sub 2}O (7) (PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 3-PIP=2-(3-pyridyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, TIP=2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, Hdnba=3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, H{sub 2}ox=oxalic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, H{sub 2}nip=5-nitroisophthalic acid) have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Complexes 1 and 4 possess mononuclear structures; complexes 5 and 7 are isostructural and have dinuclear structures; complexes 2 and 3 feature 1D chain structures; complex 6 contains 1D double chain, which are further extended to a 3D supramolecular structure by {pi}-{pi} stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions. The N-donor ligands with extended {pi}-system and organic acid ligands play a crucial role in the formation of the final supramolecular frameworks. Moreover, thermal properties and fluorescence of 1-7 are also investigated. -- Graphical abstract: Seven new supramolecular architectures have been successfully isolated under hydrothermal conditions by reactions of different phen derivatives and Cd(II) salts together with organic carboxylate anions auxiliary ligands. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Complexes 1-7 are 0D or 1D polymeric structure, the {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions extend the complexes into 3D supramolecular network. To our knowledge, systematic study on {pi}-{pi} stacking and H-bonding interactions in cadmium(II) complexes are still limited. {yields} The structural differences among the title complexes indicate the importance of N-donor chelating ligands for the creation of molecular architectures. {yields} The thermal and fluorescence properties of title complexes have also been reported.

Wang Xiuli, E-mail: wangxiuli@bhu.edu.c [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Zhang Jinxia; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Hydrogen  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

-No Data Reported; --= Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Notes: Hydrogen production ...

83

Quantitative Tools for Dissection of Hydrogen-Producing Metabolic Networks-Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During this project we have pioneered the development of integrated experimental-computational technologies for the quantitative dissection of metabolism in hydrogen and biofuel producing microorganisms (i.e. C. acetobutylicum and various cyanobacteria species). The application of these new methodologies resulted in many significant advances in the understanding of the metabolic networks and metabolism of these organisms, and has provided new strategies to enhance their hydrogen or biofuel producing capabilities. As an example, using mass spectrometry, isotope tracers, and quantitative flux-modeling we mapped the metabolic network structure in C. acetobutylicum. This resulted in a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of central carbon metabolism that could not have been obtained using genomic data alone. We discovered that biofuel production in this bacterium, which only occurs during stationary phase, requires a global remodeling of central metabolism (involving large changes in metabolite concentrations and fluxes) that has the effect of redirecting resources (carbon and reducing power) from biomass production into solvent production. This new holistic, quantitative understanding of metabolism is now being used as the basis for metabolic engineering strategies to improve solvent production in this bacterium. In another example, making use of newly developed technologies for monitoring hydrogen and NAD(P)H levels in vivo, we dissected the metabolic pathways for photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria Cyanothece sp. This investigation led to the identification of multiple targets for improving hydrogen production. Importantly, the quantitative tools and approaches that we have developed are broadly applicable and we are now using them to investigate other important biofuel producers, such as cellulolytic bacteria.

Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Dismukes, G.Charles.; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

84

On the Structure and Geometry of Biomolecular Binding Motifs (Hydrogen-Bonding, Stacking, X-H ?): WFT and DFT Calculations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The strengths of noncovalent interactions are generally very sensitive to a number of geometric parameters. Among the most important of these parameters is the separation between the interacting moieties (in the case of an intermolecular interaction, this would be the intermolecular separation). Most works seeking to characterize the properties of intermolecular interactions are mainly concerned with binding energies obtained at the potential energy minimum (as determined at some particular level of theory). In this work, in order to extend our understanding of these types of noncovalent interactions, we investigate the distance dependence of several types of intermolecular interactions, these are hydrogen bonds, stacking interactions, dispersion interactions, and X-H ? interactions. There are several methods that have traditionally been used to treat noncovalent interactions as well as many new methods that have emerged within the past three or four years. Here we obtain reference data using estimated CCSD(T) values at the complete basis set limit (using the CBS(T) method); potential energy curves are also produced using several other methods thought to be accurate for intermolecular interactions, these are MP2/ccpVTZ, MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ,MP2/6-31G*(0.25), SCS(MI)-MP2/cc-pVTZ, estimated MP2.5/CBS, DFT-SAPT/ aug-cc-pVTZ, DFT/M06-2X/6-311+G(2df,2p), and DFT-D/TPSS/6-311++G(3df,3pd). The basis set superposition error is systematically considered throughout the study. It is found that the MP2.5 and DFTSAPT methods, which are both quite computationally intensive, produce potential energy curves that are in very good agreement to those of the reference method. Among the MP2 techniques, which can be said to be of medium computational expense, the best results are obtained with MP2/cc-pVTZ and SCS(MI)-MP2/cc-pVTZ. DFT-D/TPSS/6-311++G(3df,3pd) is the DFT-based method that can be said to give the most well-balanced description of intermolecular interactions.

Riley, Kevin E.; Pitonak, Michal; Cerny, Jiri; Hobza, Pavel

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

85

Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.

Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

86

Core-to-Rydberg band shift and broadening of hydrogen bonded ammonia clusters studied with nitrogen K-edge excitation spectroscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nitrogen 1s (N ls) core-to-Rydberg excitation spectra of hydrogen-bonded clusters of ammonia (AM) have been studied in the small cluster regime of beam conditions with time-of-flight (TOF) fragment-mass spectroscopy. By monitoring partial-ion-yield spectra of cluster-origin products, ''cluster'' specific excitation spectra could be recorded. Comparison of the ''cluster'' band with ''monomer'' band revealed that the first resonance bands of clusters corresponding to N 1s{yields} 3sa{sub 1}/3pe of AM monomer are considerably broadened. The changes of the experimental core-to-Rydberg transitions {Delta}FWHM (N 1s{yields} 3sa{sub 1}/3pe) ={approx}0.20/{approx}0.50 eV compare well with the x ray absorption spectra of the clusters generated by using density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The broadening of the core-to-Rydberg bands in small clusters is interpreted as being primarily due to the splitting of non-equivalent core-hole N 1s states caused by both electrostatic core-hole and hydrogen-bonding (H{sub 3}N{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}H-NH{sub 2}) interactions upon dimerization. Under Cs dimer configuration, core-electron binding energy of H-N (H-donor) is significantly decreased by the intermolecular core-hole interaction and causes notable redshifts of core-excitation energies, whereas that of lone-pair nitrogen (H-acceptor) is slightly increased and results in appreciable blueshifts in the core-excitation bands. The result of the hydrogen-bonding interaction strongly appears in the n-{sigma}* orbital correlation, destabilizing H-N donor Rydberg states in the direction opposite to the core-hole interaction, when excited N atom with H-N donor configuration strongly possesses the Rydberg component of anti-bonding {sigma}* (N-H) character. Contributions of other cyclic H-bonded clusters (AM){sub n} with n{>=} 3 to the spectral changes of the N 1s{yields} 3sa{sub 1}/3pe bands are also examined.

Yamanaka, Takeshi; Takahashi, Osamu [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Tabayashi, Kiyohiko; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center (HSRC), Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan); Tanaka, Kenichiro [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); XFEL Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

87

Network effects, Compatibility and the Environment: The Case of Hydrogen Powered Cars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper addresses the problem of entry barriers for a new technology hydrogen powered cars or cars with fuel cell engines if the network of its filling stations is missing or thin. We use Hotellings model of product differentiation to characterize a situation where an incumbent firm produces the old technology, compatible with the existing network of filling stations, and an entrant, who cannot use this network for its products. We assume that the entrant has to invest in remodeling existing filling stations for making them compatible. This, however, raises his costs. In the intertemporal setting of our model, the Hotelling pricing rule for exhaustible resources encourages the entrant to invest in compatibility because the price of gasoline will rise in the long run to the price of the backstop technology- fuel cells. Depending on the cost of compatibility, our model indicates three possible outcomes. Either, the costs of compatibility are too high and governmental support is required. Or the incumbent bears losses in initial periods by waiting for profits in later periods when full compatibility of the network is reached. Or the entrant benefits from the fact that the price of oil reaches the price of the backstop technology (full cells) rather soon.

Klaus Conrad

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Engineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project is a collaboration with F. R. Tabita of Ohio State. Our major goal is to understand the factors and regulatory mechanisms that influence hydrogen production. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Our part of the project was to develop a modeling technique to investigate the metabolic network in connection to hydrogen production and regulation. Organisms must balance the pathways that generate and consume reducing power in order to maintain redox homeostasis to achieve growth. Maintaining this homeostasis in the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria is a complex feat with many avenues that can lead to balance, as these organisms possess versatile metabolic capabilities including anoxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic or anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. Growth is achieved by using H{sub 2} as an electron donor and CO{sub 2} as a carbon source during photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic growth, where CO{sub 2} is fixed via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Photoheterotrophic growth can also occur when alternative organic carbon compounds are utilized as both the carbon source and electron donor. Regardless of the growth mode, excess reducing equivalents generated as a result of oxidative processes, must be transferred to terminal electron acceptors, thus insuring that redox homeostasis is maintained in the cell. Possible terminal acceptors include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, organic carbon, or various oxyanions. Cells possess regulatory mechanisms to balance the activity of the pathways which supply energy, such as photosynthesis, and those that consume energy, such as CO{sub 2} assimilation or N{sub 2} fixation. The major route for CO{sub 2} assimilation is the CBB reductive pentose phosphate pathway, whose key enzyme is ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). In addition to providing virtually all cellular carbon during autotrophic metabolism, RubisCO-mediated CO{sub 2} assimilation is also very important for nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria under photoheterotrophic growth conditions since CO{sub 2} becomes the major electron sink under these conditions. In this work, Ensemble Modeling (EM) was developed to examine the behavior of CBB-compromised RubisCO knockout mutant strains of the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mathematical models of metabolism can be a great aid in studying the effects of large perturbations to the system, such as the inactivation of RubisCO. Due to the complex and highly-interconnected nature of these networks, it is not a trivial process to understand what the effect of perturbations to the metabolic network will be, or vice versa, what enzymatic perturbations are necessary to yield a desired effect. Flux distribution is controlled by multiple enzymes in the network, often indirectly linked to the pathways of interest. Further, depending on the state of the cell and the environmental conditions, the effect of a perturbation may center around how it effects the carbon flow in the network, the balancing of cofactors, or both. Thus, it is desirable to develop mathematical models to describe, understand, and predict network behavior. Through the development of such models, one may gain the ability to generate a set of testable hypotheses for system behavior.

James C. Liao

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

89

QM/MM Lineshape Simulation of the Hydrogen-bonded Uracil NH Stretching Vibration of the Adenine:Uracil Base Pair in CDCl$_3$  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A hybrid Car-Parrinello QM/MM molecular dynamics simulation has been carried out for the Watson-Crick base pair of 9-ethyl-8-phenyladenine and 1-cyclohexyluracil in deuterochloroform solution at room temperature. The resulting trajectory is analyzed putting emphasis on the N-H$...$N Hydrogen bond geometry. Using an empirical correlation between the $\\NN$-distance and the fundamental NH-stretching frequency, the time-dependence of this energy gap along the trajectory is obtained. From the gap-correlation function we determine the infrared absorption spectrum using lineshape theory in combination with a multimode oscillator model. The obtained average transition frequency and the width of the spectrum is in reasonable agreement with recent experimental data.

Yan, Yun-an; Khn, Oliver

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ENERGY FORESIGHT NETWORK WORKSHOP: TECHNOLOGIES FOR HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL VEHICLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Topic 1: Hydrogen and fuel cell technology................................................................................ 5 1. What are the main advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen and fuel cells in transport?...... 5 2. Storage of hydrogen in the vehicles: where we are? What is likely to come out?.................... 6 3. Fuel cells: where we are? What is likely to come out?............................................................ 7

Workpackage Leader Bertr

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Hybrid Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems and Other Applications of sp-2 Bonded Light Elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the storage of energy using technologies such as hydrogen,Energy Applications of sp-2 Bonded Materials 5 Hydrogen Storagea hydrogen storage systems total gravimetric energy density

Kessler, Brian Maxwell

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Hydrogen-based electrochemical energy storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An energy storage device (100) providing high storage densities via hydrogen storage. The device (100) includes a counter electrode (110), a storage electrode (130), and an ion conducting membrane (120) positioned between the counter electrode (110) and the storage electrode (130). The counter electrode (110) is formed of one or more materials with an affinity for hydrogen and includes an exchange matrix for elements/materials selected from the non-noble materials that have an affinity for hydrogen. The storage electrode (130) is loaded with hydrogen such as atomic or mono-hydrogen that is adsorbed by a hydrogen storage material such that the hydrogen (132, 134) may be stored with low chemical bonding. The hydrogen storage material is typically formed of a lightweight material such as carbon or boron with a network of passage-ways or intercalants for storing and conducting mono-hydrogen, protons, or the like. The hydrogen storage material may store at least ten percent by weight hydrogen (132, 134) at ambient temperature and pressure.

Simpson, Lin Jay

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

93

A self-consistent MoD-WM/MM structural refinement method: characterization of hydrogen bonding in the orytricha nova G-1uar  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper generalizes the MoD-QM/MM hybrid method, developed for ab initio computations of protein electrostatic potentials [Gasc6n, l.A.; Leung, S.S.F.; Batista, E.R.; Batista, V.S. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2006,2, 175-186], as a practical algorithm for structural refinement of extended systems. The computational protocol involves a space-domain decomposition scheme for the formal fragmentation of extended systems into smaller, partially overlapping, molecular domains and the iterative self-consistent energy minimization of the constituent domains by relaxation of their geometry and electronic structure. The method accounts for mutual polarization of the molecular domains, modeled as Quantum-Mechanical (QM) layers embedded in the otherwise classical Molecular-Mechanics (MM) environment according to QM/MM hybrid methods. The method is applied to the description of benchmark models systems that allow for direct comparisons with full QM calculations, and subsequently applied to the structural characterization of the DNA Oxytricha nova Guanine quadruplex (G4). The resulting MoD-QM/MM structural model of the DNA G4 is compared to recently reported highresolution X-ray diffraction and NMR models, and partially validated by direct comparisons between {sup 1}H NMR chemical shifts that are highly sensitive to hydrogen-bonding and stacking interactions and the corresponding theoretical values obtained at the density functional theory DFT QM/MM (BH&H/6-31 G*:Amber) level in conjunction with the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method for the ab initio self consistent-field (SCF) calculation of NMR chemical shifts.

Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newcomer, Micharel B [YALE UNIV; Raggin, Christina M [YALE UNIV; Gascon, Jose A [YALE UNIV; Loria, J Patrick [YALE UNIV; Batista, Victor S [YALE UNIV

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Bonding in the Superionic Phase of Water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The predicted superionic phase of water is investigated via ab initio molecular dynamics at densities of 2.0-3.0 g/cc (34-115 GPa) along the 2000K isotherm. They find that extremely rapid (superionic) diffusion of protons occurs in a fluid phase at pressures between 34 and 58 GPa. A transition to a stable body-centered cubic (bcc) O lattice with superionic proton conductivity is observed between 70 and 75 GPa, a much higher pressure than suggested in prior work. They find that all molecular species at pressures greater than 75 GPa are too short lived to be classified as bound states. Up to 95 GPa, they find a solid superionic phase characterization by covalent O-H bonding. Above 95 GPa, a transient network phase is found characterized by symmetric O-H hydrogen bonding with nearly 50% covalent character. In addition, they describe a new metastable superionic phase with quenched O disorder.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E; Kuo, I W; Mundy, C J

2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

95

Insights into the Importance of Hydrogen Bonding in the [gamma]-Phosphate Binding Pocket of Myosin: Structural and Functional Studies of Serine 236  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The active site of myosin contains a group of highly conserved amino acid residues whose roles in nucleotide hydrolysis and energy transduction might appear to be obvious from the initial structural and kinetic analyses but become less clear on deeper investigation. One such residue is Ser236 (Dictyostelium discoideum myosin II numbering) which was proposed to be involved in a hydrogen transfer network during {gamma}-phosphate hydrolysis of ATP, which would imply a critical function in ATP hydrolysis and motility. The S236A mutant protein shows a comparatively small decrease in hydrolytic activity and motility, and thus this residue does not appear to be essential. To understand better the contribution of Ser236 to the function of myosin, structural and kinetic studies have been performed on the S236A mutant protein. The structures of the D. discoideum motor domain (S1dC) S236A mutant protein in complex with magnesium pyrophosphate, MgAMPPNP, and MgADP{center_dot}vanadate have been determined. In contrast to the previous structure of wild-type S1dC, the S236A{center_dot}MgAMPPNP complex crystallized in the closed state. Furthermore, transient-state kinetics showed a 4-fold reduction of the nucleotide release step, suggesting that the mutation stabilizes a closed active site. The structures show that a water molecule approximately adopts the location of the missing hydroxyl of Ser236 in the magnesium pyrophosphate and MgAMPPNP structures. This study suggests that the S236A mutant myosin proceeds via a different structural mechanism than wild-type myosin, where the alternate mechanism is able to maintain near normal transient-state kinetic values.

Frye, Jeremiah J.; Klenchin, Vadim A.; Bagshaw, Clive R.; Rayment, Ivan (Leicester); (UW)

2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

96

Determination of Optimal Process Flowrates and Reactor Design for Autothermal Hydrogen Production in a Heat-Integrated Ceramic Microchannel Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work aimed at designing a thermally efficient microreactor system coupling methanol steam reforming with methanol combustion for autothermal hydrogen production. A preliminary study was performed by analyzing three prototype reactor configurations to identify the optimal radial distribution pattern upon enhancing the reactor self-insulation. The annular heat integration pattern of Architecture C showed superior performance in providing efficient heat retention to the system with a 50 - 150 degrees C decrease in maximum external-surface temperature. Detailed work was performed using Architecture C configuration to optimize the catalyst placement in the microreactor network, and optimize reforming and combustion flows, using no third coolant line. The optimized combustion and reforming catalyst configuration prevented the hot-spot migration from the reactor midpoint and enabled stable reactor operation at all process flowrates studied. Best results were obtained at high reforming flowrates (1800 sccm) with an increase in combustion flowrate (300 sccm) with the net H2 yield of 53% and thermal efficiency of >80% from methanol with minimal insulation to the heatintegrated microchannel network. The use of the third bank of channels for recuperative heat exchange by four different reactor configurations was explored to further enhance the reactor performance; the maximum overall hydrogen yield was increased to 58% by preheating the reforming stream in the outer 16 heat retention channels. An initial 3-D COMSOL model of the 25-channeled heat-exchanger microreactor was developed to predict the reactor hotspot shape, location, optimum process flowrates and substrate thermal conductivity. This study indicated that low thermal conductivity materials (e.g. ceramics, glass) provides enhanced efficiencies than high conductivity materials (e.g. silicon, stainless steel), by maintaining substantial thermal gradients in the system through minimization of axial heat conduction. Final summary of the study included the determination of system energy density; a gravimetric energy density of 169.34 Wh/kg and a volumetric energy density of 506.02 Wh/l were achieved from brass architectures for 10 hrs operation, which is higher than the energy density of Li-Ion batteries (120 Wh/kg and 350 Wh/l). Overall, this research successfully established the optimal process flowrates and reactor design to enhance the potential of a thermally-efficient heat-exchanger microchannel network for autothermal hydrogen production in portable applications.

Damodharan, Shalini

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Network  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

network - launched in November 2012. The network was built in collaboration with Internet2, an advanced network, which connects the nation's research universities. Leveraging...

98

Hydrogen as a fuel  

SciTech Connect

A panel of the Committee on Advanced Energy Storage Systems of the Assembly of Engineering has examined the status and problems of hydrogen manufacturing methods, hydrogen transmission and distribution networks, and hydrogen storage systems. This examination, culminating at a time when rapidly changing conditions are having noticeable impact on fuel and energy availability and prices, was undertaken with a view to determining suitable criteria for establishing the pace, timing, and technical content of appropriate federally sponsored hydrogen R and D programs. The increasing urgency to develop new sources and forms of fuel and energy may well impact on the scale and timing of potential future hydrogen uses. The findings of the panel are presented. Chapters are devoted to hydrogen sources, hydrogen as a feedstock, hydrogen transport and storage, hydrogen as a heating fuel, automotive uses of hydrogen, aircraft use of hydrogen, the fuel cell in hydrogen energy systems, hydrogen research and development evaluation, and international hydrogen programs.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT for grant DE-FG02-93ER14353 ????"Carbon-Hydrogen Bond Functionalization Catalyzed by Transition Metal Systems"  

SciTech Connect

Alkanes are our most abundant organic resource but are highly resistant to selective chemical transformations. Alkenes (olefins) by contrast are the single most versatile class of molecules for selective transformations, and are intermediates in virtually every petrochemical process as well as a vast range of commodity and fine chemical processes. Over the course of this project we have developed the most efficient catalysts to date for the selective conversion of alkanes to give olefins, and have applied these catalysts to other dehydrogenation reactions. We have also developed some of the first efficient catalysts for carbonylation of alkanes and arenes to give aldehydes. The development of these catalysts has been accompanied by elucidation of the mechanism of their operation and the factors controlling the kinetics and thermodynamics of C-H bond activation and other individual steps of the catalytic cycles. This fundamental understanding will allow the further improvement of these catalysts, as well as the development of the next generation of catalysts for the functionalization of alkanes and other molecules containing C-H bonds.

Alan S. Goldman

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

100

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Transportation Routing Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

model can be used to complete the technoeconomic analysis of hydrogen delivery for the DOE Hydrogen Program by analyzing the highway transportation network to determine locations...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Yankee bonds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Yankee and Euromarket bonds may soon find their way into the financing of power projects in Latin America. For developers seeking long-term commitments under build, own, operate, and transfer (BOOT) power projects in Latin America, the benefits are substantial.

Delaney, P. (Bear, Stearns Co. Inc., New York, NY (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Observation of a remarkable temperature effect in the hydrogen bonding structure and dynamics of the CN-(H2O) cluster  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The CN-(H2O) cluster represents a model diatomic monohydrate with multiple solvation sites. We report joint experimental and theoretical studies of its structure and dynamics using temperature-controlled photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. The observed PES spectra of CN-(H2O) display a remarkable temperature effect, namely that the T=12 K spectrum shows an unexpectedly large blue shift of 0.25 eV in the electron binding energy relative to the Room Temperature (RT) spectrum. Extensive theoretical analysis of the potential energy function (PEF) of the cluster at the CCSD(T) level of theory reveal the existence of two nearly isoenergetic isomers corresponding to H2O forming a H-bond with either the C or the N atom, respectively. This results in four topologically distinct minima, i.e., CN-(HaOHb), CN-(HbOHa), NC-(HaOHb) and NC-(HbOHa). There are two main pathways connecting these minima: (i) CN- tumbling relative to water and (ii) water rocking relative to CN-. The relative magnitude of the barriers associated with these two motions reverses between low [pathway (i) is preferred] and high [pathway (ii) is preferred] temperatures. As a result, at T=12 K the cluster adopts a structure that is close to the minimum energy CN-(H2O) configuration, while at RT it can effectively access regions of the PEF close to the transition state for pathway (ii), explaining the surprisingly large spectral shift between the 12 K and RT PES spectra. This work was supported by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US Department of Energy. Battelle operates Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

Wang, Xue B.; Werhahn, Jasper C.; Wang, Lai S.; Kowalski, Karol; Laubereau, Alfred; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

103

Diffusion bonding  

SciTech Connect

1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

Anderson, Robert C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

104

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Transition to Hydrogen Transportation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Transition to Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Transition to Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Project Summary Full Title: A Smooth Transition to Hydrogen Transportation Fuel Project ID: 87 Principal Investigator: Gene Berry Brief Description: This project contrasts the options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Keywords: Infrastructure; costs; hydrogen production Purpose The case for hydrogen-powered transportation requires an assessment of present and prospective methods for producing, storing, and delivering hydrogen. This project examines one potential pathway: on-site production of hydrogen to fuel light-duty vehicles. Performer Principal Investigator: Gene Berry Organization: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

105

FTIR Difference Spectroscopy Studies of Residue Roles at the Mn4Ca Cluster and the Hydrogen Bonding Network in Photosystem II  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

organic molecules and split water molecules for energy. Thiswater molecules held at the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of PSII are split,

Service, Rachel J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Integrated Hydrogen and Intelligent Transportation Systems Evaluation for the California Department of Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Florida Energy Office, Hydrogen Programs Manager, June 27.Agency (2005a). California Hydrogen Blueprint Plan: Volume1 Final Report, California Hydrogen Highway Network, May.

Lipman, Timothy; Shaheen, Susan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The operation result of the demonstration of energy networks of electricity, heat, and hydrogen at an apartment building in 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cell stacks, fuel processors, hydrogen storage devices, and large storage tanks for hot water, and the electricity and hot water from the fuel cells are shared via an internal electricity grid and a hot water pipe the system. Three small PEM fuel cells with hot water tanks have been installed, and the electricity and hot

108

Tax-Exempt Industrial Revenue Bonds (Kansas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Industrial Revenue Bonds (Kansas) Industrial Revenue Bonds (Kansas) Tax-Exempt Industrial Revenue Bonds (Kansas) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Industrial Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Kansas Program Type Bond Program Provider Revenue Tax-Exempt Industrial Revenue Bonds are issued by cities and counties for the purchase, construction, improvement or remodeling of a facility for agricultural, commercial, hospital, industrial, natural resources, recreational development or manufacturing purposes. The board of county commissioners of any county or the governing body of any city may approve an exemption of property funded by industrial revenue bonds (IRB's). Some

109

Private Activity Bond Allocation (Missouri) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond Allocation (Missouri) Bond Allocation (Missouri) Private Activity Bond Allocation (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Maximum Rebate Total Program Cap 2012: $571,015,360 Program Info State Missouri Program Type Bond Program Provider Missouri Department of Economic Development The Private Activity Bond Allocation Program provides low-interest financing through tax-exempt bonds for certain types of projects, including electric and gas utility projects. Eligible applicants include certain state agencies, cities, counties and industrial development authorities

110

FNS Presentation - Hydrogen Station & Hydrogen ICE Vehicles Operation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Station & Hydrogen ICE Hydrogen Station & Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Operations Federal Network for Sustainability Idaho Falls, Idaho - July 2006 Jim Francfort INL/CON-06-11569 Presentation Outline * Background & Goal * Arizona Public Service (APS) Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - design & operations * Fuel Dispensing * Hydrogen & HCNG Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) Vehicle Testing Activities * Briefly, other AVTA Activities * WWW Information 2 AVTA Background & Goal * Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program * These activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) & the AVTA testing partner Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) * AVTA Goal - Provide benchmark data for technology

111

Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier: Outlook for 2010, 2030, and 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

nuclear demos Development of regional networks of hydrogen fueling systems, including pipelines in some cities;

Ogden, Joan M

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

An Alternative Low-Cost Process for Deposition of MCrAlY Bond ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, An Alternative Low-Cost Process for Deposition of MCrAlY Bond Coats for Advanced Syngas/Hydrogen Turbine Applications. Author(s), Ying...

113

Hydrogen Sensor  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

sensor for detectingquantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces...

114

Bond and Loan Program (Arkansas) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond and Loan Program (Arkansas) Bond and Loan Program (Arkansas) Bond and Loan Program (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Fed. Government Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Residential Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Systems Integrator Transportation Tribal Government Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Bond Program Loan Program Provider Department of Finance and Administration The Bond and Loan programs of Arkansas are four programs designed to

115

Tax-Exempt Bond Financing (Delaware) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond Financing (Delaware) Bond Financing (Delaware) Tax-Exempt Bond Financing (Delaware) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Agricultural Investor-Owned Utility State/Provincial Govt Industrial Construction Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Installer/Contractor Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Retail Supplier Systems Integrator Fuel Distributor Transportation Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Delaware Program Type Bond Program Provider Delaware Economic Development Office The Delaware Economic Development Authority provides tax-exempt bond financing for financial assistance to new or expanding businesses, governmental units and certain organizations that are exempt from federal

116

Hydrogen Publications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. ... These articles, of interest to the hydrogen community, can be viewed by clicking on the title. ...

117

Properties Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. PROPERTIES, ... For information on a PC database that includes hydrogen property information click here. ...

118

Major Business Expansion Bond Program (Maine) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Expansion Bond Program (Maine) Expansion Bond Program (Maine) Major Business Expansion Bond Program (Maine) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Maine Program Type Bond Program Provider Finance Authority of Maine The Major Business Expansion Bond Program provides long-term, credit-enhanced financing up to $25,000,000 at taxable bond rates for businesses creating or retaining at least 50 jobs; up to $10,000,000 is available for businesses which expand their manufacturing services. The bond proceeds may be used to acquire real estate, machinery, equipment, or rehabilitate or expand an existing facility. The interest rate is determined by market forces at the time of the bond sale

119

Local Government Revenue Bonds (Montana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Government Revenue Bonds (Montana) Government Revenue Bonds (Montana) Local Government Revenue Bonds (Montana) < Back Eligibility Utility Commercial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Local Government Rural Electric Cooperative Tribal Government Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State Montana Program Type Bond Program Provider Any interested county or municipality. Limited obligation local government bonds ("special revenue bonds") may be issued for qualified electric energy generation facilities, including those powered by renewables. These bonds generally are secured by the project itself. The taxing power or general credit of the government may not be used to secure the bonds. Local governments may not operate any project

120

Pooled Bond Program (South Dakota) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Pooled Bond Program (South Dakota) Pooled Bond Program (South Dakota) Pooled Bond Program (South Dakota) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State South Dakota Program Type Bond Program Provider South Dakota Governor's Office of Economic Development The Pooled Bond Program offered by the Economic Development Finance Authority is designed for capital intensive projects, providing small businesses access to larger capital markets for tax-exempt or taxable bond issuances. Bond proceeds can be used to finance 80 percent of new construction, and 75 percent of new equipment costs, with no greater than 25 percent of the bond proceeds being used for ancillary activities such as

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Industrial Revenue Bond Issuance Cost Assistance (Wisconsin) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Revenue Bond Issuance Cost Assistance (Wisconsin) Revenue Bond Issuance Cost Assistance (Wisconsin) Industrial Revenue Bond Issuance Cost Assistance (Wisconsin) < Back Eligibility Local Government Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Wind Solar Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Bond Program Provider Wisconsin Economic Development Corporation Industrial Revenue Bonds (IRB) are tax-exempt bonds that can be used to stimulate capital investment and job creation by providing private borrowers with access to financing at interest rates that are lower than conventional bank loans. The IRB process involves five separate entities - the borrower, lender, bond attorney, issuer, and WEDC. WEDC allocates the bonding authority or the volume cap for the program under Wis. Stat. §

122

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

University of Chicago team. On-board hydrogen storage is critical to the development of future high energy efficiency transportation technologies, such as hydrogen-powered fuel...

123

Hydrogen Delivery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mark Paster Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technology Program Hydrogen Production and Delivery Team Hydrogen Delivery Goal Hydrogen Delivery Goal Liquid H 2 & Chem. Carriers Gaseous Pipeline Truck Hydrides Liquid H 2 - Truck - Rail Other Carriers Onsite reforming Develop Develop hydrogen fuel hydrogen fuel delivery delivery technologies that technologies that enable the introduction and enable the introduction and long long - - term viability of term viability of hydrogen as an energy hydrogen as an energy carrier for transportation carrier for transportation and stationary power. and stationary power. Delivery Options * End Game - Pipelines - Other as needed * Breakthrough Hydrogen Carriers * Truck: HP Gas & Liquid Hydrogen

124

Essays on corporate bonds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis consists of three empirical essays on corporate bonds, examining the role of both credit risk and liquidity. In the first chapter, I test the ability of structural models of default to price corporate bonds in ...

Bao, Jack (Jack C.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Process for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A process for producing hydrogen by an electrolysis of water with an aqueous solution of an alkali hydroxide is provided. It is to use an electrolytic cell prepared by bonding a gas and liquid permeable anode on one surface of a cation-exchange membrane of a fluorinated polymer and a gas and liquid permeable cathode on the other surface of the membrane. An economical metal can be used as the substance for the electrolytic cell. Hydrogen can be produced at a low voltage in stable for a long time.

Oda, Y.; Morimoto, T.; Suzuki, K.

1984-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

126

Single-Issue Industrial Revenue Bond Program (Missouri) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Single-Issue Industrial Revenue Bond Program (Missouri) Single-Issue Industrial Revenue Bond Program (Missouri) Single-Issue Industrial Revenue Bond Program (Missouri) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Retail Supplier Systems Integrator Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Program Info State Missouri Program Type Bond Program Provider Missouri Development Finance Board The Missouri Development Finance Board administers a Single-Issue Tax-Exempt Industrial Revenue Bond Program as well as a Taxable Industrial Revenue Bond Program. The Tax-Exempt Program finances (i) the acquisition, construction and equipping of qualified manufacturing production facilities and/or equipment, and (ii) refinances outstanding tax-exempt bonds. It

127

Economic Development Bond Program (Iowa) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond Program (Iowa) Bond Program (Iowa) Economic Development Bond Program (Iowa) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info Funding Source Iowa Finance Authority State Iowa Program Type Bond Program Provider Iowa Finance Authority Through its Economic Development Bond Program, the Iowa Finance Authority (IFA) issues tax-exempt bonds on behalf of private entities or organizations for eligible purposes. The responsibility for repayment of the bonds rests with the applicant. Neither IFA nor the State of Iowa has

128

Hydrogen Highways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joan Ogden, The Hope for Hydrogen, Issues in Science andand James S. Cannon. The Hydrogen Energy Transition: MovingHydrogen Highways BY TIMOTHY LIPMAN H 2 T H E S TAT E O F C

Lipman, Timothy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

AdhesiveBonding.qrk  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adhesive Bonding Adhesive Bonding Manufacturing Technologies Understanding and controlling the factors that affect adhesion is vital for ensuring consistent successful bonding operations. The Manufacturing Science and Technology Center's research into adhesion is focused on achieving a good initial bond and then understanding the mechanisms leading to eventual bond failure. The department is working to understand crack propagation at the interface and has developed a variety of mechanical testing techniques to evalu- ate this failure mode. The factors affecting wetting and formation of the bond (e.g., contamination, surface roughness) are being explored to further our knowledge. In addition to research into adhesion, we bond and join components for our cus- tomers. Researchers have formulated new

130

Hydrogen Production  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Research in DOE Databases Energy Citations Database Information Bridge Science.gov WorldWideScience.org Increase your H2IQ More information Making...

131

Hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

Duan, Yixiang (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Cao, Wenqing (Katy, TX)

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

132

Foreign trade zones and bonded warehouses for luxury goods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore and compare the benefits of establishing and operating Foreign Trade Zones (FTZs) and Bonded Warehouses (BWs) for luxury goods in North America, using the case of the distribution network of Ralph Lauren Corporation ...

Petrova, Nadya (Nadya Naydenova)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Hydrogen Delivery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogen Storage Technologies Roadmap Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 #12;This.................................................................................. 13 6. Hydrogen Storage and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) is a voluntary, nonbinding, and nonlegal

134

Private Activity Revenue Bonds (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Private Activity Revenue Bonds are available in the form of both taxable bonds and tax-exempt bonds. Both types of bonds provide access to long-term capital markets for fixed asset financing....

135

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Hydrogen Quality Issues for Fuel Cell Vehicles Introduction Developing and implementing fuel quality specifications for hydrogen are prerequisites to the widespread deployment of hydrogen-fueled fuel cell vehicles. Several organizations are addressing this fuel quality issue, including the International Standards Organization (ISO), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the California Fuel Cell Partnership (CaFCP), and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)/Japan Automobile Research Institute (JARI). All of their activities, however, have focused on the deleterious effects of specific contaminants on the automotive fuel cell or on-board hydrogen storage systems. While it is possible for the energy industry to provide extremely pure hydrogen, such hydrogen could entail excessive costs. The objective of our task is to develop a process whereby the hydrogen quality requirements may be determined based on life-cycle costs of the complete hydrogen fuel cell vehicle "system." To accomplish this objective, the influence of different contaminants and their concentrations in fuel hydrogen on the life-cycle costs of hydrogen production, purification, use in fuel cells, and hydrogen analysis and quality verification are being assessed.

136

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

137

Wide Area and Distributed Hydrogen Sensors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent advances in optical sensors show promise for the development of new wide area monitoring and distributed optical network hydrogen detection systems. Optical hydrogen sensing technologies reviewed here are: 1) open path Raman scattering systems, 2) back scattering from chemically treated solid polymer matrix optical fiber sensor cladding; and 3) shlieren and shearing interferometry imaging. Ultrasonic sensors for hydrogen release detection are also reviewed. The development status of these technologies and their demonstrated results in sensor path length, low hydrogen concentration detection ability, and response times are described and compared to the corresponding status of hydrogen spot sensor network technologies.

Zalosh, Robert G.; Barilo, Nick F.

2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

138

Activating unreactive C-H bonds  

SciTech Connect

The procedures tested to attempt to reactivate carbon-hydrogen bonds in completely saturated organic compounds are discussed. Saturated hydrocarbons appear in petroleum, coal, in synthetic fuels produced by liquefaction of coal and other fossil fuels, and in synthetic fuels produced by Fisher-Tropsch chemistry from syngas. Their potential use as feedstocks for the chemical industry requires that the hydrocarbons be functionalized. The use of transition-metal complexes for the 'activation' process is discussed.

Maugh, T.H. II

1983-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

139

Proton conduction in electrolyte made of manganese dioxide for hydrogen gas sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose a network model of oxygen-pairs to store and conduct protons on the surface of manganese dioxide with a weak covalent bond like protons stored in pressured ice. The atomic distances of oxygen-pairs were estimated between 2.57 and 2.60 angstroms in crystal structures of ramsdellite-type and lambda-type manganese dioxides by using protonated samples and inelastic neutron scattering measurements. Good properties for a hydrogen gas sensor using electrolytes made of manganese dioxides that contain such oxygen-pairs were confirmed experimentally.

Koyanaka, Hideki [Kyoto University, Japan; Ueda, Yoshikatsu [Kyoto University, Japan; Takeuchi, K [Tokyo University of Science, Oshamanbe Hokkaido, Japan; Kolesnikov, Alexander I [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

The Ohio Enterprise Bond Fund (Ohio) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Bond Fund (Ohio) Bond Fund (Ohio) The Ohio Enterprise Bond Fund (Ohio) < Back Eligibility Commercial State/Provincial Govt Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Maximum Rebate $10 million Program Info Funding Source Ohio Treasurer of State Start Date 1988 State Ohio Program Type Bond Program The Ohio Enterprise Bond Fund (OEBF) was created in 1988 to promote economic development, create and retain quality jobs and assist governmental operations. The program enables non-profit and for-profit borrowers to access the national capital markets through bonds issued through OEBF. The program is administered by the Ohio Department of Development and financing is provided by the Ohio Treasurer of State.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

142

Florida Hydrogen Initiative  

SciTech Connect

The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety monitoring at any facility engaged in transport, handling and use of hydrogen. Development of High Efficiency Low Cost Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Production and PEM Fuel Cell Applications ? M. Rodgers, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to decrease platinum usage in fuel cells by conducting experiments to improve catalyst activity while lowering platinum loading through pulse electrodeposition. Optimum values of several variables during electrodeposition were selected to achieve the highest electrode performance, which was related to catalyst morphology. Understanding Mechanical and Chemical Durability of Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assemblies ? D. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center The objective of this project was to increase the knowledge base of the degradation mechanisms for membranes used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The results show the addition of ceria (cerium oxide) has given durability improvements by reducing fluoride emissions by an order of magnitude during an accelerated durability test. Production of Low-Cost Hydrogen from Biowaste (HyBrTec?) ? R. Parker, SRT Group, Inc., Miami, FL This project developed a hydrogen bromide (HyBrTec?) process which produces hydrogen bromide from wet-cellulosic waste and co-produces carbon dioxide. Eelectrolysis dissociates hydrogen bromide producing recyclable bromine and hydrogen. A demonstration reactor and electrolysis vessel was designed, built and operated. Development of a Low-Cost and High-Efficiency 500 W Portable PEMFC System ? J. Zheng, Florida State University, H. Chen, Bing Energy, Inc. The objectives of this project were to develop a new catalyst structures comprised of highly conductive buckypaper and Pt catalyst nanoparticles coated on its surface and to demonstrate fuel cell efficiency improvement and durability and cell cost reductions in the buckypaper based electrodes. Development of an Interdisciplinary Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Academic Program ? J. Politano, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL This project developed a hydrogen and fuel cel

Block, David L

2013-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

143

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

144

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

145

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

146

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide variety of important emergent technologies, including industrial catalysis, biomimetic transformations, and artificial photosynthesis. To address this problem, a research team from four national laboratories, three Department of Energy synchrotron user facilities, and the University of Washington has applied spectroscopic and computational analyses to a number of metal oxides, quantifying trends in metal oxo bonding for groups of metals across the periodic table.

147

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen Production Argonne researchers are studying thermochemical cycles to determine their potential...

148

Hydrogen Storage  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen storage technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains the different ways in which hydrogen can be stored, as well a

149

Hydrogen Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and renewable power. These...

150

Hydrogen Radialysis  

INL scientists have invented a process of forming chemical compositions, such as a hydrides which can provide a source of hydrogen. The process exposes the chemical composition decaying radio-nuclides which provide the energy to with a hydrogen source ...

151

Hydrogen Safety  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet, intended for a non-technical audience, explains the basic properties of hydrogen and provides an overview of issues related to the safe use of hydrogen as an energy carrier.

152

Hydrogen wishes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen Wishes, presented at MIT's Center for Advanced Visual Studies, explores the themes of wishes and peace. It dramatizes the intimacy and power of transforming one's breath and vocalized wishes into a floating sphere, a bubble charged with hydrogen. ...

Winslow Burleson; Paul Nemirovsky; Dan Overholt

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production DELIVERY FUEL CELLS STORAGE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY VALIDATION CODES & STANDARDS SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ANALYSES SAFETY EDUCATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT Economy...

154

Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Energy Storage: Materials, Systems and Applications: Hydrogen Storage Program Organizers: Zhenguo "Gary" Yang, Pacific Northwest...

155

Hydrogen Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applied Neutron Scattering in Engineering and Materials Science Research: Hydrogen Storage Sponsored by: Metallurgical Society of the Canadian Institute of...

156

Process Analysis Work for the DOE Hydrogen Program - 2001  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

was also examined as one that could supply hydrogen to a pipeline network. For the power production scenario, the hydrogen is co-fired in a turbine at a natural gas...

157

Bond Financing Program (New Hampshire)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

BFAs Bond Financing Program offers tax-exempt and taxable bonds for fixed-asset expansion projects. Industrial development revenue bonds can be used by manufacturers for the acquisition,...

158

Solid-State Bonding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 5   Surface preparations studied for diffusion bonding of beryllium...with 3 μm alumina and light oil ? Ultrasonic wash for 5 min in 3% Oakite NST aluminum-detergent-distilled

159

Hydrogen Storage by Polylithiated Molecules and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study polylithiated molecules as building blocks for hydrogen storage materials, using first-principles calculations. CLi4 and OLi2 bind 12 and 10 hydrogen molecules, respectively, with an average binding energy of 0.10 and 0.13 eV, leading to gravimetric densities of 37.8 and 40.3 weight % H. Bonding between Li and C or O is strongly polar and H2 molecules attach to the partially charged Li atoms without dissociating, which is favorable for (de)hydrogenation kinetics. CLin and OLim molecules can be chemically bonded to graphene sheets to hinder the aggregation of such molecules. In particular B or Be doped graphene strongly bind the molecules without seriously affecting the hydrogen binding energy. It still leads to a hydrogen storage capacity in the range 5-8.5 wt. % H.

Sleyman Er; Gilles A. De Wijs; Geert Brocks

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Hydrogenation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

Friedman, J.; Oberg, C.L.; Russell, L.H.

1981-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Renewable Energy Project Bond Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Project Bond Program Project Bond Program Renewable Energy Project Bond Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Bioenergy Commercial Heating & Cooling Manufacturing Buying & Making Electricity Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Water Solar Wind Program Info State Idaho Program Type State Bond Program Provider Idaho Energy Resources Authority Legislation enacted in Idaho in April 2005 ([http://legislature.idaho.gov/legislation/2005/S1192.html Senate Bill 1192]) allows independent (non-utility) developers of renewable energy projects in the state to request financing from the Idaho Energy Resources Authority, a state bonding authority created in March 2005 by the Environment, Energy and Technology Energy Resources Authority Act (House Bill 106). The authority was created to finance the construction of

162

Demonstrating Economic and Operational Viability of 72-Hour Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems to Support Emergency Communications on the Sprint Nextel Network - DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program FY 2012 Annual Progress Report Kevin Kenny Sprint Nextel 12000 Sunrise Valley Drive MS: VARESQ0401-E4064 Reston, VA 20191 Phone: (703) 592-8272 Email: kevin.p.kenny@sprint.com DOE Managers HQ: Sara Dillich Phone: (202) 586-7925 Email: Sara.Dillich@ee.doe.gov GO: James Alkire Phone: (720) 356-1426 Email: James.Alkire@go.doe.gov Contract Number: EE-0000486 Project Partners: * Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (Fuel Project Partner) * Altergy Systems, Folsum, CA (PEM Fuel Cell Project Partner) * Black & Veatch Corporation, Overland Park, KS (A&E

163

Hydrogen Optical Fiber Sensors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Optically-based hydrogen sensors promise to deliver an added level of safety as hydrogen and fuel cell technologies enter the mainstream. More importantly, they offer reduced power consumption and lower cost, which are desirable for mass production applications such as automobiles and consumer appliances. This program addressed two of the major challenges previously identified in porous optrode-based optical hydrogen sensors: sensitivity to moisture (ambient humidity), and interference from the oxygen in air. Polymer coatings to inhibit moisture and oxygen were developed in conjunction with newer and novel hydrogen sensing chemistries. The results showed that it is possible to achieve sensitive hydrogen detection and rapid response with minimal interference from oxygen and humidity. As a result of this work, a new and more exciting avenue of investigation was developed: the elimination of the porous optrode and deposition of the sensor chemistry directly into the polymer film. Initial results have been promising, and open up a wider range of potential applications from extended optical fiber sensing networks, to simple plastic "stickers" for use around the home and office.

Lieberman, Robert A.; Beshay, Manal; Cordero, Steven R.

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

164

Hydrogen Safety  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ASHRAE 62.1, 7 air changes per hour, 100 ... I, Division II, Group B: testing and research laboratory; ... Planning Guidance for Hydrogen Projects as a ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

165

Effect of temperature on layer separation by plasma-hydrogenation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have studied hydrogen diffusion in plasma hydrogenated Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure at different temperatures. At low temperature, intrinsic point defects in the molecular beam epitaxy grown Si capping layer are found to compete with the buried strain SiGe layer for hydrogen trapping. The interaction of hydrogen with point defects affects the hydrogen long-range diffusion, and restricts the amount of hydrogen available for trapping by the SiGe layer. However, hydrogen trapping by the capping layer is attenuated with increasing hydrogenation temperature allowing more hydrogen to be trapped in the strain SiGe layer with subsequent surface blister formation. A potential temperature window for plasma hydrogenation induced layer separation is identified based on the combined considerations of trap-limited diffusion at low temperature and outdiffusion of H{sub 2} molecule together with the dissociation of Si-H bonds inside of H platelet at high temperature.

Di, Zengfeng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michael, Nastasi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yongqiang [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Changes in hydrogen utilization with temperature during direct coal liquefaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A reliable means of monitoring the major pathways of hydrogen utilization, in contrast to only measuring net hydrogen comsumption, would be very useful for process optimization. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical approach for quantitatively distinguishing hydrogen consumed in hydrogenation from that utilized to stabilize thermolysis fragments. The approach outlined yields a rather detailed description of the net utilization of hydrogen during direct liquefaction, partitioning it into contributions from gas generation, heteroatom removal, hydrogenation, and matrix breakdown. Preliminary results indicate that internal hydrogen reorganization, with little consumption, predominates at low temperatures, with hydrogenation being compensated for by the hydrogen liberated in condensations. As the temperature is increased, bond cleavage reactions and aromatization reactions appear to become more important, and the net hydrogen consumption increases. (3 tables 1 figs., 11 refs.)

Finseth, D.H.; Bockrath, B.C.; Cillo, D.L.; Illig, E.G.; Sprecher, R.F., Retcofsky, H.L.; Lett, R.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Basics Renewable Energy Printable Version Share this resource Biomass Geothermal Hydrogen Hydrogen Fuel Fuel Cells Hydropower Ocean Solar Wind Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen...

168

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Hydrogen Sector List of Hydrogen Incentives Hydrogen Energy Data Book Retrieved from...

169

Photochemical tissue bonding  

SciTech Connect

Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

Redmond, Robert W. (Brookline, MA); Kochevar, Irene E. (Charlestown, MA)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

170

Hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

The production of hydrogen by reacting an ash containing material with water and at least one halogen selected from the group consisting of chlorine, bromine and iodine to form reaction products including carbon dioxide and a corresponding hydrogen halide is claimed. The hydrogen halide is decomposed to separately release the hydrogen and the halogen. The halogen is recovered for reaction with additional carbonaceous materials and water, and the hydrogen is recovered as a salable product. In a preferred embodiment the carbonaceous material, water and halogen are reacted at an elevated temperature. In accordance with another embodiment, a continuous method for the production of hydrogen is provided wherein the carbonaceous material, water and at least one selected halogen are reacted in one zone, and the hydrogen halide produced from the reaction is decomposed in a second zone, preferably by electrolytic decomposition, to release the hydrogen for recovery and the halogen for recycle to the first zone. There also is provided a method for recovering any halogen which reacts with or is retained in the ash constituents of the carbonaceous material.

Darnell, A.J.; Parkins, W.E.

1978-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

171

Hydrogen Bibliography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

Not Available

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis Several different approaches are being pursued to develop on-board hydrogen storage systems for light-duty vehicle applications. The different approaches have different characteristics, such as: the thermal energy and temperature of charge and discharge kinetics of the physical and chemical process steps involved requirements for the materials and energy interfaces between the storage system and the fuel supply system on one hand, and the fuel user on the other Other storage system design and operating parameters influence the projected system costs as well. Argonne researchers are developing thermodynamic, kinetic, and engineering models of the various hydrogen storage systems to understand the characteristics of storage systems based on these approaches and to evaluate their potential to meet the DOE targets for on-board applications. The DOE targets for 2015 include a system gravimetric capacity of 1.8 kWh/kg (5.5 wt%) and a system volumetric capacity of 1.3 kWh/L (40 g/L). We then use these models to identify significant component and performance issues, and evaluate alternative system configurations and design and operating parameters.

173

Opportunities in Bond Financing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Opportunities in Bond Financing Opportunities in Bond Financing James Dack Vice President Alternative Energy Finance Group Stern Brothers & Co. Seattle, WA 98101 Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, Colorado June 11-13, 2012 2 INTRODUCTION * Stern Brothers, founded in 1917 and headquartered in St. Louis, is an investment banking firm that is focused on project financing (taxable and tax-exempt) for renewable energy, real estate, higher education and healthcare. * Stern's Alternative Energy Finance Group structures and places tax- exempt and taxable debt, and provides financial advisory services for renewable energy projects in the U.S. * Waste-to-energy, second generation biofuels, biochemicals, biomass, solar, wind, landfill gas-to-energy, cogen, CHP, hydro,

174

Chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic formed by chemically reacting a monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and a sparsely soluble oxide, with a sparsely soluble silicate in an aqueous solution. The monovalent alkali metal phosphate (or ammonium hydrogen phosphate) and sparsely soluble oxide are both in powder form and combined in a stochiometric molar ratio range of (0.5-1.5):1 to form a binder powder. Similarly, the sparsely soluble silicate is also in powder form and mixed with the binder powder to form a mixture. Water is added to the mixture to form a slurry. The water comprises 50% by weight of the powder mixture in said slurry. The slurry is allowed to harden. The resulting chemically bonded phospho-silicate ceramic exhibits high flexural strength, high compression strength, low porosity and permeability to water, has a definable and bio-compatible chemical composition, and is readily and easily colored to almost any desired shade or hue.

Wagh, Arun S. (Orland Park, IL); Jeong, Seung Y. (Westmont, IL); Lohan, Dirk (Chicago, IL); Elizabeth, Anne (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Hydrogen: Helpful Links & Contacts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Helpful Links & Contacts. Helpful Links. Hydrogen Information, Website. ... Contacts for Commercial Hydrogen Measurement. ...

2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

176

IMPROVED BONDING METHOD  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved process of bonding aluminum to aluminum without fusion by ultrasonic vibrations plus pressure is described. The surfaces to be bonded are coated with an aqueous solution of alkali metal stearate prior to assembling for bonding. (AEC) O H19504 Present information is reviewed on steady state proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of blood cells in mammals. Data are cited from metabolic tracer studies, autoradiographic studies, cytologic studies, studies of hematopoietic response to radiation injuries, and computer analyses of blood cell production. A 3-step model for erythropoiesis and a model for granulocyte kinetics are presented. New approaches to the study of lymphocytopoiesis described include extracorporeal blood irradiation to deplete lymphocytic tissue without direct injury to the formative tissues as a means to study the stressed system, function control, and rates of proliferation. It is pointed out that present knowledge indicates that lymphocytes comprise a mixed family, with diverse life spans, functions, and migration patterns with apparent aimless recycling from modes to lymph to blood to nodes that has not yet been quantitated. Areas of future research are postulated. (70 references.) (C.H.)

Padgett, E.V. Jr.; Warf, D.H.

1964-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Illiquidity of Corporate Bonds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines the illiquidity of corporate bonds and its asset-pricing implications. Using transactions data from 2003 to 2009, we show that the illiquidity in corporate bonds is substantial, significantly greater ...

Bao, Jack

178

Hydrogen ICE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chevrolet Silverado 1500HD Hydrogen ICE 1 Conversion Vehicle Specifications Engine: 6.0 L V8 Fuel Capacity: 10.5 GGE Nominal Tank Pressure: 5,000 psi Seatbelt Positions: Five...

179

Hydrogen Production  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

180

Hydrogen local vibrational modes in semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Following, a review of experimental techniques, theory, and previous work, the results of local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy on hydrogen-related complexes in several different semiconductors are discussed. Hydrogen is introduced either by annealing in a hydrogen ambient. exposure to a hydrogen plasma, or during growth. The hydrogen passivates donors and acceptors in semiconductors, forming neutral complexes. When deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. the frequency of the LVM decreases by approximately the square root of two. By varying the temperature and pressure of the samples, the microscopic structures of hydrogen-related complexes are determined. For group II acceptor-hydrogen complexes in GaAs, InP, and GaP, hydrogen binds to the host anion in a bond-centered orientation, along the [111] direction, adjacent to the acceptor. The temperature dependent shift of the LVMs are proportional to the lattice thermal energy U(T), a consequence of anharmonic coupling between the LVM and acoustical phonons. In the wide band gap semiconductor ZnSe, epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) and doped with As form As-H complexes. The hydrogen assumes a bond-centered orientation, adjacent to a host Zn. In AlSb, the DX centers Se and Te are passivated by hydrogen. The second, third, and fourth harmonics of the wag modes are observed. Although the Se-D complex has only one stretch mode, the Se-H stretch mode splits into three peaks. The anomalous splitting is explained by a new interaction between the stretch LVM and multi-phonon modes of the lattice. As the temperature or pressure is varied, and anti-crossing is observed between LVM and phonon modes.

McCluskey, M.D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

sp2 Carbon-Hydrogen Bond (C-H) Functionalization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 (p-NMe 2 )PhPMe 2 [IrCl(cod)] 2 PCy 3 a 5 mol % ligand (1:RhCl(coe) 2 ] 2 and [RhCl(cod)] 2 precatalysts gave goodwe elected to use [RhCl(cod)] 2 for all subsequent studies

Yotphan, Sirilata

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Measurements for Hydrogen Storage Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements for Hydrogen Storage Materials. Summary: ... Hydrogen is promoted as petroleum replacement in the Hydrogen Economy. ...

2013-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

183

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE DIFFUSION BONDING OF TUNGSTEN TO TUNGSTEN UNDER PRESSURE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid state diffusion bonding of tungsten to tungsten was investigated at temperatures ranging from 1700 to 2600 nif- C, under surface contact pressures up to 3000 psi, while under high vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere. Various interface coatings were employed to promote diffusion, including graphite, oxide, and metai slurries, electro-plates, direct surface oxidation, and Mo-W deposits from carbonyl decompositions. Thorough metallurgical bonding was achieved, particularly with the latter two surface coatings, after 2 hours at 2350 nif- C in H/sub 2/ under 1400 psi. Corresponding tensile strengths of 30000 psi were obtained. (auth)

Batista, R.I.; Hanks, G.S.; Murphy, D.J.

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Storing Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers have been studying mesoporous materials for almost two decades with a view to using them as hosts for small molecules and scaffolds for molding organic compounds into new hybrid materials and nanoparticles. Their use as potential storage systems for large quantities of hydrogen has also been mooted. Such systems that might hold large quantities of hydrogen safely and in a very compact volume would have enormous potential for powering fuel cell vehicles, for instance. A sponge-like form of silicon dioxide, the stuff of sand particles and computer chips, can soak up and store other compounds including hydrogen. Studies carried out at the XOR/BESSRC 11-ID-B beamline at the APS have revealed that the nanoscopic properties of the hydrogenrich compound ammonia borane help it store hydrogen more efficiently than usual. The material may have potential for addressing the storage issues associated with a future hydrogen economy. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Kim, Hyun Jeong; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Chupas, Peter; Proffen, Thomas E.

2010-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Hydrogen Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A A H2A: Hydrogen Analysis Margaret K. Mann DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program Systems Analysis Workshop July 28-29, 2004 Washington, D.C. H2A Charter * H2A mission: Improve the transparency and consistency of approach to analysis, improve the understanding of the differences among analyses, and seek better validation from industry. * H2A was supported by the HFCIT Program H2A History * First H2A meeting February 2003 * Primary goal: bring consistency & transparency to hydrogen analysis * Current effort is not designed to pick winners - R&D portfolio analysis - Tool for providing R&D direction * Current stage: production & delivery analysis - consistent cost methodology & critical cost analyses * Possible subsequent stages: transition analysis, end-point

186

Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Post-deposition hydrogenation by remote plasma significantly improves performance of heteroepitaxial silicon solar cells. Heteroepitaxial deposition of thin crystal silicon on sapphire for photovoltaics (PV) is an excellent model system for the study and improvement of deposition on inexpensive Al2O3-coated (100) biaxially-textured metal foils. Without hydrogenation, PV conversion efficiencies are less than 1% on our model system. Performance is limited by carrier recombination at electrically active dislocations that result from lattice mismatch, and other defects. We find that low-temperature hydrogenation at 350 degrees C is more effective than hydrogenation at 610 degrees C. In this work, we use measurements such as spectral quantum efficiency, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and vibrational Si-H spectroscopies to understand the effects of hydrogenation on the materials and devices. Quantum efficiency increases most at red and green wavelengths, indicating hydrogenation is affecting the bulk more than the surface of the cells. SIMS shows there are 100X more hydrogen atoms in our cells than dangling bonds along dislocations. Yet, Raman spectroscopy indicates that only low temperature hydrogenation creates Si-H bonds; trapped hydrogen does not stably passivate dangling-bond recombination sites at high temperatures.

Bolen, M. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C. W.; Bobela, D.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production:...

188

Hydrogen Technologies Group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Technologies Group at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory advances the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center's mission by researching a variety of hydrogen technologies.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Hydrogen Transition Infrastructure Analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation for the 2005 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program review analyzes the hydrogen infrastructure needed to accommodate a transitional hydrogen fuel cell vehicle demand.

Melendez, M.; Milbrandt, A.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

The Transition to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Prospects for Building a Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure,and James S. Cannon. The Hydrogen Energy Transition: Movingof Energy, National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap, November 2002.

Ogden, Joan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Hydrogen SRNL Connection  

hydrogen storage. Why is Savannah River National Laboratory conducting hydrogen research and development? ... Both the Department of Energys hydrogen ...

192

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Contacts on...

193

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap...

194

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP . . Toward a More Secure and Cleaner Energy Future for America Based on the results of the National Hydrogen...

195

Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Objectives - Develop and verify: On-board hydrogen storage systems achieving: 1.5 kWhkg (4.5 wt%), 1.2 kWhL, and 6kWh by 2005 2 kWhkg (6 wt%), 1.5 kWhL, and 4kWh by...

199

Bond-valence methods for pKa prediction. II. Bond-valence, electrostatic, molecular geometry, and solvation effects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a previous contribution, we outlined a method for predicting (hydr)oxy-acid and oxide surface acidity constants based on three main factors: bond valence, Me?O bond ionicity, and molecular shape. Here electrostatics calculations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are used to qualitatively show that Me?O bond ionicity controls the extent to which the electrostatic work of proton removal departs from ideality, bond valence controls the extent of solvation of individual functional groups, and bond valence and molecular shape controls local dielectric response. These results are consistent with our model of acidity, but completely at odds with other methods of predicting acidity constants for use in multisite complexation models. In particular, our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of solvated monomers clearly indicate that hydrogen bonding between (hydr)oxo-groups and water molecules adjusts to obey the valence sum rule, rather than maintaining a fixed valence based on the coordination of the oxygen atom as predicted by the standard MUSIC model.

Bickmore, Barry R.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Tadanier, Christopher J.; Bylaska, Eric J.; Doud, Darrin

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

200

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Distributed Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

government interests, a variety of vendors, and numerous utilities. Keywords: Hydrogen production, natural gas, costs Purpose Assess progress toward the 2005 DOE Hydrogen...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Futures Simulation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

hydrogen scenarios will affect carbon and other environmental effluents and U.S. oil import requirements Outputs: Delivered hydrogen costs (cost per gallon of gas...

202

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Cost Analysis Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure Cost Analysis Project ID: 273 Principal Investigator: Marc Melaina...

203

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Infrastructure Market...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Analysis Project Summary Full Title: Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Analysis Project ID: 268 Principal Investigator: Marc Melaina...

204

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Electrolytic Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Principal Investigator Projects by Date U.S. Department of Energy Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Project Summary Full Title: Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production:...

205

Business Incentive Loans and Bonds (Georgia) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

You are here You are here Home » Business Incentive Loans and Bonds (Georgia) Business Incentive Loans and Bonds (Georgia) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Construction Developer Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Systems Integrator Transportation Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Maximum Rebate Unlimited but generally should not exceed 20% of the asset needs of the company's Gerogia location. Program Info State Georgia Program Type Bond Program Loan Program Provider Georgia Department of Community Affairs The Strategic Industries Loan Fund (SILF) is a program offered by the

206

ELEVATED TEMPERATURE DIFFUSION BONDING OF TUNGSTEN TO TUNGSTEN UNDER PRESSURE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid-state diffusion bonding of tungsten to tungsten was investigated at temperatures ranging from 1700 to 2600 nif- C, under surface contact pressures up to 3000 psi, while under high vacuum or hydrogen atmosphere. Various interface coatings were employed to promote diffusion, including graphite, oxide, metal slurries, electroplates, direct surface oxidation, and Mo - -W deposits from carbonyl decompositions. Thorough metallurgical bonding was achieved, particularly with the latter two surface coatings, after 2 hours at 2350 nif- C in H/sub 2/ under 1400 psi. Corresponding tensile strengths of 30,000 psi were obtained. Powder-compacted tungsten sheet containing 50 vo1% UO/sub 2/, spray-coated with an outer layer of tungsten, was effectively bonded to itself and to tungsten metal under 2 hour diffusion treatments at 2000 nif- C and moderate pressures of the order of 1000 psi. (auth)

Batista, R.I.; Hanks, G.S.; Murphy, D.J.

1962-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Hydrogen Technology Validation  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This fact sheet provides a basic introduction to the DOE Hydrogen National Hydrogen Learning Demonstration for non-technical audiences.

208

Hydrogen Analysis Group  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL factsheet that describes the general activites of the Hydrogen Analysis Group within NREL's Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

Not Available

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Process for manufacture of thick film hydrogen sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thick film process for producing hydrogen sensors capable of sensing down to a one percent concentration of hydrogen in carrier gasses such as argon, nitrogen, and air. The sensor is also suitable to detect hydrogen gas while immersed in transformer oil. The sensor includes a palladium resistance network thick film printed on a substrate, a portion of which network is coated with a protective hydrogen barrier. The process utilizes a sequence of printing of the requisite materials on a non-conductive substrate with firing temperatures at each step which are less than or equal to the temperature at the previous step.

Perdieu, Louisa H. (Overland Park, KS)

2000-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

210

Bond Programs | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Bond Programs Jump to: navigation, search Bonds allow governments (and corporations) to raise money by borrowing. A few states and local governments have established bond programs to support energy efficiency and renewable energy for government-owned facilities. After a government has raised an authorized sum of money through the sale of bonds, the money collected is used to improve energy efficiency or to install renewable energy systems on government facilities. The bonding authority is usually reimbursed using the energy savings resulting from these projects. [1]

211

Hydrogen Sensor Testing, Hydrogen Technologies (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Factsheet describing the hydrogen sensor testing laboratory at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

Not Available

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to maximize plant output is needed in order to address the DOE turbine goal for 20-30% reduction o

Joesph Fadok

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Nuclear Research Advanced Nuclear Research Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology FY 2003 Programmatic Overview Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Henderson/2003 Hydrogen Initiative.ppt 2 Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative Program Goal * Demonstrate the economic commercial-scale production of hydrogen using nuclear energy by 2015 Need for Nuclear Hydrogen * Hydrogen offers significant promise for reduced environmental impact of energy use, specifically in the transportation sector * The use of domestic energy sources to produce hydrogen reduces U.S. dependence on foreign oil and enhances national security * Existing hydrogen production methods are either inefficient or produce

214

Low-energy networks of the T-cage (H2O)(24) cluster and their use in constructing periodic unit cells of the structure I (sl) hydrate lattice  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrate networks are host lattices for the storage of guest natural gases. To enhance their physical stabilities near ambient conditions, the most stable clathrate hydrates should be identified. Here, we report the lowest energy networks of the tetrakaidecahedral cage (T-cage) (H2O)24 cluster, a constituent of the cubic unit cell of the structure I (sI) hydrate. A four-step screening method was employed to search for the lowest T-cage networks, which were eventually optimized at the MP2 level of theory. The obtained low-energy isomers can furthermore be used to obtain the low-energy hydrogen bonding networks of periodic structures of hydrates thus allowing for the realistic modeling of the accommodation of guest molecules in clathrate hydrates. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

Yoo, Soohaeng; Kirov, Mikhail V.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2009-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

215

Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen Sulfide Emission Factors Applicable to Wastewater Wet Wells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transport of wastewater in sewer networks causes potential problems associated with gases which include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and methane, in regard (more)

Mudragaddam, Madhuri

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately .pi.-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancilliary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H.sub.2 from mixed gas streams such as the produce gas from coal gasification processes.

Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Bridged transition-metal complexes and uses thereof for hydrogen separation, storage and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention constitutes a class of organometallic complexes which reversibly react with hydrogen to form dihydrides and processes by which these compounds can be utilized. The class includes bimetallic complexes in which two cyclopentadienyl rings are bridged together and also separately .pi.-bonded to two transition metal atoms. The transition metals are believed to bond with the hydrogen in forming the dihydride. Transition metals such as Fe, Mn or Co may be employed in the complexes although Cr constitutes the preferred metal. A multiple number of ancilliary ligands such as CO are bonded to the metal atoms in the complexes. Alkyl groups and the like may be substituted on the cyclopentadienyl rings. These organometallic compounds may be used in absorption/desorption systems and in facilitated transport membrane systems for storing and separating out H.sub.2 from mixed gas streams such as the product gas from coal gasification processes.

Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The Hydriding Kinetics of Organic Hydrogen Getters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The aging of hermetically sealed systems is often accompanied by the gradual production of hydrogen gas that is a result of the decay of environmental gases and the degradation of organic materials. In particular, the oxygen, water, hydrogen ''equilibrium'' is affected by the removal of oxygen due the oxidation of metals and organic materials. This shift of the above ''equilibrium'' towards the formation of hydrogen gas, particularly in crevices, may eventually reach an explosive level of hydrogen gas or degrade metals by hydriding them. The latter process is generally delayed until the oxidizing species are significantly reduced. Organic hydrogen getters introduced by Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division have proven to be a very effective means of preventing hydrogen gas accumulation in sealed containers. These getters are relatively unaffected by air and environmental gases. They can be packaged in a variety of ways to fit particular needs such as porous pellets, fine or coarse [gravel] powder, or loaded into silicone rubber. The hydrogen gettering reactions are extremely irreversible since the hydrogen gas is converted into an organic hydrocarbon. These getters are based on the palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to double and then single bonds in aromatic aryl compounds. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) typically mixed with 25% by weight carbon with palladium (1% by weight of carbon) is one of the newest and best of these organic hydrogen getters. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reaction with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates, including mixed alkyl and aryl hydrocarbons with the possibilities of many isomers. The reaction kinetics mechanisms are also strongly influenced by the form in which they are packaged. For example, the hydriding rates for pellets and gravel have a strong dependence on reaction extent (i.e., DEB reduction) and a kinetic order in pressure of 0.76. Silicone rubber based DEB getters hydride at a much lower rate, have little dependence on reaction extent, have a higher kinetic order in pressure (0.87), and have a lower activation energy. The kinetics of the reaction as a function of hydrogen pressure, stoichiometry, and temperature for hydrogen and deuterium near ambient temperature (0 to 75 C) for pressures near or below 100 Pa over a wide range (in some cases, the complete) hydrogenation range are presented along with multi-dimensional rate models.

Powell, G. L.

2002-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

219

Communication protocols, queuing and scheduling delay analysis in CANDU SCWR hydrogen co-generation model.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Industrial dynamical, Networked Control Systems (NCSs) are controlled over a communication network. We study a continuous-time CANada Deuterium Uranium-Super Critical Water Reactor (CANDU-SCWR) hydrogen plant (more)

Ahmed, Fayyaz

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Golden Sections of Interatomic Distances as Exact Ionic Radii and Additivity of Atomic and Ionic Radii in Chemical Bonds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Golden ratio which appears in the geometry of a variety of creations in Nature is found to arise right in the Bohr radius of the hydrogen atom due to the opposite charges of the electron and proton. The bond length of the hydrogen molecule is the diagonal of a square on the Bohr radius and hence also has two Golden sections, which form the cationic and anionic radii of hydrogen. It is shown here that these radii account for the bond lengths of many hydrides when added to the atomic and Golden ratio based ionic radii of many other atoms.

Raji Heyrovska

2009-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Method for vacuum fusion bonding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Fusion bonding and alignment fixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Search help Home > Hydrogen Storage Printable Version Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power...

224

FCT Hydrogen Storage: The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project' to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: The 'National Hydrogen Storage Project' on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: The...

225

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

226

Introduction to hydrogen energy  

SciTech Connect

The book comprises the following papers: primary energy sources suitable for hydrogen production, thermochemical and electrolytic production of hydrogen from water, hydrogen storage and transmission methods, hydrogen-oxygen utilization devices, residential and industrial utilization of energy, industrial utilization of hydrogen, use of hydrogen as a fuel for transportation, an assessment of hydrogen-fueled navy ships, mechanisms and strategies of market penetration for hydrogen, and fossil/hydrogen energy mix and population control. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). (LK)

Veziroglu, T.N. (ed.)

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Digital Bond Fact Sheet.cdr  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cost-shared effort between industry and cost-shared effort between industry and Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit Cyber Security Audit and Attack Detection Toolkit Bandolier Audit Files for optimizing security configurations and the Portaledge event detection capability for energy control systems Bandolier Audit Files for optimizing security configurations and the Portaledge event detection capability for energy control systems Cyber Security for Energy Delivery Systems Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability Project Lead: Digital Bond Partners: OSIsoft Tenable Network Security PacifiCorp Tennessee Valley Authority Other Participating Vendors: ABB AREVA Emerson Matrikon SNC Telvent Bandolier and Portaledge The Concept Bandolier-The Approach By building configuration audit and attack detection capabilities into tools already

228

DOE Science Showcase - Hydrogen Production | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Research in DOE Databases Energy Citations Database Information Bridge Science.gov WorldWideScience.org More information Making molecular hydrogen more efficiently Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Hydrogen and Our Energy Future Fuel Cell Animation Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Increase your Hydrogen IQ Visit the Science Showcase homepage. OSTI Homepage Mobile Gallery Subscribe to RSS OSTI Blog Get Widgets Get Alert Services OSTI Facebook OSTI Twitter OSTI Google+ Bookmark and Share (Link will open in a new window) Go to Videos Loading... Stop news scroll Most Visited Adopt-A-Doc DOE Data Explorer DOE Green Energy DOepatents DOE R&D Accomplishments .EDUconnections Energy Science and Technology Software Center E-print Network

229

Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

Yang, Ralph T. (Tonawanda, NY); Smol, Robert (East Patchogue, NY); Farber, Gerald (Elmont, NY); Naphtali, Leonard M. (Washington, DC)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Bond Pricing with Default Risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Bond Issuers Data Range Exxon ARCO Eli Lilly IBM Fordfrom GMM Estimation X Exxon ARCO Eli Lilly IBM FordFord RJR Eli Lilly ARCO UAL Exxon Safeway This table reports

Hsu, Jason C.; Saa-Requejo, Jesus; Santa-Clara, Pedro

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Molecular Bond: EMSL's bimonthly newsletter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Email not displaying correctly? View it on the website. The Molecular Bond newsletter banner December 2013 Allison A. Campbell, EMSL Director I'm pleased to share with you the...

232

Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The ''Energy Improvement and Extension Act of 2008'', enacted in October 2008, authorized the issuance of Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) that may be used by state, local and tribal...

233

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage in Carbon Nanotubes Through Formation of C-H Bonds Print Two of the major challenges for humanity in the next 20 years are the shrinking availability of fossil...

234

FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Basics on AddThis.com... Home Basics Central Versus Distributed Production Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Basics Photo of hydrogen production in photobioreactor Hydrogen, chemical symbol "H", is the simplest element on earth. An atom of hydrogen has only one proton and one electron. Hydrogen gas is a diatomic

235

Energy Basics: Hydrogen Fuel  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Hydrogen Fuel Hydrogen is a clean fuel that, when consumed, produces only water. Hydrogen can be produced from a variety of domestic sources, such as coal,...

236

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen...

237

Solar Hydrogen Conversion Background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Hydrogen Conversion Background: The photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen has drawn properties In order to develop better materials for solar energy applications, in-depth photoelectrochemical simulated solar irradiance. Hydrogen production experiments are conducted in a sealed aluminum cell

Raftery, Dan

238

The Hype About Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review: The Hype About Hydrogen By Joseph J. Romm ReviewedJ. Romm. The Hype About Hydrogen. Washington, DC: IslandEmissions. The Hype About Hydrogen describes in detail what

Mirza, Umar Karim

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Basics on Google...

240

Reliability of Copper Wire Bonding on Copper Substrate with Tin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suitable bonding conditions, Tin thickness, stage temperature, wire bonding power and bonding time are chosen through wire bonding tests. Peel strength of a...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Hydrogen (H2)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen (H2) Hydrogen (H2) Historical Records from Ice Cores Deuterium Record from Dome C, Antarctica Continuous Measurements Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE,...

242

Hydrogen Program Overview  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to the DOE Hydrogen Program. It describes the program mission and answers the question: Why Hydrogen?

243

Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Hydrogen and Infrastructure Costs Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop Washington D.C. February 17, 2011 Fred Joseck U.S. Department of...

244

Overview of Two Hydrogen Energy Storage Studies: Wind Hydrogen in California and Blending in Natural Gas Pipelines (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of two NREL energy storage studies: Wind Hydrogen in California: Case Study and Blending Hydrogen Into Natural Gas Pipeline Networks: A Review of Key Issues. The presentation summarizes key issues, major model input assumptions, and results.

Melaina, M. W.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- Materials Solutions for Hydrogen Delivery in Pipelines - Natural Gas Pipelines for Hydrogen Use #12;3 OAK embrittlement of pipeline steels under high gaseous pressures relevant to hydrogen gas transmission pipeline behavior as function of pressure and temperature - Effects of steel composition, microstructure

246

www.hydrogenics.com Hydrogenics Corporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

integration capabilities · Control and load profile software Hydrogen Energy Storage and Power Systems · Off Power ...Powering Change #12;www.hydrogenics.com Hydrogenics Profile Designer and manufacturer-grid renewable power · On-grid community or residential power · Grid incentives for load control · Renewable

247

Bayesian networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

g causal independence in Bayesian network inference. Journalworld ap- plications of Bayesian networks. Communications ofJensen. An Introduction to Bayesian Networks. Springer, New

Judea Pearl

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Hydrogen Delivery R&D Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Delivery R&D Activities to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Hydrogen Delivery R&D Activities on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Hydrogen Delivery...

249

Hydrogen Pipeline Discussion  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

praxair.com praxair.com Copyright © 2003, Praxair Technology, Inc. All rights reserved. Hydrogen Pipeline Discussion BY Robert Zawierucha, Kang Xu and Gary Koeppel PRAXAIR TECHNOLOGY CENTER TONAWANDA, NEW YORK DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Workshop Augusta, GA August 2005 2 Introduction Regulatory and technical groups that impact hydrogen and hydrogen systems ASME, DOE, DOT etc, Compressed Gas Association activities ASTM TG G1.06.08 Hydrogen pipelines and CGA-5.6 Selected experience and guidance Summary and recommendations 3 CGA Publications Pertinent to Hydrogen G-5: Hydrogen G-5.3: Commodity Specification for Hydrogen G-5.4: Standard for Hydrogen Piping at Consumer Locations G-5.5: Hydrogen Vent Systems G-5.6: Hydrogen Pipeline Systems (IGC Doc 121/04/E) G-5.7: Carbon Monoxide and Syngas

250

Hydrogen | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

<-- Back to Hydrogen Gateway <-- Back to Hydrogen Gateway Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials KIA FCEV SUNRISE MG 7955 6 7.jpg Guidance on materials selection for hydrogen service is needed to support the deployment of hydrogen as a fuel as well as the development of codes and standards for stationary hydrogen use, hydrogen vehicles, refueling stations, and hydrogen transportation. Materials property measurement is needed on deformation, fracture and fatigue of metals in environments relevant to this hydrogen economy infrastructure. The identification of hydrogen-affected material properties such as strength, fracture resistance and fatigue resistance are high priorities to ensure the safe design of load-bearing structures. To support the needs of the hydrogen community, Sandia National

251

Renewable energy liberation by nonthermal intermolecular bond dissociation in water and ethanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior indication that renewable energy can be extracted from hydrogen bonds in water has led to several investigations of the energy balance when bulk liquid is converted into micron scale droplets by directional (nonthermal) forces. The demonstration of this effect has previously involved pulsed high current arcs in water which produce large electrodynamic forces. Here

N. Graneau; S. Verdoold; G. Oudakker; C. U. Yurteri; J. C. M. Marijnissen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Improved Hydrogen Gas Getters for TRU Waste -- Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage containers. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission limits the flammable gas (hydrogen) concentration in the Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) containers to 5 vol% of hydrogen in air, which is the lower explosion limit. Consequently, a method is needed to prevent the build up of hydrogen to 5 vol% during the storage and transport of the TRUPACT-II containers (up to 60 days). One promising option is the use of hydrogen getters. These materials scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and irreversibly bind it in the solid phase. One proven getter is a material called 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl) benzene, or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds. Carbon may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. In the presence of oxygen, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB has the needed binding rate and capacity for hydrogen that potentially could be generated in the TRUPACT II. Phases 1 and 2 of this project showed that uncoated DEB performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests. Based upon these results, Phase 3, the final project phase, included larger scale testing. Test vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were run with an atmosphere of air for 63.9 days at ambient temperature (15-27C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60E-07 moles per second (0.35 cc/min). A second type of getter known as VEI, a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds, was also tested in Phase 3. Hydrogen was successfully gettered by both getter systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in air) for the duration of the tests. However, catalytic reaction of hydrogen with carbon triple or double bonds in the getter materials did not take place. Instead, catalytic recombination was the predominant gettering mechanism in both getter materials as evidenced by (1) consumption of oxygen in the belljars, (2) production of free water in the belljars, and (3) absence of chemical changes in both getter materials as shown by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.

Mark Stone; Michael Benson; Christopher Orme; Thomas Luther; Eric Peterson

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Final Report: Metal Perhydrides for Hydrogen Storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen is a promising energy source for the future economy due to its environmental friendliness. One of the important obstacles for the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source for applications such as fuel cells is the storage of hydrogen. In the infrastructure of the expected hydrogen economy, hydrogen storage is one of the key enabling technologies. Although hydrogen possesses the highest gravimetric energy content (142 KJ/g) of all fuels, its volumetric energy density (8 MJ/L) is very low. It is desired to increase the volumetric energy density of hydrogen in a system to satisfy various applications. Research on hydrogen storage has been pursed for many years. Various storage technologies, including liquefaction, compression, metal hydride, chemical hydride, and adsorption, have been examined. Liquefaction and high pressure compression are not desired due to concerns related to complicated devices, high energy cost and safety. Metal hydrides and chemical hydrides have high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities but encounter issues because high temperature is required for the release of hydrogen, due to the strong bonding of hydrogen in the compounds. Reversibility of hydrogen loading and unloading is another concern. Adsorption of hydrogen on high surface area sorbents such as activated carbon and organic metal frameworks does not have the reversibility problem. But on the other hand, the weak force (primarily the van der Waals force) between hydrogen and the sorbent yields a very small amount of adsorption capacity at ambient temperature. Significant storage capacity can only be achieved at low temperatures such as 77K. The use of liquid nitrogen in a hydrogen storage system is not practical. Perhydrides are proposed as novel hydrogen storage materials that may overcome barriers slowing advances to a hydrogen fuel economy. In conventional hydrides, e.g. metal hydrides, the number of hydrogen atoms equals the total valence of the metal ions. One LiH molecule contains one hydrogen atom because the valence of a Li ion is +1. One MgH2 molecule contains two hydrogen atoms because the valence of a Mg ion is +2. In metal perhydrides, a molecule could contain more hydrogen atoms than expected based on the metal valance, i.e. LiH1+n and MgH2+n (n is equal to or greater than 1). When n is sufficiently high, there will be plenty of hydrogen storage capacity to meet future requirements. The existence of hydrogen clusters, Hn+ (n = 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15) and transition metal ion-hydrogen clusters, M+(H2)n (n = 1-6), such as Sc(H2)n+, Co(H2)n+, etc., have assisted the development of this concept. Clusters are not stable species. However, their existence stimulates our approach on using electric charges to enhance the hydrogen adsorption in a hydrogen storage system in this study. The experimental and modeling work to verify it are reported here. Experimental work included the generation of cold hydrogen plasma through a microwave approach, synthesis of sorbent materials, design and construction of lab devices, and the determination of hydrogen adsorption capacities on various sorbent materials under various electric field potentials and various temperatures. The results consistently show that electric potential enhances the adsorption of hydrogen on sorbents. NiO, MgO, activated carbon, MOF, and MOF and platinum coated activated carbon are some of the materials studied. Enhancements up to a few hundred percents have been found. In general, the enhancement increases with the electrical potential, the pressure applied, and the temperature lowered. Theoretical modeling of the hydrogen adsorption on the sorbents under the electric potential has been investigated with the density functional theory (DFT) approach. It was found that the interaction energy between hydrogen and sorbent is increased remarkably when an electric field is applied. This increase of binding energy offers a potential solution for DOE when looking for a compromise between chemisorption and physisorption for hydrogen storage. Bonding of chemisorption is too

Hwang, J-Y.; Shi, S.; Hackney, S.; Swenson, D.; Hu, Y.

2011-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

254

DOE Permitting Hydrogen Facilities: Hydrogen Fueling Stations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stations Stations Public-use hydrogen fueling stations are very much like gasoline ones. In fact, sometimes, hydrogen and gasoline cars can be fueled at the same station. These stations offer self-service pumps, convenience stores, and other services in high-traffic locations. Photo of a Shell fueling station showing the site convenience store and hydrogen and gasoline fuel pumps. This fueling station in Washington, D.C., provides drivers with both hydrogen and gasoline fuels Many future hydrogen fueling stations will be expansions of existing fueling stations. These facilities will offer hydrogen pumps in addition to gasoline or natural gas pumps. Other hydrogen fueling stations will be "standalone" operations. These stations will be designed and constructed to

255

Initiators of coal hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The initiators examined include cyclic and linear silico-organic compounds, the effects of which on the hydrogenation process are studied. The substances not only localize the active radicals before these are stabilised by hydrogen, but actually activate the destruction reaction of the coal substance and in this way generate atomic hydrogen: radical polymerization inhibitors thus convert to activators and hydrogen transfer. (8 refs.)

Krichko, A.A.; Dembovskaya, E.A.; Gorlov, E.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Facilities/Staff Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermophysical Properties of Hydrogen. FACILITIES and STAFF. The Thermophysical Properties Division is the Nation's ...

257

Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Program Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  | HydrOgEn & Our EnErgy FuturE U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program www.hydrogen.energy.gov u.S. department of Energy |  www.hydrogen.energy.gov Hydrogen & Our Energy Future Contents Introduction ................................................... p.1 Hydrogen - An Overview ................................... p.3 Production ..................................................... p.5 Delivery ....................................................... p.15 Storage ........................................................ p.19 Application and Use ........................................ p.25 Safety, Codes and Standards ............................... p.33

258

The role of hydrogen in the hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis of aniline on the nickel single crystal surfaces: Its implication on the mechanisms of HDN reactions  

SciTech Connect

The selectivity of hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis reactions for organonitrogen compounds on transition metal surfaces depends heavily on the availability of surface hydrogen surface under reaction conditions. The surface hydrogen produced during dehydrogenation of adsorbed aniline upon thermal activation does not significantly modify hydrogenolysis reactions because it desorbs below the reaction temperatures. A series of experiments which use external hydrogen to control the concentration of surface hydrogen at reaction temperatures are reported here. In situ kinetic measurements in the presence of reactive hydrogen environments have been used to probe the details of the adsorbed species and reaction mechanisms. Nickel single crystals have been used as well defined model catalysts for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) reactions. Previously, the effect of external hydrogen on aniline hydrogenolysis on the Pt(111) surface has been reported. On Pt(111), C-N bond activation is substantially enhanced in the presence of hydrogen. The increased C-N bond cleavage is facilitated by hydrogen which maintains a parallel adsorption of the aromatic derivative of aniline. In the absence of surface hydrogen, the adsorbed intermediate tilts away from surface because of partial dehydrogenation with increasing temperature at about 400 K. This paper will discuss a recent study of aniline reactions on the Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces both in the presence and absence of hydrogen. Reactivity comparisons will also be made for these two nickel surfaces towards adsorbed aniline.

Huang, S.X.; Gland, J.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Fischer, D.A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Composition for absorbing hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen absorbing composition is described. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

Heung, L.K.; Wicks, G.G.; Enz, G.L.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

260

Composition for absorbing hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen absorbing composition. The composition comprises a porous glass matrix, made by a sol-gel process, having a hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed throughout the matrix. A sol, made from tetraethyl orthosilicate, is mixed with a hydrogen-absorbing material and solidified to form a porous glass matrix with the hydrogen-absorbing material dispersed uniformly throughout the matrix. The glass matrix has pores large enough to allow gases having hydrogen to pass through the matrix, yet small enough to hold the particles dispersed within the matrix so that the hydrogen-absorbing particles are not released during repeated hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles.

Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC); Wicks, George G. (Aiken, SC); Enz, Glenn L. (N. Augusta, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Predictive models for emission of hydrogen powered car using various artificial intelligent tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the use of artificial intelligent models as virtual sensors to predict relevant emissions such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen for a hydrogen powered car. The virtual sensors are ... Keywords: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, Artificial intelligent techniques, Back-propagation neural networks with LevenbergMarquardt algorithm, Hydrogen emission prediction, Hydrogen powered car, UTAS artificial neural networks

Vishy Karri; Tien Nhut Ho

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Effect of hydrogen on ground state structures of small silicon clusters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present results for ground state structures of small SinH (2?n ?10) clusters using the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics. In particular, we focus on how the addition of a hydrogen atom affects the ground state geometry, total energy and the first excited electronic level gap of an Sin cluster. We discuss the nature of bonding of hydrogen in these clusters. We find that hydrogen bonds with two silicon atoms only in Si2H, Si3H and Si5H clusters, while in other clusters (i.e. Si4H, Si6H, Si7H, Si8H, Si9H and Si10H) hydrogen is bonded to only one silicon atom. Also in the case of a compact and closed silicon cluster hydrogen bonds to the cluster from outside. We find that the first excited electronic level gap of Sin and SinH fluctuates as a function of size and this may provide a first principles basis for the short-range potential fluctuations in hydrogenated amorphous silicon. Our results show that the addition of a single hydrogen can cause large changes in the electronic structure of a silicon cluster, though the geometry is not much affected. Our calculation of the lowest energy fragmentation products of SinH clusters shows that hydrogen is easily removed from SinH clusters. PACS numbers: 71.15.Pd, 73.22.-f, 61.46.+w2 I

D. Balamurugan; R. Prasad

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Non-bonded ultrasonic transducer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A mechanically assembled non-bonded ultrasonic transducer includes a substrate, a piezoelectric film, a wetting agent, a thin metal electrode, and a lens held in intimate contact by a mechanical clamp. No epoxy or glue is used in the assembly of this device.

Eoff, J.M.

1984-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

264

Hydrogen catalysis and scavenging action of Pd-POSS nanoparticles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prompted by the need for a self-supported, chemically stable, and functionally flexible catalytic nanoparticle system, we explore a system involving Pd clusters coated with a monolayer of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) cages. With an initial theoretical focus on hydrogen catalysis and sequestration in the Pd-POSS system, we report Density Functional Theory (DFT) results on POSS binding energies to the Pd(110) surface, hydrogen storing ability of POSS, and possible pathways of hydrogen radicals from the catalyst surface to unsaturated bonds away from the surface.

Maiti, A; Gee, R H; Maxwell, R; Saab, A

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Hydrogen Storage R&D Activities on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology DOE R&D Activities National Hydrogen Storage Compressed/Liquid Hydrogen Tanks Testing and Analysis Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards

266

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: 2008 Annual Progress Report -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Education Education Printable Version 2008 Annual Progress Report IX. Education This section of the 2008 Progress Report for the DOE Hydrogen Program focuses on education. Each technical report is available as an individual Adobe Acrobat PDF. Download Adobe Reader. Education Sub-Program Overview, Christy Cooper, U.S. Department of Energy (PDF 181 KB) Hydrogen Knowledge and Opinions Assessment, Rick Schmoyer, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (PDF 257 KB) Hydrogen Safety: First Responder Education, Marylynn Placet, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PDF 270 KB) Hydrogen Education for Code Officials, Melanie Caton, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (PDF 261 KB) Increasing "H2IQ": A Public Information Program , Henry Gentenaar, The Media Network (PDF 70 KB)

267

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Modeling Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling Projects Modeling Projects Below are models grouped by topic. These models are used to analyze hydrogen technology, infrastructure, and other areas related to the development and use of hydrogen. Cross-Cutting Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER_CAM) Hydrogen Deployment System (HyDS) Model and Analysis Hydrogen Technology Assessment and Selection Model (HyTASM) Renewable Energy Power System Modular Simulator (RPM-Sim) Stranded Biogas Decision Tool for Fuel Cell Co-Production Energy Infrastructure All Modular Industry Growth Assessment (AMIGA) Model Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER_CAM) Hydrogen Deployment System (HyDS) Model and Analysis Hydrogen Technology Assessment and Selection Model (HyTASM)

268

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Manufacturing Fuel Cells Applications/Technology Validation Safety Codes and Standards Education Basic Research Systems Analysis Analysis Repository H2A Analysis Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center Scenario Analysis Well-to-Wheels Analysis Systems Integration U.S. Department of Energy Search help Home > Systems Analysis > Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center Printable Version Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center The Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center provides consistent and transparent data that can serve as the basis for hydrogen-related calculations, modeling, and other analytical activities. This new site features the Hydrogen Data Book with data pertinent to hydrogen infrastructure analysis; links to external databases related to

269

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Production from Renewables...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at the 1998 DOE Hydrogen Program Review. Keywords: Technoeconomic analysis; hydrogen production; costs; hydrogen storage; renewable Purpose To determine technical and economic...

270

Hydrogen Program Contacts; DOE Hydrogen Program FY 2008 Annual...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 FY 2008 Annual Progress Report DOE Hydrogen Program JoAnn Milliken, DOE Hydrogen Program Manager and Chief Engineer Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies...

271

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Distributed Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Projects by Date U.S. Department of Energy Distributed Hydrogen Production via Steam Methane Reforming Project Summary Full Title: Well-to-Wheels Case Study: Distributed...

272

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Centralized Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biomass feedstock price Units: million Btu Supporting Information: LHV Description: Electricity price Units: kWh Description: Hydrogen fill pressure Units: psi Description:...

273

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Analysis Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles Biofuels in Light-Duty Vehicles Biogas Resources Characterization Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Power...

274

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Deployment System...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

routine to determine the layout of a least-cost infrastructure. Keywords: Hydrogen production; electrolysis; costs; fuel cells Purpose Initially, electrolytic H2 production...

275

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Infrastructure Costs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrastructure Costs Project Summary Full Title: Fuel Choice for Fuel Cell Vehicles: Hydrogen Infrastructure Costs Previous Title(s): Guidance for Transportation Technologies: Fuel...

276

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Technology Assessment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of hydrogen fueling systems for transportation: An application of perspective-based scenario analysis using the analytic hierarchy process Project ID: 121 Principal...

277

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Centralized Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Gasification with Sequestration Project Summary Full Title: Well-to-Wheels Case Study: Centralized Hydrogen Production from Coal Gasification with Sequestration Project ID:...

278

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Pathways Analysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- 2020 ProductsDeliverables Description: FY 2012 Progress Report Publication Title: FY 2012 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Progress Report ArticleAbstract Title: Effects of...

279

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Transition Analysis...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Period of Performance Start: June 2005 End: May 2008 Project Description Type of Project: Model Category: Hydrogen Fuel Pathways Objectives: Use agent-based modeling to provide...

280

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Vehicle Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

risks of hydrogen with those of more common motor vehicle fuels including gasoline, propane, and natural gas. ProductsDeliverables Description: Report Publication Title:...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Passenger Vehicle...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

estimated the cost of both gasoline and methanol onboard fuel processors, as well as the cost of stationary hydrogen fueling system components including steam methane reformers,...

282

Hydrogen in semiconductors and insulators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the electronic level of hydrogen (thick red bar) was notdescribing the behavior of hydrogen atoms as impuritiesenergy of interstitial hydrogen as a function of Fermi level

Van de Walle, Chris G.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen with compressed natural gas before dispensing theindustry. Both compressed natural gas, CNG, and hydrogen arenatural gas reformers or water electrolysers. The hydrogen must be compressed

Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

State Bond Program | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bonds allow governments (and corporations) to raise money by borrowing. A Bonds allow governments (and corporations) to raise money by borrowing. A few states and local governments have established bond programs to support energy efficiency and renewable energy for government-owned facilities. After a government has raised an authorized sum of money through the sale of bonds, the money collected is used to improve energy efficiency or to install renewable energy systems on government facilities. The bonding authority is usually reimbursed using the energy savings resulting from these projects. [1] State Bond Program Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 7) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Bond Program (New Mexico) State Bond Program New Mexico Schools

286

Secondary Market Taxable Bond Program (Maine)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Secondary Market Taxable Bond Program provides tax-exempt interest rate bond financing for real estate and machinery and equipment acquisitions. Up to 90% of the project debt may be financed,...

287

Modeling TLP Bonding in Multicomponent Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... prior to bonding as well as the application of large loads during bonding. .... The profile given in equation (1) is thus appropriate for each of the solutes in the ...

288

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bond Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New Mexico's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bonding Act, which became law in April 2005, authorizes up to $20 million in bonds to finance energy efficiency and renewable energy improvements...

289

Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Storage Technology: Fundamental Research for Optimization of Hydrogen Storage and Utilization  

SciTech Connect

Design and development of improved low-cost hydrogen fuel cell catalytic materials and high-capacity hydrogenn storage media are paramount to enabling the hydrogen economy. Presently, effective and durable catalysts are mostly precious metals in pure or alloyed form and their high cost inhibits fuel cell applications. Similarly, materials that meet on-board hydrogen storage targets within total mass and volumetric constraints are yet to be found. Both hydrogen storage performance and cost-effective fuel cell designs are intimately linked to the electronic structure, morphology and cost of the chosen materials. The FCAST Project combined theoretical and experimental studies of electronic structure, chemical bonding, and hydrogen adsorption/desorption characteristics of a number of different nanomaterials and metal clusters to develop better fundamental understanding of hydrogen storage in solid state matrices. Additional experimental studies quantified the hydrogen storage properties of synthesized polyaniline(PANI)/Pd composites. Such conducting polymers are especially interesting because of their high intrinsic electron density and the ability to dope the materials with protons, anions, and metal species. Earlier work produced contradictory results: one study reported 7% to 8% hydrogen uptake while a second study reported zero hydrogen uptake. Cost and durability of fuel cell systems are crucial factors in their affordability. Limits on operating temperature, loss of catalytic reactivity and degradation of proton exchange membranes are factors that affect system durability and contribute to operational costs. More cost effective fuel cell components were sought through studies of the physical and chemical nature of catalyst performance, characterization of oxidation and reduction processes on system surfaces. Additional development effort resulted in a new hydrocarbon-based high-performance sulfonated proton exchange membrane (PEM) that can be manufactured at low cost and accompanied by improved mechanical and thermal stability.

Perret, Bob; Heske, Clemens; Nadavalath, Balakrishnan; Cornelius, Andrew; Hatchett, David; Bae, Chusung; Pang, Tao; Kim, Eunja; Hemmers, Oliver

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

290

FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production R&D Hydrogen Production R&D Activities to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production R&D Activities on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts

291

Diffusion bonding of Stratapax for drill bits  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process has been developed for the diffusion bonding of General Electric's Stratapax drill blanks to support studs for cutter assemblies in drill bits. The diffusion bonding process is described and bond strength test data are provided for a variety of materials. The extensive process details, provided in the Appendices, should be sufficient to enable others to successfully build diffusion-bonded drill bit cutter assemblies.

Middleton, J.N.; Finger, J.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Fabrication and testing of TAA bonded carbon electrodes. Final report, March 1978 - May 1979  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to evaluate metallated dihydrodibenzo tetraazannulene (TAA) as a primary fuel-cell cathode catalyst where the TAA is covalently bonded to the conductive cathode matrix. Under the program, cobalt TAA was demonstrated to be an active oxygen dissolution reaction catalyst; bonded cobalt TAA was also demonstrated to be stable in a primary fuel cell with performance data obtained for a one month full cell test. Details of some of the key results and achievements are presented. Cobalt TAA bonded to Vulcan XC-72 was shown to be stable in 150/sup 0/C concentrated phosphoric acid for periods of over one month. Cathodes fabricated from cobalt TAA bonded to Vulcan XC-72 were tested in primary fuel cells: preliminary tests showed that bonded-CoTAA has activity similar to platinum on a per weight metal basis; performance of 100 mA/cm/sup 2/ at 650 to 700 mV vs hydrogen was obtained at 110/sup 0/C with oxygen. Bonded-CoTAA catalyzed cathodes were tested in primary fuel cells for periods of up to one month and shown to provide stable performance at 110 to 130/sup 0/C. Bonding of TAA was shown to improve its catalytic performance.

Walsh, F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BP and Hydrogen Pipelines BP and Hydrogen Pipelines DOE Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop August 30-31, 2005 Gary P. Yoho, P.E. i l i * Green corporate philosophy and senior management commitment * Reduced greenhouse gas emissions nine years ahead of target * Alternatives to oil are a big part of BP' including natural gas, LNG, solar and hydrogen * Hydrogen Bus Project won Australia' prestigious environmental award * UK partnership opened the first hydrogen demonstration refueling station * Two hydrogen pipelines in Houston area BP Env ronmenta Comm tment s portfolio, s most BP' * li l " li i i * i l pl i i * Li l li l * " i i l i 2 i i ll i i l pl ifi i * 8" ly idl i i l s Hydrogen Pipelines Two nes, on y a brand new 12 ne s act ve Connect Houston area chem ca ant w th a ref nery nes come off a p

294

President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

commercialization decision in 2015 leads to beginning of mass-produced hydrogen fuel cell cars by 2020. FY2006 Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Budget Request 13% 28% 12% 15% 22% 3% 6% 1%...

295

Hydrogen Posture Plan  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

The Hydrogen Posture Plan, published in December 2006, outlines a coordinated plan for activities under the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative, both at the Department of Energy and the Department of Transportat

296

Hydrogen & Our Energy Future  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Hydrogen & Our Energy Future (40 pages) expands on DOE's series of one-page fact sheets to provide an in-depth look at hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. It provides additional information on the sc

297

Hydrogen Fuel Quality (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Jim Ohi of NREL's presentation on Hydrogen Fuel Quality at the 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation on May 15-18, 2007 in Arlington, Virginia.

Ohi, J.

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

298

Corrosion and Hydrogen Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... Advanced Materials and Reservoir Engineering for Extreme Oil & Gas Environments: Corrosion and Hydrogen Damage Sponsored by: TMS...

299

Hydrogen Assisted Cracking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC): Laboratory Research and Field Experiences: Hydrogen Assisted Cracking Program Organizers: Suresh Divi, TIMET

300

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen (which would not have to be stored, and which would be distributed locady only). Filling station

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Flash hydrogenation of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the hydrogenation of coal comprising the contacting of powdered coal with hydrogen in a rotating fluidized bed reactor. A rotating fluidized bed reactor suitable for use in this process is also disclosed. The coal residence time in the reactor is limited to less than 5 seconds while the hydrogen contact time is not in excess of 0.2 seconds.

Manowitz, Bernard (Brightwaters, NY); Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY); Sheehan, Thomas V. (Hampton Bays, NY); Winsche, Warren E. (Bellport, NY); Raseman, Chad J. (Setauket, NY)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Purification of Hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a process for purifying hydrogen containing various gaseous impurities by passing the hydrogen over a large surface of uranium metal at a temperature above the decomposition temperature of uranium hydride, and below the decomposition temperature of the compounds formed by the combination of the uranium with the impurities in the hydrogen.

Newton, A.S.

1950-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Liquid metal hydrogen barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

Grover, George M. (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Thurman G. (Los Alamos, NM); Keddy, Edward S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Sensitive hydrogen leak detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

Myneni, Ganapati Rao (Yorktown, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

battery- powered electric vehicles, approaches the breadth and magnitude of hydrogens public good benefits. What History

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Atomic Data for Hydrogen (H )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Hydrogen (H) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Atomic Data for Hydrogen (H). ...

307

Strong Lines of Hydrogen ( H )  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Hydrogen (H) Homepage - Introduction Finding list Select element by name. Select element by atomic number. ... Strong Lines of Hydrogen ( H ). ...

308

Hydrogen energy assessment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this assessment is to define the near term and long term prospects for the use of hydrogen as an energy delivery medium. Possible applications of hydrogen are defined along with the associated technologies required for implementation. A major focus in the near term is on industrial uses of hydrogen for special applications. The major source of hydrogen in the near term is expected to be from coal, with hydrogen from electric sources supplying a smaller fraction. A number of potential applications for hydrogen in the long term are identified and the level of demand estimated. The results of a cost benefit study for R and D work on coal gasification to hydrogen and electrolytic production of hydrogen are presented in order to aid in defining approximate levels of R and D funding. A considerable amount of data is presented on the cost of producing hydrogen from various energy resources. A key conclusion of the study is that in time hydrogen is likely to play a role in the energy system; however, hydrogen is not yet competitive for most applications when compared to the cost of energy from petroleum and natural gas.

Salzano, F J; Braun, C [eds.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Hydrogen Use and Safety  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

USE AND SAFETY USE AND SAFETY The lightest and most common element in the universe, hydrogen has been safely used for decades in industrial applications. Currently, over 9 million tons of hydrogen are produced in the U.S. each year and 3.2 trillion cubic feet are used to make many common products. They include glass, margarine, soap, vitamins, peanut butter, toothpaste and almost all metal products. Hydrogen has been used as a fuel since the 1950s by the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) in the U.S. space program. Hydrogen - A Safe, Clean Fuel for Vehicles Hydrogen has another use - one that can help our nation reduce its consumption of fossil fuels. Hydrogen can be used to power fuel cell vehicles. When combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, hydrogen generates electricity used

310

Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions; Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.

Melaina, M. W.; Steward, D.; Penev, M.; McQueen, S.; Jaffe, S.; Talon, C.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Production by  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production by Photovoltaic-powered Electrolysis Production by Photovoltaic-powered Electrolysis Project Summary Full Title: Production of Hydrogen by Photovoltaic-powered Electrolysis Project ID: 91 Principal Investigator: D.L. Block Keywords: Hydrogen production; electrolysis; photovoltaic (PV) Purpose To evaluate hydrogen production from photovoltaic (PV)-powered electrolysis. Performer Principal Investigator: D.L. Block Organization: Florida Solar Energy Center Address: 1679 Clearlake Road Cocoa, FL 32922 Telephone: 321-638-1001 Email: block@fsec.ucf.edu Sponsor(s) Name: Michael Ashworth Organization: Florida Energy Office Name: Neil Rossmeissl Organization: DOE/Advanced Utilities Concepts Division Name: H.T. Everett Organization: NASA/Kennedy Space Center Project Description Type of Project: Analysis Category: Hydrogen Fuel Pathways

312

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

considered.) 4. Gaseous hydrogen generated at the refueling station from natural gas by steam methane reforming, stored as a compressed gas at 5000 psi and dispensed to the vehicle...

313

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen Analysis Projects...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Analysis of Early Market Transition of Fuel Cell Vehicles Macro-System Model Stranded Biogas Decision Tool for Fuel Cell Co-Production Water for Hydrogen Pathways 2010 A Portfolio...

314

Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

& RELIABILITY ZERONEAR ZERO ZERONEAR ZERO EMISSIONS EMISSIONS Why Hydrogen? Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Oil S e q u e s t r a t i o n Biomass Hydro Wind...

315

Scaled Testing of Hydrogen Gas Getters for Transuranic Waste  

SciTech Connect

Alpha radiolysis of hydrogenous waste and packaging materials generates hydrogen gas in radioactive storage and shipment containers. Hydrogen forms a flammable mixture with air over a wide range of concentrations (5% to 75%), and very low energy is needed to ignite hydrogen-air mixtures. For these reasons, the concentration of hydrogen in waste shipment containers (Transuranic Package Transporter-II or TRUPACT-II containers) needs to remain below the lower explosion limit of hydrogen in air (5 vol%). Accident scenarios and the resulting safety analysis require that this limit not be exceeded. The use of 'hydrogen getters' is being investigated as a way to prevent the build up of hydrogen in TRUPACT-II containers. Preferred getters are solid materials that scavenge hydrogen from the gas phase and chemically and irreversibly bind it into the solid state. In this study, two getter systems are evaluated: a) 1,4-bis (phenylethynyl)benzene or DEB, characterized by the presence of carbon-carbon triple bonds; and b) a proprietary polymer hydrogen getter, VEI or TruGetter, characterized by carbon-carbon double bonds. Carbon in both getter types may, in the presence of suitable precious metal catalysts such as palladium, irreversibly react with and bind hydrogen. With oxygen present, the precious metal may also eliminate hydrogen by catalyzing the formation of water. This reaction is called catalytic recombination. DEB and VEI performed satisfactorily in lab scale tests using small test volumes (ml-scale), high hydrogen generation rates, and short time spans of hours to days. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether DEB and VEI perform satisfactorily in actual drum-scale tests with realistic hydrogen generation rates and time frames. The two getter systems were evaluated in test vessels comprised of a Gas Generation Test Program-style bell-jar and a drum equipped with a composite drum filter. The vessels were scaled to replicate the ratio between void space in the inner containment vessel of a TRUPACT-II container and volume of a payload of seven 55-gallon drums. The tests were conducted in an atmosphere of air for 60 days at ambient temperature (15 to 27 deg. C) and a scaled hydrogen generation rate of 2.60 E-07 moles hydrogen per second (0.35 cc/min). Hydrogen was successfully 'gettered' by both systems. Hydrogen concentrations remained below 5 vol% (in air) for the duration of the tests. However, catalytic reaction of hydrogen with carbon triple or double bonds in the getter materials did not take place. Instead, catalytic recombination was the predominant mechanism in both getters as evidenced by 1) consumption of oxygen in the bell-jars; 2) production of free water in the bell-jars; and 3) absence of chemical changes in both getters as shown by NMR spectra. (authors)

Kaszuba, J.; Mroz, E.; Haga, M.; Hollis, W. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico, 87545 (United States); Peterson, E.; Stone, M.; Orme, C.; Luther, T.; Benson, M. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Down Select Report of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Materials, Catalysts, and Spent Fuel Regeneration Processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The DOE Hydrogen Storage Program is focused on identifying and developing viable hydrogen storage systems for onboard vehicular applications. The program funds exploratory research directed at identifying new materials and concepts for storage of hydrogen having high gravimetric and volumetric capacities that have the potential to meet long term technical targets for onboard storage. Approaches currently being examined are reversible metal hydride storage materials, reversible hydrogen sorption systems, and chemical hydrogen storage systems. The latter approach concerns materials that release hydrogen in endothermic or exothermic chemical bond-breaking processes. To regenerate the spent fuels arising from hydrogen release from such materials, chemical processes must be employed. These chemical regeneration processes are envisioned to occur offboard the vehicle.

Ott, Kevin; Linehan, Sue; Lipiecki, Frank; Aardahl, Christopher L.

2008-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

317

Bonding, antibonding and tunable optical forces in asymmetric membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate that tunable attractive (bonding) and repulsive (anti-bonding) forces can arise in highly asymmetric structures coupled to external radiation, a consequence of the bonding/anti-bonding level repulsion of ...

Hui, Pui-Chuen

318

Hydrogen Filling Station  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water Districts land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

319

Hydrogen Filling Station  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water Districts land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4:

Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

320

Spatial Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated to the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will expose thoroughly the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spa...

Barthelemy, Marc

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Doylestown, PA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA); Ting, Jason (Ames, IA); Terpstra, Robert (Ames, IA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA)

2000-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

322

Dynamics of water and aqueous protons studied using ultrafast multi-dimensional infrared spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid water consists of a highly dynamic network of hydrogen bonds, which evolves on timescales ranging from tens of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds. The fast structural evolution of water's hydrogen bond network is at ...

Ramasesha, Krupa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Vacuum fusion bonded glass plates having microstructures thereon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies Manufacturing Sub-Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies Manufacturing Sub-program Nancy L. Garland, Ph.D. U.S Department of Energy NREL H 2 /FC Manufacturing R&D Workshop Washington, D.C. August 11-12, 2011 * Goal: Research, develop and demonstrate technologies and processes that reduce the cost of components and systems for fuel cells, and hydrogen production, delivery, and storage; grow the domestic supplier base. * Challenge: Move hydrogen and fuel cells from laboratory-scale production into high-volume, low-cost manufacturing. 2 Goal of Manufacturing sub-program U.S. DOE 8/10/11 3 Budget EMPHASIS  Develop novel, robust, ultrasonic bonding processes for MEAs to reduce MEA-pressing cycle time  Develop real-time, online measurement tools to reduce/eliminate ex situ

325

IMPACT OF CAPILLARY AND BOND NUMBERS ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY  

SciTech Connect

Recovery and recovery rate of oil, gas and condensates depend crucially on their relative permeability. Relative permeability in turn depends on the pore structure, wettability and flooding conditions, which can be represented by a set of dimensionless groups including capillary and bond numbers. The effect of flooding conditions on drainage relative permeabilities is not well understood and is the overall goal of this project. This project has three specific objectives: to improve the centrifuge relative permeability method, to measure capillary and bond number effects experimentally, and to develop a pore network model for multiphase flows. A centrifuge has been built that can accommodate high pressure core holders and x-ray saturation monitoring. The centrifuge core holders can operate at a pore pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and an overburden pressure of 17 MPa (2500 psi). The effect of capillary number on residual saturation and relative permeability in drainage flow has been measured. A pore network model has been developed to study the effect of capillary numbers and viscosity ratio on drainage relative permeability. Capillary and Reynolds number dependence of gas-condensate flow has been studied during well testing. A method has been developed to estimate relative permeability parameters from gas-condensate well test data.

Kishore K. Mohanty

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

326

Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are an apparatus and a method for determining concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

Villa-Aleman, E.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

327

Analysis of hydrogen isotope mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for determining the concentrations of hydrogen isotopes in a sample. Hydrogen in the sample is separated from other elements using a filter selectively permeable to hydrogen. Then the hydrogen is condensed onto a cold finger or cryopump. The cold finger is rotated as pulsed laser energy vaporizes a portion of the condensed hydrogen, forming a packet of molecular hydrogen. The desorbed hydrogen is ionized and admitted into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

Villa-Aleman, Eliel (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

329

Hydrogen Codes and Standards  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Codes and Standards Codes and Standards James Ohi National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Blvd. Golden, CO 80401 Background The development and promulgation of codes and standards are essential if hydrogen is to become a significant energy carrier and fuel because codes and standards are critical to establishing a market-receptive environment for commercializing hydrogen-based products and systems. The Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with the help of the National Hydrogen Association (NHA) and other key stakeholders, are coordinating a collaborative national effort by government and industry to prepare, review, and promulgate hydrogen codes and standards needed to expedite hydrogen infrastructure development. The

330

President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Workshop on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy Washington, DC July 13, 2005 JoAnn Milliken DOE Hydrogen Program Planning U.S. Energy Dependence is Driven By Transportation * The U.S. imports 55% of its oil; expected to grow to 68% by 2025 under the status quo. * Transportation accounts for 2/3 of the 20 million barrels of oil our nation uses each day. * Gasoline hybrid electric vehicles will help in the near -mid term; a replacement for petroleum is needed for the long-term. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 Million barrels per day Marine Rail Actual Projection Cars Air Light Trucks Heavy Vehicles U.S. Production Off-Road Projection Hydrogen Provides a Solution Producing hydrogen from domestic resources, including renewable, nuclear, and coal

331

Hydrogen Based Bacteria  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Based Bacteria Hydrogen Based Bacteria Name: Ellen Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: i was in my Biology class and a very respectable someone mentioned something about the discovery of a hydrogen based bacteria. my teacher wasnt aware of this study, and assigned me to find out about it. so i thought i would Email you and see if you people knew anything about it. Awaiting your repsonse Replies: I'm not quite sure what you mean by hydrogen based bacteria but I will take a stab that you mean bacteria that use hydrogen for energy. Some bacteria are chemolithotrophs which mean that they are autrophs but don't use the sun as their energy source; they get their energy from chemical sources. There are bacteria that use hydrogen as their energy source. They are diverse as a group and are all facultative. The overall chemical reaction looks like this:

332

Hydrogen Permeation Resistant Coatings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings may be applied to these ferrous alloys to retard hydrogen ingress. Hydrogen is known to be very mobile in materials of construction. In this study, the permeation resistance of bare stainless steel samples and coated stainless steel samples was tested. The permeation resistance was measured using a modular permeation rig using a pressure rise technique. The coating microstructure and permeation results will be discussed in this document as will some additional testing.

KORINKO, PAUL; ADAMS, THAD; CREECH, GREGGORY

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

HYDROGEN ISOTOPE TARGETS  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The design of targets for use in the investigation of nuclear reactions of hydrogen isotopes by bombardment with accelerated particles is described. The target con struction eomprises a backing disc of a metal selected from the group consisting of molybdenunn and tungsten, a eoating of condensed titaniunn on the dise, and a hydrogen isotope selected from the group consisting of deuterium and tritium absorbed in the coatiag. The proeess for preparing these hydrogen isotope targets is described.

Ashley, R.W.

1958-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

335

Local Option - Industrial Facilities and Development Bonds |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Water Water Heating Wind Maximum Rebate Locally Determined Program Information Utah Program Type State Bond Program Rebate Amount Locally Determined Under the Utah...

336

Green Infrastructure Bonds (Hawaii) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

allowing the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism to issue Green Infrastructure Bonds to secture low-cost financing for clean energy installations,...

337

Enhanced Diffusional Processes in Wire Bonding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Enhanced Diffusional Processes in Wire Bonding ... there is a tremendous need for implementation of thinner wires in wire boning processes.

338

OpenEI - hydrogen  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

biodiesel CNG compressed natural gas E85 Electricity ethanol hydrogen liquefied natural gas LNG liquefied petroleum gas LPG propane station locations Tue, 14 Dec 2010...

339

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compatibility of Materials Compatibility of Materials August 13, 2013 DOE EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Webinar Chris San Marchi Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000 SAND2013-6278P 2 Webinar Objectives * Provide context for hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen compatibility of materials - Distinguish embrittlement, compatibility and suitability - Examples of hydrogen embrittlement * Historical perspective - Previous work on hydrogen compatibility - Motivation of "Materials Guide" * Identify the landscape of materials compatibility documents

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Better Engineered Solutions. Better Engineered Solutions. What Listening Generates. Better Engineered Solutions. What Listening Generates. Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis September 2004 Steve Cohen Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis September 2004 Steve Cohen NREL H 2 Electrolysis - Utility Integration Workshop NREL H 2 Electrolysis - Utility Integration Workshop 2 Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis  Intro to Teledyne Energy Systems  H 2 Generator Basics & Major Subsystems  H 2 Generating & Storage System Overview  Electrolysis System Efficiency & Economics  Focus for Attaining DOE H 2 Production Cost Goals 3 Teledyne Energy Systems Locations - ISO 9001 Teledyne Energy Systems Locations - ISO 9001 Hunt Valley, Maryland  State-of-the-art thermoelectric,

342

Initiators of coal hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results are given of an investigation of the influence of additions of certain organosilicon compounds of cyclic and linear nature on the coal hydrogenation process.

Krichko, A.A.; Dembovskaya, E.A.; Gorlov, E.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

materials data related to hydrogen embrittlement - Modeled after existing metals handbooks - Data culled from open literature * Peer-reviewed scientific articles * Public...

344

Enabling the Hydrogen Economy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Act of 2002 to develop research and standards for gas pipeline integrity, safety ... for materials used in hydrogen systems (eg, pipelines) developed in ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

345

FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Basics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

distributed production facilities have relatively low delivery costs, but the hydrogen production costs are likely to be higher-lower volume production means higher equipment...

346

The Transition to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy costs, energy alternatives, and the role of hydrogenenergy in profound ways. But hydrogen also poses the greatest challenges of any alternative

Ogden, Joan M

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Sustainable hydrogen production  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

1980-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

349

Hydrogen production from biomass .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass energy encompasses a broad category of energy derived from plants and animals as well as the residual materials from each. Hydrogen gas is an (more)

Hahn, John J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Hydrogen MOS Quality Boulder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... b. The recommendations of the FSS based on its December 2008 review of the proposed method of sale for hydrogen engine fuel are: ...

2011-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

351

Optimized hydrogen piston engines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen piston engines can be simultaneously optimized for improved thermal efficiency and for extremely low emissions. Using these engines in constant-speed, constant-load systems such as series hybrid-electric automobiles or home cogeneration systems can result in significantly improved energy efficiency. For the same electrical energy produced, the emissions from such engines can be comparable to those from natural gas-fired steam power plants. These hydrogen-fueled high-efficiency, low-emission (HELE) engines are a mechanical equivalent of hydrogen fuel cells. HELE engines could facilitate the transition to a hydrogen fuel cell economy using near-term technology.

Smith, J.R.

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

352

Renewable Hydrogen (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presentation about the United State's dependence on oil, how energy solutions are challenging, and why hydrogen should be considered as a long-term alternative for transportation fuel.

Remick, R. J.

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

353

Hydrogen Fuel Cells  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

The fuel cell an energy conversion device that can efficiently capture and use the power of hydrogen is the key to making it happen.

354

Hydrogen Safety Knowledge Tools  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With hydrogen gaining acceptance as an energy carrier for fuel cell vehicles and stationary fuel cell applications, a new community of hydrogen users is emerging and continues to grow. With this growth has come the need to spread the word about safe practices for handling, storing, and using hydrogen. Like all energy forms, hydrogen can be used safely through proper procedures and engineering techniques. However, hydrogen involves a degree of risk that must be respected, and the importance of avoiding complacency or haste in the safe conduct and performance of projects involving hydrogen cannot be overstated. To encourage and promote the safe use of hydrogen, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed and continues to enhance two software tools in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program: the Hydrogen Safety Best Practices online manual (www.H2BestPractices.org) and the Hydrogen Incident Reporting and Lessons Learned database (www.H2Incidents.org).

Fassbender, Linda L.

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

The Transition to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

optimistic hydrogen-demand scenarios, natural gas use woulddemand Model Presidents H 2 initiative (100% of ?eet) (50% of ?eet) (21% of ?eet) Natural gas

Ogden, Joan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

HYDROGEN SEPARATION MEMBRANES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A likely membrane for future testing of high-temperature hydrogen separation from a gasification product stream was targeted as an inorganic analog of a dense-metal membrane, where the hydrogen would dissolve into and diffuse through the membrane structure. An amorphous membrane such as zinc sulfide appeared to be promising. Previously, ZnS film coating tests had been performed using an electron-beam vacuum coating instrument, with zinc films successfully applied to glass substrates. The coatings appeared relatively stable in air and in a simple simulated gasification atmosphere at elevated temperature. Because the electron-beam coating instrument suffered irreparable breakdown, several alternative methods were tested in an effort to produce a nitrogen-impermeable, hydrogen-permeable membrane on porous sintered steel substrates. None of the preparation methods proved successful in sealing the porous substrate against nitrogen gas. To provide a nitrogen-impermeable ZnS material to test for hydrogen permeability, two ZnS infrared sample windows were purchased. These relatively thick ''membranes'' did not show measurable permeation of hydrogen, either due to lack of absorption or a negligible permeation rate due to their thickness. To determine if hydrogen was indeed adsorbed, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses tests were performed on samples of ZnS powder. A significant uptake of hydrogen gas occurred, corresponding to a maximum of 1 mole H{sub 2} per 1 mole ZnS at a temperature of 175 C. The hydrogen remained in the material at ambient temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere, but approximately 50% would be removed in argon. Reheating in a hydrogen atmosphere resulted in no additional hydrogen uptake. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the hydrogen uptake was probably due to the formation of a zinc-sulfur-hydrogen species resulting in the formation of hydrogen sulfide. The zinc sulfide was found to be unstable above approximately 200 C, probably with the reduction to metallic zinc with the evolution of hydrogen sulfide. The work has shown that ZnS is not a viable candidate for a high-temperature hydrogen separation membrane.

Donald P. McCollor; John P. Kay

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Hydrogen Compatible Materials Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop November 3 rd , 2010 Research, Engineering, and Applications Center for Hydrogen Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore, CA Introduction: On November 3 rd , 2010, Sandia...

358

Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA); Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Characterization Of The Hydrogenation Products Of Bix (phenylethynyl) Benzene (DEB) Getter Using Combined GC/FTIR/MS, FT-Raman, and ATR Spectroscopies (U)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Organic hydrogen getters are utilized to minimize hydrogen accumulation in sealed systems where such build up could produce either a safety problem from pressure build up or corrosion problem due the hydriding of metals contained in the sealed vessel. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) is a hydrogen getter that is based on the palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to single bonds in aromatic aryl compound. DEB is a getter mixed with 25% carbon and 1% Pd and pressed into pellets with some porosity. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reactions with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates.

Smyrl, N. R.; Powell, G. L.

2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

360

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells R&D  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids --Hydrogen Storage Materials --Hydrogen Storage Systems Modeling and Analysis --Thermochemical Hydrogen * Fuel Cells --Polymer Electrolyte --Modeling & Analysis --Fuel...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogen Infrastructure Project Jump to: navigation, search Name California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project Place California Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product String representation...

362

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Hydrogen Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Hydrogen Hydrogen is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from diverse domestic energy sources. Research is under way to make hydrogen vehicles practical for widespread use.

363

FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current Technology to Current Technology to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Production: Current Technology on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology Thermal Processes Electrolytic Processes Photolytic Processes R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Current Technology The development of clean, sustainable, and cost-competitive hydrogen

364

Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Li, Yingwel (Ann Arbor, MI); Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

366

Combination moisture and hydrogen getter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combination moisture and hydrogen getter comprises (a) a moisture getter comprising a readily oxidizable metal; and (b) a hydrogen getter comprising (i) a solid acetylenic compound and (ii) a hydrogenation catalyst. A method of scavenging moisture from a closed container uses the combination moisture and hydrogen getter to irreversibly chemically reduce the moisture and chemically bind the resultant hydrogen.

Harrah, Larry A. (Albuquerque, NM); Mead, Keith E. (Peralta, NM); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Hydrogen Car Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

navigation, search Name Hydrogen Car Co Place Los Angeles, California Zip 90036 Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product The Hydrogen Car Company produces hydrogen internal combustion...

368

Hydrogen Refueling Station Costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

E. Hydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways -costs are compared with cost estimates of similar stationsHydrogen Supply: Cost Estimate for Hydrogen Pathways-Scoping

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, J; Jianxin, Ma

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

An Integrated Hydrogen Vision for California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Integrated Hydrogen Vision for California White Paper/High Efficiency Generation Of Hydrogen Fuels Using NuclearU.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Hydrogen

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Hydrogen refueling station costs in Shanghai  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Hydrogen Energy 32 (2007) 4089 4100 Table 4 Storage andHydrogen Energy 32 (2007) 4089 4100 Hydrogen tube-trailer Compressed hydrogen storage

Weinert, Jonathan X.; Shaojun, Liu; Ogden, Joan M; Jianxin, Ma

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Manufacturing Fuel Cells Applications/Technology Validation Safety Codes and Standards Education Basic Research Systems Analysis Systems Integration U.S. Department of Energy Search help Home > Hydrogen Production Printable Version Hydrogen Production Hydrogen can be produced from diverse domestic feedstocks using a variety of process technologies. Hydrogen-containing compounds such as fossil fuels, biomass or even water can be a source of hydrogen. Thermochemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from biomass and from fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and petroleum. Power generated from sunlight, wind and nuclear sources can be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically. Sunlight alone can also drive photolytic production of

372

Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC Hydrogen Systems LLC formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC (formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC) Place Rochester Hills, Michigan Zip 48309 Sector Hydro, Hydrogen, Vehicles Product It commercializes hydrogen storage technology based on metal-hydrides for portable and stationary power systems as well as fuel-cell vehicles. References Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC (formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC (formerly Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC) is a company located in Rochester Hills, Michigan . References

373

Process for exchanging hydrogen isotopes between gaseous hydrogen and water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for exchanging isotopes of hydrogen, particularly tritium, between gaseous hydrogen and water is provided whereby gaseous hydrogen depeleted in tritium and liquid or gaseous water containing tritium are reacted in the presence of a metallic catalyst.

Hindin, Saul G. (Mendham, NJ); Roberts, George W. (Westfield, NJ)

1980-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

374

Computer Simulation of Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking via Hydrogen Embrittlement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Computer simulation has been applied to the investigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking in Ni-based alloys based on a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism. The simulation employs computational modules that address (a) transport and reactions of aqueous species giving rise to hydrogen generation at the liquid-metal interface, (b) solid state transport of hydrogen via intergranular and transgranular diffusion pathways, and (c) fracture due to the embrittlement of metallic bonds by hydrogen. A key focus of the computational model development has been the role of materials microstructure (precipitate particles and grain boundaries) on hydrogen transport and embrittlement. Simulation results reveal that intergranular fracture is enhanced as grain boundaries are weakened and that microstructures with grains elongated perpendicular to the stress axis are more susceptible to cracking. The presence of intergranular precipitates may be expected to either enhance or impede cracking depending on the relative distribution of hydrogen between the grain boundaries and the precipitate-matrix interfaces. Calculations of hydrogen outgassing and in gassing demonstrate a strong effect of charging method on the fracture behavior.

Smith, R.W.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

MODELING OF SYNGAS REACTIONS AND HYDROGEN GENERATION OVER SULFIDES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the research is to analyze pathways of reactions of hydrogen with oxides of carbon over sulfides, and to predict which characteristics of the sulfide catalyst (nature of metal, defect structure) give rise to the lowest barriers toward oxygenated hydrocarbon product. Reversal of these pathways entails the generation of hydrogen, which is also proposed for study. During this study, adsorption reactions of H atoms and H{sub 2} molecules with MoS{sub 2}, both in molecular and solid form, have been modeled using high-level density functional theory. The relative stabilities of pure MoS{sub 2} edges were calculated and small clusters exhibiting properties of the edges were modeled. The results were finalized and published in the journal ''Surface Science''. Hydrogen adsorption energies on both the edges and the clusters were calculated, and the thermodynamics of hydrogen adsorption on both systems were evaluated. The adsorption locations and vibrational frequencies were also determined. These additional results were published in a second paper in ''Surface Science''. Most recently, the bonding and effect of alkali and transition metal ions was investigated on the MoS{sub 2} clusters. Potassium atoms bind to the clusters and increase the binding of hydrogen to the clusters while reducing the activation barriers for hydrogen adsorption. Silver attaches to the Mo7S14 cluster and donates its odd electron to the nearby Mo atoms and should have a similar effect to hydrogen as potassium does.

Kamil Klier; Jeffery A. Spirko; Michael L. Neiman

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Tests for Hydrogen Cyanide and Hydrogen Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

A potential source of dangerous concentrations of hydrogen cyanide exists in the plating room of the Machine Shop where open plating baths containing cyanide salts are maintained and where solid cyanide salts are stored. Also the use of hydrogen sulfide in certain steps of the waste disposal process has lead to noticeable and sometimes objectionable concentrations of this gas in the air of the "WD" Building. In view of the toxic properties of these two gases, it was desirable to set up suitable tests to determine the actual concentrations present in the air of the respective working areas.

Joy, E. F.

1949-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

377

Bayesian Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

season. do X X X X Thus, Bayesian networks are particularly1990 G.F. Cooper and E. Herskovits. A Bayesian method forcon- structing Bayesian belief networks from databases.

Judea Pearl

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

SOLID STATE BONDING OF THORIUM WITH ALUMINUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for bonding thorium and aluminum by placing clean surfaces of thorium and aluminum in contact with each other and hot pressing the metals together in a protective atmosphere at a temperature of about 375 to 575 deg C and at a pressure of at least 10 tsi to effect a bond.

Storchhelm, S.

1959-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Hydrogen Conference: Workshop Proceedings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen is currently a major chemical/fuel with long-term energy system benefits that may impact the industry's physical and economic well-being. EPRI's recent hydrogen conference concluded that to be competitive, the production cost must take into account environmental and end-use efficiency benefits.

1989-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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381

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;#12;Hydrogen Fuel Cell Engines MODULE 11:GLOSSARY AND CONVERSIONS CONTENTS 11.1 GLOSSARY Cell Engines MODULE 11:GLOSSARY AND CONVERSIONS OBJECTIVES This module is for reference only. Hydrogen MODULE 11: GLOSSARY AND CONVERSIONS PAGE 11-1 11.1 Glossary This glossary covers words, phrases

382

NATIONAL HYDROGEN ENERGY ROADMAP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and replaced by coal gasification with carbon sequestration and, to a lesser extent, by biomass gasification. By 2050, biomass and wind, combined, provide 35% of hydrogen supplies. Hydrogen production from nuclear.energy.gov/hydrogenandfuelcells/posture_plan04.html. sequestration sites opt for more coal gasification while those with ample wind or biomass

383

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Hydrogen from Renewable Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen from Renewable Energy Project Summary Full Title: H2 Production Infrastructure Analysis - Task 3: Hydrogen From Renewable Energy Sources: Pathway to 10 Quads for...

384

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Production of Hydrogen byPhotovolta...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrolysis Project ID: 132 Principal Investigator: DL Block Purpose Compare the cost of hydrogen produced using photo electric chemical systems to the cost of hydrogen...

385

Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Analysis - DOE Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

conditions, using multiple sites, varying climates, and a variety of hydrogen sources. Analyze detailed fuel cell and hydrogen data from * vehicles and infrastructure to...

386

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Impact of Hydrogen Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

U.S. Energy Markets Project ID: 99 Principal Investigator: Harry Vidas Keywords: Hydrogen production; hydrogen supply; infrastructure; costs Purpose This project addresses the...

387

DOE Hydrogen Program Record 5030: Hydrogen Baseline Cost  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

kg of hydrogen) .56 Production unit energy efficiency 70% Compression electricity consumption (kWhrkg of hydrogen) 2.9 Total system energy efficiency 65% Feedstock and Utility...

388

NMR Studies of Molecular Hydrogen in Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using NMR, the concentrations of molecular hydrogen have been measured directly in hydrogenated amorphous silicon made by the hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique.

Su, T.; Chen, S.; Taylor, P. C.; Crandall, R. S.; Mahan, A. H.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Hydrogen Embrittlement in Vanadium-based Hydrogen Separation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One of the important materials that face a challenge to overcome the hydrogen embrittlement is vanadium-based hydrogen separation membranes for an...

390

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Storing hydrogen for renewable energy technologies can be challenging, especially for intermittent resources such as solar and wind. Whether for stationary,...

391

Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing Jim Francfort (INEEL) Don Karner (ETA) 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar - San Antonio Session 5B - Hydrogen DOE - Advanced Vehicle Testing...

392

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: The Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for the potential penetration of hydrogen into the economy and associated impacts on oil imports and CO2 gas emissions; Address the problem of how hydrogen might be...

393

NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production and Delivery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production and Delivery Hydrogen Production and Delivery Most of the hydrogen in the United States is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. For the near term, this production method will continue to dominate. Researchers at NREL are developing advanced processes to produce hydrogen economically from sustainable resources. NREL's hydrogen production and delivery R&D efforts, which are led by Huyen Dinh, focus on the following topics: Biological Water Splitting Fermentation Conversion of Biomass and Wastes Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Solar Thermal Water Splitting Renewable Electrolysis Hydrogen Dispenser Hose Reliability Hydrogen Production and Delivery Pathway Analysis. Biological Water Splitting Certain photosynthetic microbes use light energy to produce hydrogen from

394

Hydrogen Resource Assessment: Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 Hydrogen Resource Assessment Hydrogen Potential from Coal, Natural Gas, Nuclear, and Hydro Power Anelia Milbrandt and Margaret Mann National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617...

395

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage On the one hand, hydrogen's great asset as a renewable energy carrier is that it is storable and transportable. On the other hand, its very low natural density requires storage volumes that are impractical for vehicles and many other uses. Current practice is to compress the gas in pressurized tanks, but this still provides only limited driving range for vehicles and is bulkier than desirable for other uses as well. Liquefying the hydrogen more than doubles the fuel density, but uses up substantial amounts of energy to lower the temperature sufficiently (-253°C at atmospheric pressure), requires expensive insulated tanks to maintain that temperature, and still falls short of desired driving range. One possible way to store hydrogen at higher density is in the spaces within the crystalline

396

Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Program Record (Offices of Fuel Cell Technologies) Record #: 11007 Date: March 25, 2011 Title: Hydrogen Threshold Cost Calculation Originator: Mark Ruth & Fred Joseck Approved by: Sunita Satyapal Date: March 24, 2011 Description: The hydrogen threshold cost is defined as the hydrogen cost in the range of $2.00-$4.00/gge (2007$) which represents the cost at which hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are projected to become competitive on a cost per mile basis with the competing vehicles [gasoline in hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs)] in 2020. This record documents the methodology and assumptions used to calculate that threshold cost. Principles: The cost threshold analysis is a "top-down" analysis of the cost at which hydrogen would be

397

Hydrogen Storage- Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- - Overview George Thomas, Hydrogen Consultant to SNL * and Jay Keller, Hydrogen Program Manager Sandia National Laboratories H 2 Delivery and Infrastructure Workshop May 7-8, 2003 * Most of this presentation has been extracted from George Thomas' invited BES Hydrogen Workshop presentation (May 13-14, 2003) Sandia National Laboratories 4/14/03 2 Sandia National Laboratories From George Thomas, BES workshop 5/13/03 H 2 storage is a critical enabling technology for H 2 use as an energy carrier The low volumetric density of gaseous fuels requires a storage method which compacts the fuel. Hence, hydrogen storage systems are inherently more complex than liquid fuels. Storage technologies are needed in all aspects of hydrogen utilization. production distribution utilization

398

Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) Pinakin Patel and Ludwig Lipp Presentation at DOE Hydrogen Compression, Storage and Dispensing Workshop at ANL Argonne, IL March 20, 2013 2 * Experience with all fuel cells - MCFC, SOFC, PEM, PAFC, etc. * Excellent progress in commercialization of MCFC technology (>300 MW installed + backlog, >50 MW per year production rate, 11 MW single site unit in Korea, >1.5 billion kWh produced) * Unique internal reforming technology for high efficiency fuel cells FCE Overview $- $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 2003 2007 2011 mid-term Product cost per kW 3 H 2 Peak and Back- up Power Fuel Cell Cars DFC ® Power Plant (Electricity + Hydrogen) Solid State Hydrogen Separator (EHS) Solid State Hydrogen

399

Hydrogen in compound semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress in the understanding of hydrogen and its interactions in III/V and II/VI compound semiconductors is reviewed. Donor, acceptor and deep level passivation is well established in III/V compounds based on electrical measurements and on spectroscopic studies. The hydrogen donor levels in GaAs and GaP are estimated to lie near E{sub v}+0.5 eV and E{sub v}+0.3 eV, respectively. Arsenic acceptors have been passivated by hydrogen in CdTe and the very first nitrogen-hydrogen local vibrational model spectra in ZnSe have been reported. This long awaited result may lead to an explanation for the poor activation of nitrogen acceptors in ZnSe grown by techniques which involve high concentrations of hydrogen.

Haller, E.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Hydrogen Fuel Quality  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For the past 6 years, open discussions and/or meetings have been held and are still on-going with OEM, Hydrogen Suppliers, other test facilities from the North America Team and International collaborators regarding experimental results, fuel clean-up cost, modeling, and analytical techniques to help determine levels of constituents for the development of an international standard for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12). Significant progress has been made. The process for the fuel standard is entering final stages as a result of the technical accomplishments. The objectives are to: (1) Determine the allowable levels of hydrogen fuel contaminants in support of the development of science-based international standards for hydrogen fuel quality (ISO TC197 WG-12); and (2) Validate the ASTM test method for determining low levels of non-hydrogen constituents.

Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Hydrogen Purity Standard  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Compressed Gas Association Compressed Gas Association Roger A. Smith Technical Director April 26, 2004 Hydrogen Purity Standard Compressed Gas Association 2 Compressed Gas Association ‹ 150 Members „ Industrial Gas Companies „ Equipment Manufacturers „ Other Gas Industry Associations „ Other SDOs ‹ Manufacturers, Fillers, Distributors, and Transporters of Industrial and Medical Gases Compressed Gas Association 3 Hydrogen Activities ‹ Committees „ Hydrogen Fuel Technology „ Bulk Distribution Equipment „ Hazardous Materials Codes „ Gas Specifications „ Cylinders, Valves & PRD's ‹ International „ Europe (EIGA) „ Japan (JIGA) „ Asia (AIGA) „ United Nations Compressed Gas Association 4 Hydrogen Purity Standard ‹ Draft hydrogen purity standard for stationary fuel cells and ICE's in 10 months

402

FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current Technology to someone Current Technology to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Storage: Current Technology on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology Gaseous and Liquid Hydrogen Storage Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Storage Challenges Status of Hydrogen Storage Technologies DOE R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Current Technology

403

Hydrogen Delivery Liquefaction and Compression  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to Praxair Hydrogen Liquefaction Hydrogen Compression 3 Praxair at a Glance The largest industrial gas company in North and South America Only U.S. Hydrogen Supplier in All Sizes...

404

The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It appears to us that hydrogen is a highly promising option0616 The Bumpy Road to Hydrogen Daniel Sperling Joan OgdenThe Bumpy Road to Hydrogen 1 Daniel Sperling and Joan Ogden

Sperling, Dan; Ogden, Joan M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Renewable Resources for Hydrogen (Presentation)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This presentation provides an overview of renewable resources for hydrogen. It was presented at the National Hydrogen Association Hydrogen Conference & Expo in Long Beach, CA, May 3-6, 2010.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

406

Orbital entanglement in bond-formation processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accurate calculation of the (differential) correlation energy is central to the quantum chemical description of bond-formation and bond-dissociation processes. In order to estimate the quality of single- and multi-reference approaches for this purpose, various diagnostic tools have been developed. In this work, we elaborate on our previous observation [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 3129 (2012)] that one- and two-orbital-based entanglement measures provide quantitative means for the assessment and classification of electron correlation effects among molecular orbitals. The dissociation behavior of some prototypical diatomic molecules features all types of correlation effects relevant for chemical bonding. We demonstrate that our entanglement analysis is convenient to dissect these electron correlation effects and to provide a conceptual understanding of bond-forming and bond-breaking processes from the point of view of quantum information theory.

Boguslawski, Katharina; Barcza, Gergely; Legeza, Ors; Reiher, Markus

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Bond Graph Modeling Of Variable Structure Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of describing variable structure models in a compact, object--oriented fashion is revisited and analyzed from the perspective of bond graph modeling. Traditionally, bond graphs have always been used to describe continuous-- time physical processes with a fixed structure. Yet, this paper shall demonstrate that bond graphs are equally suitable to describe variable structure models as fixed structure models. Moreover, a bond graph description of variable structure models can teach us a lot about the essential properties of variable structure models, properties that are not easily visible when other modeling approaches are taken. The paper discusses issues related to causality reassignment and conditional index changes as a consequence of switching in a physical system. Keywords: Bond graphs, variable structure system, computational causality, conditional index change, switching, object--oriented modeling, Dymola. INTRODUCTION When the causality strokes were added to the forme...

Franois E. Cellier; Martin Otter; Hilding Elmqvist

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Wireless Networking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past decade, the world has witnessed an explosion in the development and deployment of new wireless network technologies. From cellular mobile telephony to the ubiquitous "WiFi" networks in coffee-shops and airports, to the emerging WiMAX wireless ... Keywords: Networking

Anurag Kumar; D. Manjunath; Joy Kuri

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Storing Hydrogen, by Enhancing Diamond Powder Properties under Hydrogen Plasma with CaF2 and KF for Use in Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A fuel cell is like a battery that instead of using electricity to recharge itself, it uses hydrogen. In the fuel cell industry, one of the main problems is storing hydrogen in a safe way and extracting it economically. Gaseous hydrogen requires high pressures which could be very dangerous in case of a collision. The success of hydrogen use depends largely on the development of an efficient storage and release method. In an effort to develop a better hydrogen storage system for fuel cells technology this research investigates the use of 99% pure diamond powder for storing hydrogen. Mixing this powder with a calcium fluoride and potassium fluoride compound in its solid form and treating the surface of the powder with hydrogen plasma, modifies the surface of the diamond. After some filtration through distilled water and drying, the modified diamond is treated with hydrogen. We expect hydrogen to be attracted to the diamond powder surface in higher quantities due to the CaF2 and KF treatment. Due to the large surface area of diamond nanopowder and the electronegative terminal bonds of the fluorine particles on the structure's surface, to the method shows promise in storing high densities of hydrogen.

Ochoa, Franklyn E. Colmenares [Undergraduate Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico)

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

410

First principles simulation of a superionic phase of hydrogen fluoride (HF) at high pressures and temperatures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors have conducted Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen fluoride (HF) at pressures of 5-66 GPa along the 900 K isotherm. They predict a superionic phase at 33 GPa, where the fluorine atoms are fixed in a bcc lattice while the hydrogen atoms diffuse rapidly with a diffusion constant of between 2 x 10{sup -5} and 5 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s. They find that a transformation from asymmetric to symmetric hydrogen bonding occurs in HF at 66 GPa and 900 K. With superionic HF they have discovered a model system where symmetric hydrogen bonding occurs at experimentally achievable conditions. Given previous results on superionic H{sub 2}O[1,2,3] and NH{sub 3}[1], they conclude that high P,T superionic phases of electronegative element hydrides could be common.

Goldman, N; Fried, L E

2006-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

411

Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ultimate objective of this research has been to uncover novel reagents and experimental conditions for heteroatom removal and hydrogen transfer processes, which would be applicable to the liquefaction of coal under low-severity conditions. To this end, one phase of this research has investigated the cleavage of carbon-heteroatom bonds involving sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and halogen by subvalent transition-metal complexes. A second phase of the study has assessed the capability of the same transition-metal complexes or of organoaluminum Lewis acids to catalyze the cleavage of carbon-hydrogen bonds in aromatics and hence to promote hydrogen shuttling. Finally, a third phase of our work has uncovered a remarkable synergistic effect of combinations of transition metals with organoaluminum Lewis acids on hydrogen shuttling between aromatics and hydroaromatics. (VC)

Eisch, J.J.

1992-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

412

Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). Its made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

413

Hydrogen Energy | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

reduce carbon emissions through low-carbon hydrogen fuel for electricity generation and carbon sequestration technologies. References Hydrogen Energy1 LinkedIn Connections...

414

Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Hydrogen Enriched CNG Production Engine Conversion,from Hydrogen Enriched CNG Production Engines, SAE 02FFL-dynamometer ...13 Figure 2. CNG Brake Thermal Efficiency (

Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hydrogen is the simplest element on Earth. A hydrogen atom consists of only one proton and one electron. It is also the most plentiful element in the universe.

416

Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond Solving the Mystery of the Billion-Dollar Bond, Double Bond October 26, 2011 - 4:56pm Addthis John Shanklin, biochemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Ed Whittle, research assistant in Shanklin's lab, with a fatty acid molecule model and plant seeds and casings in the foreground. | Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory John Shanklin, biochemist at Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Ed Whittle, research assistant in Shanklin's lab, with a fatty acid molecule model and plant seeds and casings in the foreground. | Courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What are the key facts? Understanding how proteins exert precise control over double bond

417

Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.  

SciTech Connect

In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina (San Diego State University, San Diego, CA); Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N. (Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA); Holm, Elizabeth Ann

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

Aldridge, Frederick T. (Livermore, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Hydrogen Production: Overview of Technology Options  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Table of Contents Producing Hydrogen...1 Hydrogen Production Technologies ...3 Challenges and Research Needs...4 Technology...

420

Flammability Limits of Hydrogen-Air Mixtures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Safety and Technology of Nuclear Hydrogen Production, Control, and Management / Hydrogen Safety and Recombiners

H. Cheikhravat; N. Chaumeix; A. Bentaib; C.-E. Paillard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compressor system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system, active surge control. A novel method of modeling centrifugal compression systems for surge control purposes by using bond graphs is presented. By using the bond graph method, we get a simple description of compression systems based on physical phenomena and it is straight forward to get the dynamic equations. It is demonstrated that several active surge control methods can be represented by the same bond graph. It is also shown how methods for active surge control can be classified using energy flow in terms of upstream energy injection or downstream energy dissipation. A model of a compression system with recycle flow is derived in this work. 1.

Nur Uddin; Jan Tommy Gravdahl

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Hawaii hydrogen power park Hawaii Hydrogen Power Park  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy source. (Barrier V-Renewable Integration) Hydrogen storage & distribution system. (Barrier V fueled vehicle hydrogen dispensing system. Demonstrate hydrogen as an energy carrier. Investigate Electrolyzer ValveManifold Water High Pressure H2 Storage Fuel Cell AC Power H2 Compressor Hydrogen Supply O2

423

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Doe Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting August 31, 2005 #12;Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Air Liquide Pipeline Inventory Breakdown by gases 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 KM N2 2956 km O2 3447 km H2 1736

424

Study of a hydrogen-bombardment process for molecular cross-linking within thin films  

SciTech Connect

A low-energy hydrogen bombardment method, without using any chemical additives, has been designed for fine tuning both physical and chemical properties of molecular thin films through selectively cleaving C-H bonds and keeping other bonds intact. In the hydrogen bombardment process, carbon radicals are generated during collisions between C-H bonds and hydrogen molecules carrying {approx}10 eV kinetic energy. These carbon radicals induce cross-linking of neighboring molecular chains. In this work, we focus on the effect of hydrogen bombardment on dotriacontane (C{sub 32}H{sub 66}) thin films as growing on native SiO{sub 2} surfaces. After the hydrogen bombardment, XPS results indirectly explain that cross-linking has occurred among C{sub 32}H{sub 66} molecules, where the major chemical elements have been preserved even though the bombarded thin film is washed by organic solution such as hexane. AFM results show the height of the perpendicular phase in the thin film decreases due to the bombardment. Intriguingly, Young's modulus of the bombarded thin films can be increased up to {approx}6.5 GPa, about five times of elasticity of the virgin films. The surface roughness of the thin films can be kept as smooth as the virgin film surface after thorough bombardment. Therefore, the hydrogen bombardment method shows a great potential in the modification of morphological, mechanical, and tribological properties of organic thin films for a broad range of applications, especially in an aggressive environment.

Liu, Y.; Yang, J. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Yang, D. Q.; Nie, H.-Y.; Lau, W. M. [Surface Science Western, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

425

Fiber optic hydrogen sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the development of fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensors for monitoring dissolved hydrogen gas in transformer oil. The concentration of hydrogen gas is a measure of the corona and spark discharge within the transformer and reflects the state of health of the transformer. Key features of the instrument include use of palladium alloys to enhance hydrogen sensitivity, a microprocessor controlled instrument with RS-232, liquid crystal readout, and 4-20 ma. current loop interfaces. Calibration data for both sensors can be down loaded to the instrument through the RS-232 interface. This project was supported by the Technology Transfer Initiative in collaboration with J. W. Harley, Inc. through the mechanism of a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA).

Butler, M.A.; Sanchez, R.; Dulleck, G.R.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

hydrogen | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

hydrogen hydrogen Dataset Summary Description Technical Reference for Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials Source Sandia National Laboratories Date Released June 03rd, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated September 27th, 2012 (2 years ago) Keywords Compatibility of Materials hydrogen NREL Sandia Technical Database Technical Reference Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon 1100_cia85_ten_fra_fat.xlsx (xlsx, 60.9 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon 1100_san10_fra_fat.xlsx (xlsx, 58.5 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon 1100_san10b_fra_fat.xlsx (xlsx, 59.4 KiB) application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon 1100_san11_fra_fat.xlsx (xlsx, 48.4 KiB)

427

NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Production The simplest and most common element, hydrogen is all around us, but always as a compound with other elements. To make it usable in fuel cells or otherwise provide energy, we must expend energy or modify another energy source to extract it from the fossil fuel, biomass, water, or other compound in which it is found. Nearly all hydrogen production in the United States today is by steam reformation of natural gas. This, however, releases carbon dioxide in the process and trades one relatively clean fuel for another, with associated energy loss, so it does little to meet national energy needs. Hydrogen can also be produced by electrolysis-passing an electrical current through water to break it into hydrogen and oxygen-but electrolysis is inefficient and is only as clean

428

HYDROGEN ASSISTED DIESEL COMBUSTION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this study, the effect of hydrogen assisted diesel combustion on conventional and advanced combustion modes was investigated on a DDC/VM Motori 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, (more)

Lilik, Gregory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Hydrogen in titanium alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500/sup 0/C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150/sup 0/C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement.

Wille, G.W.; Davis, J.W.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

X. Hydrogen Program Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

C. Lowell Miller, Director Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels DOE Office of Fossil Energy Phone: 301-903-9453 Email: Lowell.Miller@hq.doe.gov...

431

National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy developme

432

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency for applied research and development (R&D) of cutting edge hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. DOE supports R&D that makes it...

433

SRD 134 Hydrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. HYDROGEN. MW [1]. 2.0159. NBP [1]. 20.390 K. TP [1]. 13.957 K. H 2. Pc [1]. 1.3150 MPa ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

434

SRD 134 Hydrogen Sulfide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

> Return to SRD 134, Index of Semiconductor Process Gases. HYDROGEN SULFIDE. MW [1]. 34.082. NBP [1]. 212.88 K. TP [1]. 187.7 K. H 2 S. Pc [1 ...

2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

435

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operation of a Solid Polymer Fuel Cell: A Parametric Model,"1991). G. Bronoel, "Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cells Without PreciousG. Abens, "Development of a Fuel Cell Power Source for Bus,"

Delucchi, Mark

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Renewable Hydrogen (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presentation about the United State's dependence on oil, how energy solutions are challenging, and why hydrogen should be considered as a long-term alternative for transportation fuel.

Remick, R. J.

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

437

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead federal agency for applied research and development (R&D) of cutting edge hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. DOE supports R&D that makes it...

438

Assessment of Natural Gas Splitting with a Concentrating Solar Reactor for Hydrogen Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydrogen production via thermal decomposition of methane using a solar reactor is analyzed for two different applications: (1) for a fueling station and (2) for power production. For the fueling station, the selling price of hydrogen is controlled by the high cost of hydrogen storage and compression, combined with storage limitations of the system, which prevents maximum hydrogen production. Two alternate scenarios to lower the hydrogen production cost are evaluated: (1) sending the hydrogen directly to a pipeline network and (2) adding a small electric heater, which provides heat to the solar reactor when the hydrogen supply is low. For power production, the economics of two options for the carbon produced from the solar process are evaluated: (1) selling the carbon black and (2) burning the carbon to produce more power.

Spath, P. L.; Amos, W. A.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Hydrogen recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A treatment process for a hydrogen-containing off-gas stream from a refinery, petrochemical plant or the like. The process includes three separation steps: condensation, membrane separation and hydrocarbon fraction separation. The membrane separation step is characterized in that it is carried out under conditions at which the membrane exhibits a selectivity in favor of methane over hydrogen of at least about 2.5.

Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up. Efforts continued to explore existing catalytic methods involving nano catalysts for capture of CO2 from the fermentation process.

Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

2011-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Ultrasonic characterization of interfaces in composite bonds  

SciTech Connect

The inverse determination of imperfect interfaces from reflection spectra of normal and oblique incident ultrasonic waves in adhesive bonds of multidirectional composites is investigated. The oblique measurements are complicated by the highly dispersed nature of oblique wave spectra at frequencies above 3MHz. Different strategies for bond property reconstruction, including a modulation method, are discussed. The relation of measured interfacial spring density to the physico-chemical model of a composite interface described by polymer molecular bonds to emulate loss of molecular strength on an adhesive composite interface is discussed. This potentially relates the interfacial (adhesion) strength (number of bonds at the adhesive substrate interface) to the spring constant (stiffness) area density (flux), which is an ultrasonically measurable parameter.

Wang, N.; Lobkis, O. I.; Rokhlin, S. I. [Ohio State University, Edison Joining Technology Center, 1248 Arthur E Adams Drive, Columbus OH 43221 (United States); Cantrell, J. H. [NASA Langley Research Center, Mail Stop 231, Hampton, Virginia 23681 (United States)

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

442

Industrial Revenue Bond Program (District of Columbia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The District provides below market bond financing to lower the costs of borrowing for qualified capital construction and renovation projects. The program is available to non-profits, institutions,...

443

Nanostructured materials for hydrogen storage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for hydrogen storage comprising a porous nano-structured material with hydrogen absorbed on the surfaces of the porous nano-structured material. The system of hydrogen storage comprises absorbing hydrogen on the surfaces of a porous nano-structured semiconductor material.

Williamson, Andrew J. (Pleasanton, CA); Reboredo, Fernando A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

444

MEASUREMENT OF CARBONYL FLUORIDE, HYDROGEN ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. MEASUREMENT OF CARBONYL FLUORIDE, HYDROGEN FLUORIDE, AND OTHER COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS DURING FIRE ...

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

445

Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gasification technology assumes advanced E-gas gasification. · RD&D is estimated to reduce the cost of hydrogenGenFutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells-production plant · Hydrogen from Coal Program will coordinate with associated DOE programs in Gasification, Fuel

446

The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Identifying and building a sustainable energy system is perhaps one of the most critical issues that today's society must address. Replacing our current energy carrier mix with a sustainable fuel is one of the key pieces in that system. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The hydrogen economy then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. A key piece of this hydrogen economy is the fuel cell. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy in a fuel into low-voltage dc electricity and when using hydrogen as the fuel, the only emission is water vapor. While the basic understanding of fuel cell technology has been known since 1839, it has only been recently that fuel cells have shown their potential as an energy conversion device for both transportation and stationary applications. This talk will introduce the sustainable hydrogen economy and address some of the issues and barriers relating to its deployment as part of a sustainable energy system.

Turner, John (NREL)

2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

447

Metallic hydrogen research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Theoretical studies predict that molecular hydrogen can be converted to the metallic phase at very high density and pressure. These conditions were achieved by subjecting liquid hydrogen to isentropic compression in a magnetic-flux compression device. Hydrogen became electrically conducting at a density of about 1.06 g/cm/sup 3/ and a calculated pressure of about 2 Mbar. In the experimental device, a cylindrical liner, on implosion by high explosive, compresses a magnetic flux which in turn isentropically compresses a hydrogen sample; coaxial conical anvils prevent escape of the sample during compression. One anvil contains a coaxial cable that uses alumina ceramic as an insulator; this probe allows continuous measurement of the electrical conductivity of the hydrogen. A flash x-ray radiograph exposed during the experiment records the location of the sample-tube boundaries and permits calculation of the sample density. The theoretical underpinnings of the metallic transition of hydrogen are briefly summarized, and the experimental apparatus and technique, analytical methods, and results are described. 9 figures.

Burgess, T.J.; Hawke, R.S.

1978-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

448

Examining hydrogen transitions.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Hydrogen Delivery Roadmap  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Area Network (HAN) Grid Operations Generation Energy Service Interface (ESI) Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Neighborhood Distribution Transformer End Us Meas Device...

450

Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Brian Somerday, Chris San Marchi, and Dorian Balch Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, GA August 30-31, 2005 SNL has 40+ years experience with effects of high-pressure hydrogen gas on materials * Design and maintenance of welded stainless steel pressure vessels for containment of high-pressure H 2 isotopes - Extensive testing of stainless steels exposed to high-pressure H 2 gas * Six-year program in 1970s focused on feasibility of using natural gas pipeline network for H 2 gas - Materials testing in high-pressure H 2 gas using laboratory specimens and model pipeline - Examined fusion zone and heat affected zones of welds * Active SNL staff have authored 70+ papers and organized 6

451

Strategy for the Integration of Hydrogen as a Vehicle Fuel into the Existing Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure of the Interstate Clean Transportation Corridor Project: 22 April 2004--31 August 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Evaluates opportunities to integrate hydrogen into the fueling stations of the Interstate Clean Transportation Corridor--an existing network of LNG fueling stations in California and Nevada.

Gladstein, Neandross and Associates

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Montana Clean Renewable Energy Bond Act (Montana) | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Clean Renewable Energy Bond Act (Montana) Montana Clean Renewable Energy Bond Act (Montana) < Back Eligibility StateProvincial Govt Local Government Tribal Government Savings...

453

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels...  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels Suppliers to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Bond Exemption for Small Biofuels Suppliers on Facebook Tweet about...

454

Local Option- Industrial Facilities and Development Bonds (Utah)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Under the Utah Industrial Facilities and Development Act, counties, municipalities, and state universities in Utah may issue Industrial Revenue Bonds (IRBs) or Industrial Development Bonds (IDBs)...

455

Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB) Update: New Guidance from the U.S. Department of Treasury and Internal Revenue Service Title Qualified Energy Conservation Bond (QECB)...

456

Questions and Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines: Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Issues on Hydrogen Issues on Hydrogen Pipelines Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen Doe Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting August 31, 2005 Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 2 Copyright: Air Liquide Pipeline Inventory Breakdown by gases 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 KM N2 2956 km O2 3447 km H2 1736 km CO/Syngas 61 km TOTAL 8200 km Pipeline Inventory 2004 Asie Pacific America Europe Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 3 Copyright: Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 4 Copyright: 3. Special structures River Crossings (culvert): 6 (Rhein, Ruhr, Rhein-Herne-Kanal) River crossing (on bridge): 1 (Rhein-Herne-Kanal) Motorway Crossings: 26 Overground Pipelines: approx 21 km Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 5 Copyright: 5. Mining areas Pipeline Transmission of Hydrogen --- 6 Copyright: France & Netherlands

457

Final Scientifc Report - Hydrogen Education State Partnership Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under the leadership of the Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells program, Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA) educated and worked with state leaders to encourage wider deployment of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies. Through outreach to state policymakers, legislative leaders, clean energy funds, energy agencies, and public utility commissions, CESA worked to accomplish the following objectives of this project: 1. Provide information and technical assistance to state policy leaders and state renewable energy programs in the development of effective hydrogen fuel cell programs. 2. Identify and foster hydrogen program best practices. 3. Identify and promote strategic opportunities for states and the Department of Energy (DOE) to advance hydrogen technology deployment through partnerships, collaboration, and targeted activities. Over the three years of this project, CESA, with our partner National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), was able to provide credible information on fuel cell policies, finance, and technical assistance to hundreds of state officials and other stakeholders. CESA worked with its membership network to effectively educate state clean energy policymakers, program managers, and decision makers about fuel cell and hydrogen technologies and the efforts by states to advance those technologies. With the assistance of NCSL, CESA gained access to an effective forum for outreach and communication with state legislators from all 50 states on hydrogen issues and policies. This project worked to educate policymakers and stakeholders with the potential to develop and deploy stationary and portable fuel cell technologies.

Leon, Warren

2012-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

458

Model study in chemisorption: atomic hydrogen on beryllium clusters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The interaction between atomic hydrogen and the (0001) surface of Be metal has been studied by ab initio electronic structure theory. Self-consistent-field (SCF) calculations have been performed using minimum, optimized minimum, double zeta and mixed basis sets for clusters as large as 22 Be atoms. The binding energy and equilibrium geometry (the distance to the surface) were determined for 4 sites. Both spatially restricted (the wavefunction was constrained to transform as one of the irreducible representations of the molecular point group) and unrestricted SCF calculations were performed. Using only the optimized minimum basis set, clusters containing as many as 22 beryllium atoms have been investigated. From a variety of considerations, this cluster is seen to be nearly converged within the model used, providing the most reliable results for chemisorption. The site dependence of the frequency is shown to be a geometrical effect depending on the number and angle of the bonds. The diffusion of atomic hydrogen through a perfect beryllium crystal is predicted to be energetically unfavorable. The cohesive energy, the ionization energy and the singlet-triplet separation were computed for the clusters without hydrogen. These quantities can be seen as a measure of the total amount of edge effects. The chemisorptive properties are not related to the total amount of edge effects, but rather the edge effects felt by the adsorbate bonding berylliums. This lack of correlation with the total edge effects illustrates the local nature of the bonding, further strengthening the cluster model for chemisorption. A detailed discussion of the bonding and electronic structure is included. The remaining edge effects for the Be/sub 22/ cluster are discussed.

Bauschlicher, C.W. Jr.

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Network Hopes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, the authors examine four cases of municipalities that have attempted to create municipal-sponsored wireless broadband networks. In each of these cases, one of the reasons given for establishing the network was to engage the citizens in ... Keywords: civic engagement, municipalities, social capital, wireless broadband Internet

Andrea H. Tapia; Julio Angel Ortiz

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Aqueous-phase hydrogenation of acetic acid over transition metal catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol has been carried out in aqueous phase on several metals, with ruthenium being the most active and selective. DFT calculations suggest that the initial CO bond scission yielding acetyl is the key step and that the intrinsic reactivity of the metals accounts for the observed activity.

Olcay, Hakan [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Xu, Lijun [ORNL; Xu, Ye [ORNL; Huber, George [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrogen bond network" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

A smooth transition to hydrogen transportation fuel  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work is to examine viable near-term infrastructure options for a transition to hydrogen fueled vehicles and to suggest profitable directions for technology development. The authors have focused in particular on the contrasting options of decentralized production using the existing energy distribution network, and centralized production of hydrogen with a large-scale infrastructure. Delivered costs have been estimated using best available industry cost and deliberately conservative economic assumptions. The sensitivities of these costs have then been examined for three small-scale scenarios: (1) electrolysis at the home for one car, and production at the small station scale (300 cars/day), (2) conventional alkaline electrolysis and (3) steam reforming of natural gas. All scenarios assume fueling a 300 mile range vehicle with 3.75 kg. They conclude that a transition appears plausible, using existing energy distribution systems, with home electrolysis providing fuel costing 7.5 to 10.5{cents}/mile, station electrolysis 4.7 to 7.1{cents}/mile, and steam reforming 3.7 to 4.7{cents}/mile. The average car today costs about 6{cents}/mile to fuel. Furthermore, analysis of liquid hydrogen delivered locally by truck from central processing plants can also be competitive at costs as low as 4{cents}/mile. These delivered costs are equal to $30 to $70 per GJ, LHV. Preliminary analysis indicates that electricity transmission costs favor this method of distributing energy, until very large (10 GW) hydrogen pipelines are installed. This indicates that significant hydrogen pipeline distribution will be established only when significant markets have developed.

Berry, G.D.; Smith, J.R.; Schock, R.N.

1995-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

462

Network Simulation  

SciTech Connect

A detailed introduction to the design, implementation and use of network simulation tools is presented. The requirements and issues faced in the design of simulators for wired and wireless networks are discussed. Abstractions such as packet- and fluid-level network models are covered. Several existing simulations are given as examples, with details and rationales regarding design decisions presented. Issues regarding performance and scalability are discussed in detail, describing how one can utilize distributed simulation methods to increase the scale and performance of a simulation environment. Finally, a case study of two simulation tools is presented that have been developed using distributed simulation techniques. This text is essential to any student, researcher or network architect desiring a detailed understanding of how network simulation tools are designed, implemented, and used.

Fujimoto, Richard [ORNL; Perumalla, Kalyan S [ORNL; Riley, George F. [Georgia Institute of Technology

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Hydrogen-selective membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2} s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

1997-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

464

Hot Hydrogen Test Facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellants absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.

W. David Swank

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Magnetic liquefier for hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document summarizes work done at the Astronautics Technology Center of the Astronautics Corporation of America (ACA) in Phase 1 of a four phase program leading to the development of a magnetic liquefier for hydrogen. The project involves the design, fabrication, installation, and operation of a hydrogen liquefier providing significantly reduced capital and operating costs, compared to present liquefiers. To achieve this goal, magnetic refrigeration, a recently developed, highly efficient refrigeration technology, will be used for the liquefaction process. Phase 1 project tasks included liquefier conceptual design and analysis, preliminary design of promising configurations, design selection, and detailed design of the selected design. Fabrication drawings and vendor specifications for the selected design were completed during detailed design. The design of a subscale, demonstration magnetic hydrogen liquefier represents a significant advance in liquefaction technology. The cost reductions that can be realized in hydrogen liquefaction in both the subscale and, more importantly, in the full-scale device are expected to have considerable impact on the use of liquid hydrogen in transportation, chemical, and electronic industries. The benefits to the nation from this technological advance will continue to have importance well into the 21st century.

NONE

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

Hydrogen-Selective Membrane  

SciTech Connect

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2.s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

467

Hydrogen-selective membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 .mu.m but typically less than about 20 .mu.m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m.sup.2. s at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500.degree. C. and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400.degree. C. and less than about 1000.degree. C. before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process.

Collins, John P. (Boulder, CO); Way, J. Douglas (Boulder, CO)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Hydrogen in semiconductors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

After an incubation'' period in the 1970's and early 80's, during which the first hydrogen related centers were discovered and characterized in ultra-pure germanium, a sharp increase of research activity occurred after the discovery of shallow acceptor passivation in crystalline silicon. The aim of this review is to convey an insight into the rich, multifaceted physics and materials science which has emerged from the vast variety of experimental and theoretical studies of hydrogen in semiconductors. In order to arrive at the current understanding of hydrogen related phenomena in a logical way, each chapter will start with a brief review of the major experimental and theoretical advances of the past few years. Those who are interested to learn more about this fascinating area of semiconductor research are referred to reviews, to a number of conference proceedings volumes, and to an upcoming book which will contain authoritative chapters on most aspects of hydrogen in crystalline semiconductors. Some of the early art of semiconductor device processing can finally be put on a scientific foundation and new ways of arriving at advanced device structures begin to use what we have learned from the basic studies of hydrogen in semiconductors. 92 refs., 8 figs.

Haller, E.E. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Hydrogen-selective membrane  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrogen-selective membrane comprises a tubular porous ceramic support having a palladium metal layer deposited on an inside surface of the ceramic support. The thickness of the palladium layer is greater than about 10 {micro}m but typically less than about 20 {micro}m. The hydrogen permeation rate of the membrane is greater than about 1.0 moles/m{sup 2}s at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure difference of about 1,500 kPa. Moreover, the hydrogen-to-nitrogen selectivity is greater than about 600 at a temperature of greater than about 500 C and a transmembrane pressure of about 700 kPa. Hydrogen can be separated from a mixture of gases using the membrane. The method may include the step of heating the mixture of gases to a temperature of greater than about 400 C and less than about 1000 C before the step of flowing the mixture of gases past the membrane. The mixture of gases may include ammonia. The ammonia typically is decomposed to provide nitrogen and hydrogen using a catalyst such as nickel. The catalyst may be placed inside the tubular ceramic support. The mixture of gases may be supplied by an industrial process such as the mixture of exhaust gases from the IGCC process. 9 figs.

Collins, J.P.; Way, J.D.

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

470

FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Current Technology to someone Current Technology to someone by E-mail Share FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Facebook Tweet about FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Twitter Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Google Bookmark FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Delicious Rank FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on Digg Find More places to share FCT Hydrogen Delivery: Current Technology on AddThis.com... Home Basics Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems Analysis Contacts Current Technology Today, hydrogen is transported from the point of production to the point of use via pipeline, over the road in cryogenic liquid trucks or gaseous tube

471

Screened non-bonded interactions in native proteins manipulate optimal paths for robust residue communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A protein structure is represented as a network of residues whereby edges are determined by intra-molecular contacts. We introduce inhomogeneity into these networks by assigning each edge a weight that is determined by amino-acid pair potentials. Two methodologies are utilized to calculate the average path lengths (APLs) between pairs: To minimize (i) the maximum weight in the strong APL, and (ii) the total weight in the weak APL. We systematically screen edges that have higher than a cutoff potential and calculate the shortest APLs in these reduced networks, while keeping chain connectivity. Therefore, perturbations introduced at a selected region of the residue network propagate to remote regions only along the non-screened edges that retain their ability to disseminate the perturbation. The shortest APLs computed from the reduced homogeneous networks with only the strongest few non-bonded pairs closely reproduce the strong APLs from the weighted networks. The rate of change in the APL in the reduced residue network as compared to its randomly connected counterpart remains constant until a lower bound. Upon further link removal, this property shows an abrupt increase, towards a random coil behavior. Under different perturbation scenarios, diverse optimal paths emerge for robust residue communication.

Ali Rana Atilgan; Deniz Turgut; Canan Atilgan

2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

472

Atomistic simulation of the hydrogen-induced fracture process in an iron-based superalloy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Austenitic superalloys exhibit dramatic reductions in ductility and crack growth resistance when high fugacity hydrogen and hydrogen-producing environments trigger a change in fracture mode from microvoid coalescence to slip band and intergranular fracture. Of particular importance is the change to intergranular fracture. We have therefore combined the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) with Monte Carlo simulations and molecular dynamics calculations to help define the effects of hydrogen on segregation and fracture at the atomic level. Nickel was used to simulate the face-centered-cubic austenite lattice while symmetric and asymmetric {sigma}9 tilt boundaries were used to simulate grain boundaries. These simulations show that grain boundaries are strong trap sites for hydrogen. They further show that hydrogen dramatically reduces the bond strength between atoms at grain boundary sites while inhibiting dislocation generation.

Moody, N.R.; Foiles, S.M.; Baskes, M.I. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Angelo, J.E. [Seagate, Bloomington, MN (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

473

Enhancing hydrogen evolution activities in water splitting by tailoring Li+/Ni(OH){<_2}/Pt interfaces.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improving the sluggish kinetics for the electrochemical reduction of water to molecular hydrogen in alkaline environments is one key to reducing the high overpotentials and associated energy losses in water-alkali and chlor-alkali electrolyzers. We found that a controlled arrangement of nanometer-scale Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters on platinum electrode surfaces manifests a factor of 8 activity increase in catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction relative to state-of-the-art metal and metal-oxide catalysts. In a bifunctional effect, the edges of the Ni(OH){sub 2} clusters promoted the dissociation of water and the production of hydrogen intermediates that then adsorbed on the nearby Pt surfaces and recombined into molecular hydrogen. The generation of these hydrogen intermediates could be further enhanced via Li{sup +}-induced destabilization of the HO-H bond, resulting in a factor of 10 total increase in activity.

Subbaraman, S.; Tripkovic, D.; Strmcnik, D.; Chang, K-C.; Uchimura, M.; Paulikas, A. P.; Stamenkovic, V.; Markovic, N. M. (Materials Science Division); ( NE); (Nissan Res. Ctr.)

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

474

Time resolved studies of bond activation by organometallic complexes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In 1971, Jetz and Graham discovered that the silicon-hydrogen bond in silanes could be broken under mild photochemical conditions in the presence of certain transition metal carbonyls. Such reactions fall within the class of oxidative addition. A decade later, similar reactivity was discovered in alkanes. In these cases a C-H bond in non-functionalized alkanes was broken through the oxidative addition of Cp*Ir(H){sub 2}L (Cp* = (CH{sub 3}){sub 5}C{sub 5}, L = PPh{sub 3}, Ph = C{sub 6}H{sub 5}) to form Cp*ML(R)(H) or of Cp*Ir(CO){sub 2} to form Cp*Ir(CO)(R)(H). These discoveries opened an entirely new field of research, one which naturally included mechanistic studies aimed at elucidating the various paths involved in these and related reactions. Much was learned from these experiments but they shared the disadvantage of studying under highly non-standard conditions a system which is of interest largely because of its characteristics under standard conditions. Ultrafast time-resolved IR spectroscopy provides an ideal solution to this problem; because it allows the resolution of chemical events taking place on the femto-through picosecond time scale, it is possible to study this important class of reactions under the ambient conditions which are most of interest to the practicing synthetic chemist. Certain of the molecules in question are particularly well-suited to study using the ultrafast IR spectrophotometer described in the experimental section because they contain one or more carbonyl ligands.

Wilkens, M.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Div.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pathway Cost Distributions Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric hybrids are benchmarks * R&D guidance provided in two forms * Evolved gasoline ICE defines a threshold hydrogen cost used to screen or eliminate options which can't show ability to meet target * Gasoline-electric hybrid defines a lower hydrogen cost used to prioritize projects for resource allocation

476

Hydrogen recycling: fundamental processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The recycling of hydrogen at the interior surfaces of plasma devices is an important and largely uncontrolled process at present. There remain important questions concerning the fundamental processes involved in recycling phenomena and the material dependence of these pocesses. A primary aim of the fundamental studies should be to develop sufficient understanding of the influence of materials properties on hydrogen recycling so that the materials and machine operating conditions can be selected to give maximum control of hydrogen recycling. In addition, realistic models of the wall behavior under recycling conditions need to be developed. Such modeling goes hand-in-hand with both fundamental process studies and in situ measurements, and may provide sufficient overall understanding of the influence of recycling on machine operation to impact design decisions effecting such important processes as impurity control, plasma, fueling, and pulse length.

Picraux, S.T.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Hydrogen vehicle fueling station  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors describe a hydrogen vehicle fueling station that receives and stores hydrogen in liquid form and dispenses it either as a liquid or compressed gas. The economics that accrue from the favorable weight and volume advantages of liquid hydrogen support this concept both now and probably for some time to come. The model for liquid transfer to a 120-liter vehicle tank shows that transfer times under five minutes are feasible with pump-assisted transfer, or for pressure transfer with subcooling greater than 1 K. The model for compressed gas transfer shows that underfilling of nearly 30% can occur during rapid filling. Cooling the fill gas to 214 K completely eliminates underfilling.

Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Hydrogen: Fueling the Future  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen storage will be highlighted in this seminar.

Leisch, Jennifer

2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

479

New Materials for Hydrogen Pipelines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OAK OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY New Materials for Hydrogen Pipelines New Materials for Hydrogen Pipelines Barton Smith, Barbara Frame, Cliff Eberle, Larry Anovitz, James Blencoe and Tim Armstrong Oak Ridge National Laboratory Jimmy Mays University of Tennessee, Knoxville Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Meeting August 30-31, 2005 Augusta, Georgia 2 OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY U. S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Overview Overview - - Barriers and Technical Targets Barriers and Technical Targets * Barriers to Hydrogen Delivery - Existing steel pipelines are subject to hydrogen embrittlement and are inadequate for widespread H 2 distribution. - Current joining technology (welding) for steel pipelines is major cost factor and can exacerbate hydrogen embrittlement issues.

480

Hydrogen production from microbial strains  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z