Sample records for hydrofluorocar bons hfcs

  1. The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

  2. Bon-The Primitive Religion of Tibet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Anukul Chandra

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and in certain parts still extant". Jaschke3 holds the view that Bon is the nameQf the early religion of Tibet, concerning which but very imperfect acqounts are existing; so much is certain that sorcery was the principl~feature of it. 1. Encyclopaedia ot... Religion and ethics. 333. 2. P.879. 3. A Tibetan-English Dictlonary-P. 372, 1 When Buddhism became the religion of State. the former was considered heretical and condemnable and Lha-cos and bon-cos, or shorter cos and bon, were placed in opposition...

  3. Facebook i tuits en bon valenci: una iniciativa nascuda al si de la UA Alacant, 6 de juny de 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escolano, Francisco

    Facebook i tuits en bon valencià: una iniciativa nascuda al si de la UA Alacant, 6 de juny de 2012 universitària de la Universitat d'Alacant en Facebook i Twitter. En Bon Valencià ens proporciona cada dia, directament en el nostre compte de Twitter o Facebook, xicotetes dosis de correcció lingüística, en el format

  4. Prayer to Ta pi hri tsa - A short exposition of the Base, the Path and the Fruit in Bon Dzogchen teachings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurkovic, Ratka

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prayer to Ta pi hri tsa A short exposition of the Base, the Path and the Fruit in Bon Dzogchen teachings* By Ratka Jurkovic Introduction zogchen (rDzogs pa chen po or in short rDzogs chen), the Great Perfection represents... of the Dzogchen teachings represented through the discussion of Base, Fruit and Path. The six verse form is typical of the kind usually found in the earliest Dzogchen Nyingma text, “The Cuckoo of the Intellect” (Rig pa’i khu byug), a copy of which was among...

  5. Case Study No. 2: Bon Appétit Management Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thistlethwaite, Rebecca; Brown, Martha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compa- ny’s and diners’ carbon footprint. Working with inde-diners can assess the carbon footprint of each item they put

  6. Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuo Feng Bio JumpVenturesCoral CapitalBoilers Jump to:Yankton

  7. Bon Homme County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160Benin: Energy ResourcesJersey:formBlueBombay Beach, California: Energy Resources

  8. Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORT Americium/CuriumSunways JV Jump to:BhorukaBonfiglioli Tansmital

  9. Les Bons Ingredients pour un Haut Niveau de Performance des Installations Climatiques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rougnon, J.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DE POST-RECEPTION DES SERVICES ADAPTES AUX BESOINS, CONTRACTUELS DES SERVICES ADAPTES AUX BESOINS, CONTRACTUELS 1 an RECEPTION RECEPTION ICEBO ? C ommiss 7 Le dossier technique Le dossier technique usage, maintenance, exploitation, usage, maintenance..., exploitation, selon le contratselon le contrat DOSSIER DOEFichesNotices d?usageMAP Ajustements des r?glages, fonctions DIUO de la GTB, nettoyages sanitaires? P.V.COPREC RECEPTION DOSSIER DOEFichesNotices d?usageMAPAjustements des r?glages, DIUO Fonctions de...

  10. Approximations. -Il est bon d'indiquer quelles approximations nous avons fuites : toutes d'ailleurs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'est-à-dire du même ordre de grandeur que (HHo)2, par rapport à d2udt etd2vdt et par conséquent négli- geables

  11. The black grouper (Mycteroperca bon-aci) is one of the 20 most commonly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    harvested from the Campeche Bank (the continental shelf surround- ing the northern coast of the Yucatan of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), including the shallow waters of National Marine Park Alacranes Reef and population structure characteris- tics for Campeche Bank black grouper were consistent

  12. Personal Visualization and Personal Visual Dandan Huang, Melanie Tory, Bon Adriel Aseniero, Lyn Bartram, Scott Bateman, Sheelagh Carpendale,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tory, Melanie

    data relevant to their personal lives, interests, and needs. Index Terms--Taxonomy, personal context such as water, electricity use) are easily available to us. These data are relevant to our personal lives) involves the design of interactive visual data representations for use in a personal context, and Personal

  13. Berlin, le 25 janvier 2007 Evaluation et politiques: Y a-t-il de bons indicateurs pour la recherche?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    (derived from the works of Amartya Sen). Then I try to apply these conceptions towards research evaluation

  14. Combining boron isotopes and carbamazepine to trace sewage in salinized groundwater: a case study in Cap Bon, Tunisia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    treatment and so recognized as a pertinent tracer of wastewater contamination. The system equilibrium of Research in Rural Engineering of Water and Forestry), rue Hédi Karray, B.P.10- 2080 Ariana, Tunisia based on a managed aquifer recharge with treated wastewater. Water quality monitoring was implemented

  15. Motion plan n in g for m ulti-robot assem bly M . BON ER T, L. H. SHU and B. BEN H ABIB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Lily H.

    -type optim ization problem s. H owever, in these augm ented TSPs (TSP+) , both the `sales- person' (a robot, Euclidean, Ch ebysh ev, prize collectin g an d tim e-depen - den t TSP variation s ( Dubowsky an d Blubaugh

  16. US Army Corps of Engineers Portland District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) 1,200 Steelhead Kelt passage at BON Passage behavior to inform decision on BON powerhouse priority

  17. Contribution aux nombrables de la tradition Bon po : l'Appendive de bsTan 'dzin Rin chen rgyal mtshan a la Sphere de Cristal des Dieux et des Demons de Shar rdza rin po che

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achard, Jean-Luc

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gsum rnam par 'byed palha gnyen shel sgong zhes bya ba). Inclus en ouverture du volume 14 [Pha] de lacollection, ce texte expose les principes fondamentaux, théoriques et prati-ques, qui animent les deux Phases (rim gnyis) de la pratique tantrique supé... strictementconforme à ce qu'elle devrait être. Selon bsTan 'dzin Rin chen rgyal mtshanles préliminaires formant ce que l’on désigne comme l’entraînement destrois portes (sngon ‘gro sgo gsum sbyang ba)48 comprennent les éléments sui-vants : — pour le corps (lus), il...

  18. Reliability of Heat Pumps Containing R410-A Refrigerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, B. A.; Cawley, D.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on alternate refrigerants. One major manufacturer announced a formation of black smudge on internal surfaces of field trial units using HFCs. Several causes were suggested but none were published. Reports of capillary tube plugging were wide spread. Polyol...

  19. A Comparison of Fault Detection Methods For a Transcritical Refrigeration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janecke, Alex Karl

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    on Climate Change, eleven of the twelve years between 1995 and 2006 ranked with the highest temperatures since direct measurement has been available [3]. The use of hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) as refrigerants contributes to climate change. Global warming...

  20. Wind Power and the Clean Development Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biogas Cement HFCs Geothermal EE Households Solar N2O Fugitive Tidal EE Service Transport Energy distrib 200 300 400 500 600 700 Lara Landfill (10 MW) Korat Biogas (3 MW) Rukmani Rice Husk (10 MW) Palestina

  1. The State of the CDM & its Contribution to SD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    distribution of CDM projects 2012 CER Total in the CDM Pipeline kCERs Population per cap. Latin America 609 23 category Renewables 61% Demand-side EE 5% Supply-side EE 11% Fuel sw itch 3% HFCs, PFCs & N2O reduction 2% Supply-side EE 10% CH4 reduction & Cement & Coal mine/bed 20% Renewables 28% HFCs, PFCs & N2O reduction

  2. HaloTag protein-mediated specific labeling of living cells with quantum dots Min-kyung So, Hequan Yao 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Jianghong

    Tag protein (HTP) [25]. The na- tive HTP is a monomeric protein (MW $ 33 KDa) that cleaves car- bon halogen

  3. Old Oyo Influences on the Transformation of Lucumí Identity in Colonial Cuba

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovejoy, Henry B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bon Maroon Wars in Suriname. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1990.and Musical Transformations in Suriname c. 1775 until afterand Susu Xylophones in Suriname. ” Paper presented at “

  4. analogas al acido: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: Supporting Information Osborn et al. 10.1073pnas.1100682108 SI Methods Dissolved gas samples were- bons....

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - acid catabolic pathway Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metabolism of nutrients1 Summary: , and cell cultures to investigate the interconnectivity of the pathways of macronutrient and nucleic acid... -labeled car- bon skeletons...

  6. E-Print Network 3.0 - argon 1s photoelectron Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    silicon dioxide, and gold Summary: that increasing exposure time resulted in the intensity of the car- bon (1s) signal increasing relative... for 21 hours exhibits a carbon...

  7. MEMS Materials and Temperature Sensors for Down Hole Geothermal System Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wodin-Schwartz, Sarah

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 5(4), 1996. [25]bon for microelectromechanical systems and electrochemicalJournal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 22(1), 2013. [98

  8. Bulletin of Tibetology: Volume 17 Number 4 : Full issue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Namgyal Institute of Tibetology

    1981-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    CONTENTS 1. Bon-The Primitive Religion of Tibet 1 Dr. Anukul Chandra Banerjee ~ 2. Lamaism in Tibet- A Brief Survey 19 t" B. Ghosh 3. Functions and Activities of SRITOBS 23 4. Publications of SRITOBS 1-6 Bon-The Primitive Religion of Tibet Prof... of incantation. The word Chos which ordinarily means religion is used as antithesis to Bon. Bon signifies the kind of Shamanism which was followed by Tibetans before the introduction of Buddhism and in certain parts still extant". Jaschke3 holds the view...

  9. Concomitant tuning of metal work function and wetting property with mixed self-assembled monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the work function can be achieved by the use of mixed SAMs of a fluorocarbon and a hydrocar- bon [13

  10. INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS OF THE AERONAUTICAL SCIENCES The French APACHE project aims at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    commercially available fuel cell vehicles [1­4]. Several projects of fuel cell aircrafts intend to demonstrate at demonstrating the feasibility of using a Hybrid Fuel Cell System (HFCS) as the power generator for all electric Fuel Cells (PEMFC), their hybridization with Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) batteries and systems' integration

  11. Atmospheric histories and global emissions of the anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons HFC-365mfc, HFC-245fa, HFC-227ea, and HFC-236fa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigby, Matthew

    We report on ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates of the four anthropogenic hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) HFC-365mfc (CH[subscript 3]CF[subscript 2]CH[subscript 2]CF[subscript 3], 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane), ...

  12. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

  13. PUBLICATIONS, CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS AND REPORTS Refereed Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, John M.

    Petroleum Technology, February 2008, Vol. 47, No.2, 52-61. 25. Bon, J., Sarma, H.K., Rodrigues, J.T. and Bon, J.G., "Reservoir Fluid Sampling Revisited - A Practical Perspective", SPE Reservoir Evaluation in SPE News Australasia, October/November 2003, Issue 79. 17. H.K. Sarma, N. Yazawa, R.G. Moore, S

  14. Constitution (1987). Haitian French Creole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    jistis tout bon vre. 3. Konstitisyon sa a la, pou peyi d Ayiti kanpe solid, pou li kanpe an fôm, an pami tout nasyon. Pou li pa restavèk okenn lot peyi. Pou li kenbe tou sa ki fè Ayisyen, se Ayisyen tout bon, ni nan sa yo mete konfyans yo ladan, ni... nan jan yo viv, ni nan fason youn sévi ak 1ÓL 4. Konstitisyon sa a la, pou demokrasi pouse bon rasin nan peyi a. Pou tout moun gen dwa suiv lide yo lib. Pou direksyon peyi a pa toujou rete nan men menm moun ak menm gwoup moun tout tan. Pou pèsonn...

  15. Cover photos: CBL, AL, and HPL small photos: Cheryl Nemazie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boynton, Walter R.

    ALITy...................................................................................................2 UMCES CArBON FOOTprINT: STATUS ANd TrENdS Selectively redesign or replace HVAC systems and further insulate facilities Capture and reuse gray water

  16. portation and Greenhouse Gas (MUNTAG) model is a macroscopic, highly aggregate model that works at the municipal level and solely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    identifies the following four sectors: buildings; trans- portation and land use; energy supply; and municipal GHG inventory. This work is part of a project to write a guide called Getting to Car- bon Neutral

  17. J.J. Berezan is currently a M.Sc. graduate student

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Tim Grain

    similar to this was applied later to agricultural tractor drivers after many complaints about back group (Bon- venzi and Betta, 1994). It has been found that tractor drivers can experience vibration expo

  18. 7 Cometabolic Bioremediation T. C. Hazen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    bioremediation has been used on some of the most recalcitrant contami- nants, e.g., PCE, TCE, MTBE, TNT, dioxane and aromatic hydrocar- bons, MTBE, explosives, dioxane, PCBs, and pesticides. Microorganisms are versatile

  19. Purification de l'hexafluorure d'uranium.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benzouaa, Rachid

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??L’hexafluorure d’uranium (UF6), est le seul composé utilisé à l’état gazeux dans les procédés d’enrichissement pour la production du combustible nucléaire. Pour le bon déroulement… (more)

  20. N D'ORDRE : 7029 UNIVERSITE DE PARIS XI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    contribué, de près ou de loin, au bon déroulement de ma thèse, et parmi celles-ci : -Erwin Dreyer et maintes fois sauvé mes peupliers d'une mort certaine... Au CEA-Cadarache Merci à Gilles Peltier, pour m

  1. Padova, 29 novembre 2010 Arturo Lorenzoni

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    energy technologies have to give proper answers to 2 main challenges in the long term. We need to find the sustainable soluBons to the energy supply conundrum. Most energy companies have very short Bme horizons due to stock

  2. Nutrient Cycling in the Great lakes: A Summarization of Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .faetor, 1I,r..._.t h ..., .... _.r.bon fa.lou (Thoa.. !.!.!!. UfO) . tb......n ··· vblch .n 1t.t,IIl, tapaet

  3. fois, ils semblent aussi impliqus dans une tape postrieure l'initiation qui est la promo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    E.A. & Recknagel R.O. (1983) Carbon tetrachloride and bromotrichloromethane toxi- city. Dual role.A., Fernan- dez Y. & Mitjavila S. (1986) Radical activation of car- bon tetrachloride in foetal and maternal

  4. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.

  5. Chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures with metals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huttenlocher, D.F.

    1992-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a sealed tube stability study on twenty-one refrigerant-lubricant mixtures selected from the following groupings: HFCs R-32, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-143a, and R-152a with one or more lubricants selected from among three pentaerythritol esters and three polyalkylene glycols. All lubricants were carefully predried to 25 ppm or less moisture content. HCFCs R-22, R-123, R-124, and R-142b, as well as CFC R-11, with one or more lubricants selected from among two mineral oils and one alkylbenzene fluid. Bach test mixture was aged at three temperature levels.

  6. Investigation of Soap Powders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bragg, G.A.

    1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in the presence of such a large excess of NajjSO* as is usually present, does not give a sharp end point, but a gradual fading from yellow to pink so that some little practice is necessary before the operator can hit the end point accurately. Practice does... and soap. Bon Ami• Manufactured by Bon Ami Company, New York, I. Y. Wt. 10 ounces Price 10 cents. Analysis. Moisture .......... 0.28# Soap 6.54# Albite 93,18# Total 100.00^ IT. B. Albite is an orthoclase of the following composition: Si0 2 68...

  7. Black carbon refractive index and morphology: a Laboratory study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxford, University of

    - bon: What is representa- tive? Fuel % share Grassland 21.2 Diesel 16.7 Tropical forest 12.4 Wood 7 carbon (see Table). We intend to include some bulk samples of bio- mass burning. Due to the wide range on mimic Diesel soot that can be produced under controlled conditions. 5 Experiential number density

  8. Solar Phys (2010) 261: 353359 DOI 10.1007/s11207-009-9497-4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usoskin, Ilya G.

    Solar Phys (2010) 261: 353­359 DOI 10.1007/s11207-009-9497-4 Critical Comment on the Article by R strong but erroneous statements were made by R. Rek in an article pub- lished in this volume of Solar data and its relation to solar activity. Several strong claims were made by R09: i) radiocar- bon 14 C

  9. 820 Gessner Rd. -Ste. 920 Houston, TX 77024 www.energytribune.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    the Orinoco AMERICA: BURNING FOOD AS AUTO FUEL Argentina's Looming Energy Crunch Argentina's Looming Energy on our global strengths and the changing dynamics of the global energy and food markets." As ADM, one ­ increased soil erosion, huge car- bon dioxide emissions, biodiversity loss, and desert- ification

  10. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C8, supplement a u n012, Tome 48, decembre 1987

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES OF SILICA AEROGELS J. BON, E. BONJOUR, R. CALEMCZUK and B. SALCE CEN de Grenoble, DRFG and acoustic attenuation of s i l i c a aerogel have been measured by the resonant bar method. Measurements range. The experimental investigation of l o w density s i l i c a aerogels (p

  11. through the digestive tract of patients with a malabsorption syndrome. In addition, our

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    digestibility car- bon from dietary CHO. Effect of algal fibre supplementation (Eucheuma cottonii) on intestinal of their nutritional properties, this work inves- tigated the possible effects of algal polysac- charides sequence of test meals (800 g of maize starch + casein) sup- plemented either with 40 g of algal fibres

  12. ELSEVIER Computational Materials Science 2 (1994) 468-474 Modifying the buckyball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of C60- inspired carbon fullerenes. At present, the most intensively investigated systems are multi 1994) Abstract Structural and electronic properties of carbon clusters, in particular the C60 triggered a world-wide interest in this novel form of car- bon. The resulting research effort first concen

  13. Universit Paris-Est cole Doctorale Ville et Environnement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , qui m'a mise sur les chemins de la recherche en m'aidant à mener cette thèse, du montage du dossier quand la pendaison de crémaillère ?), Anthony (une jolie complicité, de très bons moments), Arnaud (un

  14. Structure and Density of Mo and Acid Sites in Mo-Exchanged H-ZSM5 Catalysts for Nonoxidative Methane Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    of natural gas to higher hydrocar- bons and aromatics remains an important industrial challenge Methane Conversion Richard W. Borry III, Young Ho Kim, Anne Huffsmith, Jeffrey A. Reimer, and Enrique and gas phase transport, exchange at acid sites, and react to form H2O. The amount of H2O evolved during

  15. Mechanical engineering Department Seminar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties of NPs and those of nanocar- bon, but also additional novel properties due to the electronic interaction between the NP and the nanocarbon. Such hybrid nanostructures are promising for various technological applications, such as sensors, photovoltaic cells, lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, fuel

  16. Atomic and molecular adsorption on RhMn alloy surface: A first principles study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    and hydrogen from reforming of natural gas and coal to hydro- carbon Fishcher-Tropsch synthesis and oxygenates- bon and partial oxidation of methane.15 The importance of Rh catalysts on catalytic reactions molecules in terms of the energetics and site preferences on Rh catalysts as well as the effects of Mn added

  17. Direction gnrale des technologies de l'information et de la communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charette, André

    (ITIL), qui lui permettra de revoir tout son processus de gestion des incidents et des requêtes et de sa première phase, l'implantation du référentiel ITIL touche surtout les processus nécessaires au bon

  18. Towards the use of Qualitative Reasoning for supporting Information Technology Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    - ITIL1 , which offers documents to be used in the implementation of a framework for IT Service Management (van Bon 2005). ITIL includes two important titles, service delivery and service support. Service for Artificial Intelli- gence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved. 1 http://www.itil.org.uk/ and incident

  19. Grid 2020: Toward a Policy of Renewable & Distributed Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the equivalent of EU's 20/20/20 Plan #12;3 Source: DoE EERE 2012 US State Net Metering Policy Policy is Spurring DG AdopBon 43 states with net metering tariffs + 17 states Smart Grid with Web 2.0 Enables Customer Partnerships Consumer-Prosumer Evolu

  20. Nitrogen Addition Increases Carbon Storage in Soils, But Not in Trees, in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Templer, Pamela

    nitrogen (N) species and car- bon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere globally. Received 18 August 2012Nitrogen Addition Increases Carbon Storage in Soils, But Not in Trees, in an Eastern U.S. Deciduous regions receive elevated rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition from air pollution. To evalu- ate

  1. VOLUME 93 NUMBER 23 5 JUNE 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and were designed to track pollutant gases such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitric acid, and nitrogen dioxide, rainfall, and the concentration of car- bon dioxide [New et al., 1999; Tans et al., 1996 regional networks together to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sen- sible heat

  2. KINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Man-Chung

    for the conversion of nitrogen oxides,1,2,4-10 sulfur dioxide,11 and volatile organic car- bons.12 Despite itsKINETICS, CATALYSIS, AND REACTION ENGINEERING Nonthermal Plasma Reactions of Dilute Nitrogen Oxide Mixtures: NOx in Nitrogen Gui-Bing Zhao, Xudong Hu, Man-Chung Yeung, Ovid A. Plumb,§ and Maciej Radosz

  3. February 18, 2009 The A Priori

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    about some agent's knowledge, we might say something like `that's a priori for him.' [Kripke, 1980 careless about distinguishing a priority from analyticity and necessity. (Roughly: something is a priori of some fairly specific sort, might be required for that. [BonJour, 2005, p.99] ­ The positive condition

  4. COLE DOCTORALE SCIENCE INGNIERIE ET ENVIRONNEMENT prsente pour l'obtention du diplome de

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    as enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). But the swelling of the coal matrix induced by the preferential dual-porosity models for a coal bed reservoir saturated by a pure fluid. The re to reduce the impact of such emissions on the environment. Moreover, injecting car- bon dioxide in coal bed

  5. Murchison presolar carbon grains of different density fractions: A Raman spectroscopic perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for inorganic sp2 -bonded carbon. Based on their D/G intensity ratios, those grains were grouped.1), "glassy carbon" (D/G > 1.1), and "unusual sp2 -bonded graphitic car- bon" (with extremely intense 2ndMurchison presolar carbon grains of different density fractions: A Raman spectroscopic perspective

  6. UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    i UNIVERSITY OF OREGON SOLAR MONITORING LABORATORY The University of Oregon (UO) Solar Moni- toring Laboratory has been measuring incident solar radiation since 1975. Current support for this work comes from the Regional Solar Radiation Monitoring Project (RSRMP), a utility consortium project including the Bon

  7. Gary G. Lash $ Department of Geosciences, State University of New YorkCollege at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engelder, Terry

    in a hydrocar- bon source rock that carries regional vertical joints indicating a horizontal least principal;INTRODUCTION Horizontal microcracks in fine-grained, low-permeability source rocks serve as primary hydrocarbon nature of the rock; and (3) the tight, strongly oriented planar clay-grain fabric produced by gravita

  8. LA DELEGATION DU SERVICE PUBLIC DE GESTION DES DECHETS SOLIDES EN AFRIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    LA DELEGATION DU SERVICE PUBLIC DE GESTION DES DECHETS SOLIDES EN AFRIQUE : A LA RECHERCHE D Economiques et de Gestion Tel. (237) 77 37 23 07 ; Courriel: sotamenou@yahoo.fr Dans bon nombre de pays'interroger sur la performance sociale d'un tel arrangement institutionnel. Dans le cas spécifique du service

  9. Tamang jatibare sangkshipta sabda citra Traite sur l'origine de la caste tamang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lama, Thubten

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    voie du Bauddha tantra . Chez les autres, on continue encore de vénérer les divinités lignagères par l’intermédiaire du Bon ou du célébrant dh#7;mi du lignage. La vénération du roi Gyalpo Pehar en tant que divinité lignagère kuldev#7;ta est aussi une...

  10. RALLYE MATHMATIQUE D'AUVERGNE 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sart, Remi

    résoudre. Bon courage à tous ! Françoise Barachet, IA-IPR en mathématiques Jean-Alain Roddier, IA-IPR en posées, l'argumentation, la présentation. Conception et Rédaction : IREM, APMEP, IUFM, IA­IPR de

  11. Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

  12. Role of PeptidePeptide Interactions in Stabilizing Peptide-Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    , and energy conservation devices.2 Unfortunately, car- bon nanotubes are extremely hydrophobic which leadsRole of Peptide­Peptide Interactions in Stabilizing Peptide-Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes at biopolymers@wiley. com INTRODUCTION S ingle-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are hollow cylinders formed

  13. Chirality dependence of the density-of-states singularities in carbon nanotubes S. Reich and C. Thomsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    approach and yields the energy splitting for an arbitary chiral angle in metallic nanotubes. SemiconductingChirality dependence of the density-of-states singularities in carbon nanotubes S. Reich and C-of-states singularities in single-walled car- bon nanotubes. Our approximation goes beyond the lowest-order, isotropic

  14. May 18, 2009 WDFW Comments: Northwest Power and Conservation Council High Level Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Biological Indicators): The biological indictors proposed by the Council for fish include important to BON. The adult fish abundance in the Councils program could be compared to subbasin or salmon and lamprey if available. Fish Passage Center 2. Abundance of adult fish in the Council's program. Number

  15. Modelling the interannual variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange at a subarctic sedge fen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    1991; Oechel & Billings 1992; Rouse et al. 1997). Resulting changes to energy, water and carbon dioxide car- bon acquisition during wet years but may act to reduce wetland carbon storage in years indicate that carbon acquisition is greatest during wet and warm conditions. This suggests therefore

  16. R E W E DE PHYSIQUE APPLIQUEE Colloque C4, Supplbment au n04, Tome 24, Avril 1989

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EXCITATIONS IN SILICA AEROGELS R. MAYNARD, R. CALEMCZUK*, A.M. DE GOER*, B. SALCE*, J. BON*, E. BONJOUR* and A son ont bte mesur&s entre 0.1 K e t 10 K sur des aerogels de s i l i c e de f a i b l e densite ( p density s i l i c a aerogels ( p

  17. doi:10.1016/S0016-7037(00)01302-9 Release of bound aromatic hydrocarbons from late Archean and Mesoproterozoic kerogens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brocks, Jochen J.

    . Saturated hydrocar- bons were not detected. The molecular and carbon isotopic compositions of pyrene in rock extracts and hydropyrolysates might be explained by hydrothermal redistribution of the bitumen. The kerogen and bitumen composition is therefore consistent with models suggesting a hydrothermal

  18. One-hundred-million-atom electronic structure calculations on the K computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoshi, Takeo

    is to combine new ideas among the three fields for a breakthrough. The possibility of sharing the mathematical;Concept : Combining new ideas for a breakthrough Code : Sharing mathematical solvers as middlewares Figure. tion 4 describes an application study on a nano-domain analysis of nano-composite car- bon solids

  19. Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E. Bouree (1), V. Perraki (*) (1), G. Revel (2),R. Kishore (2) (**), J. L. Pastol (2), R. Mertens (3), M. Caymax (3) and M. Eyckmans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    687 Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E avec les autres aptes à l'utilisation de Si-UMG bon marché. Abstract. 2014 Epitaxial solar cells have and electron diffusion length adequate to produce good solar cells. 10.3 % efficiency cells have been obtained

  20. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2009, 1:1, 106146 http://www.aeaweb.org/articles.php?doi=10.1257/pol.1.1.106

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothman, Daniel

    - bon emissions rate or, equivalently, the carbon emissions per unit of output, allows fuel producers to achieve a given carbon emissions rate by exibly altering their production of fuels.2 Senators John Mc (e.g., energy versus miles), and how emissions rates are measured (e.g., upstream versus downstream

  1. Composition at the interface between multicomponent nonequilibrium fluid phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    . These secondary recovery mechanisms are particularly important in fractured hydrocar- bon reservoirs.4 An accurate, gas has been in- jected into oil reservoirs to maintain the pressure and thus, improve oil recovery.3 is already developed. Moreover, CO2-injection is a hot candidate for improved oil recovery projects. Thus, CO

  2. Impact of a major ice storm on an old-growth hardwood forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lechowicz, Martin J.

    forestière, produc- tivité forestière. [Traduit par la Rédaction] Hooper et al. 75 Introduction Ice storms litter produced by ice storms is a substantial, yet little studied, pool of energy, car- bonImpact of a major ice storm on an old-growth hardwood forest Michael C. Hooper, Ken Arii

  3. cDNA Cloning and Characterization of a High Affinity Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in a Cetacean, the Beluga, Delphinapterus leucas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Mark E.

    ,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related PHAHs cause toxicity via activation of the aryl hydrocar- bon receptor demonstrated specific, high-affinity [3 H]TCDD binding. Satura- tion binding analysis was used to compare-expressed AHRs from a dioxin-sensitive mouse strain (Ahb­1 allele) and humans. The beluga AHR bound [3 H

  4. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induces Premature Activation of the KLF2 Regulon during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bradfield, Christopher A.

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Induces Premature Activation of the KLF2 Regulon during, Wisconsin 53706 The environmental pollutant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p- dioxin (TCDD, dioxin) causes,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)2 is the most toxic congener of a family of halogenated aromatic hydrocar- bons

  5. A HYDROGEN ECONOMY MATTVINCENTILLUSTRATION;JOERAEDLEGettyImages(photograph)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    consumption and car- bon dioxide emissions. To make deeper cuts, the transportation sector needs to switch power sources for transportation is perhaps the tricki- est piece of the energy puzzle. The dif- ficulty and governments support mass transit and smart-growth strategies that lessen the public's reliance on cars

  6. Journees des Jeunes Chercheurs 11`eme edition, 8-9 Avril 1999, Lausanne 145 ROMERO: UN P `ELERINAGE ROBOTIQUE `A SANTA FE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teuscher, Christof

    disposition une popu- lation de vrais robots. Afin, de rendre r´ealit´e ce r^eve, notre travail poursuit deux buts: (1) construire un robot bon march´e, modulaire et extensible et (2) utiliser une population de ces robots pour faire des exp´eriences dans le domaine de la robotique ´evolutive. Ce papier pr

  7. LABORATOIRE D'ECONOMIE DE LA PRODUCTION ET DE L'INTEGRATION INTERNATIONALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    du réseau payent pour y accéder, et qui correspond à la rémunération dont dispose le gestionnaire du, the increasing contribution of decentralized electricity generation, the aging of electrical infrastructures, vers le réseau de transport, puis vers le réseau de distribution, dernier maillon indispensable au bon

  8. vol 49 ( 2011) pages 4710 4718 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.06.075

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    continuous nickel (Ni) nanorods inside the hollow cavity of car bon nanofibers (CNFs), thus forming troubles for CNT separation in the following steps. On the other hand, metal particles/nano rods it challenging to synthesize continuous metal nanorods/nano wires in vertically aligned CNTs

  9. Equilibria of EV Charging Benny Lutati1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeoh, William

    in order to avoid overloading the smart grid [2, 3]. EVs are expected to be parked a large fraction of grid-integrated vehicles, which can also discharge energy back to the grid, is a natural application part of the transition plan to a low car- bon economy. New designs, such as plug-in hybrid vehicles

  10. Rfrigration domestique : enqute sur les pratiques des consommateurs et recommandations en matire d'hygine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    energy consumption and water available for microbial circulation and growth. Thus, an important interrogées. Cette condensation suggère une mauvaise fermeture de la porte avec pour conséquence une plus recommandation importante est donc de vérifier que le joint de porte est en bon état et que la porte ferme bien

  11. 3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many of the early

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    .1. Transition carbides, such as and the various orthorhombic forms listed in Table 3.1, only form because Precipitation 64 Table 3.1 Carbides in bainite or in tempered bainite. Fe, M/C is the ratio of metal to car- bon3 Carbide Precipitation Carbides are largely responsible for the commercial failure of many

  12. Haitian Creole-English English-Haitian Creole Medical Dictionary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Bryant C.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ; orifice, aperture bô * corner of mouth - anba upside down » chire, ~ manje sores at comer of mouth - dlo salivation * fann harelip, cleft lip; cleft palate - Il anmè, ~ II pa bon, ~ II pa gou to have no appetite ~ Il fè dio to make one's mouth...

  13. Increasing access to the carbon market ENERGY, CLIMATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    themselves, the science of climate change continually improves, and governments continue to move towards cli- mate change, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is implementing a new climate change thematic focus within URC, the Energy and Car- bon Finance Program helps developing countries pursue

  14. Ready to eat breakfast cereals from food-grade sorghums

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cruz y Celis Ehlinger, Laura Penelope

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two food-grade sorghum hybrids, ATx63 I *Tx436 (non waxy), and B.BON 34, (waxy), were micronized and evaluated for their potential use in ready to eat breakfast cereals (RTE-BC). Whole and decorticated grains were exposed to infra-red burners...

  15. Applied Catalysis A: General 226 (2002) 183192 NO reduction by urea under lean conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gulari, Erdogan

    , Jiraporn Leeratc, Somchai Osuwanc a Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 226 (2002) 183­192 undesired by-products [13,14]. Also, it was found that sol­gel prepared alumina to future air quality standards and low to moderate efficiency of hydrocar- bon reductants. In contrast

  16. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS 2014 Cover: Acknowledgement Bethan Perkins, Assimila Limited and EUMETSAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND ENERGY BALANCE OF FORESTS 25 NEW MEASUREMENTS OF TROPICAL FOREST BIOMASS AND STRUCTURE 26 CARBON EXPORT PARAMETER RETRIEVAL 21 CONSTRAINING ECOSYSTEM CAR- BON DYNAMICS IN A DATA-LIMITED WORLD: INTEGRATING ECOLOGI ADAPTIVE LOCALIZATION FOR ENSEMBLE DATA ASSIMILATION 39 ESTIMATING CORRELATED OBSERVATION ERROR STATISTICS

  17. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Weizhen

    of analytes [1]. As an alternative for hydrocar- bon columns, fluorocarbon columns have been developed for the separation of both fluorinated- and non-fluorinated compounds [2­9]. For example, fluorocarbon columns have been used successfully in fluorous mixture synthesis [10­14]. In comparison, the use of fluorocarbon

  18. Simulation of Nitrogen Emissions in a Premixed Hydrogen Flame Stabilized on a Low Swirl Burner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.

    of fuels such as pure hydrogen and hydrogen-seeded hydrocarbon mixtures. However, many hydrogen-rich fuels in the context of a laboratory-scale low swirl burner fueled with a lean hydrogen-air mixture at atmospheric of burning lean hydrogen or hydrogen-enriched lean hydrocar- bon fuels (e.g., [2­5]). For these fuels

  19. Eos, Vol. 86, No. 42, 18 October 2005 to shed light on poorly understood piercement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    -term changes in oxygen,car- bon dioxide (CO2 ),and several other measur- able parameters since the last global and Predictability (CLIVAR)/CO2 Repeat Hydrog- raphy component of the Global Earth Observ- ing System of Systems, freshwater,and CO2 .The CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography program builds upon earlier programs (e.g.,the World

  20. Langasite SAW Device with Gas-Sensitive Layer Peng Zheng1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greve, David.W.

    ,3 , Irving Oppenheim1,4 1 National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 2 Physics Department, PA, USA Vanessa Malone4 , Tejasvi Ashok2 , James Miller1,2 , Limin Cao5 1 National Energy Technology in support of ongoing research on sensors for car- bon capture systems at the National Energy Technology

  1. TREKiSM Issue 37

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    •••• This is gold. Kirk is perfect, Spock Is bon san d p 0 s tag (~, 0 f course. GET WELL W1Sr-I[S to Lilld(] C. Brown, who's now back clt work folJowj'lg surgcl'y, fucing a...

  2. The Ecological Society of America wwwwww..ffrroonnttiieerrssiinneeccoollooggyy..oorrgg Societal concern over global warming and its link to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    dioxide (CO2) emission-reduction strategies currently under consideration rely on terrestrial car- bon (C of CO2 to the atmosphere. These plans involve two general strategies: (1) direct reduction of fossil-fuel-based CO2 emissions through enhanced energy conservation and efficiency and development of alternative

  3. Synopsis of residential refrigerator/freezer alternative refrigerants evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The experimental testing on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) is summarized in this paper. R/F testing focused on two areas: alternative refrigerants and equipment configurations. The refrigerants evaluated consisted of single components, azeotropes, and zeotropes derived from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrocarbons (HCs). These refrigerants were evaluated in conventional and unconventional R/F designs. Major and minor design modifications were studied. Minor modifications consisted of various capillary tube lengths, door insulations, and compressors, while major modifications included two-evaporator and two-cycle R/F systems. Results obtained from testing the two-cycle system will be discussed in a later paper. This paper presents the experimental results of alternative technologies evaluated as replacements for ozone depleting chemicals.

  4. Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large Delta- T Using NiTi Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Fackler, Sean; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its envi-ronmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochlo-roflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2. It is expected that building space cooling and re-frigeration alone will amount to {approx} 5% of primary energy consumption and {approx}5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . As such, there is an urgent need to develop an al-ternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Among the proposed candidates, magnetocaloric cooling (MC) is currently received a lot of attention because of its high efficiency. However, MC is inherently expensive because of the requirement of large magnetic field and rare earth materi-als. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation. We call it elasto-caloric cooling (EC) after the superelastic transformation of austenite it utilizes. The solid-state refrigerant of EC is cost-effective, and it completely eliminates the use of any refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. We show that the COP (coefficient of per-formance) of a jugular EC with optimized materials can be as high as > 10 with measured {Delta}T of 17 C.

  5. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  6. VULNERABILITE ET DROIT DE LA CONSOMMATION (Colloque sur la vulnrabilit et le droit, organis par l'Universit P. Mends-France,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    moyen, au regard notamment du Code de la consommation, ne peut plus être considéré comme l'homme actif, instruit, diligent, avisé qu'était le bon père de famille, dans le Code Napoléon, mais comme un être plus'est pas parce qu'il est systématiquement lésé, mais parce qu'il est susceptible de l'être pour la simple

  7. UBO RC March 2014-007 photocopieurs 1/8 March de fournitures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    couleur mixtes, d'un logiciel de gestion de parc d'impression et d'un logiciel de soumission de travaux consultation utilisée : Appel d'offres ouvert - articles 33, 57, 58 et 59 du Code des Marchés Publics. Marché à bons de commande - Article 77 du Code des Marchés Publics Date et heure limite de remise des offres

  8. Service Promotion -Diffusion Raphale LOMBARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellier, Damien

    Service Promotion - Diffusion Raphaële LOMBARD Editions L'Harmattan - 5 Rue de l'Ecole Polytechnique ­ 75005 Paris Tél 01.40.46.79.23 ­ mail : raphaele.lombard@harmattan.fr La mondialisation avance à complémentaires BON DE COMMANDE A retourner à L'HARMATTAN, 7 rue de l'�cole Polytechnique 75005 Paris Veuillez me

  9. Z .Diamond and Related Materials 10 2001 364 369 Experimental data vs. 3-D model calculations of HFCVD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    rH and3 4 2 C H rH process gas mixtures and to examine in detail the process of C lC inter-conversion between C and C hydrocar-2 1 bon species in the gas phase. Another important con- Zsideration in the gas phase. It has been2 2 2 2 1 shown that cooler regions distant from the filament need

  10. Universite de Toulon Th`ese de doctorat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    'oeuvre dans la g´en´eration des vaguelettes par le vent, sans m^eme parler de ph´enom`enes comme les vagues sc`etres `a prendre en compte. La compr´ehension des interactions entre les ondes ´electromagn´etiques et la d'antennes radar [4]. Un bon exemple d'interaction complexe en incidence rasante ayant des cons

  11. Astronomie, écologie et poésie par Hubert Reeves

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Hubert ReevesL'astrophysicien donne une conférence puis s'entretient avec l'écrivain François Bon autour de :"Astronomie, écologie et poésie"Pour plus d'informations : http://outreach.web.cern.ch/outreach/FR/evenements/conferences.htmlNombre de places limité. Réservation obligatoire à la Réception du CERN : +41 22 767 76 76  Soirée diffusée en direct sur le Web : http://webcast.cern.ch/      

  12. Drilling Off-Shore (Mademoiselle From Armentiers) Pedrolina "Paige" Delaparrucca and the Greater Westerly Grannies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nightingale, Peter

    Drilling Off-Shore (Mademoiselle From Armentiers) Pedrolina "Paige" Delaparrucca and the Greater- George ofU Old Drill- Litt- heat lost had need had get E his no more his more belch, ba- Bush, A, Rea Car- Ba- Litt- U Old Drill- B 7 5 bon rack le S Ron- ing more oil, D o we his no more his in ma who we

  13. The catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ammonia over tetraamminecopper (II) complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oates, Margaret Deron

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    primary goal has been to develop catalysts that will promote selective reduction of nitric oxide to nitrogen with various reducing agents. The use of metals and mixed metal oxide catalysts with reducing agents such as hydrogen, car- bon monoxide... the energy of the v* orbital of NO in relationship to tne energies 11, 12 of the d orbitals of the metal. ' Although nitric oxide is thermo- dynamically unstable, with respect to decomposition to nitrogen and The citations of the following cages follow...

  14. Influence de l'quilibre en acides amins de trois protines infuses dans l'intestin grle, sur la production laitire de la vache

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -Gilles, 35590L'Hermitage, France. Summary. The affect of postruminal infusion of urea, gelatin, isolated soy increased with the amount of essential amino acids infused. Chez des vaches laitières d'un bon niveau de production, la sécrétion des protéines du lait est accrue par l'infusion post-ruminale de caséinates (Clark

  15. Supplementary information Figure S1: Left: Comparison of PM2.5 levels measured with one of the optical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Palau Reial L3 87 24 21 6 Bon Pastor L9 145 98 46 28 Sagrera L9 180 53 59 19 Mean Mean in trains PM10 PM10 std PM2.5 std 5min 1.20 0.22 0.43 0.10 Fontana L3 0.49 0.10 0.15 0.05 Palau Reial L3 0.30 0.08 0

  16. Universite Joseph Fourier Universite de Montreal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    est un des canaux les plus importants pour la recherche de ce boson, car il b´en´eficie de la bonne r´ee avec un boson Z ou W. Elle a une faible section efficace mais b´en´eficie d'un bon rapport signal sur muon) associ´e `a de l'´energie man- quante. Cette analyse se focalise sur la reconstruction des ´ev

  17. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4, supplment au n 4, Tome 40, avril 1979, page C4-131 Optical reflectivity measurements on thorium metal samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    reflectivity measurements on thorium metal samples C. Alvani and J. Naegele Commission of the European échantillons de thorium dont la surface a été préparée par polissage mécanique et électrolytique ou qui ont été bons résultats. Abstract. -- Thorium samples, the surfaces of which were mechanically polished

  18. Private development of artificial reefs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, Arthur Allen

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    when compared with terestrial ecosystems. Recent studies at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution emphasized that the oceans are far from an unlimited resource. The net pro- duction of the open ocean is about 50 grams of fixed car- bon per square... enhanced already existing fisheries. The continental shelf of the Gulf of Mexico is an expanse of shallow ocean bottom, and is the area inhabited by the majority of the commercially valuable reef fishes. Much of the shelf area, however, is r...

  19. Revised estimates of electron absorbed fractions and radionuclide S-values in trabecular bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parry, Robert Alan

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER vnt tX INTRODUCTION . Need for Trabecular Bone Dosimetry Trabecular Bon- Stntcture Cells at Risk . 1 3 5 II THE MIRD SCHEMA Absorbed Dose . Equation Parameters and Full Equations . . 9 11 III... most at risk, while for lower energy P- particles the osteogenic tissue and epithelial layer will be more at risk (ICRP 1968). CHAPTER H THE MIRD SCHEMA Absorbed Dose Radiopharmaceuticals in medicine are being used in imaging, therapy...

  20. Vers une adoption de la France ? Hugh Clout1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sur la nécessité d'acquérir une connaissance des langues étrangères, de Cole Harris sur l sont vraiment intéressants. Au contraire, il y a un petit article de la plume de William Mead, publié en 1963 et intitulé « The adoption of other lands », qui me semble plein de bon sens. Mead était, et

  1. UNIVERSITE PARIS-SUD XI INSTITUT DE PHYSIQUE NUCLEAIRE D'ORSAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    réactions de production de dileptons en collision proton-proton avec HADES Soutenue publiquement le 28 mars les membres de la collaboration HADES avec qui j'ai échangé de bons moments. Je remercie les membres-00297939,version1-16Jul2008 #12;Table des matières 1 Motivations physiques de l'expérience HADES 7 1.1 La

  2. RECONSTRUCTION POST-CONFLIT VIOLENCE ET POLITIQUE EN COTE D'IVOIRE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RECONSTRUCTION « POST-CONFLIT » VIOLENCE ET POLITIQUE EN COTE D'IVOIRE Richard Banégas* Marquée par plus 10 années de crise politico-militaire, la Côte d'Ivoire semble aujourd'hui renaître de ses cendres redéploiement de l'administration dans les régions du nord jusqu'alors sous contrôle des insurgés va bon train

  3. Ann bay lodyans 7 / se Bryant Freeman ("Tonton Liben") ki pare ti liv sa a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Bryant C.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ("Tonton Liben") ki pare ti liv sa a. AYITI SE PEP AYISYEN PM 7854 .H39 A56 Enstiti Etid Ayisyen - Inivesite Kannzas Bon Nouvel Fondasyon Alfa Lwes 1997 MALIS AP VANN, WA AP PRAN Yon jou yon neg t ap fe yon ti vizit lakay Malis. Pandan li t ap... I ak nan lespri I, ti lanp sa a ap pemet li we sot isit rive nan Ginen, menm anndan yon kay ki femen ak mi." Neg la mande: "Eske ou te seye sa deja?" Malis reponn: "O non, monche! Eske ou kwe m ta ka rete konsa jis pou m ka fe jouda, fouye lavi...

  4. Measurement of routinely encountered neutron field doses using portable survey instruments and a Bonner multisphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Donald Reed

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    against two 10 Ci PuBe neutron sources. Measurements were m de at a research reactor facility and a cyclotron facility using a Victoreen 4BBA portable survey instrument, a Ludlum Mode1 15 portable survey instrument and a Bonner multisphere system. Data... Detector Response as a Function of Neutron Energy Page Figure 2. Plot of BON25G Spectral Output Figure 3, Flux-to-Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Neutrons . . . . 8 Figure 4. Data Measurement Locations at NSC 13 Figure 5. Data Measurement Locations...

  5. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  6. Ann bay lodyans 12 / Se Bryant Freeman ("Tonton Liben") ki pare ti liv sa a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeman, Bryant C.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    le sa a, li kite fimen. Li pran bwa pip li, li voltije I laba. Koze I regie tout tan. Lamesi Montelis, Ravin Twonpet 4 NEG KABRIT AK NEG SOULYE Yon jou, te gen yon neg ki te gen yon bel kabrit. Li te soti Leste, e le I rive Gonayiv, li we yon... a, Bondye fe yon bon ti melanj: li pran bwode ki gen nan pan, di ki gen nan woch, fines ki gen nan ke zwazo, douse ki gen nan siwo myel, mechanste ki gen nan tig, chale ki gen nan dife, fredi ki gen nan lanej. Bondye kontwole yo, sa pa ase...

  7. Section 76

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2) SrEvaluating the Seasonalsw ' b 0 % b 1 " VIS % bOn

  8. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  9. Final report on activities and findings under DOE grant “Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases”

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prather, Michael J. [UCI

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  10. Global warming implications of non-fluorocarbon technologies as CFC replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Many technologies could be developed for use in place of conventional compression systems for refrigeration and air conditioning. Comparisons of the global warming impacts using TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) can be used to identify alternatives that have the potential for lower environmental impacts than electric-driven vapor compression systems using HCFCs and HFCs. Some options, such as secondary heat transfer loops in commercial refrigeration systems to reduce refrigerant charge and emission rates, could be useful in reducing the losses of refrigerants to the atmosphere. Use of ammonia instead of a fluorocarbon in a system with a secondary loop offers only a small potential for decreasing TEWI, and this may not warrant the increased complexity and risks of using ammonia in a retail sales environment. A few technologies, such as adsorption heat pumps, have efficiency levels that show reduced TEWI levels compared to conventional and state of the art compression systems, and further development could lead to an even more favorable comparison. Health and safety risks of the alternative technologies and the materials they employ must also be considered.

  11. Global warming and end-use efficiency implications of replacing CFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fairchild, P.D.; Fischer, S.K.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct contribution of CFCs to calculated global warming has been recognized for some time. As a result of the international agreement to phase out CFCs due to stratospheric ozone and the ensuing search for suitable alternatives, there has recently been increased attention on the DIRECT global warming potential (GWP) of the fluorocarbon alternatives as greenhouse gases. However, to date there has been little focus on the INDIRECT global warming effect arising from end-use efficiency changes and associated CO{sub 2} emissions. A study being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) addresses this combined or total global warming impact of viable options to replace CFCs in their major energy-related applications. This paper reviews selected results for air-conditioning, refrigeration, and heat pump applications. The analysis indicates that the CFC user industries have made substantial progress in approaching near-equal energy efficiency with the HCFC/HFC alternative refrigerants. The findings also bring into question the relative importance of the DIRECT (chemical-related) effect in many applications. Replacing CFCs is an important step in reducing the total global warming impact, and at present the HCFC and HFCS appear to offer the best efficiency and lowest total impact of options available in the relatively short time period required for the transition away from CFCs.

  12. Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

  13. TEWI Analysis: Its Utility, Its Shortcomings, and Its Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, V.D.; Fischer, S.K.; Sand, J.R.

    1999-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The past decade has been a challenging time for the refrigeration and air conditioning industry worldwide. Provisions of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments require the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) compounds that have been used extensively as insulating foam blowing agents and refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps, and air conditioners. In response, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) compounds were proposed, developed, and are starting to be used as the primary alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs. However, in 1997 under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized nations have agreed to roll back emissions of HCFCs, carbon dioxide (CO*), and four other greenhouse gases which threaten to cause excessive global warming. The US. Department of Energy and the Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) jointly sponsored research projects to identify the major applications of CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs and to examine the impacts of these compounds and the energy use of applications employing these compounds on global warming. The five major uses of fluorocarbons based on sales were automobile air conditioning, supermarket refrigeration, unitary heat pumps and air conditioning, chillers for cooling large office buildings, and household refrigeration. Almost all of the refrigerants used in these applications are global warming gases, and if the refrigerant leaks out of the system during operation, is lost during maintenance or is not recovered when the system is scraped, it contributes to global warming. But, it is also true that the energy consumed by refrigeration and air conditioning systems, in the form of electricity or the direct combustion of fossil fuel, results in the release of CO*, the primary cause of atmospheric global warming.

  14. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  15. Regmi Research Series ,Year 3, December 1, 1971

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regmi, Mahesh C

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    !t the tlinrcrorf, l re4tionshipl1 bctl:eon the kine; and Kn-.til-.'olti would rot last long' and th,:t oither the Icing or tIc qtl()cn '1o!}ld dio 5oon. 6 At the 5EUOO tilOO J they spr.:l~d the rwoor that Girvanyuddha Dir Bitty'am Stah would dio of sll... in Octoh::r 1642: t" , -, , Kiq; Rajondra then besan to dance t o tho tune of the Junior Quwn, Rajyalaxmi Dlvi. Previously, Rajyaln;ani O(ni had felt afraid that th£: eyv~ of her. infant 'Bons, Rapandra Bikram and Birendra nikr

  16. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

  17. Acoustic Telemetry Studies of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Survival at the Lower Columbia Projects in 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct three studies using acoustic telemetry to estimate detection probabilities and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at three hydropower projects on the lower Columbia River. The primary goals were to estimate detection and survival probabilities based on sampling with JSATS equipment, assess the feasibility of using JSATS for survival studies, and estimate sample sizes needed to obtain a desired level of precision in future studies. The 2006 JSATS arrays usually performed as well or better than radio telemetry arrays in the JDA and TDA tailwaters, and underperformed radio arrays in the BON tailwater, particularly in spring. Most of the probabilities of detection on at least one of all arrays in a tailwater exceeded 80% for each method, which was sufficient to provide confidence in survival estimates. The probability of detection on one of three arrays includes survival and detection probabilities because fish may die or pass all three arrays undetected but alive.

  18. Preliminary consideration of selected chemical and oceanographic factors influential in the formation of the alumino-silicate fraction of some recent sediments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehouse, Ulysses Grant

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOmSM y-Lu LW hLqAhCh LIM hAIAhCh yBIySIWOLWABIm Bb nSnWAJAIY LYSIWm LIM AI MAmWA--SM wLWSO1 cSWW-AIY ?LB-AIAWAy y-Lu wLm bBCIM WB SqjArAW WjS YOSLWSO LMmBOnWABI WSIMSIyASm bBO YL-LyWBmS LIM mCyOBmS rCW MAM IBW OSWLAI WjSmS yLOrBjuMOLWSm wjSI -SLyjSM w...SWW-AIY y-Lum wSOS MSWSOhAISM ru WjS :AmyjS yB-BOAhSWOAy hSWjBM CmAIY L 9Sy?hLI pBMS- :x mnSyWOBnjBWBhSWSO1 cWLIMLOM OBCWAIS hSyjLIAyL- LIL-umSm Bb hLOAIS mSMAhSIWm wSOS bBCIM WB rS Bb -AWW-S mAYIAbAyLIyS rS-Bw LI SAYjW hAyOBI #SdCA&L-SIW MALhSWSOPK, c...

  19. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

  20. Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, Forrest; Bons, Jeffrey

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness levels found on in service vanes (Bons, et al., 2001, up to 300 microns) flow blockage in first stage turbine nozzles can easily reach 1 to 2 percent in conventional turbines. Deposition levels in syngas fueled gas turbines are expected to be even more problematic. The likelihood of significant deposition to the leading edge of vanes in a syngas environment indicates the need to examine this effect on the leading edge cooling problem. It is critical to understand the influence of leading edge geometry and turbulence on deposition rates for both internally and showerhead cooled leading edge regions. The expected level of deposition in a vane stagnation region not only significantly changes the heat transfer problem but also suggests that cooling arrays may clog. Addressing the cooling issue suggests a need to better understand stagnation region heat transfer with realistic roughness as well as the other variables affecting transport near the leading edge. Also, the question of whether leading edge regions can be cooled internally with modern cooling approaches should also be raised, thus avoiding the clogging issue. Addressing deposition in the pressure side throat region of the nozzle is another critical issue for this environment. Issues such as examining the protective effect of slot and full coverage discrete-hole film cooling on limiting deposition as well as the influence of roughness and turbulence on effectiveness should be raised. The objective of this present study is to address these technical challenges to help enable the development of high efficiency syngas tolerant gas turbine engines.