National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydrofluorocar bons hfcs

  1. HDW Fuel Cell Systems GmbH HFCS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HDW Fuel Cell Systems GmbH HFCS Jump to: navigation, search Name: HDW Fuel Cell Systems GmbH (HFCS) Place: Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany Zip: D-24143 Product: HDW develops...

  2. Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S A Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bons Ventos Geradora de Energia S.A. Place: Fortaleza, Ceara, Brazil Sector: Wind energy Product:...

  3. Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Bon Homme Yankton El Assn, Inc Place: South Dakota Phone Number: (605) 463-2507 Website: byelectric.com Facebook:...

  4. Bon Homme County, South Dakota: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Homme County, South Dakota Broin Enterprises Places in Bon Homme County, South Dakota Avon, South Dakota Scotland, South Dakota Springfield, South Dakota Tabor, South Dakota...

  5. Kyoto Protocol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The goal is to lower overall emissions from six greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, HFCs, and PFCs - calculated as an average over...

  6. Monthly Energy Review - April 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  7. Monthly Energy Review - August 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  8. Monthly Energy Review - January 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  9. Monthly Energy Review - July 2012

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  10. Monthly Energy Review - December 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  11. Monthly Energy Review - January 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  12. Monthly Energy Review - September 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  13. Monthly Energy Review - July 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  14. Monthly Energy Review - September 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  15. Monthly Energy Review - August 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  16. Monthly Energy Review - December 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  17. Monthly Energy Review - February 2012

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  18. Monthly Energy Review - August 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  19. Monthly Energy Review - September 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  20. Monthly Energy Review - February 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  1. Monthly Energy Review - December 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  2. Monthly Energy Review - November 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  3. Monthly Energy Review - October 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  4. Monthly Energy Review - July 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  5. Monthly Energy Review - October 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  6. Monthly Energy Review - July 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  7. Monthly Energy Review - May 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  8. Monthly Energy Review - March 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  9. Monthly Energy Review - April 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  10. Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave radiation, thus preventing long-wave...

  11. Word Pro - Untitled1

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  12. Monthly Energy Review - May 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  13. Monthly Energy Review - November 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  14. Monthly Energy Review - March 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  15. Monthly Energy Review - May 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  16. Monthly Energy Review - October 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  17. Monthly Energy Review - June 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  18. Monthly Energy Review - August 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  19. Monthly Energy Review - June 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  20. Monthly Energy Review - January 2012

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  1. Monthly Energy Review - Janurary 2011

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  2. Monthly Energy Review - November 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  3. Monthly Energy Review - October 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  4. Monthly Energy Review - April 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  5. Monthly Energy Review - November 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  6. Monthly Energy Review - August 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  7. Monthly Energy Review - February 2014

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  8. Monthly Energy Review - June 2012

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  9. Monthly Energy Review - December 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  10. Monthly Energy Review - October 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  11. Monthly Energy Review - November 2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  12. Monthly Energy Review - July 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  13. Monthly Energy Review - September 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  14. Monthly Energy Review - May 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  15. Monthly Energy Review - February 2013

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  16. Monthly Energy Review - June 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  17. Monthly Energy Review - March 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  18. Monthly Energy Review - December 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  19. Monthly Energy Review - August 2015

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  20. Monthly Energy Review - April 2015

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  1. Monthly Energy Review - March 2013

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  2. Monthly Energy Review - December 2010

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  3. Monthly Energy Review - September 2014

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  4. Monthly Energy Review - September 2012

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus...

  5. Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their ... 5% of primary energy consumption and approx5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . ...

  6. Chesterfield County, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Facility Places in Chesterfield County, Virginia Bellwood, Virginia Bensley, Virginia Bon Air, Virginia Chester, Virginia Chesterfield Court House, Virginia Ettrick, Virginia...

  7. Talladega County, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Climate Zone Number 3 Climate Zone Subtype A. Places in Talladega County, Alabama Bon Air, Alabama Childersburg, Alabama Lincoln, Alabama Mignon, Alabama Munford, Alabama...

  8. BPA-2015-01168-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    federal facility in the NW. Example projects that have been completed or are underway: BON hatchery efficiency upgrades, DET lighting upgrades, DWK hatchery VFDs on circulation...

  9. Microsoft PowerPoint - Lee.Ward_Salishan-FY06-IO-Overview-GGrider

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Balanced System Approach Disk Poor Clients Diskless Clients Object Archive cluster File System Gateways Scalable OBFS Job Queue BackBon e cluster cluster cluster...

  10. Microsoft PowerPoint - Salishan-FY06-IO-Keynote-GGrider

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Balanced System Approach Disk Poor Clients Diskless Clients Object Archive cluster File System Gateways Scalable OBFS Job Queue BackBon e cluster cluster cluster...

  11. Donald Frederick, LLNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    o f t he n ext generaBon o f h igh---Z m aterials s imulaBons w hile a t t he s ame B me straighlorward f or o thers t o r eplicate a nd c ompare p erformance...

  12. EIA - Greenhouse Gas Emissions - High-GWP gases

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    5. High-GWP gases 5.1. Total emissions Greenhouse gases with high global warming potential (high-GWP gases) are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which together represented 3 percent of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions in 2009. Emissions estimates for the high-GWP gases are provided to EIA by the EPA's Office of Air and Radiation. The estimates for emissions of HFCs not related to industrial processes or electric transmission are derived from the EPA

  13. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2009 ¬Ö Main Text

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    xiii Table 4-82: HCFC-22 Production (Gg) .................................................................................................................. 4-61 Table 4-83: Quantitative Uncertainty Estimates for HFC-23 Emissions from HCFC-22 Production (Tg CO 2 Eq. and Percent) .................................................................................................................................................................... 4-62 Table 4-84: Emissions of HFCs and PFCs from ODS

  14. VII-7 RESEARCH PERSONNEL AND ENGINEERING STAFF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Youngblood, Professor of Physics VISITING SCIENTISTS A. Bon asera, INF N, Catan ia, Italy 1 V. Kolomietz, INR, Kiev, Ukraine 2 B.H. Sa, CIAE, Beijing, China 3 Y.-M. Zheng, CIAE, ...

  15. REPORT OF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    when the website was released for use during the first week of April 2012, to enable Bon neville to correctly address actions in each month, starting in April 2012. Bonneville...

  16. Managementźs Discussion and Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supply depends on the amount and timing of precipitation in the Columbia Rive es y he Bon T kets wholesale electrical power from 31 federal hydroelectric projects owned and...

  17. BPA-2014-00382-FOIA Response

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bon neville Power Admin istration P.O. Box 362 1 Portla nd, Oregon 97208-3621 August 13, 2014 In reply refer to: FOIA BPA-2014-00382-F Jerry Healy Columbia Basin Electric...

  18. Community Energy Strategic Planning - Step 1

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    organizaBon that is inBmately involved in the planning process (for example, a local non---profit that is driving the community acBviBes associated with the planning process). ...

  19. Word Pro - S12

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Note 1. Emissions of Carbon Dioxide and Other Green- house Gases. Greenhouse gases are those gases-such as water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride-that are transparent to solar (short- wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the

  20. Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Refrigerants | Department of Energy Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Refrigerants are used in a wide variety of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment. The current generation of refrigerants, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), have significant global warming potential (GWP) when released to the atmosphere. This research and development (R&D)

  1. Design and Analysis of Salmonid Tagging Studies in the Columbia Basin, Volume XVI; Alternative Designs for Future Adult PIT-Tag Detection Studies, 2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Comas, Jose A.; Skalski, John R.

    2000-09-25

    In the advent of the installation of a PIT-tag interrogation system in the Cascades Island fish ladder at Bonneville Dam (BON), and other CRB dams, this overview describes in general terms what can and cannot be estimated under seven different scenarios of adult PIT-tag detection capabilities in the CRB. Moreover, this overview attempted to identify minimal adult PIT-tag detection configurations required by the ten threatened Columbia River Basin (CRB) chinook and steelhead ESUs. A minimal adult PIT-tag detection configuration will require the installation of adult PIT-tag detection facilities at Bonneville Dam and another dam above BON. Thus, the Snake River spring/summer and fall chinook salmon, and the Snake River steelhead will require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities to guarantee estimates of ''ocean survival'' and at least of one independent, in-river returning adult survival (e.g., adult PIT-tag detection facilities at BON and LGR dams and at any other intermediary dam such as IHR). The Upper Columbia River spring chinook salmon and steelhead will also require a minimum of three dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and two other dams on the BON-WEL reach. The current CRB dam system configuration and BPA's and COE's commitment to install adult PIT-tag detectors only in major CRB projects will not allow the estimation of an ''ocean survival'' and of any in-river adult survival for the Lower Columbia River chinook salmon and steelhead. The Middle Columbia River steelhead ESU will require a minimum of two dams with adult PIT-tag detection capabilities: BON and another upstream dam on the BON-McN reach. Finally, in spite of their importance in terms of releases, PIT-tag survival studies for the Upper Willamette chinook and Upper Willamette steelhead ESUs cannot be perform with the current CRB dam system configuration and PIT-tag detection capabilities.

  2. Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

    2013-07-31

    This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

  3. Yields at Forward Rapidity A. Poulsen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    p rocedure i s f ound t o r eject t he background c ontribuBons. M ost o f t he d i---jets t hat r emain c an b e m atched t o i niBal h ard s caIered p artons w ith m omentum f...

  4. Buildings Energy Data Book: 7.1 National Legislation

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Phase Out Schedule of Halocarbons in the U.S. (1) Gas % By % By Chlorofluorocarbons 75% 1994 75% 1994 (CFCs) 100% 1996 (4) 100% 1996 Bromofluorocarbons 100% 1994 (4) 100% 1994 (Halons) Hydrochlorofluorocarbons 35.0% 2004 35% 2003 (HCFCs) 75.0% 2010 75% 2010 90.0% 2015 90% 2015 99.5% 2020 99.5% 2020 100% 2030 (4) 100% 2030 Hydrofluorocarbons N.A. N.A. N.A. N.A. (HFCs) Note(s): Source(s): 1989 HCFC consumption + 2.8 % of 1989 CFC consumption 1996 N.A. N.A. 1) The phase out of halocarbons is

  5. Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar K.; Wei, Max; Letschert, Virginie; Phadke, Amol A.

    2015-10-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs. Simultaneously, energy efficiency market transformation programs such as standards, labeling and incentive programs are endeavoring to improve the energy efficiency for refrigeration and air conditioning equipment to provide life cycle cost, energy, GHG, and peak load savings. In this paper we provide an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel.

  6. Demonstration of high efficiency elastocaloric cooling with large Delta T using NiTi wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, J; Wu, YM; Muehlbauer, J; Hwang, YH; Radermacher, R; Fackler, S; Wuttig, M; Takeuchi, I

    2012-08-13

    Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its environmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2 [Buildings Energy Data Book (Building Technologies Program, Department of Energy, 2009)]. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly [A. D. Little, Report For Office of Building Technology State and Community Programs, Department of Energy, 2001]. Here, we demonstrate that elastocaloric cooling (EC), a type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation, can have the coefficient of performance as high as 1 1, with a directly measured Delta T of 17 degrees C. The solid-state refrigerant of EC completely eliminates the use of any GWP refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. (C) 2012 American Institute. of Physics. [http://dx.doiorg/10.1063/1.4746257

  7. OneTouch 4.0 Scanned Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SR0-NERP-2 The Reptiles and Amphibians of the Savannah River Plant by J. Whitfield Gib bons and Karen K. Patterson Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Ai ken I South Carolina INTRODUCTION THE REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT by J. Whitfield Gibbons and Karen K. Patterson Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Drawer E Aiken, South Carolina 29801 HABITATS The objective of this report is to provid e taxonom ic, distributional , and ecological information on the reptile s and amphibians

  8. untitled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UNIVERSIT Y OF CALIFORNIA Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Berkeley, California Contract No. W -740S-eng -48 UCRL-9966 I THE PATH OF CARBON IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS Melvin Calvin Nobel Prize Lecture December 11, 1961 ) Nobel Prize Lecture December 11, 1961 UCRL-9966 THE PATH OF Ck'1BON IN PHOI'CBYHTHESIS Melvin Calvin Department of Chemistry and Lawrence Radiation Laboratory University of California, Berkeley 4, California ll'JTRODUCTION It is almost sixty years since Emil Fischer was describing on 8

  9. From fire to ice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adcock, P.W.

    1995-06-01

    Absorption chillers are heat-operate refrigeration without harmful environmental emissions (CFCs, HCFCS, and HFCS). The machine uses either steam or a gas-fired burner as the energy source and utilizes endothermic evaporation to provide refrigeration to an external process fluid, usually chilled water. In the United States, absorption chillers are used in regions where the cost of electricity is high relative to natural gas. Absorption chillers are also used in applications where steam is readily available or in areas where seasonal load peaks cause utilities to subsidize gas cooling. This paper will describe the history of absorption, the basic absorption refrigeration cycle and some advanced high efficiency cycles. Practical applications of absorption refrigeration to commercial end uses will also be discussed.

  10. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of CFC-114a (CF{sub 3}-CFCl{sub 2}) over palladium single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerken, C.A.; Rupprechter, G.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    As the chlorofluorocarbons (CFC`s) are being phased out, their most promising replacements are the hydrofluorocarbons (HFC`s). In particular, CFC-12 (CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), widely used as a refrigerant, for example, is being replaced by HFC-134a CF{sub 3}-CFH{sub 2}. One possible route to HFC-134a is the hydrodechlorination of CFC-114a (CF{sub 3}CFCl{sub 2}) over palladium catalysts. We report results using single crystal palladium catalysts and compare the reactivity of the low Miller index planes and a polycrystalline foil. We correlate these results with parallel UHV surface science experiments. Deuterium isotope studies (D{sub 2} rather than H{sub 2}) will also be presented and discussed. Of particular interest is an observed sample history-dependent inverse isotope effect.

  11. Research in Chemical Kinetics. Annual Report, 1993

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Rowland, F. S.

    1993-01-01

    Progress on the seven projects under this contract is reported. The projects are: (1) Chlorine atom reactions with vinyl bromide. Mass spectrometric investigations of the anti-Markownikoff rule. (2) Chlorine atom reactions with CF{sub 2}{double_bond}CFBr. (3) Gas phase thermal {sup 38}Cl reactions with (CH{sub 2}{double_bond}CH){sub n}M (M=Sn, Si, n=4; M=Sb, n=3; M=Hg, n=2). (4) Gas phase reactions of thermal chlorine atoms with (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}M (M=C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb). (5) Hydrogen abstraction reactions by thermal chlorine atoms with HFCs, HCFCs, and halomethanes. (6) Half-stabilization pressure of chlorine atoms plus ethylene in a nitrogen bath. (7) {sup 14}C content of atmospheric OCS, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}.

  12. Energy and global warming impacts of HFC refrigerants and emerging technologies: TEWI-III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

    1997-06-01

    The use of hydrofluorocarbons (BFCs) which were developed as alternative refrigerants and insulating foam blowing agents to replace chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) is now being affected by scientific investigations of greenhouse warming and questions about the effects of refrigerants and blowing agents on global warming. A Total Equivalent Warming Impact (TEWI) assessment analyzes the environmental affects of these halogenated working fluids in energy consuming applications by combining a direct effect resulting from the inadvertent release of HFCs to the atmosphere with an indirect effect resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels needed to provide the energy to operate equipment using these compounds as working fluids. TEWI is a more balanced measure of environmental impact because it is not based solely on the global warming potential (GWP) of the working fluid. It also shows the environmental benefit of efficient technologies that result in less CO{sub 2} generation and eventual emission to the earth`s atmosphere. The goal of TEWI is to assess total global warming impact of all the gases released to the atmosphere, including CO{sub 2} emissions from energy conversion. Alternative chemicals and technologies have been proposed as substitutes for HFCs in the vapor-compression cycle for refrigeration and air conditioning and for polymer foams in appliance and building insulations which claim substantial environmental benefits. Among these alternatives are: (1) Hydrocarbon (HC) refrigerants and blowing agents which have zero ozone depleting potential and a negligible global warming potential, (2) CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant and blowing agent, (3) Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) vapor compression systems, (4) Absorption chiller and heat pumping cycles using ammonia/water or lithium bromide/water, and (5) Evacuated panel insulations. This paper summarizes major results and conclusions of the detailed final report on the TEWI-111 study.

  13. Demonstration of High Efficiency Elastocaloric Cooling with Large Delta- T Using NiTi Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jun; Wu, Yiming; Muehlbauer, Jan; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Fackler, Sean; Wuttig, Manfred; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2012-08-01

    Vapor compression (VC) is by far the most dominant technology for meeting all cooling and refrigeration needs around the world. It is a mature technology with the efficiency of modern compressors approaching the theoretical limit, but its envi-ronmental footprint remains a global problem. VC refrigerants such as hydrochlo-roflurocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a significant source of green house gas (GHG) emissions, and their global warming potential (GWP) is as high as 1000 times that of CO2. It is expected that building space cooling and re-frigeration alone will amount to {approx} 5% of primary energy consumption and {approx}5% of all CO2 emission in U.S. in 2030 . As such, there is an urgent need to develop an al-ternative high-efficiency cooling technology that is affordable and environmentally friendly. Among the proposed candidates, magnetocaloric cooling (MC) is currently received a lot of attention because of its high efficiency. However, MC is inherently expensive because of the requirement of large magnetic field and rare earth materi-als. Here, we demonstrate an entirely new type of solid-state cooling mechanism based on the latent heat of reversible martensitic transformation. We call it elasto-caloric cooling (EC) after the superelastic transformation of austenite it utilizes. The solid-state refrigerant of EC is cost-effective, and it completely eliminates the use of any refrigerants including HCFCs/HFCs. We show that the COP (coefficient of per-formance) of a jugular EC with optimized materials can be as high as > 10 with measured {Delta}T of 17 C.

  14. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  15. Shane Canon, David Skinner and Jay Srinivasan! NUG2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Canon, David Skinner and Jay Srinivasan! NUG2013 NERSC and HTC --- 1 --- February 1 2, 2 013 Science Strategies @ NERSC Science at Scale P etascale t o E xascale Science through Volume Thousands t o M illions o f S imula6ons Science in Data Petabytes t o Exabytes 2 3 Materials (Genome) Project * Need to gather slides 4 5 Common T hemes * Throughput O riented / E mbarrassingly p arallel * Rapidly I ncreasing d emand f or c omputaBon (outpacing M oore's L aw) * OIen D ata I ntensive * Scaling f

  16. Harvey Wasserman! Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Harvey Wasserman! Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics Research: Target 2017 Meeting Goals & Process! ! --- 1 --- December 3 , 2 012 Logistics: Schedule * Agenda o n w orkshop w eb p age - h%p://www.nersc.gov/science/requirements/HEP * Mid---morning / a <ernoon b reak, l unch * Self---organizaBon for dinner * MulBple s cience a reas, o ne w orkshop - Science---focused b ut c rosscu?ng d iscussion - Explore a reas o f c ommon n eed ( within H EP) *

  17. Astronomie, écologie et poésie par Hubert Reeves

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    Hubert ReevesL'astrophysicien donne une conférence puis s'entretient avec l'écrivain François Bon autour de :"Astronomie, écologie et poésie"Pour plus d'informations : http://outreach.web.cern.ch/outreach/FR/evenements/conferences.htmlNombre de places limité. Réservation obligatoire à la Réception du CERN : +41 22 767 76 76  Soirée diffusée en direct sur le Web : http://webcast.cern.ch/      

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

  19. Global warming implications of non-fluorocarbon technologies as CFC replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    Many technologies could be developed for use in place of conventional compression systems for refrigeration and air conditioning. Comparisons of the global warming impacts using TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) can be used to identify alternatives that have the potential for lower environmental impacts than electric-driven vapor compression systems using HCFCs and HFCs. Some options, such as secondary heat transfer loops in commercial refrigeration systems to reduce refrigerant charge and emission rates, could be useful in reducing the losses of refrigerants to the atmosphere. Use of ammonia instead of a fluorocarbon in a system with a secondary loop offers only a small potential for decreasing TEWI, and this may not warrant the increased complexity and risks of using ammonia in a retail sales environment. A few technologies, such as adsorption heat pumps, have efficiency levels that show reduced TEWI levels compared to conventional and state of the art compression systems, and further development could lead to an even more favorable comparison. Health and safety risks of the alternative technologies and the materials they employ must also be considered.

  20. Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prather, Michael J.; Hsu, Juno; Nicolau, Alex; Veidenbaum, Alex; Smith, Philip Cameron; Bergmann, Dan

    2014-11-07

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  1. A Study of the Optical Properties of Ice Crystals with Black Carbon Inclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arienti, Marco; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Kopacz, Adrian M; Geier, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    The report focu ses on the modification of the optical properties of ice crystals due to atmospheric black car bon (BC) contamination : the objective is to advance the predictive capabilities of climate models through an improved understanding of the radiative properties of compound particles . The shape of the ice crystal (as commonly found in cirrus clouds and cont rails) , the volume fraction of the BC inclusion , and its location inside the crystal are the three factors examined in this study. In the multiscale description of this problem, where a small absorbing inclusion modifies the optical properties of a much la rger non - absorbing particle, state - of - the - art discretization techniques are combined to provide the best compromise of flexibility and accuracy over a broad range of sizes .

  2. PDSF User Meeting 09-02-14.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 2014 Lisa Gerhardt Utilization --- 2 --- Past Outages * 8/12/14 ( all d ay): P DSF m aintenance, m igraBon t o global h omes Planned Outages * Eliza18 s witch s omeBme t his w eek. E sBmate 1 2 hours o f d own B me U-Hunting * Old P DSF h omes a re m ounted r ead o nly * Need to be removed eventually (no date yet) * Any r eference t o " /u/" o r " /home" w ill f ail o nce this happens * Please r eplace t hese w ith " $HOME" o r / global/ homes/.... * The e nBre S

  3. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  4. TEWI Analysis: Its Utility, Its Shortcomings, and Its Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, V.D.; Fischer, S.K.; Sand, J.R.

    1999-09-13

    The past decade has been a challenging time for the refrigeration and air conditioning industry worldwide. Provisions of the Montreal Protocol and its amendments require the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) compounds that have been used extensively as insulating foam blowing agents and refrigerants in refrigeration systems, heat pumps, and air conditioners. In response, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) compounds were proposed, developed, and are starting to be used as the primary alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs. However, in 1997 under the Kyoto Protocol, industrialized nations have agreed to roll back emissions of HCFCs, carbon dioxide (CO*), and four other greenhouse gases which threaten to cause excessive global warming. The US. Department of Energy and the Alternative Fluorocarbon Environmental Acceptability Study (AFEAS) jointly sponsored research projects to identify the major applications of CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs and to examine the impacts of these compounds and the energy use of applications employing these compounds on global warming. The five major uses of fluorocarbons based on sales were automobile air conditioning, supermarket refrigeration, unitary heat pumps and air conditioning, chillers for cooling large office buildings, and household refrigeration. Almost all of the refrigerants used in these applications are global warming gases, and if the refrigerant leaks out of the system during operation, is lost during maintenance or is not recovered when the system is scraped, it contributes to global warming. But, it is also true that the energy consumed by refrigeration and air conditioning systems, in the form of electricity or the direct combustion of fossil fuel, results in the release of CO*, the primary cause of atmospheric global warming.

  5. Alternative technologies for cooling and refrigeration equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matchett, J.

    1995-12-01

    Significant national and international attention has focused on the role that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) play in stratospheric ozone depletion. The Clean Air Act of 1990 calls for the production of the most harmful CFCs to completely cease by December 31, 1995. This production phaseout affects many CFC-refrigerants which are commonly used in commercial, residential, and industrial cooling processes. The production phaseout of CFCs will require owners of CFC-based refrigeration equipment to make plans to replace their equipment. Many equipment owners find themselves in a {open_quotes}rut{close_quotes}replacing CFCs with another chemical coolant, rather than a new cooling process. Since many of the chemical alternatives are structurally similar to CFCs (i.e., HCFCs, HFCs, and blends) they require minimal changes to current equipment. However, these substances are also believed to affect the global climate. Hence, they may not be the most environmentally sound alternative and probable are subject to other Federal regulations. There are other HVAC/R alternatives which are less environmentally damaging than these chemicals and may actually be more cost-effective and energy efficient and than the {open_quotes}traditional{close_quotes} CFC chemical substitutes. Alternative cooling technologies include absorption systems, desiccant cooling, evaporative cooling, and ammonia vapor compression. These alternative technologies are proven alternatives and are commercially available. Further, significant technological developments in recent years have made these technologies feasible alternatives for applications previously believed to be unacceptable. This paper describes these alternative technologies and the conditions in which they are viable alternatives to CFC-based equipment. Additionally, energy efficiency and life-cycle cost analysis considerations are addressed to provide a more completes analysis of cooling equipment alternatives.

  6. Acoustic Telemetry Studies of Juvenile Chinook Salmon Survival at the Lower Columbia Projects in 2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Durham, Robin E.; Fischer, Eric S.; Kim, Jina; Townsend, Richard L.; Skalski, John R.; McComas, Roy L.

    2008-02-01

    The Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers contracted with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct three studies using acoustic telemetry to estimate detection probabilities and survival of juvenile Chinook salmon at three hydropower projects on the lower Columbia River. The primary goals were to estimate detection and survival probabilities based on sampling with JSATS equipment, assess the feasibility of using JSATS for survival studies, and estimate sample sizes needed to obtain a desired level of precision in future studies. The 2006 JSATS arrays usually performed as well or better than radio telemetry arrays in the JDA and TDA tailwaters, and underperformed radio arrays in the BON tailwater, particularly in spring. Most of the probabilities of detection on at least one of all arrays in a tailwater exceeded 80% for each method, which was sufficient to provide confidence in survival estimates. The probability of detection on one of three arrays includes survival and detection probabilities because fish may die or pass all three arrays undetected but alive.

  7. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Human activities have caused a rapid increase in GHG concentrations. This rising level contributes to global climate change, which contributes to environmental and public health problems.

  8. Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

    2003-06-01

    Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index would provide Registry participants with a means for demonstrating improvements in their energy and GHG emissions per unit of production without divulging specific values. For the second research area, Berkeley Lab evaluated various methods used to calculate baselines for documentation of energy consumption or GHG emissions reductions, noting those that use industry-specific metrics. Accounting for actions to reduce GHGs can be done on a project-by-project basis or on an entity basis. Establishing project-related baselines for mitigation efforts has been widely discussed in the context of two of the so-called ''flexible mechanisms'' of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Kyoto Protocol) Joint Implementation (JI) and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

  9. Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, Forrest; Bons, Jeffrey

    2014-09-30

    The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness levels found on in service vanes (Bons, et al., 2001, up to 300 microns) flow blockage in first stage turbine nozzles can easily reach 1 to 2 percent in conventional turbines. Deposition levels in syngas fueled gas turbines are expected to be even more problematic. The likelihood of significant deposition to the leading edge of vanes in a syngas environment indicates the need to examine this effect on the leading edge cooling problem. It is critical to understand the influence of leading edge geometry and turbulence on deposition rates for both internally and showerhead cooled leading edge regions. The expected level of deposition in a vane stagnation region not only significantly changes the heat transfer problem but also suggests that cooling arrays may clog. Addressing the cooling issue suggests a need to better understand stagnation region heat transfer with realistic roughness as well as the other variables affecting transport near the leading edge. Also, the question of whether leading edge regions can be cooled internally with modern cooling approaches should also be raised, thus avoiding the clogging issue. Addressing deposition in the pressure side throat region of the nozzle is another critical issue for this environment. Issues such as examining the protective effect of slot and full coverage discrete-hole film cooling on limiting deposition as well as the influence of roughness and turbulence on effectiveness should be raised. The objective of this present study is to address these technical challenges to help enable the development of high efficiency syngas tolerant gas turbine engines.