National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydrocarbons carbon monoxide

  1. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference ...

  2. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  3. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  4. Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  5. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

    1985-11-06

    A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  6. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; Goldberg, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    A method of converting low H.sub.2 /CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200.degree. to 350.degree. C. in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinium, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n+1).gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n.gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  7. Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon ... hydrogen; carbon monoxide; energy; anaerobic respiration; Thermococcales Word Cloud ...

  8. Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerstein, Bernard C.; Macaulay, David B.

    1976-06-01

    A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

  9. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook The main function of ...

  10. CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO (Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratio System) Handbook You are accessing a document from the ...

  11. Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Nguyen, Trung V.; Guante, Jr., Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Monoxide Sensor Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryScientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed an electrochemical carbon monoxide (CO) sensor that is more reliable and reproducible than any other CO sensor on the market today. The patented method for producing the sensor ensures reproducibility and reduces the need for calibration of every sensor coming off the production line.DescriptionInaccurate CO

  13. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Swartz, Scott L.; Holt, Christopher T.; Revur, Ramachandra Rao

    2006-01-10

    A sensor and method of use for detection of low levels of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures. The approach is based on the change in an electrical property (for example: resistance) that occurs when carbon monoxide is selectively absorbed by a film of copper chloride (or other metal halides). The electrical property change occurs rapidly with both increasing and decreasing CO contents, varies with the amount of CO from the gas stream, and is insensitive to the presence of hydrogen. To make a sensor using this approach, the metal halide film will deposited onto an alumina substrate with electrodes. The sensor may be maintained at the optimum temperature with a thick film platinum heater deposited onto the opposite face of the substrate. When the sensor is operating at an appropriate (and constant) temperature, the magnitude of the electrical property measured between the interdigital electrodes will provide a measure of the carbon monoxide content of the gas.

  14. Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elek, Louis F.; Frost, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

  15. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borup, Rodney L.; Skala, Glenn W.; Brundage, Mark A.; LaBarge, William J.

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  16. Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    dehydrogenase complex in the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex in the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex in the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon

  17. Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    complex in the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex ...

  18. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDaniel; Anthony H. (Livermore, CA), Medlin; J. Will (Boulder, CO), Bastasz; Robert J. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  19. Gold-catalyzed synthesis of carbonates and carbamates from carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friend, Cynthia M; Madix, Robert J; Xu, Bingjun

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for producing organic carbonates via the reaction of alcohols and carbon monoxide with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic gold or gold alloy catalyst.

  20. The proposed revision to the NAAQS for carbon monoxide and its...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    STANDARDS; CARBON MONOXIDE; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; NEW JERSEY; POLLUTION REGULATIONS; AIR POLLUTION; CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES; HEALTH HAZARDS; PUBLIC HEALTH; SENSITIVITY; CARBON ...

  1. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  2. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  3. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kustes, William A. (Louisville, KY); Hausberger, Arthur L. (Louisville, KY)

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading and a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process for its Preparation - Energy Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Monoxide Tolerant Electrocatalyst with Low Platinum Loading and a Process for its Preparation Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Pt Submonolayers on Ru Nanoparticles: A Novel Low Pt Loading, High CO Tolerance Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst (173 KB)

  5. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  6. Size Effect of Ruthenium Nanoparticles in Catalytic Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joo, Sang Hoon; Park, Jeong Y.; Renzas, J. Russell; Butcher, Derek R.; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2010-04-04

    Carbon monoxide oxidation over ruthenium catalysts has shown an unusual catalytic behavior. Here we report a particle size effect on CO oxidation over Ru nanoparticle (NP) catalysts. Uniform Ru NPs with a tunable particle size from 2 to 6 nm were synthesized by a polyol reduction of Ru(acac){sub 3} precursor in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) stabilizer. The measurement of catalytic activity of CO oxidation over two-dimensional Ru NPs arrays under oxidizing reaction conditions (40 Torr CO and 100 Torr O{sub 2}) showed an activity dependence on the Ru NP size. The CO oxidation activity increases with NP size, and the 6 nm Ru NP catalyst shows 8-fold higher activity than the 2 nm catalysts. The results gained from this study will provide the scientific basis for future design of Ru-based oxidation catalysts.

  7. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  8. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  9. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Farris, Thomas Stephen

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  10. The proposed revision to the NAAQS for carbon monoxide and its effect on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    state designation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: The proposed revision to the NAAQS for carbon monoxide and its effect on state designation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The proposed revision to the NAAQS for carbon monoxide and its effect on state designation The effect of the proposed change on the number of exceedances to the 8 h CO standard was reviewed. New Jersey data supported by national data suggest the allowance of 5 exceedances annually will

  11. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  12. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one. Inventors: Liu, Wei 1 ; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria 2 + Show Author Affiliations (Cambridge, MA) ...

  13. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in nave mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  14. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  15. New clean fuel from coal -- Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, T.; Ono, M.; Mizuguchi, M.; Tomura, K.; Shikada, T.; Ohono, Y.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME), which has similar physical properties to propane and is easily liquefied at low pressure, has a significant possibility as a clean and non-toxic fuel from coal or coal bed methane. Equilibrium calculation also shows a big advantage of high carbon monoxide conversion of DME synthesis compared to methanol synthesis. By using a 50 kg/day DME bench scale test plant, direct synthesis of DME from hydrogen and carbon monoxide has been studied with newly developed catalysts which are very fine particles. This test plant features a high pressure three-phase slurry reactor and low temperature DME separator. DME is synthesized at temperatures around 533--553 K and at pressures around 3--5 MPa. According to the reaction stoichiometry, the same amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide react to DME and carbon dioxide. Carbon conversion to DME is one third and the rest of carbon is converted to carbon dioxide. As a result of the experiments, make-up CO conversion is 35--50% on an once-through basis, which is extremely high compared to that of methanol synthesis from hydrogen and carbon monoxide. DME selectivity is around 60 c-mol %. Most of the by-product is CO{sub 2} with a small amount of methanol and water. No heavy by-products have been recognized. Effluent from the reactor is finally cooled to 233--253 K in a DME separator and liquid DME is recovered as a product.

  16. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  17. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sen, Ayusman; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  18. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frost, Albert C.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  19. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  20. Catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons to hydrogen and high-value carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Naresh; Panjala, Devadas; Huffman, Gerald P.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention provides novel catalysts for accomplishing catalytic decomposition of undiluted light hydrocarbons to a hydrogen product, and methods for preparing such catalysts. In one aspect, a method is provided for preparing a catalyst by admixing an aqueous solution of an iron salt, at least one additional catalyst metal salt, and a suitable oxide substrate support, and precipitating metal oxyhydroxides onto the substrate support. An incipient wetness method, comprising addition of aqueous solutions of metal salts to a dry oxide substrate support, extruding the resulting paste to pellet form, and calcining the pellets in air is also discloses. In yet another aspect, a process is provided for producing hydrogen from an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant, comprising contacting the hydrocarbon reactant with a catalyst as described above in a reactor, and recovering a substantially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen product stream. In still yet another aspect, a process is provided for catalytic decomposition of an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant to obtain hydrogen and a valuable multi-walled carbon nanotube coproduct.

  1. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  2. In situ gasification process for producing product gas enriched in carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capp, John P.; Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an in situ coal gasification process wherein the combustion zone within the underground coal bed is fed with air at increasing pressure to increase pressure and temperature in the combustion zone for forcing product gases and water naturally present in the coal bed into the coal bed surrounding the combustion zone. No outflow of combustion products occurs during the build-up of pressure and temperature in the combustion zone. After the coal bed reaches a temperature of about 2000.degree. F and a pressure in the range of about 100-200 psi above pore pressure the airflow is terminated and the outflow of the combustion products from the combustion zone is initiated. The CO.sub.2 containing gaseous products and the water bleed back into the combustion zone to react endothermically with the hot carbon of the combustion zone to produce a burnable gas with a relatively high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. About 11 to 29 percent of the gas recovered from the combustion zone is carbon monoxide which is considerably better than the 4 to 10 percent carbon monoxide obtained by employing previously known coal gasification techniques.

  3. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.; Jackson, M.; Mumford, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  4. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Use of hydrogen-free carbon monoxide with steam in recovery of heavy oil at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyne, J. B.; Tyrer, J. D.

    1984-12-11

    A process for recovering oil from a subterranean heavy oil-containing reservoir is provided, wherein steam and carbon monoxide are injected into the reservoir at a temperature less than about 260/sup 0/ C. At these low temperatures, the steam and hydrogen-free carbon monoxide are found to react in the reservoir, by the water gas reaction, to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen. These products both have upgrading effects on the heavy oil, enhancing its quality and producibility. At the low temperatures of the process, gasification and polymerization of the heavy oil are minimized.

  6. PAST RESEARCH SUMMARY REDUCTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE DOE/ER/04949--1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PAST RESEARCH SUMMARY REDUCTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE DOE/ER/04949--1 DE82 007524 Richard R. Schrock Massachusetts Institute o f Technology Period of Performance: June 1, 1980 - May 31, 1982 Contract No. DE-AC02-78ER04949 This document 1s DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  7. Carbon monoxide tolerant electrocatalyst with low platinum loading and a process for its preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Brankovic, Stanko; Wang, Jia

    2003-12-30

    An electrocatalyst is provided for use in a fuel cell that has low platinum loading and a high tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning. The fuel cell anode includes an electrocatalyst that has a conductive support material, ruthenium nanoparticles reduced in H.sub.2 and a Group VIII noble metal in an amount of between about 0.1 and 25 wt % of the ruthenium nanoparticles, preferably between about 0.5 and 15 wt %. The preferred Group VIII noble metal is platinum. In one embodiment, the anode can also have a perfluorinated polymer membrane on its surface.

  8. Process for producing hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a heteropolyanionic metal complex catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuch, Ph. L.

    1984-12-18

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contracting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a heteropolymolybdate or tungstate complex. Use of these catalysts reduce the amount of by-product carbon dioxide and methane formation and thus enhance the make of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide.

  9. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  10. Method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2000-01-01

    A method for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide within a reformer 10 is disclosed. According to the method, a stream including an oxygen-containing gas is directed adjacent to a first vessel 18 and the oxygen-containing gas is heated. A stream including unburned fuel is introduced into the oxygen-containing gas stream to form a mixture including oxygen-containing gas and fuel. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and unburned fuel is directed tangentially into a partial oxidation reaction zone 24 within the first vessel 18. The mixture of oxygen-containing gas and fuel is further directed through the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 to produce a heated reformate stream including hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Steam may also be mixed with the oxygen-containing gas and fuel, and the reformate stream from the partial oxidation reaction zone 24 directed into a steam reforming zone 26. High- and low-temperature shift reaction zones 64,76 may be employed for further fuel processing.

  11. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  12. Final Technical Report "Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation" Grant number : DE-FG02-86ER13615

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayland, B.B.

    2009-08-31

    Title: Catalytic Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide and Olefin Oxidation Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13615 PI: Wayland, B. B. (wayland@sas.upenn.edu) Abstract Development of new mechanistic strategies and catalyst materials for activation of CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, O2, and related substrates relevant to the conversion of carbon monoxide, alkanes, and alkenes to organic oxygenates are central objectives encompassed by this program. Design and synthesis of metal complexes that manifest reactivity patterns associated with potential pathways for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide through metallo-formyl (M-CHO), dimetal ketone (M-C(O)-M), and dimetal dionyl (M-C(O)-C(O)-M) species is one major focus. Hydrocarbon oxidation using molecular oxygen is a central goal for methane activation and functionalization as well as regioselective oxidation of olefins. Discovery of new reactivity patterns and control of selectivity are pursued through designing new metal complexes and adjusting reaction conditions. Variation of reaction media promotes distinct reaction pathways that control both reaction rates and selectivities. Dimetalloradical diporphyrin complexes preorganize transition states for substrate reactions that involve two metal centers and manifest large rate increases over mono-metalloradical reactions of hydrogen, methane, and other small molecule substrates. Another broad goal and recurring theme of this program is to contribute to the thermodynamic database for a wide scope of organo-metal transformations in a range of reaction media. One of the most complete descriptions of equilibrium thermodynamics for organometallic reactions in water and methanol is emerging from the study of rhodium porphyrin substrate reactions in aqueous and alcoholic media. Water soluble group nine metalloporphyrins manifest remarkably versatile substrate reactivity in aqueous and alcoholic media which includes producing rhodium formyl (Rh-CHO) and hydroxy methyl (Rh-CH2OH) species. Exploratory directions for this program include expending new strategies for anti-Markovnikov addition of water, alcohols, and amines with olefins, developing catalytic reactions of CO to give formamides and formic esters, and evaluating the potential for coupling reactions of CO to produce organic building blocks.

  13. Heterologous production of an energy-conserving carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex in the hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schut, Gerrit J.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Nguyen, Diep M. N.; Kelly, Robert M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-01-29

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a CO dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificialmore » chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100° C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80° C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.« less

  14. Oxygen isotope fractionation in the vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation of carbon monoxide: Wavelength, pressure and temperature dependency.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, Subrata; Davis, Ryan; Ahmed, Musahid; Jackson, Teresa L.; Thiemens, Mark H.

    2012-01-03

    Several absorption bands exist in the VUV region of Carbon monoxide (CO). Emission spectra indicate that these bands are all predissociative. An experimental investigation of CO photodissociation by vacuum ultraviolet photons (90 to 108 nm; ~13 to 11 eV) from the Advanced Light Source Synchrotron and direct measurement of the associated oxygen isotopic composition of the products are presented here. A wavelength dependency of the oxygen isotopic composition in the photodissociation product was observed. Slope values (δ'{sup 18}O/ δ'{sup 17}O) ranging from 0.76 to 1.32 were observed in oxygen three-isotope space (δ'{sup 18}O vs. δ'{sup 17}O) which correlated with increasing synchrotron photon energy, and indicate a dependency of the upper electronic state specific dissociation dynamics (e.g., perturbation and coupling associated with a particular state). An unprecedented magnitude in isotope separation was observed for photodissociation at the 105 and 107 nm synchrotron bands and are found to be associated with accidental predissociation of the vibrational states ({nu} = 0 and 1) of the upper electronic state E{sup 1}Π. For each synchrotron band, a large (few hundred per mil) extent of isotopic fractionation was observed and the range of fractionation is a combination of column density and exposure time. A significant temperature dependency in oxygen isotopic fractionation was observed, indicating a rotational level dependency in the predissociation process.

  15. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  16. Catalytic conversion of alcohols having at least three carbon atoms to hydrocarbon blendstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-11-13

    A method for producing a hydrocarbon blendstock, the method comprising contacting at least one saturated acyclic alcohol having at least three and up to ten carbon atoms with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100°C and up to 550°C, wherein the metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and the metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting the alcohol to the hydrocarbon blendstock, wherein the method directly produces a hydrocarbon blendstock having less than 1 vol % ethylene and at least 35 vol % of hydrocarbon compounds containing at least eight carbon atoms.

  17. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z.

    2011-08-23

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  18. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  19. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  20. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a metal boride, nitride, carbide and/or silicide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuiggan, M.F.; Kuch, P.L.

    1984-05-08

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a metal boride, carbide, nitride and/or silicide catalyst, such as titanium carbide, vanadium boride, manganese nitride or molybdenum silicide.

  1. Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  2. On the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide by carbon monoxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst: A study by XPS and TPR/MS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, N.T.; Fang, M. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center] [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong). Applied Technology Center

    1998-10-25

    Both the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed reaction, coupled with mass spectrometry (TPR/MS), are used to study the formation of carbonyl sulfide in the reduction of sulfur dioxide on lanthanum oxysulfide catalyst. It was found that the lattice sulfur of the oxysulfide is released and reacts with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide when the oxysulfide is heated. The oxysulfide is postulated to form sulfur vacancies at a temperature lower than that for the formation of carbonyl sulfide and atomic sulfur is released in the process. The atomic sulfur can either enter the gas phase and leave the oxysulfide catalyst or react with carbon monoxide to form carbonyl sulfide.

  3. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  4. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rolllins, Harry W.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Ginosar, Daniel M.

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  5. Formation of carbon black as a byproduct of pyrolysis of light hydrocarbons in plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, H.G.; Zhang, X.B.; Li, F.; Xie, K.C.; Dai, B.; Fan, Y.S.

    1997-12-31

    The light hydrocarbons undergo a complex reaction of flash hydropyrolysis in a DC arc H{sub 2}/Ar plasma jet at atmospheric pressure and average temperatures between 1,500 K and 4,000 K. The raw material was LPG. Acetylene is the major product. Carbon black is a byproduct. Carbon black is characterized with XRD, TEM, and adsorption-and-desorption of liquid nitrogen, respectively. The present work proposes to use the plasma process to replace the classical thermal process in order to produce acetylene directly from LPG with carbon black being a byproduct.

  6. Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2006-08-29

    A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  7. Carbon monoxide alleviates ethanol-induced oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yanyan; Gao, Chao; Shi, Yanru; Tang, Yuhan; Liu, Liang; Xiong, Ting; Du, Min; Xing, Mingyou; Liu, Liegang; Yao, Ping

    2013-11-15

    Stress-inducible protein heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is well-appreciative to counteract oxidative damage and inflammatory stress involving the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). The potential role and signaling pathways of HO-1 metabolite carbon monoxide (CO), however, still remained unclear. To explore the precise mechanisms, ethanol-dosed adult male Balb/c mice (5.0 g/kg.bw.) or ethanol-incubated primary rat hepatocytes (100 mmol/L) were pretreated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimmer (CORM-2, 8 mg/kg for mice or 20 μmol/L for hepatocytes), as well as other pharmacological reagents. Our data showed that CO released from HO-1 induction by quercetin prevented ethanol-derived oxidative injury, which was abolished by CO scavenger hemoglobin. The protection was mimicked by CORM-2 with the attenuation of GSH depletion, SOD inactivation, MDA overproduction, and the leakage of AST, ALT or LDH in serum and culture medium induced by ethanol. Moreover, CORM-2 injection or incubation stimulated p38 phosphorylation and suppressed abnormal Tnfa and IL-6, accompanying the alleviation of redox imbalance induced by ethanol and aggravated by inflammatory factors. The protective role of CORM-2 was abolished by SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) but not by PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) or SP600125 (JNK inhibitor). Thus, HO-1 released CO prevented ethanol-elicited hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory stress through activating p38 MAPK pathway, suggesting a potential therapeutic role of gaseous signal molecule on ALD induced by naturally occurring phytochemicals. - Highlights: • CO alleviated ethanol-derived liver oxidative and inflammatory stress in mice. • CO eased ethanol and inflammatory factor-induced oxidative damage in hepatocytes. • The p38 MAPK is a key signaling mechanism for the protective function of CO in ALD.

  8. Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols by carbon dioxide on oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, O.V. . N.N. Semenov Inst. of Chemical Physics); Mamedov, A.Kh.; Mirzabekova, S.R. . Yu.G. Mamedaliev Inst. of Petrochemical Processes)

    1995-02-01

    The great interest displayed lately in heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide is caused by two reasons: (1) the necessity to fight the greenhouse effect and (2) the exhaust of carbon raw material sources. Reactions of oxidative transformation of organic compounds of different classes (alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols) with a nontraditional oxidant, carbon dioxide, were studied on oxide catalysts Fe-O, Cr-O, Mn-O and on multicomponent systems based on manganese oxide. The supported manganese oxide catalysts are active, selective, and stable in conversion of the CH[sub 4] + CO[sub 2] mixture into synthesis gas and in oxidative dehydrogenation of C[sub 2] [minus] C[sub 7] hydrocarbons and the lower alcohols. Unlike metal catalysts manganese oxide based catalysts do not form a carbon layer during the reaction.

  9. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  10. THE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET 'CONTINUUM' IN PROTOPLANETARY DISK SYSTEMS. II. CARBON MONOXIDE FOURTH POSITIVE EMISSION AND ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    France, Kevin; Schindhelm, Eric; Burgh, Eric B.; Brown, Alexander; Green, James C.; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Brown, Joanna M.; Harper, Graham M.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Yang Hao; Abgrall, Herve; Ardila, David R.; Bergin, Edwin; Bethell, Thomas; Calvet, Nuria; Ingleby, Laura; Espaillat, Catherine; Gregory, Scott G.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Hussain, Gaitee

    2011-06-10

    We exploit the high sensitivity and moderate spectral resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to detect far-ultraviolet (UV) spectral features of carbon monoxide (CO) present in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks for the first time. We present spectra of the classical T Tauri stars HN Tau, RECX-11, and V4046 Sgr, representative of a range of CO radiative processes. HN Tau shows CO bands in absorption against the accretion continuum. The CO absorption most likely arises in warm inner disk gas. We measure a CO column density and rotational excitation temperature of N(CO) = (2 {+-} 1) x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2} and T{sub rot}(CO) 500 {+-} 200 K for the absorbing gas. We also detect CO A-X band emission in RECX-11 and V4046 Sgr, excited by UV line photons, predominantly H I Ly{alpha}. All three objects show emission from CO bands at {lambda} > 1560 A, which may be excited by a combination of UV photons and collisions with non-thermal electrons. In previous observations these emission processes were not accounted for due to blending with emission from the accretion shock, collisionally excited H{sub 2}, and photo-excited H{sub 2}, all of which appeared as a 'continuum' whose components could not be separated. The CO emission spectrum is strongly dependent upon the shape of the incident stellar Ly{alpha} emission profile. We find CO parameters in the range: N(CO) {approx} 10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}, T{sub rot}(CO) {approx}> 300 K for the Ly{alpha}-pumped emission. We combine these results with recent work on photo-excited and collisionally excited H{sub 2} emission, concluding that the observations of UV-emitting CO and H{sub 2} are consistent with a common spatial origin. We suggest that the CO/H{sub 2} ratio ({identical_to} N(CO)/N(H{sub 2})) in the inner disk is {approx}1, a transition between the much lower interstellar value and the higher value observed in solar system comets today, a result that will require future observational and theoretical study to confirm.

  11. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  12. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  13. Near-ambient X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and kinetic approach to the mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation over lanthanum substituted cobaltites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hueso, J. L.; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Cabalerro, Alfonso; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin Rodriguez; Mun, Bongjin Simon; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-07-31

    We have studied the oxidation of carbon monoxide over a lanthanum substituted perovskite (La0.5Sr0.5CoO3-d) catalyst prepared by spray pyrolysis. Under the assumption of a first-order kinetics mechanism for CO, it has been found that the activation energy barrier of the reaction changes from 80 to 40 kJ mol-1 at a threshold temperature of ca. 320 oC. In situ XPS near-ambient pressure ( 0.2 torr) shows that the gas phase oxygen concentration over the sample decreases sharply at ca. 300 oC. These two observations suggest that the oxidation of CO undergoes a change of mechanism at temperatures higher than 300 oC.

  14. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Sansone, Michael J.; Slegeir, William A. R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

  15. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint. 9 figs.

  16. Integrated Removal of NOx with Carbon Monoxide as Reductant, and Capture of Mercury in a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville Pinto; Panagiotis Smirniotis; Stephen Thiel

    2010-08-31

    Coal will likely continue to be a dominant component of power generation in the foreseeable future. This project addresses the issue of environmental compliance for two important pollutants: NO{sub x} and mercury. Integration of emission control units is in principle possible through a Low Temperature Selective Catalytic and Adsorptive Reactor (LTSCAR) in which NO{sub x} removal is achieved in a traditional SCR mode but at low temperature, and, uniquely, using carbon monoxide as a reductant. The capture of mercury is integrated into the same process unit. Such an arrangement would reduce mercury removal costs significantly, and provide improved control for the ultimate disposal of mercury. The work completed in this project demonstrates that the use of CO as a reductant in LTSCR is technically feasible using supported manganese oxide catalysts, that the simultaneous warm-gas capture of elemental and oxidized mercury is technically feasible using both nanostructured chelating adsorbents and ceria-titania-based materials, and that integrated removal of mercury and NO{sub x} is technically feasible using ceria-titania-based materials.

  17. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  18. Effect of long duration UV irradiation on diamondlike carbon surfaces in the presence of a hydrocarbon gaseous atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedo, A.; Wahlstroem, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Tulej, M.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of the effect of long duration UV irradiation (up to 2905 min) of flight quality diamondlike carbon charge state conversion surfaces for application in space research in the presence of a hydrocarbon atmosphere were done. An isopropanol atmosphere was used for simulating the hydrocarbon gaseous environment for an instrument on a satellite in space. Charge state conversion surfaces are used in neutral particle sensing instruments where neutral atoms have to be ionized prior to the analysis. A narrow-band (126{+-}5 nm) discharge lamp and a broad-band deuterium lamp (112-370 nm) were used as sources of UV radiation. The UV irradiation of a surface results in the desorption of some volatiles present on the surface and the decomposition of others. Desorption of volatiles, mostly water, is observed for both UV sources. The decomposition of the hydrocarbons and the subsequent build-up of a hydrocarbonaceous layer is only observed for the broad-band UV lamp, which is more representative for the space environment. Unfortunately, the hydrocarbonaceous layer cannot be removed thermally, i.e., it is permanent, and causes a degradation of the performance of the charge state conversion surfaces. With the present measurements we can quantify the UV influence at which the degradation of the conversion surfaces becomes noticeable.

  19. Formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in interstellar analogous methane (CH{sub 4})-carbon monoxide (CO) ices: A combined FTIR and reflectron time-of-flight mass spectroscopic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maity, Surajit; Kaiser, Ralf I.; Jones, Brant M.

    2014-07-01

    The formation of ketene (H{sub 2}CCO) in methane-carbon monoxide (CH{sub 4}-CO) ices was investigated upon its exposure to ionizing radiation in the form of energetic electrons at 5.5 K. The radiation-induced nonthermal equilibrium processing of these ices was monitored online and in situ via infrared spectroscopy complimented with post-irradiation temperature programmed desorption studies exploiting highly sensitive reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ReTOF) coupled with single photon fragment-free photo ionization (PI) at 10.49 eV. The detection of ketene in irradiated (isotopically labeled) methane-carbon monoxide ices was confirmed via the ?{sub 2} infrared absorption band and substantiated during the warm-up phase based on sublimation profiles obtained from the ReTOF-PI spectra of the corresponding isotopic masses. The experiments conducted with the mixed isotopic ices of {sup 12}CD{sub 4}-{sup 13}CO provide clear evidence of the formation of at least two ketene isotopomers (D{sub 2} {sup 12}C{sup 13}CO and D{sub 2} {sup 13}C{sup 13}CO), allowing for the derivation of two competing formation pathways. We have also proposed underlying reaction mechanisms to the formation of ketene based on kinetic fitting of the temporal evolution of the ketene isotopomers.

  20. Visible-Light Photoredox Catalysis: Selective Reduction of Carbon Dioxide to Carbon Monoxide by a Nickel N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Isoquinoline Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoi, VanSara; Kornienko, Nick; Margarit, C; Yang, Peidong; Chang, Christopher

    2013-06-07

    The solar-driven reduction of carbon dioxide to value-added chemical fuels is a longstanding challenge in the fields of catalysis, energy science, and green chemistry. In order to develop effective CO2 fixation, several key considerations must be balanced, including (1) catalyst selectivity for promoting CO2 reduction over competing hydrogen generation from proton reduction, (2) visible-light harvesting that matches the solar spectrum, and (3) the use of cheap and earth-abundant catalytic components. In this report, we present the synthesis and characterization of a new family of earth-abundant nickel complexes supported by N-heterocyclic carbene amine ligands that exhibit high selectivity and activity for the electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to CO. Systematic changes in the carbene and amine donors of the ligand have been surveyed, and [Ni(Prbimiq1)]2+ (1c, where Prbimiq1 = bis(3-(imidazolyl)isoquinolinyl)propane) emerges as a catalyst for electrochemical reduction of CO2 with the lowest cathodic onset potential (Ecat = 1.2 V vs SCE). Using this earth-abundant catalyst with Ir(ppy)3 (where ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) and an electron donor, we have developed a visible-light photoredox system for the catalytic conversion of CO2 to CO that proceeds with high selectivity and activity and achieves turnover numbers and turnover frequencies reaching 98,000 and 3.9 s1, respectively. Further studies reveal that the overall efficiency of this solar-to-fuel cycle may be limited by the formation of the active Ni catalyst and/or the chemical reduction of CO2 to CO at the reduced nickel center and provide a starting point for improved photoredox systems for sustainable carbon-neutral energy conversion.

  1. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Thijssen, Johannes H. J.

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

  2. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  3. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  4. ZIRCONIA-BASED MIXED POTENTIAL CARBON MONOXIDE/HYDROCARBON SENSORS WITH LANTHANUM MAGNESIUM OXIDE, AND TERBIUM-DOPED YTTRIUM STABILIZED ZIRCONIA ELECTRODES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. L. BROSHA; R. MUKUNDAN; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    We have investigated the performance of dual metal oxide electrode mixed potential sensors in an engine-out, dynamometer environment. Sensors were fabricated by sputtering thin films of LaMnO{sub 3} and Tb-doped YSZ onto YSZ electrolyte. Au gauze held onto the metal oxide thin films with Au ink was used for current collection. The exhaust gas from a 4.8L, V8 engine operated in open loop, steady-state mode around stoichiometry at 1500 RPM and 50 Nm. The sensor showed a stable EMF response (with no hysteresis) to varying concentrations of total exhaust gas HC content. The sensor response was measured at 620 and 670 C and shows temperature behavior characteristic of mixed potential-type sensors. The results of these engine-dynamometer tests are encouraging; however, the limitations associated with Au current collection present the biggest impediment to automotive use.

  5. System and method for controlling hydrogen elimination during carbon nanotube synthesis from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-03-23

    A system and method for producing carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition includes a catalyst support having first and second surfaces. The catalyst support is capable of hydrogen transport from the first to the second surface. A catalyst is provided on the first surface of the catalyst support. The catalyst is selected to catalyze the chemical vapor deposition formation of carbon nanotubes. A fuel source is provided for supplying fuel to the catalyst.

  6. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2000-09-26

    A method is disclosed for synthesizing hydrogen gas from hydrocarbon fuel. A first mixture of steam and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 208 to subject the first mixture to a first steam reforming reaction in the presence of a first catalyst 214. A stream of oxygen-containing gas is pre-heated by transferring heat energy from product gases. A second mixture of the pre-heated oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 218 disposed about the first tube 208 to subject the second mixture to a partial oxidation reaction and to provide heat energy for transfer to the first tube 208. A first reaction reformate from the first tube 208 and a second reaction reformate from the second tube 218 are directed into a third tube 224 disposed about the second tube 218 to subject the first and second reaction reformates to a second steam reforming reaction, wherein heat energy is transferred to the third tube 224 from the second tube 218.

  7. Plasma-Hydrocarbon conversion - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon conversion Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's Plasma-Hydrocarbon Conversion process enables conversion of heavy hydrocarbons, such as heavy crude oil and hydrocarbon gases like natural gas, into lighter hydrocarbon materials (e.g. synthetic light oil). Description It can convert hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels/chemicals. The dielectric barrier discharge plasma process that adds carbon and hydrogen simultaneously to heavy

  8. Carbon-13 magnetic resonance of hydrocarbons. Progress report, September 1, 1978-28 February 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalling, D.K.; Morin, F.

    1981-01-01

    Carbon-13 and proton nmr data have been required for the following series of compounds: tetralin and sixteen of its methylated derivatives; eleven methylated tetrahydrophenanthrene which include the parent compound; and 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene and four of its 9,10 methylated isomers. Data for all these compounds are provided and a detailed discussion on their molecular structure from the chemical shift studies is presented. The temperature dependence of the solution chemical shifts of various methylated derivatives of tetralin has also been determined in CDCL/sub 4/ from 40/sup 0/C to -65/sup 0/C.

  9. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to lower carbon dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-09-18

    A method for producing liquid fuels includes the steps of gasifying a starting material selected from a group consisting of coal, biomass, carbon nanotubes and mixtures thereof to produce a syngas, subjecting that syngas to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a hyrdrocarbon product stream, separating that hydrocarbon product stream into C1-C4 hydrocarbons and C5+ hydrocarbons to be used as liquid fuels and subjecting the C1-C4 hydrocarbons to catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) to produce hydrogen and carbon nanotubes. The hydrogen produced by CDH is recycled to be mixed with the syngas incident to the FTS reactor in order to raise the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the syngas to values of 2 or higher, which is required to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This is accomplished with little or no production of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. The carbon is captured in the form of a potentially valuable by-product, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), while huge emissions of carbon dioxide are avoided and very large quantities of water employed for the water-gas shift in traditional FTS systems are saved.

  10. Sulfur tolerant molten carbonate fuel cell anode and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Remick, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    Molten carbonate fuel cell anodes incorporating a sulfur tolerant carbon monoxide to hydrogen water-gas-shift catalyst provide in situ conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen for improved fuel cell operation using fuel gas mixtures of over about 10 volume percent carbon monoxide and up to about 10 ppm hydrogen sulfide.

  11. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  12. Comparative Study on the Sulfur Tolerance and Carbon Resistance of Supported Noble Metal Catalysts in Steam Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Chao; Chen, Yongsheng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Song, Chunshan

    2012-04-18

    This work was conducted to clarify the influence of the type of metal and support on the sulfur tolerance and carbon resistance of supported noble metal catalysts in steam reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Al2O3-supported noble metal catalysts (Rh, Ru, Pt, and Pd), Rh catalysts on different supports (Al2O3, CeO2, SiO2, and MgO), and Pt catalyst supported on CeO2 and Al2O3, were examined for steam reforming of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (Norpar13 from Exxon Mobil) at 800 C for 55 h. The results indicate that (1) Rh/Al2O3 shows higher sulfur tolerance than the Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts on the same support; (2) both Al2O3 and CeO2 are promising supports for Rh catalyst to process sulfur-containing hydrocarbons; and (3) Pt/CeO2 exhibits better catalytic performance than Pt/Al2O3 in the reaction with sulfur. TEM results demonstrate that the metal particles in Rh/Al2O3 were better dispersed (mostly in 1-3 nm) compared with the other catalysts after reforming the sulfur-containing feed. As revealed by XPS, the binding energy of Rh 3d for Rh/Al2O3 is notably higher than that for Rh/CeO2, implying the formation of electron-deficient Rh particles in the former. The strong sulfur tolerance of Rh/Al2O3 may be related to the formation of well-dispersed electron-deficient Rh particles on the Al2O3 support. Sulfur K-edge XANES illustrates the preferential formation of sulfonate and sulfate on Rh/Al2O3, which is believed to be beneficial for improving its sulfur tolerance as their oxygen-shielded sulfur structure may hinder direct Rh-S interaction. Due to its strong sulfur tolerance, the carbon deposition on Rh/Al2O3 was significantly lower than that on the Al2O3-supported Ru, Pt, and Pd catalysts after the reaction with sulfur. The superior catalytic performance of CeO2-supported Rh and Pt catalysts in the presence of sulfur can be ascribed mainly to the promotion effect of CeO2 on carbon gasification, leading to much lower carbon deposition compared with the Rh/Al2O3, Rh/MgO, Rh/SiO2 and Pt/Al2O3 catalysts.

  13. Process for the selective removal of hydrogen sulphide and carbonyl sulfide from light hydrocarbon gases containing carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, W.V.

    1988-06-07

    A process for the selective removal of H/sub 2/S and COS from a gas containing light hydrocarbons, H/sub 2/S, COS and CO/sub 2/, is described which comprises in a one step absorption, at treatment conditions, contacting the gas stream with a solvent stream consisting essentially of: (i) water, (ii) a bridgehead amine comprising a bicyclo tertiary amine or a bicyclo amidine to selectively hydrolyze the COS to H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/, (iii) a tertiary amine to selectively absorb the H/sub 2/S and to selectively exclude from absorption the CO/sub 2/ in the gas stream and the CO/sub 2/ produced by the hydrolysis of the COS, and (iv) a physical solvent acceptable for COS absorption wherein two streams are formed comprising: (1) a light hydrocarbon and CO/sub 2/-containing stream having 1 ppm to about 200 ppm H/sub 2/S and having 1 ppm COS to about 10 ppm COS and (2) a solvent stream rich in H/sub 2/S, water, tertiary amine and the bridgehead amine.

  14. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  15. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  16. Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

    2012-08-19

    The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

  17. Predict carbonation rate on iron Fischer-Tropsch catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1980-02-01

    An experimental study of the coking rate in 5 cm ID fluidized-bed reactors, in which the feed gas composition, the total pressure, and the fresh feed/recycle gas ratios were varied over wide ranges, showed a strong correlation between the carbon deposition rate and the ratio of carbon monoxide partial pressure to the square of the hydrogen partial pressure at the reactor inlet over a wide gas-composition range. At a given fresh gas composition, the combination rate varied inversely with the total pressure of the system. Coking decreased as the moles of CO + CO/sub 2/ converted to hydrocarbon increased. A Fischer-Tropsch reaction scheme is proposed and is used to derive a rate expression for catalyst carbonation that was approximately confirmed.

  18. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  19. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K.; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1989-01-01

    A method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas, which method comprises: (a) contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate of the formula: ##STR1## wherein the water-soluble organic compound is selected from compounds of the formula: ##STR2## wherein: R is selected from hydrogen or an organic moiety having at least one polar functional group; Z is selected from oxygen, sulfur, or --N--A wherein N is nitrogen and A is hydrogen or lower alkyl having from one to four carbon atoms; and M is selected from hydrogen, sodium or potassium; and n is 1 or 2, in a contacting zone for a time and at a temperature effective to reduce the nitrogen monoxide. These mixtures are useful to provide an unexpensive method of removing NO from gases, thus reducing atmospheric pollution from flue gases.

  20. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Satish C. B. Myneni, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 When we think of chlorine, we often relate it to the salt used in food preparation, chloride in the oceans, chlorine gas from swimming pools, and gaseous chlorofluorocarbons that have close links to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. We rarely think of thousands of chlorinated hydrocarbons that exist in the natural systems, several of which are highly toxic to humans (1). The C-Cl bond, common to all

  1. A 700 year sediment record of black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near the EMEP air monitoring station in Aspvreten, Sweden

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marie Elmquist; Zdenek Zencak; Oerjan Gustafsson

    2007-10-15

    In view of poor constraints on historical combustion emissions, past environmental loadings of black carbon (BC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) were reconstructed from dated lake sediment cores collected 70 km south of Stockholm, Sweden. Compared to several dramatic variations over the recent 150 years, the preindustrial loadings were steady within {+-}50% through the entire medieval with BC fluxes of 0.071 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} and PAH fluxes of 6 g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. In the wood-burning dominated century leading up to the industrial revolution around 1850, increasing BC fluxes were leading PAH fluxes. BC fluxes reached their millennial-scale maximum around 1920, whereas PAH fluxes increased exponentially to its record maximum around 1960, 50-fold above preindustrial values. For 1920-1950, BC fluxes consistently decreased as PAH fluxes kept increasing. Coal and coke represented >50% of the Swedish energy market in the 1930s. Combined with sharply decreasing (1,7-)/(1,7{+-}2,6-dimethylphenanthrene), indicative of diminishing wood combustion, and decreasing methylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene, indicative of higher-temperature combustion (coal instead of wood), the sediment archive suggests that the relative BC/PAH emission factors thus are lower for coal than for wood combustion. For the first time, both BC and PAH fluxes decreased after 1960. This trend break is a testament to the positive effects of decreasing reliance on petroleum fuels and a number of legislative actions aimed at curbing emissions and by 1990, the loading of BC was back at preindustrial levels, whereas that of PAH were the lowest since the 1910s. However, for the most recent period (1990-2004) the BC and PAH fluxes are no longer decreasing. 55 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice; Gatsis, John G.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  3. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  4. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  5. Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Trkula, Mitchell; Coates, Don M.; Shah, S. Ismat

    1996-01-01

    A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

  6. Upgrading heavy hydrocarbons with supercritical water and light olefins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paspek, S. C. Jr.

    1984-11-20

    Heavy hydrocarbons are upgraded and cracked in a process comprising contacting the heavy hydrocarbons with olefins containing 5 or less carbon atoms and a solvent, at a temperature both sufficient for cracking and greater than or equal to the critical temperature of the solvent.

  7. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon

  8. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I.; Knell, Everett W.; Winter, Bruce L.

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  9. Kinetics of the carbon monoxide oxidation reaction under microwave heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, W.L.; Katz, J.D.; Rees, D.; Paffett, M.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Datye, A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    915 MHz microwave heating has been used to drive the CO oxidation reaction over Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with out significantly affecting the reaction kinetics. As compared to an identical conventionally heated system, the activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction order with respect to CO were unchanged. Temperature was measured using a thermocouple extrapolation technique. Microwave-induced thermal gradients were found to play a significant role in kinetic observations. The authors chose the CO oxidation reaction over a supported metal catalyst because the reaction kinetics are well known, and because of the diverse dielectric properties of the various elements in the system: CO is a polar molecule, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} are non-polar, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a dielectric, and Pt and Pd are conductors.

  10. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  11. Plasma Processing Of Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grandy, Jon D; Peter C. Kong; Brent A. Detering; Larry D. Zuck

    2007-05-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed several patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon processing. The INL patents include nonthermal and thermal plasma technologies for direct natural gas to liquid conversion, upgrading low value heavy oil to synthetic light crude, and to convert refinery bottom heavy streams directly to transportation fuel products. Proof of concepts has been demonstrated with bench scale plasma processes and systems to convert heavy and light hydrocarbons to higher market value products. This paper provides an overview of three selected INL patented plasma technologies for hydrocarbon conversion or upgrade.

  12. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  13. Hydrocarbon geoscience research strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-01

    This document outlines a strategy for oil and gas related research focused on optimizing the economic producibility of the Nation's resources. The Hydrocarbon Geoscience Strategy was developed by the Hydrocarbon Geoscience Research Coordinating Committee of the Department of Energy (DOE). This strategy forms the basis for the development of DOE Fossil Energy's Oil Research Program Implementation Plan and Natural Gas Program Implementation Plan. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W.; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  15. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  16. Catalysts for converting syngas into liquid hydrocarbons and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Fei; Yan, Qiangu; Batchelor, William

    2016-03-15

    The presently-disclosed subject matter includes methods for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas. In some embodiments the syngas is obtained from biomass and/or comprises a relatively high amount of nitrogen and/or carbon dioxide. In some embodiments the present methods can convert syngas into liquid hydrocarbons through a one-stage process. Also provided are catalysts for producing liquid hydrocarbons from syngas, wherein the catalysts include a base material, a transition metal, and a promoter. In some embodiments the base material includes a zeolite-iron material or a cobalt-molybdenum carbide material. In still further embodiments the promoter can include an alkali metal.

  17. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  18. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2006-02-14

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  19. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize

  20. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  1. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-03-11

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  2. Hydrocarbon Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrocarbon Technologies Place: Lawrenceville, New Jersey Zip: 8648 Sector: Efficiency Product: String representation...

  3. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  4. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop:...

  5. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1987-05-19

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 6 figs.

  6. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  7. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Holly (Bethel Island, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethel Island, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  8. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Holly (Bethel Island, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethel Island, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  9. Conversion of heavy hydrocarbon oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, N.Y.; Pelrine, B.P.; Yan, T.Y.

    1982-12-14

    This invention provides a process for upgrading a heavy hydrocarbon oil to motor fuel products. The heavy hydrocarbon oil is admixed with a metal halide catalyst and a solvent component under supercritical conditions to form (1) a dense-gas solvent phase which contains refined hydrocarbon crackate, and which is substantially free of metal halide catalyst content; and (2) a residual asphaltic phase.

  10. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  11. Hydrocarbonization research: completion report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Barker, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple process used for producing oil, substitute natural gas, and char by heating coal under a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. This report describes studies that were performed in a bench-scale hydrocarbonization system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period 1975 to 1978. The results of mock-up studies, coal metering valve and flowmeter development, and supporting work in an atmospheric hydrocarbonization system are also described. Oil, gas, and char yields were determined by hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.1-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at a pressure of 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 854 K. The nominal coal feed rate was 4.5 kg/h. Wyodak subbituminous coal was used for most of the experiments. A maximum oil yield of approx. 21% based on moisture- and ash-free (maf) coal was achieved in the temperature range of 810 to 840 K. Recirculating fluidized-bed, uniformly fluidized-bed, and rapid hydropyrolysis reactors were used. A series of operability tests was made with Illinois No. 6 coal to determine whether caking coal could be processed in the recirculating fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were generally unsuccessful because of agglomeration and caking problems; however, these problems were eliminated by the use of chemically pretreated coal. Hydrocarbonization experiments were carried out with Illinois No. 6 coal that had been pretreated with CaO-NaOH, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and CaO-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Oil yields of 14, 24, and 21%, respectively, were obtained from the runs with treated coal. Gas and char yield data and the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

  12. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  13. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. ); Fearnside, P.M. , Manaus, AM . Departmento de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as committed carbon,'' or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil's use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  14. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  15. Conversion method for gas streams containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard G.; Lobban, Lance; Liu, Chang-jun

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and a method of using the apparatus are provided for converting a gas stream containing hydrocarbons to a reaction product containing effluent molecules having at least one carbon atom, having at least one interior surface and at least one exterior surface, a first electrode and a second electrode with the first and second electrodes being selectively movable in relation to each other and positioned within the housing so as to be spatially disposed a predetermined distance from each other, a plasma discharge generator between the first and second electrodes, gas stream introducer and a collector for collecting the reaction product effluent produced by the reaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the plasma discharge between the first and second electrodes.

  16. Synthesis of condensed phases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fullerenes and nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2004-10-19

    The invention relates to methods for producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and nanotubes, comprising: a. heating at least one carbon-containing material to form a condensed phase comprising at least one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; b. collecting at least some of the condensed phase; c. reacting the condensed phase to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes.

  17. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  18. Hydrocarbons from methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    During the early 1970s, the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons emerged as a viable industrial process due to two events: the discovery by workers at Mobil Oil Company of the selective catalytic conversion of methanol to high octane gasoline over zeolite catalysts and the 1973 Arab oil embargo. This survey attempts to comprehensively cover the journal literature and selectively cover the patent literature dealing with the theoretical aspects of the methanol conversion. 178 references. (BLM)

  19. Hydrogen Assisted Diesel Combustion in a Common Rail Turbodiesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a Compression Ignition Engine Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Impacts of Rail Pressure and Biodiesel Composition on Soot Nanostructure

  20. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P.

    1993-12-01

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  1. Radical scavengers from heavy hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubo, Junichi

    1996-10-01

    The hydrogen-donating properties of some hydrocarbons form the basis for processes such as coal liquefaction and heavy oil upgrading. However, these hydrocarbons have seldom been used for other purposes, because their potential applications have not been well recognized. Research has indicated that these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons can be used in important reactions as radical scavengers and have properties particular to those of pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms. Over years of study researchers have found that pure hydrocarbons with radical-scavenging effects nearly as high as those in conventional hindered phenolic antioxidants can be produced from petroleum, and these hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons exhibit such effects even in oxidative atmospheres (i.e., they function as antioxidants). He has also shown that these mixtures have some properties particular to pure hydrocarbons without functional groups containing heteroatoms, and they`ve seen that a mechanism based on the steric effects appears when these hydrocarbons are used in heavy oil hydroprocessing. Hydrogen-donating hydrocarbons should be a viable resource in many applications. In this article, he presents radical-scavenging abilities, characteristics as pure hydrocarbons, and applications on the basis of the studies.

  2. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  3. Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1980-01-01

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cylic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

  4. Thermochemical cyclic system for splitting water and/or carbon dioxide by means of cerium compounds and reactions useful therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.; Robinson, P.R.

    A thermochemical cyclic process for producing hydrogen from water comprises reacting ceric oxide with monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate to yield a solid reaction product, oxygen and water. The solid reaction product, alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate, and water, are reacted to yield hydrogen, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Ceric oxide is recycled. Trialkali metal phosphate, carbon dioxide and water are reacted to yield monobasic or dibasic alkali metal phosphate and alkali metal bicarbonate, which are recycled. The cyclic process can be modified for producing carbon monoxide from carbon dioxide by reacting the alkali metal cerous phosphate and alkali metal carbonate or bicarbonate in the absence of water to produce carbon monoxide, ceric oxide, carbon dioxide and trialkali metal phosphate. Carbon monoxide can be converted to hydrogen by the water gas shift reaction.

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels

  6. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  7. Generation and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Carbon Sequestration in Northwest Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Peavey; Norm Bessette

    2007-09-30

    The objective of the project is to develop the technology capable of capturing all carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from natural gas fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system. In addition, the technology to electrochemically oxidize any remaining carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide will be developed. Success of this R&D program would allow for the generation of electrical power and thermal power from a fossil fuel driven SOFC system without the carbon emissions resulting from any other fossil fueled power generationg system.

  8. Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zwilling, Daniel Patrick; Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Ludwig, Keith Alan

    2003-06-10

    A method for the separation of a gas mixture comprises (a) obtaining a feed gas mixture comprising nitrogen and at least one hydrocarbon having two to six carbon atoms; (b) introducing the feed gas mixture at a temperature of about 60.degree. F. to about 105.degree. F. into an adsorbent bed containing adsorbent material which selectively adsorbs the hydrocarbon, and withdrawing from the adsorbent bed an effluent gas enriched in nitrogen; (c) discontinuing the flow of the feed gas mixture into the adsorbent bed and depressurizing the adsorbent bed by withdrawing depressurization gas therefrom; (d) purging the adsorbent bed by introducing a purge gas into the bed and withdrawing therefrom an effluent gas comprising the hydrocarbon, wherein the purge gas contains nitrogen at a concentration higher than that of the nitrogen in the feed gas mixture; (e) pressurizing the adsorbent bed by introducing pressurization gas into the bed; and (f) repeating (b) through (e) in a cyclic manner.

  9. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  10. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Lockport, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Westmount, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  11. Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2009-08-13

    There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

  12. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 2, Greenhouse gas emissions from deforestration in the Brazilian Amazon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J.; Fearnside, P.M.

    1992-08-01

    Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia in 1990 was releasing approximately 281--282 X 10{sup 6} metric tons (MT) of carbon on conversion to a landscape of agriculture, productive pasture, degraded pasture, secondary forest and regenerated forest in the proportions corresponding to the equilibrium condition implied by current land-use patterns. Emissions are expressed as ``committed carbon,`` or the carbon released over a period of years as the carbon stock in each hectare deforested approaches a new equilibrium in the landscape that replaces the original forest. To the extent that deforestation rates have remained constant, current releases from the areas deforested in previous years will be equal to the future releases from the areas being cleared now. Considering the quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide, NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbons released raises the impact by 22--37%. The relative impact on the greenhouse effect of each gas is based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculations over a 20-year time period (including indirect effects). The six gases considered have a combined global warming impact equivalent to 343 to 386 million MT of C0{sub 2}-equivalent carbon, depending on assumptions regarding the release of methane and other gases from the various sources such as burning and termites. These emissions represent 7--8 times the 50 million MT annual carbon release from Brazil`s use of fossil fuels, but bring little benefit to the country. Stopping deforestation in Brazil would prevent as much greenhouse emission as tripling the fuel efficiency of all the automobiles in the world. The relatively cheap measures needed to contain deforestation, together with the many complementary benefits of doing so, make this the first priority for funds intended to slow global warming.

  13. Carbon dioxide capture process with regenerable sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennline, Henry W.; Hoffman, James S.

    2002-05-14

    A process to remove carbon dioxide from a gas stream using a cross-flow, or a moving-bed reactor. In the reactor the gas contacts an active material that is an alkali-metal compound, such as an alkali-metal carbonate, alkali-metal oxide, or alkali-metal hydroxide; or in the alternative, an alkaline-earth metal compound, such as an alkaline-earth metal carbonate, alkaline-earth metal oxide, or alkaline-earth metal hydroxide. The active material can be used by itself or supported on a substrate of carbon, alumina, silica, titania or aluminosilicate. When the active material is an alkali-metal compound, the carbon-dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate bicarbonate. When the active material is an alkaline-earth metal, the carbon dioxide reacts with the metal compound to generate carbonate. Spent sorbent containing the bicarbonate or carbonate is moved to a second reactor where it is heated or treated with a reducing agent such as, natural gas, methane, carbon monoxide hydrogen, or a synthesis gas comprising of a combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The heat or reducing agent releases carbon dioxide gas and regenerates the active material for use as the sorbent material in the first reactor. New sorbent may be added to the regenerated sorbent prior to subsequent passes in the carbon dioxide removal reactor.

  14. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  15. Processes for converting methane to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons via sulfur-containing intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, S.; Palermo, R.E.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a process for converting methane to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. The process comprising the steps of contacting methane with carbonyl sulfide in the presence of UV light under conditions sufficient to generate Ch/sub 3/SH; and contacting CH/sub 3/SH with a catalyst under conditions sufficient to produce hydrogen sulfide and a mixture of hydrocarbons having at least two carbon atoms.

  16. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Mo, Weijian; Muylle, Michel Serge Marie; Mandema, Remco Hugo; Nair, Vijay

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  17. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1994-06-28

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400 C to 1000 C where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100 C to 1600 C to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process. 5 figures.

  18. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, Gregory C.

    1994-01-01

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

  19. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  20. Method and apparatus for detecting halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monagle, Matthew (Los Alamos, NM); Coogan, John J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A halogenated hydrocarbon (HHC) detector is formed from a silent discharge (also called a dielectric barrier discharge) plasma generator. A silent discharge plasma device receives a gas sample that may contain one or more HHCs and produces free radicals and excited electrons for oxidizing the HHCs in the gas sample to produce water, carbon dioxide, and an acid including halogens in the HHCs. A detector is used to sensitively detect the presence of the acid. A conductivity cell detector combines the oxidation products with a solvent where dissociation of the acid increases the conductivity of the solvent. The conductivity cell output signal is then functionally related to the presence of HHCs in the gas sample. Other detectors include electrochemical cells, infrared spectrometers, and negative ion mobility spectrometers.

  1. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  2. Plasma reforming and partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel vapor to produce synthesis gas and/or hydrogen gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2003-08-19

    Methods and systems for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  3. Plasma Reforming And Partial Oxidation Of Hydrocarbon Fuel Vapor To Produce Synthesis Gas And/Or Hydrogen Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Detering, Brent A.

    2004-10-19

    Methods and systems are disclosed for treating vapors from fuels such as gasoline or diesel fuel in an internal combustion engine, to form hydrogen gas or synthesis gas, which can then be burned in the engine to produce more power. Fuel vapor, or a mixture of fuel vapor and exhaust gas and/or air, is contacted with a plasma, to promote reforming reactions between the fuel vapor and exhaust gas to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, partial oxidation reactions between the fuel vapor and air to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas, or direct hydrogen and carbon particle production from the fuel vapor. The plasma can be a thermal plasma or a non-thermal plasma. The plasma can be produced in a plasma generating device which can be preheated by contact with at least a portion of the hot exhaust gas stream, thereby decreasing the power requirements of the plasma generating device.

  4. Effects of the furnace temperature on the CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of coal and alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levendis, Y.A.; Atal, A.; Courtemanche, B.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), unburned aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from the combustion of pulverized bituminous coal, tire-derived fuel and, for a limited number of runs, waste plastics-derived fuel. The particle size cuts of pulverized coal, tire and plastics were 63--75 {micro}m and 180--300 {micro}m, respectively. Combustion experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale drop-tube furnace at gas temperatures, in the range of 1,300--1,600 K, and several fuel mass loadings in the furnace, expressed in terms of global equivalence ratios in the range of 0.4--2.4. The CO, CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions were monitored continuously with infrared absorption and chemiluminescent instruments. Up to sixty 2-7 ring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected by capillary gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Results showed that the PAH emission yields (mg/g fuel introduced) increased drastically with increasing bulk equivalence ratio (in the aforementioned range), at fixed furnace temperatures. This was also true for the CO yields, while the CO{sub 2} yields increased with increasing {o}, reached a maximum around stoichiometry and then decreased mildly. NO{sub x} yields decreased precipitously with increasing equivalence ratio. The CO and, especially, the PAH yields from tire-derived and plastics-derived fuels were much higher than those from coal, but the relative amounts of individual PAH components were remarkably similar in the combustion effluent of all fuels. The CO{sub 2} emissions and, especially, the NO{sub x} emissions from tire crumb were lower than those from coal. The CO{sub 2} emissions from plastics were comparable to those from coal, but their NO {sub x} emissions were much lower than those from tire. At fixed bulk equivalence ratios, however, as the furnace gas temperature increased the PAH yields from coal, tire crumb, and plastics decreased drastically, while the CO emission yields increased. At the highest temperature tested herein, 1,600 K ({approx}1,300 C), the effluent of the combustion of the fuels appeared to be devoid of PAHs. No{sub x} yields increased mildly with temperature. The influence of temperature, in this range, on the CO{sub 2} emissions was not significant. 65 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels Zia Haq, DPA Coordinator, presentation on DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based ...

  6. Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Carbon Ion Pump for Carbon Dioxide Removal Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The limitation to reducing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is the expense of stripping carbon dioxide from other combustion gases. Without a cost-effective means of accomplishing this, hydrocarbon resources cannot be used freely. A few power plants currently remove

  7. The electric dipole moment of cobalt monoxide, CoO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Steimle, Timothy C.

    2014-03-28

    A number of low-rotational lines of the E{sup 4}?{sub 7/2}???X{sup 4}?{sub 7/2} (1,0) band system of cobalt monoxide, CoO, were recorded field free and in the presence of a static electric field. The magnetic hyperfine parameter, h{sub 7/2}, and the electron quadrupole parameter, eQq{sub 0}, for the E{sup 4}?{sub 7/2}(? = 1) state were optimized from the analysis of the field-free spectrum. The permanent electric dipole moment, ?{sup -vector}{sub el}, for the X{sup 4}?{sub 7/2} (? = 0) and E{sup 4}?{sub 7/2} (? = 1) states were determined to be 4.18 0.05 D and 3.28 0.05 D, respectively, from the analysis of the observed Stark spectra of F? = 7???F? = 6 branch feature in the Q(7/2) line and the F? = 8???F? = 7 branch feature in the R(7/2) line. The measured dipole moments of CoO are compared to those from theoretical predictions and the trend across the 3d-metal monoxide series discussed.

  8. Method of removing nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas using a water-soluble iron ion-dithiocarbamate, xanthate or thioxanthate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D. Kwok-Keung; Chang, Shih-Ger

    1987-08-25

    The present invention relates to a method of removing of nitrogen monoxide from a nitrogen monoxide-containing gas which method comprises contacting a nitrogen oxide-containing gas with an aqueous solution of water soluble organic compound-iron ion chelate complex. The NO absorption efficiency of ferrous urea-dithiocarbamate and ferrous diethanolamine-xanthate as a function of time, oxygen content and solution ph is presented. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-Combustion Carbon Capture Research Pre-combustion capture refers to removing CO2 from fossil fuels before combustion is completed. For example, in gasification processes a feedstock (such as coal) is partially oxidized in steam and oxygen/air under high temperature and pressure to form synthesis gas. This synthesis gas, or syngas, is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, CO2, and smaller amounts of other gaseous components, such as methane. The syngas

  10. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  11. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang; Dali; Devlin, David; Barbero, Robert S.; Carrera, Martin E.; Colling, Craig W.

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  12. Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Berry, Christopher J.

    2009-01-06

    A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

  13. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  14. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2002-02-01

    The carbonate fuel cell promises highly efficient, cost-effective and environmentally superior power generation from pipeline natural gas, coal gas, biogas, and other gaseous and liquid fuels. FuelCell Energy, Inc. has been engaged in the development of this unique technology, focusing on the development of the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC{reg_sign}). The DFC{reg_sign} design incorporates the unique internal reforming feature which allows utilization of a hydrocarbon fuel directly in the fuel cell without requiring any external reforming reactor and associated heat exchange equipment. This approach upgrades waste heat to chemical energy and thereby contributes to a higher overall conversion efficiency of fuel energy to electricity with low levels of environmental emissions. Among the internal reforming options, FuelCell Energy has selected the Indirect Internal Reforming (IIR)--Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) combination as its baseline design. The IIR-DIR combination allows reforming control (and thus cooling) over the entire cell area. This results in uniform cell temperature. In the IIR-DIR stack, a reforming unit (RU) is placed in between a group of fuel cells. The hydrocarbon fuel is first fed into the RU where it is reformed partially to hydrogen and carbon monoxide fuel using heat produced by the fuel cell electrochemical reactions. The reformed gases are then fed to the DIR chamber, where the residual fuel is reformed simultaneously with the electrochemical fuel cell reactions. FuelCell Energy plans to offer commercial DFC power plants in various sizes, focusing on the subMW as well as the MW-scale units. The plan is to offer standardized, packaged DFC power plants operating on natural gas or other hydrocarbon-containing fuels for commercial sale. The power plant design will include a diesel fuel processing option to allow dual fuel applications. These power plants, which can be shop-fabricated and sited near the user, are ideally suited for distributed power generation, industrial cogeneration, marine applications and uninterrupted power for military bases. FuelCell Energy operated a 1.8 MW plant at a utility site in 1996-97, the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in North America. This proof-of-concept power plant demonstrated high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power control, and unattended operation capabilities. Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the full-size power plant; FuelCell Energy launched the Product Design Improvement (PDI) program sponsored by government and the private-sector cost-share. The PDI efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program was initiated in December 1994. Year 2000 program accomplishments are discussed in this report.

  15. Process for removing carbonyl sulfide from hydrocarbon feedstreams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, E.S.; Kosseim, A.J.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a process for removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from a feedstream containing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide and hydrocarbons. It comprises: contacting the feedstream in a hydrolysis zone with a first portion of a lean solution stream comprising an aqueous alkaline solution at an effective hydrolysis temperature to convert at least a portion of the carbonyl sulfide to carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, withdrawing a first effluent stream containing a reduced concentration of carbonyl sulfide relative to the feedstream, and withdrawing a first rich solution stream comprising the aqueous alkaline solution, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide; contacting the first effluent stream in an absorption zone with a second portion of the lean solution stream at an effective absorption temperature to absorb carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and withdrawing a second rich solution stream comprising the aqueous alkaline solution, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide; combining at least a portion of the first rich solution stream and the second rich solution stream and contacting the combined rich solution stream in a regeneration zone at effective conditions to desorb carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, withdrawing a vent gas stream comprising carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and withdrawing the lean solution stream; separating the lean solution stream into the first and second portions; and recycling the first portion of the lean solution stream to the hydrolysis zone and the second portion of the lean solution stream to the absorption zone.

  16. Enhanced selectivity of zeolites by controlled carbon deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Thoma, Steven G.; Kartin, Mutlu

    2006-05-09

    A method for carbonizing a zeolite comprises depositing a carbon coating on the zeolite pores by flowing an inert carrier gas stream containing isoprene through a regenerated zeolite at elevated temperature. The carbonized zeolite is useful for the separation of light hydrocarbon mixtures due to size exclusion and the differential adsorption properties of the carbonized zeolite.

  17. Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences ...

  18. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalysts for the hydrogenation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under mild conditions. ... NAPHTHALENE; CHRYSENE; ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS; CATALYTIC EFFECTS; RHODIUM COMPOUNDS; ...

  19. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. PDF icon Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production More Documents &

  20. Prebiotic hydrocarbon synthesis in impacting reduced astrophysical icy mixtures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koziol, Lucas; Goldman, Nir

    2015-04-21

    We present results of prebiotic organic synthesis in shock-compressed reducing mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics simulations extended to close to chemical equilibrium timescales. Given the relative abundance of carbon in reduced forms in astrophysical ices as well as the tendency of these mixtures to form complex hydrocarbons under the presence of external stimuli, it is possible that cometary impacts on a planetary surface could have yielded a larger array of prebiotic organic compounds than previously investigated. We find that the high pressures and temperatures due to shock compression yield a large assortment of carbon- and nitrogen-bonded extendedmore » structures that are highly reactive with short molecular lifetimes. Expansion and cooling causes these materials to break apart and form a wide variety of stable, potentially life-building compounds, including long-chain linear and branched hydrocarbons, large heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of different amines and exotic amino acids. Lastly, our results help provide a bottom-up understanding of hydrocarbon impact synthesis on the early Earth and its role in producing life-building molecules from simple starting materials.« less

  1. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy PDF icon Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons More Documents & Publications Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

  2. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  3. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  4. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2015-10-27

    A method of separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water, includes: (a) mixing magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture; (b) applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material; and (c) removing the body of water from the magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by the liquid hydrocarbon material while maintaining the applied magnetic force. The magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material, for a period of time effective to allow the carbon-metal nanocomposites to be formed.

  5. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  6. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-03-15

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  7. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan; Ma, Xiaoliang; Sprague, Michael J.; Subramani, Velu

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  8. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either

  9. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Monoxides of small terbium clusters: A density functional theory investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, G. L.; Yuan, H. K. Chen, H.; Kuang, A. L.; Li, Y.; Wang, J. Z.; Chen, J.

    2014-12-28

    To investigate the effect of oxygen atom on the geometrical structures, electronic, and magnetic properties of small terbium clusters, we carried out the first-principles calculations on Tb{sub n}O (n = 1-14) clusters. The capping of an oxygen atom on one trigonal-facet of Tb{sub n} structures is always favored energetically, which can significantly improve the structural stability. The far-infrared vibrational spectroscopies are found to be different from those of corresponding bare clusters, providing a distinct signal to detect the characteristic structures of Tb{sub n}O clusters. The primary effect of oxygen atom on magnetic properties is to change the magnetic orderings among Tb atoms and to reduce small of local magnetic moments of the O-coordinated Tb atoms, both of which serve as the key reasons for the experimental magnetic evolution of an oscillating behavior. These calculations are consistent with, and help to account for, the experimentally observed magnetic properties of monoxide Tb{sub n}O clusters [C. N. Van Dijk et al., J. Appl. Phys. 107, 09B526 (2010)].

  11. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.H.; Bauer, H.F.; Grimes, R.W.

    1993-03-30

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  12. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Bauer, Hans F.; Grimes, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  13. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  14. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    negative-value or low-value biosolids into high-energy-density, fungible hydrocarbon precursors - Enhance anaerobic digestion of biosolids to produce biogas with 90% ...

  15. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M.; Penetrante, Bernardino M.; Vogtlin, George E.; Merritt, Bernard T.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  16. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 40 CHEMISTRY; COAL LIQUIDS;...

  17. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from ...

  18. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels ...

  19. Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sugars To Hydrocarbons Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF on catalytic bioenergy process PDF icon Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons More Documents & Publications Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Selection Effort Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

  20. Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

  1. Carbonyl sulfide/carbon chemistry: Interim report, July 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinckley, C.C.; Shiley, R.H.

    1986-05-01

    This interim report describes work performed during the first eight months of a continuing project, including descriptions of sample preparations and analyses. The objective of the study is to determine the effects of carbonyl sulfide, a product of the carbon monoxide/ethanol desulfurization process, on coal. A coal is first treated with carbon monoxide to reduce pyrite, and is then reacted with OCS and N/sub 2/ under various conditions. OCS is a potent resulfurization agent and appears to affect the formation of mesophase in chars derived from the coal. 8 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  2. Reaction of Si(111) Surface with Saturated Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suryana, Risa; Nakahara, Hitoshi; Saito, Yahachi; Ichimiya, Ayahiko

    2011-12-10

    Reaction of Si(111) surface with saturated hydrocarbon such as methane (CH{sub 4}) and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) was carried out in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). After carbonization, structures formed on the surface were observed by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Structures transition formed on the surface were 7x7, {delta}-7x7, 1x1, and SiC structures. In the case of CH{sub 4}, the Si surfaces were carbonized at 800 deg. C for 120 min (7.2x10{sup 4} L) with a W-filament of 2800 deg. C, and SiC layers were obtained. In the case of C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, the mixture of 7x7 and SiC structure was observed. Decomposition of hydrocarbon was characterized in quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) measurements. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the mixture of 7x7 and SiC shows a wandering shape. Whereas, the SiC layer shows a regular step. This result seems to be related to the different in the amount of CH{sub 3} molecules on the surface.

  3. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  4. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  5. Quantum yield for carbon monoxide production in the 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Z.; Stickel, R.E.; Wine, P.H. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy has been coupled with excimer laser flash photolysis to measure the quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photodissociation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) relative to the well known quantum yield for CO production from 248 nm photolysis of phosgene (Cl{sub 2}CO). The temporal resolution of the experiments was sufficient to distinguish CO formed directly by photodissociation from that formed by subsequent S({sup 3}P{sub j}) reaction with OCS. Under the experimental conditions employed, CO formation via the fast S({sup 1}D{sub 2})+OCS reaction was minimal. Measurements at 297K and total pressures from 4 to 100 Torr N{sub 2}+N{sub 2}O show the CO yield to be greater than 0.95 and most likely unity. This result suggests that the contribution of OCS as a precursor to the lower stratospheric sulfate aerosol layer is somewhat larger than previously thought. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Effect of Sodium Sulfide on Ni-Containing Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Feng; Paul A. Lindahl

    2004-07-28

    OAK-B135 The structure of the active-site C-cluster in CO dehydrogenase from Carboxythermus hydrogenoformans includes a {mu}{sup 2}-sulfide ion bridged to the Ni and unique Fe, while the same cluster in enzymes from Rhodospirillum rubrum (CODH{sub Rr}) and Moorella thermoacetica (CODH{sub Mt}) lack this ion. This difference was investigated by exploring the effects of sodium sulfide on activity and spectral properties. Sulfide partially inhibited the CO oxidation activity of CODH{sub Rr} and generated a lag prior to steady-state. CODH{sub Mt} was inhibited similarly but without a lag. Adding sulfide to CODH{sub Mt} in the C{sub red1} state caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 EPR signal to decline and new features to appear, including one with g = 1.95, 1.85 and (1.70 or 1.62). Removing sulfide caused the g{sub av} = 1.82 signal to reappear and activity to recover. Sulfide did not affect the g{sub av} = 1.86 signal from the C{sub red2} state. A model was developed in which sulfide binds reversibly to C{sub red1}, inhibiting catalysis. Reducing this adduct causes sulfide to dissociate, C{sub red2} to develop, and activity to recover. Using this model, apparent K{sub I} values are 40 {+-} 10 nM for CODH{sub Rr} and 60 {+-} 30 {micro}M for CODH{sub Mt}. Effects of sulfide are analogous to those of other anions, including the substrate hydroxyl group, suggesting that these ions also bridge the Ni and unique Fe. This proposed arrangement raises the possibility that CO binding labilizes the bridging hydroxyl and increases its nucleophilic tendency towards attacking Ni-bound carbonyl.

  7. Technology development for iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysis. [Pretreatment of catalyst in carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The present study shows that activation of a high surface area Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst in CO in a (CSTR), continuously stirred tank reactor using tetralin as solvent results in an activated that is three times of material that is activated in H{sub 2} or directly in the syngas.

  8. Influence of solid fuel on the carbon-monoxide and nitrogen-oxide emissions on sintering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.F. Vitushchenko; N.L. Tatarkin; A.I. Kuznetsov; A.E. Vilkov

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory and industrial research now underway at the sintering plant of AO Mittal Steel Temirtau is focusing on the preparation of fuel of optimal granulometric composition, the replacement of coke fines, and the adaptation of fuel-input technology so as to reduce fuel consumption and toxic emissions without loss of sinter quality.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenases and Acetyl-CoA Synthases: Light at the End of the Tunnel?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Lindahl

    2002-02-19

    OAK-B135 Metalloenzymes seem to ''come of age'' when their structures are known at atomic resolution, spectroscopic and catalytic properties are basically understood, and genetic expression systems are available. Such foundations allow detailed mechanistic and spectroscopic properties to be probed and correlated to structure. The objective of this article is to summarize what is known about the title group of enzymes, and show that, to a large degree, they have come of age.

  10. Methane, carbon monoxide, and ammonia in brown dwarfs and self-luminous giant planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zahnle, Kevin J.; Marley, Mark S. E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov

    2014-12-10

    We address disequilibrium abundances of some simple molecules in the atmospheres of solar composition brown dwarfs and self-luminous extrasolar giant planets using a kinetics-based one-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model. Our approach is to use the full kinetics model to survey the parameter space with effective temperatures between 500 K and 1100 K. In all of these worlds, equilibrium chemistry favors CH{sub 4} over CO in the parts of the atmosphere that can be seen from Earth, but in most disequilibrium favors CO. The small surface gravity of a planet strongly discriminates against CH{sub 4} when compared to an otherwise comparable brown dwarf. If vertical mixing is like Jupiter's, the transition from methane to CO occurs at 500 K in a planet. Sluggish vertical mixing can raise this to 600 K, but clouds or more vigorous vertical mixing could lower this to 400 K. The comparable thresholds in brown dwarfs are 1100 100 K. Ammonia is also sensitive to gravity, but, unlike CH{sub 4}/CO, the NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2} ratio is insensitive to mixing, which makes NH{sub 3} a potential proxy for gravity. HCN may become interesting in high-gravity brown dwarfs with very strong vertical mixing. Detailed analysis of the CO-CH{sub 4} reaction network reveals that the bottleneck to CO hydrogenation goes through methanol, in partial agreement with previous work. Simple, easy to use quenching relations are derived by fitting to the complete chemistry of the full ensemble of models. These relations are valid for determining CO, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCN, and CO{sub 2} abundances in the range of self-luminous worlds we have studied, but may not apply if atmospheres are strongly heated at high altitudes by processes not considered here (e.g., wave breaking).

  11. Method of preparing and utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark; Haynes, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of utilizing a catalyst system for an oxidation process on a gaseous hydrocarbon stream with a mitigation of carbon accumulation. The system is comprised of a catalytically active phase deposited onto an oxygen conducting phase, with or without supplemental support. The catalytically active phase has a specified crystal structure where at least one catalytically active metal is a cation within the crystal structure and coordinated with oxygen atoms within the crystal structure. The catalyst system employs an optimum coverage ratio for a given set of oxidation conditions, based on a specified hydrocarbon conversion and a carbon deposition limit. Specific embodiments of the catalyst system are disclosed.

  12. Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst Understanding what reactions and which catalytic functions are affected by ...

  13. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support ...

  14. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization December 16, 2015 - 2:23pm Addthis Dr. ...

  15. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology ...

  16. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This ...

  17. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway ...

  18. EERE Success Story-Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon ... Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon ...

  19. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  20. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Krummenacher, Jakob J.; West, Kevin N.

    2007-08-28

    A process for the production of a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. The process includes providing a film of a fuel source including at least one organic compound on a wall of a reactor, contacting the fuel source with a source of oxygen, forming a vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen, and contacting the vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen with a catalyst under conditions effective to produce a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. Preferred products include .alpha.-olefins and synthesis gas. A preferred catalyst is a supported metal catalyst, preferably including rhodium, platinum, and mixtures thereof.

  1. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Krummenacher, Jakob J.; West, Kevin N.

    2009-05-19

    A process for the production of a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. The process includes providing a film of a fuel source including at least one organic compound on a wall of a reactor, contacting the fuel source with a source of oxygen, forming a vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen, and contacting the vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen with a catalyst under conditions effective to produce a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. Preferred products include .alpha.-olefins and synthesis gas. A preferred catalyst is a supported metal catalyst, preferably including rhodium, platinum, and mixtures thereof.

  2. Site-Specific Scaling Relations for Hydrocarbon Adsorption on Hexagonal Transition Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montemore, Matthew M.; Medlin, James W.

    2013-10-03

    Screening a large number of surfaces for their catalytic performance remains a challenge, leading to the need for simple models to predict adsorption properties. To facilitate rapid prediction of hydrocarbon adsorption energies, scaling relations that allow for calculation of the adsorption energy of any intermediate attached to any symmetric site on any hexagonal metal surface through a carbon atom were developed. For input, these relations require only simple electronic properties of the surface and of the gas-phase reactant molecules. Determining adsorption energies consists of up to four steps: (i) calculating the adsorption energy of methyl in the top site using density functional theory or by simple relations based on the electronic structure of the surface; (ii) using modified versions of classical scaling relations to scale between methyl in the top site and C? species with more metal-surface bonds (i.e., C, CH, CH?) in sites that complete adsorbate tetravalency; (iii) using gas-phase bond energies to predict adsorption energies of longer hydrocarbons (i.e., CR, CR?, CR?); and (iv) expressing energetic changes upon translation of hydrocarbons to various sites in terms of the number of agostic interactions and the change in the number of carbon-metal bonds. Combining all of these relations allows accurate scaling over a wide range of adsorbates and surfaces, resulting in efficient screening of catalytic surfaces and a clear elucidation of adsorption trends. The relations are used to explain trends in methane reforming, hydrocarbon chain growth, and propane dehydrogenation.

  3. Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1998-01-01

    A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

  4. Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer Haverford College Researchers Create Carbon Dioxide-Separating Polymer August 1, 2012 Rebecca Raber, rraber@haverford.edu, +1 610 896 1038 gtoc.jpg Carbon dioxide gas separation is important for many environmental and energy applications. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to characterize a two-dimensional hydrocarbon polymer, PG-ES1, that uses a combination of surface adsorption and narrow pores to separate carbon

  5. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry Resources with Additional Information * Patents George A. Olah Courtesy Rand Larson, Morningstar Productions George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids ... that are much stronger than ordinary acids, are non-nucleophilic, and are fluid at low temperatures. In such media ... carbocations

  6. Department of Chemistry | Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages

    Functionalization Department of Chemistry Faculty & Research Outreach Programs Graduate Studies Events & Seminars Undergraduate Studies Contact Us Faculty & Research > Research Centers & Programs > Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization CCHF Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization Catalysts are central to the efficient and clean utilization of energy resources, and they impact all aspects of the energy sector. With the University of Virginia as

  7. Upgrading heavy hydrocarbon oils using sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rankel, L.A.

    1986-07-22

    A process is described for demetallizing a residual hydrocarbon fraction comprising: (a) contacting the hydrocarbon fraction with an aqueous solution of a hypochlorite salt; (b) separating the mixture into an aqueous phase and an oil phase; (c) contacting the oil phase with a deasphalting solvent and (d) obtaining by separation a product comprising a demetallized oil fraction suitable for use as a feedstock for catalytic processing.

  8. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sircar, Shivaji (Wescosville, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  9. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  10. Seven Ways to Optimize Your Process Heat System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control air-fuel ration to eliminate formation of excess carbon monoxide (CO), typically more than 30-50 ppm, or unburned hydrocarbons. Eliminate or minimize air leakage into the ...

  11. Preparation of olefins from synthesis gas using ruthenium supported on ceric oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-04-09

    A catalyst comprising a ruthenium carbonyl compound deposited on a cerium oxide-containing support material provides for the selective synthesis of low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbons from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  12. Ruthenium carbonyl catalyst supported on ceric oxide for preparation of olefins from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-04-02

    A catalyst comprising a ruthenium carbonyl compound deposited on a cerium oxide-containing support material provides for the selective synthesis of low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbons from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  13. Preparation of olefins from synthesis gas using ruthenium supported on ceric oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    A catalyst comprising a ruthenium carbonyl compound deposited on a cerium oxide-containing support material provides for the selective synthesis of low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbons from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  14. Ruthenium carbonyl catalyst supported on ceric oxide for preparation of olefins from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    A catalyst comprising a ruthenium carbonyl compound deposited on a cerium oxide-containing support material provides for the selective synthesis of low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbons from mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  15. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS

    2015-01-28

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  16. Thermocatalytic CO{sub 2}-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels - Final Report for the Period August 1999 - September 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazim Muradov, Ph.D.

    2000-10-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a novel process for CO{sub 2}-free production of hydrogen via thermocatalytic decomposition (pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels as a viable alternative to the conventional processes of methane steam reforming or partial oxidation. The objective of Phase I work was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of CO{sub 2}-free production of hydrogen and carbon from different hydrocarbons, including methane, propane and gasoline.

  17. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  18. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-nm rubidium laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S Q; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2008-01-09

    An optical resonance transition rubidium laser (5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} 5{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) is demonstrated with a hydrocarbon-free buffer gas. Prior demonstrations of alkali resonance transition lasers have used ethane as either the buffer gas or a buffer gas component to promote rapid fine-structure mixing. However, our experience suggests that the alkali vapor reacts with the ethane producing carbon as one of the reaction products. This degrades long term laser reliability. Our recent experimental results with a 'clean' helium-only buffer gas system pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser demonstrate all the advantages of the original alkali laser system, but without the reliability issues associated with the use of ethane.

  19. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  20. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  1. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom.

  2. Pyrolysis process for producing condensed stabilized hydrocarbons utilizing a beneficially reactive gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy

    1982-01-01

    In a process for recovery of values contained in solid carbonaceous material, the solid carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to pyrolysis, in the presence of a carbon containing solid particulate source of heat and a beneficially reactive transport gas in a transport flash pyrolysis reactor, to form a pyrolysis product stream. The pyrolysis product stream contains a gaseous mixture and particulate solids. The solids are separated from the gaseous mixture to form a substantially solids-free gaseous stream which comprises volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals newly formed by pyrolysis. Preferably the solid particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing part of the separated particulate solids. The beneficially reactive transport gas inhibits the reactivity of the char product and the carbon-containing solid particulate source of heat. Condensed stabilized hydrocarbons are obtained by quenching the gaseous mixture stream with a quench fluid which contains a capping agent for stabilizing and terminating newly formed volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals. The capping agent is partially depleted of hydrogen by the stabilization and termination reaction. Hydrocarbons of four or more carbon atoms in the gaseous mixture stream are condensed. A liquid stream containing the stabilized liquid product is then treated or separated into various fractions. A liquid containing the hydrogen depleted capping agent is hydrogenated to form a regenerated capping agent. At least a portion of the regenerated capping agent is recycled to the quench zone as the quench fluid. In another embodiment capping agent is produced by the process, separated from the liquid product mixture, and recycled.

  3. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1990-05-15

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  4. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  5. New iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

    1988-03-31

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  6. Gamma radiolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbon, R.E.; Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collarborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous waste using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2,2{prime}, 3,3{prime},4,5{prime},6,6{prime} - octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (AIR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents are discussed. 3 refs.

  7. Gamma radiolysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arbon, R.E.; Mincher, B.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1992-08-01

    This program is the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) component of a joint collarborative effort with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of this effort is to demonstrate a viable process for breaking down hazardous halogenated organic wastes to simpler, non-hazardous waste using high energy ionizing radiation. The INEL effort focuses on the use of spent reactor fuel gamma radiation sources to decompose complex wastes such as PCBs. At LLNL, halogenated solvents such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene are being studied using accelerator radiation sources. The INEL irradiation experiments concentrated on a single PCB congener so that a limited set of decomposition reactions could be studied. The congener 2,2{prime}, 3,3{prime},4,5{prime},6,6{prime} - octachlorobiphenyl was examined following exposure to various gamma doses at the Advanced Test Reactor (AIR) spent fuel pool. The decomposition rates and products in several solvents are discussed. 3 refs.

  8. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  9. Process for hydrogenation of hydrocarbon tars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dolbear, Geoffrey E.

    1978-07-18

    Hydrocarbon tars of high asphaltene content such as tars obtained from pyrolysis of coal are dissolved in a solvent formed from the hydrogenation of the coal tars, and the resultant mixture hydrogenated in the presence of a catalyst at a pressure from about 1500 to 5000 psig at a temperature from about 500.degree. F to about the critical temperature of the solvent to form a light hydrocarbon as a solvent for the tars. Hydrogen content is at least three times the amount of hydrogen consumed.

  10. Vacancies in ordered and disordered titanium monoxide: Mechanism of B1 structure stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostenko, M.G.; Lukoyanov, A.V.; Zhukov, V.P.; Rempel, A.A.

    2013-08-15

    The electronic structure and stability of three phases of titanium monoxide TiO{sub y} with B1 type of the basic structure have been studied. Cubic phase without structural vacancies, TiO, and two phases with structural vacancies, monoclinic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} and cubic disordered TiO{sub 1.0}, was treated by means of first-principles calculations within the density functional theory with pseudo-potential approach based on the plane wave's basis. The ordered monoclinic phase Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} was found to be the most stable and the cubic TiO without vacancies the less stable one. The role of structural vacancies in the titanium sublattice is to decrease the Fermi energy, the role of vacancies in the oxygen sublattice is to contribute to the appearance of Ti–Ti bonding interactions through these vacancies and to reinforce the Ti–Ti interactions close to them. Listed effects are significantly pronounced if the vacancies in the titanium and oxygen sublattices are associated in the so called “vacancy channels” which determine the formation of vacancy ordered structure of monoclinic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5}-type. - Graphical abstract: Changes in total DOS of titanium monoxide when going from vacancy-free TiO to TiO with disordered structural vacancies and to TiO with ordered structural vacancies. Highlights: • Ordered monoclinic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} is the most stable phase of titanium monoxide. • Vacancy-free TiO is the less stable phase of the titanium monoxide. • Ordering of oxygen vacancies leads to the appearance of Ti–Ti bonding interactions. • Titanium vacancies contribute significantly to the decreasing of the Fermi energy.

  11. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization December 16, 2015 - 2:23pm Addthis Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology to explain the underlying process. Photo courtesy Oak Ride National Laboratory. Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion

  12. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading

  13. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, William Kevin; Janikowski, Stuart Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  14. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MICROALGAE; ALGAL BIOMASS; HYDROCARBON BIOFUELS; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy BIOMASS...

  15. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of

  16. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E.; Moriconi, M. L.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-06-20

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  17. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  18. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  19. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  20. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  1. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  2. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE)

    1985-12-31

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  3. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  4. Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-09-08

    An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

  5. Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heller, John P.; Dandge, Dileep K.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

  6. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  7. Hydrocarbon gases (free and sorbed) in waters and sediments of the mid-Atlantic ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudarikov, S.M.; Levshunova, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Waters and sediments were sampled during the 10-th cruise of the R/V {open_quotes}Geolog Fersman{close_quotes} at several sites of the Mid-Atlantic rift zone. Extensive geochemical analyses including degasing of waters and sediments, luminescence-bituminological analyses, organic-carbon (OC) and C{sub 1}-C{sub 9} fraction content determining have been carried out. According to the microbiological investigations the 65% of the methane are thermogenic and 35% - bacterial. Correlation between bitumen and metals observed in waters may be explained by the formation of metal-organic complexes. Sediments from the Snake Pit field show high contents of bitumen (0.005%) and of C{sub 1}-C{sub 9} hydrocarbons. The process of hydrocarbons generation in ocean rift zones is treated as a result of the interaction between the OC and inorganic fluids containing hydrogen. We thank the Russian Fundamental Science Foundation for financial support.

  8. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  9. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  10. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  11. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  12. Process for upgrading a heavy viscous hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, I.H.

    1984-06-12

    A process for upgrading a heavy viscous hydrocarbon, for example, rendering a heavy viscous crude pipelinable, includes visbreaking, distillation and solvent extraction steps. A heavy viscous hydrocarbon is fed through the visbreaker which forms a feed to the distillation step. A heavier fraction from distillation is fed to a solvent extraction unit which produces a fraction which contains resin. At least a portion of the resin containing fraction separated in the solvent extraction unit is recycled and combined with the feed which is to be subjected to visbreaking so that the total yield of products, residual and gas-free, is increased. The recycled resin reduces the tendency of the asphaltenes to separate from the oil and thereby reduces the tendency to lay down coke in the visbreaker; this allows higher conversion to upgraded liquid products.

  13. Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a cabon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

  14. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, Harold H. (Wilmette, IL); Chaar, Mohamed A. (Homs, SY)

    1988-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M.sub.3 (VO.sub.4).sub.2 and MV.sub.2 O.sub.6, M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  15. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen Ling

    1987-10-14

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

  16. PRODUCTION OF FLUORINE-CONTAINING HYDROCARBON

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarsfield, N.F.

    1949-08-01

    This patent relates to improvements in the production of fluorine- containing hydrocarbon derivatives. The process for increasing the degree of fluorination of a fluorochlorohydrocarbon comprises subjecting a highly fluorinated fluorochlorohydrocarbon to the action of a dehydrochlorinating agent, and treating the resulting unsaturated body with fluorine, cobalt trifluoride, or silver difluoride. A number of reagents are known as dehydrochlorinaling agents, including, for example, the caustic alkalies, either in an anhydrous condition or dissolved in water or a lower aliphatic alcohol.

  17. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  18. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen L.

    1989-01-01

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm.sup.2. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000.degree. C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity.

  19. Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructures of cubic titanium monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gusev, A. I.

    2013-08-15

    A cubic model is proposed for the Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (Ti{sub 5} Black-Small-Square O{sub 5}{open_square} {identical_to} Ti{sub 90} Black-Small-Square {sub 18}O{sub 90}{open_square}{sub 18}) superstructure of nonstoichiometric titanium monoxide Ti{sub x}O{sub z} with double imperfection. The unit cell of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure has the threefold lattice parameter of the unit cell of the basis disordered B1 structure of Ti{sub x}O{sub z} monoxide and belongs to space group Pm 3-bar m . The channel of the disorder-order transition, i.e., Ti{sub x}O{sub z} (space group Fm 3-bar m)-Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} (space group Pm 3-bar m), includes 75 superstructure vectors of seven stars (k{sub 10}), (k{sub 7}), (k{sub 6(1)}), (k{sub 6(2)}), (k{sub 4(1)}), (k{sub 4(2)}), and (k{sub 1}). The distribution functions of Ti and O atoms over the sites of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure are calculated. A comparison of the X-ray and electron diffraction data obtained for ordered TiO{sub 1.087} monoxide with the theoretical simulation results supports the existence of the cubic Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure. The cubic (space group Pm 3-bar m) Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} superstructure is shown to be a high-temperature structure relative to the well-known monoclinic (space group C2/m) superstructure of the same type.

  20. Method for hot gas conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paisley, Mark A.

    1996-02-27

    A method for cracking and shifting a synthesis gas by the steps of providing a catalyst consisting essentially of alumina in a reaction zone; contacting the catalyst with a substantially oxygen free mixture of gases comprising water vapor and hydrocarbons having one or more carbon atoms, at a temperature between about 530.degree. C. (1000.degree. F.) to about 980.degree. C. (1800.degree. F.); and whereby the hydrocarbons are cracked to form hydrogen, carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide and the hydrogen content of the mixture increases with a corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide, and carbon formation is substantially eliminated.

  1. Method for hot gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, M.A.

    1996-02-27

    A method is described for cracking and shifting a synthesis gas by the steps of providing a catalyst consisting essentially of alumina in a reaction zone; contacting the catalyst with a substantially oxygen free mixture of gases comprising water vapor and hydrocarbons having one or more carbon atoms, at a temperature between about 530 C (1000 F) to about 980 C (1800 F); and whereby the hydrocarbons are cracked to form hydrogen, carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide and the hydrogen content of the mixture increases with a corresponding decrease in carbon monoxide, and carbon formation is substantially eliminated. 3 figs.

  2. On the photoelectron velocity-map imaging of lutetium monoxide anion LuO{sup ?}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zhiling; Xie, Hua; Qin, Zhengbo; Cong, Ran; Wu, Xia; Tang, Zichao, E-mail: zctang@dicp.ac.cn; Fan, Hongjun, E-mail: fanhj@dicp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Quanjiang [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, and College of Advanced Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2014-01-21

    We report a combined photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy and density functional theory investigation on lutetium monoxide anion. Transition between the X {sup 1}?{sup +} anion electronic ground state and the neutral X {sup 2}?{sup +} electronic ground state is observed. Vibrationally resolved spectra were obtained at four different photon energies, providing a wealth of spectroscopic information for the electronic ground states of the anionic lutetium monoxide and corresponding neutral species. Franck-Condon simulations of the ground-state transition are performed to assign vibrational structure in the spectra and to assist in identifying the observed spectral bands. The electronic ground state of LuO{sup ?} is found to have a vibrational frequency of 743 10 cm{sup ?1} and an equilibrium bond length of 1.841 . The electron affinity of LuO is measured to be 1.624 0.002 eV. The fundamental frequency of ground-state LuO is estimated to be 839 10 cm{sup ?1}.

  3. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... His team has extensively studied direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET), which ... Carbon dioxide COD Chemical oxygen demand DIET Direct Interspecies Electron Transfer DOE ...

  4. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Sepik-Ramu area, Ramu basin, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, J.C.; Wilson, J.T. )

    1990-06-01

    Improvements in seismic processing have made new interpretations of the structural and depositional history of the northwestern portion of the Ramu basin possible. Support for a wrench tectonic model for this area is observed in the reprocessed seismic data. Strike-slip movement along major fault zones has allowed compressional forces to be translated laterally and resulted in only minor deformation occurring in the Sepik-Ramu area. The major tectonic event is thought to have occurred during late Miocene-early Pliocene, and not during the middle Miocene, as earlier hypothesized. Consequently, Miocene deposition is postulated to have occurred uninterrupted by periods of erosion. A thick Miocene section is preserved in this region and is postulated to contain slope, reef, and shelf carbonates of early to middle Miocene age. This interpretation has led to the identification of a reef trend over 7 mi wide and at least 42 mi long containing numerous pinnacle reefs. The pinnacle reefs are analogous to those found in the Salawati basin of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. The reefs are overlain by deep-water shales, a combination that provides potential reservoirs and seals necessary for the entrapment of hydrocarbons. The presence of oil and gas seeps document the existence of a source. These three factors justify hydrocarbon exploration in this area. The numerous potential drilling targets may lead to the discovery of significant quantities of hydrocarbons.

  5. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  6. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  7. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading

  8. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway

  9. Process for removing carbonyl-sulfide from liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debras, G.L.G.; DeClippeleir, G.E.M.J.; Cahen, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    A process is described for removing carbonyl sulfide from a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising: (a) passing the hydrocarbon feedstock over an absorbent material comprising zinc oxide and a promoter selected from the group consisting of alumina, silico-aluminas and any combination thereof wherein the promoter is present in amounts from about 3 to about 15 percent by weight of the absorbent material; and (b) recovering a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon stream having a substantially reduced carbonyl sulfide content.

  10. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading

  11. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research

  12. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs

  13. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop The Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop was held March 18-19, 2015, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Washington D.C. offices. Sponsored by the DOE's Bioenergy and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices, the workshop gathered 30

  14. Methods for retarding coke formation during pyrolytic hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    A method is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of pyrolytic coke on the heated metal surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon feedstock which is undergoing pyrolytic processing to produce lower hydrocarbon fractions and said metal surfaces having a temperature of about 1,400 F or higher, consisting essentially of adding to said hydrocarbon feedstock being pyrolytically processed a coke inhibiting amount of hydroquinone.

  15. Hydrocarbon Separations in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center for Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Hydrocarbon Separations in Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Zoey R. Herm, Eric D. Bloch, and Jeffrey R. Long, Chem. Mater., 26 (1), pp 323-338 (2014) DOI: 10.1021/cm402897c Abstract Image Abstract: New materials capable of separating mixtures of saturated, unsaturated, and aromatic hydrocarbons can enable more efficient industrial processes and cleaner energy. Outstanding challenges in hydrocarbon separations stem

  16. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sewage Sludge | Department of Energy Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste Feedstocks Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Principal Environmental Engineer, Argonne National Laboratory

  17. Co-cultured Synechococcus and Shewanella Produce Hydrocarbons...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Co-cultured Synechococcus and Shewanella Produce Hydrocarbons without Cellulosic Feedstock DOE Grant Recipients University of Minnesota Contact University of Minnesota About This ...

  18. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal This paper reports ...

  19. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion...

  20. Sandia Energy - ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the Success of Future Generation Vehicles Home Energy Transportation Energy CRF Partnership Energy Efficiency...

  1. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  2. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  3. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions. PDF icon deer08rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature ...

  4. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance of a Thermally...

  5. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Yuschak, Thomas; LaPlante, Timothy J.; Rankin, Scott; Perry, Steven T.; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick; Simmons, Wayne W.; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  6. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Report Microbial Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and Opportunities Fuel Cells and ...

  7. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and ...

  8. Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Understanding what reactions and which catalytic functions are affected by hydrocarbons can lead to improved tolerances for selective catalytic reduction performance

  9. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  10. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  11. On the radiolysis of ethylene ices by energetic electrons and implications to the extraterrestrial hydrocarbon chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Li; Maity, Surajit; Abplanalp, Matt; Turner, Andrew; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2014-07-20

    The chemical processing of ethylene ices (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) by energetic electrons was investigated at 11 K to simulate the energy transfer processes and synthesis of new molecules induced by secondary electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic ray particles. A combination of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (solid state) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (gas phase) resulted in the identification of six hydrocarbon molecules: methane (CH{sub 4}), the C2 species acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), the ethyl radical (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}), andfor the very first time in ethylene irradiation experimentsthe C4 hydrocarbons 1-butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}) and n-butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}). By tracing the temporal evolution of the newly formed molecules spectroscopically online and in situ, we were also able to fit the kinetic profiles with a system of coupled differential equations, eventually providing mechanistic information, reaction pathways, and rate constants on the radiolysis of ethylene ices and the inherent formation of smaller (C1) and more complex (C2, C4) hydrocarbons involving carbon-hydrogen bond ruptures, atomic hydrogen addition processes, and radical-radical recombination pathways. We also discuss the implications of these results on the hydrocarbon chemistry on Titan's surface and on ice-coated, methane-bearing interstellar grains as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1.

  12. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, P.K.T.; Gallaher, G.R.; Wu, J.C.S.

    1993-11-16

    A method is described for producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane. 12 figures.

  13. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

  14. A remarkable shape-catalytic effect of confinement on the rotational isomerization of small hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santiso, Erik E; Gubbins, Keith E; Buongiorno Nardelli, Marco

    2008-01-01

    As part of an effort to understand the effect of confinement by porous carbons on chemical reactions, we have carried out density functional theory calculations on the rotational isomerization of three four-membered hydrocarbons: n-butane, 1-butene, and 1,3-butadiene. Our results show that the interactions with the carbon walls cause a dramatic change on the potential energy surface for pore sizes comparable to the molecular dimensions. The porous material enhances or hinders reactions depending on how similar is the shape of the transition state to the shape of the confining material. The structure of the stable states and their equilibrium distributions are also drastically modified by confinement. Our results are consistent with a doubly exponential behavior of the reaction rates as a function of pore size, illustrating how the shape of a catalytic support can dramatically change the efficiency of a catalyst. (51 refs.)

  15. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  16. Garbage to hydrocarbon fuel conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, W.A.

    1986-07-15

    A garbage to hydrocarbon fuel conversion system is described which consists of: (a) a source of combustible garbage; (b) means for pulverizing the garbage; (c) a furnace to burn the garbage; (d) means for transporting the pulverized garbage to the furnace which comprises a motor operated worm feed automatic stoker; (e) a steam generating coil inside the furnace which supplies live steam to power a turbine which in turn powers an alternating current generator; and a condenser which returns remaining the steam to a liquid state for re-circulation through the steam generating coils; (f) means for collecting incompletely combusted waste gases from the furnace; precipitating out dust and light oil for re-combustion in the furnace; and, extracting hydrocarbon gas; where in the means for precipitating out dust and light oil for re-combustion in the furnace comprise a cottrell precipitator wherein oil from an external source is mixed with fine dust received from the exhaust port, wherein an electrostatic charge helps to precipitate the dust; a dust and light oil mixer which provides a homogeneous mixture; and, an oil burner mounted to the furnace whose heat output is supplied to the furnace to add energy thereto; and (g) means for burning trapped heavy gases and removing waste ash from the furnace for disposal.

  17. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  18. Characterization and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breuer, G.M.; Smith, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Sampling and analytical procedures were developed for determining the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in animal-exposure chambers during studies on exposure to diesel exhaust, coal dust, or mixtures of these two pollutants. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were used as representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for analysis. Coal-dust only samples revealed a broad, rising background in the chromatogram with small peaks superimposed corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene, diesel exhaust only samples showed many peaks on a flat baseline including those corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. In general, no polynuclear aromatics were noted in the clean air samples. The authors note that relatively minor changes in air/fuel ratio, lubricant, fuel, and load may have substantial effects on very minor components of the exhaust emission.

  19. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Grohse, E.W.

    1995-06-27

    A process is described for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol. 3 figs.

  20. Process for the conversion of carbonaceous feedstocks to particulate carbon and methanol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Grohse, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    A process for the production of a pollutant-free particulate carbon (i.e., a substantially ash-, sulfur- and nitrogen-free carbon) from carbonaceous feedstocks. The basic process involves de-oxygenating one of the gas streams formed in a cyclic hydropyrolysis-methane pyrolysis process in order to improve conversion of the initial carbonaceous feedstock. De-oxygenation is effected by catalytically converting carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen contained in one of the pyrolysis gas streams, preferably the latter, to a methanol co-product. There are thus produced two products whose use is known per se, viz., a substantially pollutant-free particulate carbon black and methanol. These products may be admixed in the form of a liquid slurry of carbon black in methanol.

  1. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  2. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  3. Hydrocarbon radical thermochemistry: Gas-phase ion chemistry techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ervin, Kent M.

    2014-03-21

    Final Scientific/Technical Report for the project "Hydrocarbon Radical Thermochemistry: Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Techniques." The objective of this project is to exploit gas-phase ion chemistry techniques for determination of thermochemical values for neutral hydrocarbon radicals of importance in combustion kinetics.

  4. Laboratory Investigation of Organic Aerosol Formation from Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Zhang, Renyi

    2006-08-23

    Our work for this DOE funded project includes: (1) measurements of the kinetics and mechanism of the gas-phase oxidation reactions of the aromatic hydrocarbons initiated by OH; (2) measurements of aerosol formation from the aromatic hydrocarbons; and (3) theoretical studies to elucidate the OH-toluene reaction mechanism using quantum-chemical and rate theories.

  5. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  6. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    2001-01-01

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  7. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    1999-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  8. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz; Blatter, Fritz; Sun, Hai

    2000-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  9. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  10. Effect of Organic Capping Layers over Monodisperse Platinum Nanoparticles upon Activity for Ethylene Hydrogenation and Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhn, John N.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2009-03-24

    The influence of oleylamine (OA), trimethyl tetradecyl ammonium bromide (TTAB), and polyvinlypyrrolidone (PVP) capping agents upon the catalytic properties of Pt/silica catalysts was evaluated. Pt nanoparticles that were 1.5 nm in size were synthesized by the same procedure (ethylene glycol reduction under basic conditions) with the various capping agents added afterward for stabilization. Before examining catalytic properties for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, the Pt NPs were deposited onto mesoporous silica (SBA-15) supports and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H{sub 2} chemisorption, and elemental analysis (ICP-MS). PVP- and TTAB-capped Pt yielded mass-normalized reaction rates that decreased with increasing pretreatment temperature, and this trend was attributed to the partial coverage of the Pt surface with decomposition products from the organic capping agent. Once normalized to the Pt surface area, similar intrinsic activities were obtained regardless of the pretreatment temperature, which indicated no influence on the nature of the active sites. Consequently, a chemical probe technique using intrinsic activity for ethylene hydrogenation was demonstrated as an acceptable method for estimating the metallic surface areas of Pt. Amine (OA) capping exhibited a detrimental influence on the catalytic properties as severe deactivation and low activity were observed for ethylene hydrogenation and CO oxidation, respectively. These results were consistent with amine groups being strong poisons for Pt surfaces, and revealed the need to consider the effects of capping agents on the catalytic properties.

  11. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.

  12. Controlled synthesis of concave tetrahedral palladium nanocrystals by reducing Pd(acac){sub 2} with carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Hai; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Li, Chunya; Tang, Heqing; Li, Jinlin; Huang, Tao; Liu, Hanfan; Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. CO flow rate was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. Highlights: ? By using CO as a reducing agent, concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were obtained. ? CO flow rate is critical to the formation of concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals. ? The selective adsorption of CO on (1 1 0) facets is essential to concave Pd tetrahedra. -- Abstract: CO reducing strategy to control the morphologies of palladium nanocrystals was investigated. By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals with a mean size of about 55 2 nm were readily synthesized with Pd(acac){sub 2} as a precursor and PVP as a stabilizer. The structures of the as-prepared Pd nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultravioletvisible (UVvis) absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The results demonstrated that CO was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral Pd nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. The most appropriate CO flow rate, temperature and time for the formation of the ideal concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals was 0.033 mL s{sup ?1}, 100 C and 3 h, respectively.

  13. Structural Changes in Self-Catalyzed Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on 1,4-Phenylene Diisocyanide Modified Au(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kestell, John; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Cheng, Lanxia; Garvey, Michael; Bennett, Dennis W.; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2015-07-23

    The self-accelerated adsorption of CO on 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI)-derived oligomers on Au(111) is explored by reflectionabsorption infrared spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. PDI incorporates gold adatoms from the Au(111) surface to form one-dimensional (AuPDI)n chains that can also connect between gold nanoparticles on mica to form a conductive pathway between them. CO adsorption occurs in two stages; it first adsorbs adjacent to the oligomers that move to optimize CO adsorption. Further CO exposure induces PDI decoordination to form AuPDI adatom complexes thereby causing the conductivity of a PDI-linked gold nanoparticle array on mica to decrease to act as a chemically drive molecular switch. This simple system enables the adsorption process to be explored in detail. DFT calculations reveal that both the (AuPDI)n oligomer chain and the AuPDI adatom complex are stabilized by coadsorbed CO. A kinetic foot-in-the-door model is proposed in which fluctuations in PDI coordination allow CO to diffuse into the gap between gold adatoms to prevent the PDI from reattaching, thereby allowing additional CO to adsorb, to provide kinetic model for allosteric CO adsorption on PDI-covered gold.

  14. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; et al

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification.more » Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.« less

  15. Structural Changes in Self-Catalyzed Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on 1,4-Phenylene Diisocyanide Modified Au(111)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kestell, John; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal; Cheng, Lanxia; Garvey, Michael; Bennett, Dennis W.; Tysoe, Wilfred T.

    2015-07-23

    The self-accelerated adsorption of CO on 1,4-phenylene diisocyanide (PDI)-derived oligomers on Au(111) is explored by reflection–absorption infrared spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. PDI incorporates gold adatoms from the Au(111) surface to form one-dimensional —(Au–PDI)n— chains that can also connect between gold nanoparticles on mica to form a conductive pathway between them. CO adsorption occurs in two stages; it first adsorbs adjacent to the oligomers that move to optimize CO adsorption. Further CO exposure induces PDI decoordination to form Au–PDI adatom complexes thereby causing the conductivity of a PDI-linked gold nanoparticle array on mica to decrease to act as a chemicallymore » drive molecular switch. This simple system enables the adsorption process to be explored in detail. DFT calculations reveal that both the —(Au–PDI)n— oligomer chain and the Au–PDI adatom complex are stabilized by coadsorbed CO. A kinetic “foot-in-the-door” model is proposed in which fluctuations in PDI coordination allow CO to diffuse into the gap between gold adatoms to prevent the PDI from reattaching, thereby allowing additional CO to adsorb, to provide kinetic model for allosteric CO adsorption on PDI-covered gold.« less

  16. Zirconia-based potentiometric sensor using a pair of oxide electrodes for selective detection of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miura, Norio; Raisen, Takahisa; Lu, Geyu; Yamazoe, Noboru

    1997-07-01

    A high-performance solid-state compact gas sensor to detect CO has been needed for monitoring and controlling the combustion condition of gas appliances. By using a pair of oxide electrodes, a stabilized-zirconia-based sensor was developed for selective detection of CO at high temperature. Among the oxide pair examined, the combination of CdO and SnO{sub 2} was best suited for the electrode couple, giving quick and selective response to CO in air at 600 C. The 90% response and the 90% recovery times of the sensor to 200 ppm CO was as short as ca. 8 and 10 s, respectively, at 600 C. The EMF value was linearly related with the logarithm of CO concentration in the range of 20 to 4,000 ppm. Moreover, the cross-sensitivities to other gases, such as H{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, were small or insignificant.

  17. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott

    2009-07-21

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  18. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  19. Use of magnetic carbon composites from renewable resource materials for oil spill clean up and recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-02-11

    A method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon material from a body of water. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of mixing a plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites with a liquid hydrocarbon material dispersed in a body of water to allow the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each to be adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material to form a mixture, applying a magnetic force to the mixture to attract the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material, and removing said plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites each adhered by an amount of the liquid hydrocarbon material from said body of water while maintaining the applied magnetic force, wherein the plurality of magnetic carbon-metal nanocomposites is formed by subjecting one or more metal lignosulfonates or metal salts to microwave radiation, in presence of lignin/derivatives either in presence of alkali or a microwave absorbing material.

  20. Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Storage Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a key component of the U.S. carbon management portfolio. Numerous studies have shown that CCS can account for up to 55 percent of the emissions reductions needed to stabilize and ultimately reduce atmospheric concentrations of CO2. NETL's Carbon Storage Program is readying CCS technologies for widespread commercial deployment by 2020. The program's goals are: By 2015, develop technologies

  1. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  2. Hydrocarbon fuel reforming catalyst and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, Todd; Irving, Patricia Marie

    2006-06-27

    The subject invention is a catalyst consisting of an oxide or mixed oxide support and bimetallic catalytically active compounds. The supporting oxide can be a single oxide, such as Al.sub.2O.sub.3; it also can be a mixture of oxides, such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 stabilized ZrO.sub.2 (YSZ), Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with CeO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with YSZ and others. The bimetallic compounds, acting as active components, are selected from platinum, and ruthenium, prepared in an appropriate ratio. The catalyst is used in the steam reforming of hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for applications such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  3. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  4. Particles of spilled oil-absorbing carbon in contact with water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim

    2011-03-29

    Hydrogen generator coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. Carbon particles with surface filaments having a hydrophobic property of oil film absorption, compositions of matter containing those particles, and a system for using the carbon particles for cleaning oil spills.

  5. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  6. Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

  7. Method and apparatus for detecting gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, deceased, William G.; Anderson, legal representative, Johanna S.

    1990-01-01

    A method and optrode for detecting gem polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in a sample fluid based on a single phase Fujiwara reaction as provided. The method comprises contacting a reaction mixture with a sample fluid which contains the gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. The reaction mixture comprises an aqueous solution of pyridine or derivative thereof and a hindered nitrogen base. Upon contact a fluorescent and/or chromgenic reaction product forms whose fluorescence and/or absorbance is related to the concentration of gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in the sample fluid.

  8. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doshi, R.

    1999-07-27

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400 C for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide. 4 figs.

  9. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  10. Capacitively coupled RF diamond-like-carbon reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David James; Coates, Don Mayo; Archuleta, Thomas Arthur; Barbero, Robert Steven

    2000-01-01

    A process of coating a non-conductive fiber with diamond-like carbon, including passing a non-conductive fiber between a pair of parallel metal grids within a reaction chamber, introducing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber, forming a plasma within the reaction chamber for a sufficient period of time whereby diamond-like carbon is formed upon the non-conductive fiber, is provided together with a reactor chamber for deposition of diamond-like carbon upon a non-conductive fiber, including a vacuum chamber, a cathode assembly including a pair of electrically isolated opposingly parallel metal grids spaced apart at a distance of less than about 1 centimeter, an anode, a means of introducing a hydrocarbon gas into said vacuum chamber, and a means of generating a plasma within said vacuum chamber.

  11. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, Edward J.; Anderson, Brian L.; Wijesinghe, Ananda M.; Viani, Brian E.

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

  12. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

    1999-05-25

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

  13. Hydrocarbon Separations in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science 335 (6076), 1606 (2012) DOI: 10.1126science.1217544 Fig. 1 Abstract: The energy costs associated with large-scale industrial separation of light hydrocarbons by cryogenic...

  14. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  15. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER ... PDF icon deer07rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO ...

  16. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop was held March 18–19, 2015, hosted at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Washington D.C. offices.

  17. Process for converting light alkanes to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P.; Taylor, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of aromatic-rich, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons from the lower alkanes, particularly from methane. The process is carried out in two stages. In the first, alkane is reacted with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over an oxyhydrochlorination catalyst such as copper chloride with minor proportions of potassium chloride and rare earth chloride. This produces an intermediate gaseous mixture containing water and chlorinated alkanes. The chlorinated alkanes are contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate catalyst in the hydrogen or metal promoted form to produce gasoline range hydrocarbons with a high proportion of aromatics and a small percentage of light hydrocarbons (C.sub.2 -C.sub.4). The light hydrocarbons can be recycled for further processing over the oxyhydrochlorination catalyst.

  18. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory published an article in Scientific Reports on its new method to directly convert biomass-derived ethanol to a hydrocarbon blendstock and is continuing work with...

  19. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  20. Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines ...

  1. Laser hydrothermal reductive ablation of titanium monoxide: Hydrated TiO particles with modified Ti/O surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blazevska-Gilev, Jadranka; Jandova, Vera; Kupcik, Jaroslav; Bastl, Zdenek; Subrt, Jan; Bezdicka, Petr; Pola, Josef

    2013-01-15

    IR laser- and UV laser-induced ablation of titanium monoxide (TM) in hydrogen (50 Torr) is compared to the same process induced in vacuum and shown to result in deposition of hydrated surface modified nanostructured titanium suboxide films. Complementary analyses of the films deposited in vacuum and in hydrogen by Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed to determine different features of both films and propose a mechanism of surface modification of ejected particles, which involves hydrothermal reduction of TM and subsequent reactions of evolved water. The films exert good adhesion to metal and quartz surfaces and are hydrophobic in spite of having their surface coated with adsorbed water. - Graphical abstract: Laser ablation of titanium monoxide (TiO) in hydrogen involves a sequence of H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O eliminations and additions and yields hydrated amorphous nanostructured titanium suboxide which is richer in oxygen than TiO. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IR and UV laser ablated particles of titanium monoxide (TiO) undergo amorphization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in vacuum have TiO stoichiometry and are oxidized in atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films deposited in hydrogen are hydrated and have more O in topmost layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films modification in hydrogen is explained by reactions in hydrogen plasma.

  2. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids March 2016 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Short-Term Energy Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee

  3. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues November 2014 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of

  4. Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Startup America Startup America Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00219_ID2414.pdf (629 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryA method for catalytically converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon without requiring

  5. Cooling and solidification of heavy hydrocarbon liquid streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antieri, Salvatore J. (Trenton, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process and apparatus for cooling and solidifying a stream of heavy hydrocarbon material normally boiling above about 850.degree. F., such as vacuum bottoms material from a coal liquefaction process. The hydrocarbon stream is dropped into a liquid bath, preferably water, which contains a screw conveyor device and the stream is rapidly cooled, solidified and broken therein to form discrete elongated particles. The solid extrudates or prills are then dried separately to remove substantially all surface moisture, and passed to further usage.

  6. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office and Fuel Cell Technologies Office jointly sponsored a workshop on Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters on March 17–18, 2015, in Washington, D.C. The workshop focused on the use of biological, biochemical, and other techniques to produce hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons from wastewaters.The ideas presented in this report represent a snapshot of the perspectives and concepts offered by the individuals who attended the workshop.

  7. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  8. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  9. Bioprocessing-Based Approach for Bitumen/Water/Fines Separation and Hydrocarbon Recovery from Oil Sands Tailings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Berry, Christopher J.; Wade, Arielle; Simpson, Waltena

    2016-05-04

    Oil sands are a major source of oil, but their industrial processing generates tailings ponds that are an environmental hazard. The main concerns are mature fine tailings (MFT) composed of residual hydrocarbons, water, and fine clay. Tailings ponds include toxic contaminants such as heavy metals, and toxic organics including naphthenics. Naphthenic acids and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degrade very slowly and pose a long-term threat to surface and groundwater, as they can be transported in the MFT. Research into improved technologies that would enable densification and settling of the suspended particles is ongoing. In batch tests, BioTiger™, a microbial consortium thatmore » can metabolize PAHs, demonstrated improved oil sands tailings settling from a Canadian tailings pond. Results also showed, depending on the timing of the measurements, lower suspended solids and turbidity. Elevated total organic carbon was observed in the first 48 hours in the BioTiger™-treated columns and then decreased in overlying water. Oil sands tailings mixed with BioTiger™ showed a two-fold reduction in suspended solids within 24 hours as compared to abiotic controls. The tailings treated with BioTiger™ increased in microbial densities three orders of magnitude from 8.5 × 105 CFU/mL to 1.2 × 108 CFU/mL without any other carbon or energy source added, indicating metabolism of hydrocarbons and other available nutrients. Results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of BioTiger™ increased separation of organic carbon from particles in oil sands and enhanced settling with tailings with improved water quality.« less

  10. Predict carbonation rate on iron catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dry, M.E.

    1980-02-01

    On solely thermodynamic grounds, the main hydrocarbon product of the Fischer-Tropsch reaction should be methane; in practice, however, carbon is frequently produced as well and deposited on the iron catalyst, fouling the active surface sites. South African Coal, Oil and Gas Corp., Ltd.'s experiments with a fluidized Fischer-Tropsch catalyst bed demonstrate that the rate of carbon deposition is strongly dependent on the hydrogen partial pressure in the reactor, much less dependent on the CO pressure, and not affected at all by the pressure of CO/sub 2/. A suggested reaction scheme for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis explains these observations and provides a basis for a correlation useful in predicting carbon-deposition rates.

  11. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  12. Toroidally Asymmetric Distributions of Hydrocarbon (CD) Emission and Chemical Sputtering Sources in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Groth, M; Brooks, N H; Fenstermacher, M E; Lasnier, C J; McLean, A G; Watkins, J G

    2006-05-16

    Measurements in DIII-D show that the carbon chemical sputtering sources along the inner divertor and center post are toroidally periodic and highest at the upstream tile edge. Imaging with a tangentially viewing camera and visible spectroscopy were used to monitor the emission from molecular hydrocarbons (CH/CD) at 430.8 nm and deuterium neutrals in attached and partially detached divertors of low-confinement mode plasmas. In contrast to the toroidally periodic CD distribution, emission from deuterium neutrals was observed to be toroidally symmetric along the inner strike zone. The toroidal distribution of the measured tile surface temperature in the inner divertor correlates with that of the CD emission, suggesting larger parallel particle and heat fluxes to the upstream tile edge, either due to toroidal tile gaps or height steps between adjacent tiles.

  13. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  14. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  15. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  16. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capture Fact Sheet Research Team Members Key Contacts Carbon Capture Research & Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power generation is a critical component of realistic strategies for arresting the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but capturing substantial amounts of CO2 using current technology would result in a prohibitive rise in the cost of producing energy. The National Energy Technology Laboratory, in collaboration with researchers from regional

  17. Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture Carbon capture involves the separation of CO2 from coal-based power plant flue gas or syngas. Commercially available first-generation CO2 capture technologies are currently being used in various industrial applications. However, in their current state of development, these technologies are not ready for implementation on coal-based power plants because they have not been demonstrated at appropriate scale, require approximately one-third of the plant's steam and power to operate,

  18. Process for light-driven hydrocarbon oxidation at ambient temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A.

    1990-01-01

    A photochemical reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbons uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant. A reductive photoredox cycle that uses a tin(IV)- or antimony(V)-porphyrin photosensitizer generates the reducing equivalents required to activate oxygen. This artificial photosynthesis system drives a catalytic cycle, which mimics the cytochrome P.sub.450 reaction, to oxidize hydrocarbons. An iron(III)- or manganese(III)-porphyrin is used as the hydrocarbon-oxidation catalyst. Methylviologen can be used as a redox relay molecule to provide for electron-transfer from the reduced photosensitizer to the Fe or Mn porphyrin. The system is long-lived and may be used in photo-initiated spectroscopic studies of the reaction to determine reaction rates and intermediates.

  19. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  20. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  1. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  2. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for the Production of the Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Robichaud, D. J.; Mukaratate, C.; Donohoe, B. S.; Iisa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising technique for conversion of biomass into hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels. For over 30 years this process has been studied and it has been demonstrated that oils can be produced with high concentrations of hydrocarbons and low levels of oxygen. However, the yields from this type of conversion are typically low and the catalysts, which are often zeolites, are quickly deactivated through coking. In addition, the hydrocarbons produced are primarily aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, xylene) that not desirable for petroleum refineries and are not well suited for diesel or jet engines. The goals of our research are to develop new multifunction catalysts for the production of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel range molecules and to improve process conditions for higher yields and low coking rates. We are investigating filtration and the use of hydrogen donor molecules to improve catalyst performance.

  3. Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2013-12-02

    Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

  4. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  5. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  6. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  7. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  8. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Getsoian, John (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  9. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  10. Filamentous carbon particles for cleaning oil spills and method of production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim

    2010-04-06

    A compact hydrogen generator is coupled to or integrated with a fuel cell for portable power applications. Hydrogen is produced via thermocatalytic decomposition (cracking, pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels in oxidant-free environment. The apparatus can utilize a variety of hydrocarbon fuels, including natural gas, propane, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, crude oil (including sulfurous fuels). The hydrogen-rich gas produced is free of carbon oxides or other reactive impurities, so it could be directly fed to any type of a fuel cell. The catalysts for hydrogen production in the apparatus are carbon-based or metal-based materials and doped, if necessary, with a sulfur-capturing agent. Additionally disclosed are two novel processes for the production of two types of carbon filaments, and a novel filamentous carbon product. The hydrogen generator can be conveniently integrated with high temperature fuel cells to produce an efficient and self-contained source of electrical power.

  11. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2014-07-01

    A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molar syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of aromatic polymethylbenzenes. However, as syngas conversion increases with increasing temperature, selectivity to liquid product diminished. This is attributed, in large part, to increased saturation of the olefinic intermediates over PdZn metal sites. Under all the conditions and catalysts evaluated in this study, generating liquid product in high yield was challenging (<10 wt. % C5+ yield).

  12. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Syngas upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels is one of eight priority pathways chosen to convert biomass into hydrocarbon fuels by the Bioenergy Technologies Office. These pathways were down-selected from an initial list of 18.

  13. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  14. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  15. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Agenda and objectives for the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18–19, 2015.

  16. Internal energy and parameters of the order-disorder phase transition in titanium monoxide TiO{sub y}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kostenko, M. G.; Rempel, A. A.; Lukoyanov, A. V.

    2013-06-15

    Quantum-mechanical ab initio calculations are used to simulate the free energy functions for titanium monoxide TiO{sub y}. The effect of the long-range order of the Ti{sub 5}O{sub 5} type superstructure on the internal energy of the compound is studied by the supercell method. The dependences of the configuration entropy and free energy on the long-range order parameter are determined. It is found that the order-disorder phase transition in titanium monoxide must occur in accordance with the mechanism of the first-order phase transition with a critical value of the long-range order parameter of 0.971. The calculated parameters of the phase transition are compared with the experimental data and the results obtained using the model of point charges and by calculating the Madelung energy. It is concluded that the short-range order and the phonon entropy must be taken into account in calculating the equilibrium phase diagrams for strongly nonstoichiometric compounds.

  17. Anaerobic cometabolic transformation of polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: evidence from laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Safinowski; Christian Griebler; Rainer U. Meckenstock

    2006-07-01

    The sulfate-reducing enrichment culture N47 can grow on naphthalene or 2-methylnaphthalene as the sole carbon and energy source. The study reported shows that the culture can furthermore cometabolically transform a variety of polycyclic and heteroaromatic compounds with naphthalene or methylnaphthalene as the auxiliary substrate. Most of the cosubstrates were converted to the corresponding carboxylic acids, frequently to several isomers. The mass spectra of specific metabolites that were extracted from supernatants of cultures containing the cosubstrates benzothiophene, benzofuran, and 1-methylnaphthalene resembled known intermediates of the anaerobic naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation pathways. This indicates that some of the tested compounds were first methylated and then transformed to the corresponding methylsuccinic acids by a fumarate addition to the methyl group. For some of the cosubstrates, a partial or total inhibition of growth on the auxiliary substrate was observed. This was caused by a specific combination of auxiliary substrate and cosubstrate. None of the cosubstrates tested could be utilized as the sole carbon source and electron donor by the enrichment culture N47. Field investigations at the tar-oil-contaminated aquifer (at a former gasworks in southwest Germany), where strain N47 originated, revealed the presence of metabolites similar to the ones identified in batch culture supernatants. The findings suggest that aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds can be converted by aquifer organisms and produce a variety of polar compounds that become mobile in groundwater. 51 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Distribution of Mississippian oolites and associated hydrocarbon production in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith, B.D.; Zuppann, C.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Mississippian oolites (oolitic limestones) are widely distributed across the continental US, and are economically important as hydrocarbon reservoirs. Initial understanding of Mississippian oolitic reservoirs comes from an overview of the Mississippian depositional framework and a review of published literature on depositional models for Mississippian oolites and associated facies. The Mississippian was divided into four intervals corresponding approximately to the following stages: Kinderhookian (interval A), early Valmeyeran or Osagian (interval B), late Valmeyeran or Meramercian (interval C), and Chesterian (interval D). These intervals, which are not unique to this study, provide a convenient method of subdividing Mississippian rocks for more detailed regional mapping. Paleogeographic and gross lithofacies maps were prepared for each interval to relate oolite occurrences to their regional settings. Interval A was characterized by two broad, shallow seas separated by the Transcontinental lowlands. Marine deposition was dominantly carbonate toward the west and shale to the east. Areas of extensive oolite deposition were adjacent to either side of the Transcontinental lowlands. Interval B was a time of extensive marine transgression with small land areas isolated in a broad, generally shallow sea. Shale deposition continued in the Michigan, Illinois, and northern Appalachian basin, and cherty carbonates accumulated elsewhere. Oolite deposition was limited to the western US in the Williston basin, and to other areas along the slightly submerged Transcontinental arch. During interval C, land areas became more emergent and the Transcontinental lowlands once again separated the eastern and western seas.

  19. Carbon microtubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14

    A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

  20. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  1. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moos, Daniel (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  2. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, Paul E.; Mackenzie, Patricia D.; Horney, David P.

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons.

  3. Recovery of co-adsorbed hydrocarbons from molecular sieve adsorption units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, K.R.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes a process for removing carbonyl sulfide from a hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises: providing a feedstock of hydrocarbons; passing the feedstock in the liquid phase; terminating the passage; draining the bed; concurrently to the direction of flow into the bed; recovering the hydrocarbon; and regenerating the adsorption bed.

  4. Carbon | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Carbon Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Carbon Sector Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCarbon&oldid271960...

  5. Carbon adsorption system protects LPG storage sphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gothenquist, C.A.; Rooker, K.M.

    1996-07-01

    Chevron U.S.A. Products Co. installed a carbon adsorption system to protect an LPG storage sphere at its refinery in Richmond, Calif. Vessel damage can result when amine contamination leads to emulsion formation and consequent amine carry-over, thus promoting wet-H{sub 2}S cracking. In Chevron`s No. 5 H{sub 2}S recovery plant, a mixture of butane and propane containing H{sub 2}S is contacted with diethanolamine (DEA) in a liquid-liquid absorber. The absorber is a countercurrent contactor with three packed beds. Because the sweetening system did not include a carbon adsorption unit for amine purification, contaminants were building up in the DEA. The contaminants comprised: treatment chemicals, hydrocarbons, foam inhibitors, and amine degradation products. The paper describes the solution to this problem.

  6. ATOMIC CARBON IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF TITAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, X.; Yung, Y. L.; Ajello, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The atomic carbon emission C I line feature at 1657 A ({sup 3} P {sup 0} {sub J}-{sup 3} P{sub J} ) in the upper atmosphere of Titan is first identified from the airglow spectra obtained by the Cassini Ultra-violet Imaging Spectrograph. A one-dimensional photochemical model of Titan is used to study the photochemistry of atomic carbon on Titan. Reaction between CH and atomic hydrogen is the major source of atomic carbon, and reactions with hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) are the most important loss processes. Resonance scattering of sunlight by atomic carbon is the dominant emission mechanism. The emission intensity calculations based on model results show good agreement with the observations.

  7. Low Speed Carbon Deposition Process for Hermetic Optical Fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ABRAMCZYK,JAROSLAW; ARTHUR,SARA E. TALLANT,DAVID R.; HIKANSSON,ADAM S.; LINDHOLM,ERIC A.; LO,JIE

    1999-09-29

    For optical fibers used in adverse environments, a carbon coating is frequently deposited on the fiber surface to prevent water and hydrogen ingression that lead respectively to strength degradation through fatigue and hydrogen-induced attenuation. The deposition of a hermetic carbon coating onto an optical fiber during the draw process holds a particular challenge when thermally-cured specialty coatings are subsequently applied because of the slower drawing rate. In this paper, we report on our efforts to improve the low-speed carbon deposition process by altering the composition and concentration of hydrocarbon precursor gases. The resulting carbon layers have been analyzed for electrical resistance, Raman spectra, coating thickness, and surface roughness, then compared to strength data and dynamic fatigue behavior.

  8. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

  9. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  10. Conversion of alkali metal sulfate to the carbonate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheth, Atul C. (Woodridge, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A process for converting potassium sulfate to potassium carbonate in which a mixture of potassium sulfate and calcium oxide are reacted at a temperature in the range of between about 700.degree. C. and about 800.degree. C. with a gaseous mixture having a minor amount of hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide in a diluent with the calcium oxide being present in an amount not greater than about 20 percent by weight of the potassium sulfate to produce an aqueous mixture of potassium sulfide, potassium bisulfide, potassium hydroxide and calcium sulfide and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The potassium and calcium salts are quenched to produce an aqueous slurry of soluble potassium salts and insoluble calcium salts and a gaseous mixture of steam and hydrogen sulfide. The insoluble calcium salts are then separated from the aqueous solution of soluble potassium salts. The calcium salts are dried to produce calcium sulfide, calcium bisulfide and steam, and then, the calcium sulfide and calcium bisulfide are converted to the oxide and recycled. The soluble potassium salts are carbonated to produce potassium carbonate which is concentrated and the precipitated crystals separated. The sulfur-containing compounds are further treated.

  11. Method for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-03-07

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  12. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  13. Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1993-01-01

    Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700.degree. to 900.degree. C. are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025-0.4 mole and about 0.1-0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800.degree. to 850.degree. C. with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C.sub.2 hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

  14. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  15. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  16. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  17. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  18. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  19. Hydrocarbon/Total Combustibles Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues Release date: November 25, 2014 Executive summary Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of

  20. ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Success of Future Generation Vehicles Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the Success of Future Generation Vehicles - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear

  1. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1994-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  2. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W.

    1992-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  3. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  4. Performance of Concrete Members Subjected to Large Hydrocarbon Pool Fires

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zwiers, Renata I.; Morgan, Bruce J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss an investigation to determine analytically if the performance of concrete beams and columns in a hydrocarbon pool test fire would differ significantly from their performance in a standard test fire. The investigation consisted of a finite element analysis to obtain temperature distributions in typical cross sections, a comparison of the resulting temperature distribution in the cross section, and a strength analysis of a beam based on temperature distribution data. Results of the investigation are reported.

  5. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  7. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  8. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  9. Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research | Department of Energy Research on future fuels chemistry and effects on combustion in advanced internal combustion engines PDF icon p-14_gieleciak.pdf More Documents & Publications Effect of the Composition of Hydrocarbon Streams on HCCI Performance Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel Effects on Mixing-Controlled Combustion Strategies for High-Efficiency Clean-Combustion

  10. Fluorine-Modified Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons for Organic Electronics -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Fluorine-Modified Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons for Organic Electronics Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A chemical synthesis that modifies PAHs via addition of perfluoroalkyl groups. The resulting compounds are novel organic semiconductors with potential application to flexible OLED displays and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Description The

  11. Effect of the Composition of Hydrocarbon Streams on HCCI Performance |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy §To apply an advanced statistical analysis technique to 2D-GC data for 17 oil sands derived fuels and correlate results to measured fuel chemical / physical properties, and then to HCCI engine performance PDF icon deer09_fairbridge.pdf More Documents & Publications Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Oil Sands Feedstocks Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

  12. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  13. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N.

    1996-12-31

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  14. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N. )

    1996-01-01

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  15. Land subsidence associated with hydrocarbon production, Texas Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreitler, C.W.; White, W.A.; Akhter, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Although ground-water withdrawal has been the predominant cause of land subsidence in the Texas Gulf Coast, localized subsidence and faulting have also resulted from hydrocarbon production. Subsidence was documented as early as the 1920s over the Goose Creek field. Since then, subsidence and/or faulting have been identified over the Saxet, South Houston, Chocolate Bayou, Hastings, Alco-Mag, Clinton, Mykawa, Blue Ridge, Webster, and Caplen oil fields. Oil-production-related subsidence over these fields generally creates few environmental or engineering problems. One exception is the subsidence and faulting over the Caplen oil field on Bolivar Peninsula, where more than 1,000 ac of saltwater marsh has been replaced by subaqueous flats. Subsidence may be occurring over other fields but has not been identified because of limited releveled benchmark data. An evaluation of drill-stem and bottom-hole pressure data for the Frio Formation in Texas indicates extensive depressurization presumably from hydrocarbon production. Nearly 12,000 measurements from a pressure data base of 17,000 measurements indicate some depressurization. Some of the Frio zones have pressure declines of more than 1,500 psi from original hydrostatic conditions. Subsidence and faulting may be associated with these fields in the Frio as well as other Tertiary formations where extensive hydrocarbon production and subsequent depressurization have occurred.

  16. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  17. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar; Shockling, Larry A.; George, Raymond A.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  18. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Molnár, István; Lopez, David; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-10-30

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. The biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.

  19. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa)*

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Molnár, István; Lopez, David; Wisecaver, Jennifer H.; Devarenne, Timothy P.; Weiss, Taylor L.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Hackett, Jeremiah D.

    2012-10-30

    Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. The biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga thatmore » compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy.« less

  20. Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

  1. Polymer-assisted deposition of films and preparation of carbon nanotube arrays using the films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luo, Hongmei; Li, Qingwen; Bauer, Eve; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; McCleskey, Thomas Mark; Jia, Quanxi

    2013-07-16

    Carbon nanotubes were prepared by coating a substrate with a coating solution including a suitable solvent, a soluble polymer, a metal precursor having a first metal selected from iron, nickel, cobalt, and molybdenum, and optionally a second metal selected from aluminum and magnesium, and also a binding agent that forms a complex with the first metal and a complex with the second metal. The coated substrate was exposed to a reducing atmosphere at elevated temperature, and then to a hydrocarbon in the reducing atmosphere. The result was decomposition of the polymer and formation of carbon nanotubes on the substrate. The carbon nanotubes were often in the form of an array on the substrate.

  2. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Gas saturated reservoirs change reflection amplitudes significantly. The goal for the final project period was to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration and transfer this knowledge as clearly and effectively as possible.

  3. The role of Cretaceous seal to the hydrocarbon potential of the Salawati and Bintuni basins, Irian Jaya, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuel, L.; Kartanegara, L. )

    1991-03-01

    The Salawati and Bintuni basins are late Tertiary depocenters located in the westernmost part of Irian Jaya, Indonesia. The two basins are closely located and only separated by a 50-km-wide structural high known as the Ajamaru Plateau. Petroleum exploration results in the Salawati basin are very successful. This basin has produced around 300 Mbbl of oil from the Miocene carbonates of the Kais Formation. Exploration with similar objectives in the Bintuni basin, however, gave only little success. Some oil was obtained from small Wasian and Mogoi fields, which jointly produced around 7 Mbbl of oil between 1951 and 1960. Extensive exploration campaigns between 1970 and 1980 with Miocene Kais Limestone as the objective resulted only in the discovery of the small Wiriagar field. The big difference in petroleum potentially of the Salawati and Bintuni basins has attracted explorationists to evaluate what significant geological factors had influenced it. Evaluation on available exploration data of the basins had some interesting results. In terms of geologic factors controlling hydrocarbon accumulation (presence of mature source rock, migration pathway, good reservoir quality, valid trap, and effective seal), it seems that shales of Cretaceous age have played the most important role. If this regional seal is absent or noneffective, oil could migrate vertically from pre-Tertiary sources to the Tertiary reservoirs. On the contrary, if the Cretaceous shales are present and sealing, then the underlying Mesozoic sequence is attractive and may trap hydrocarbon, if supported by the other geologic factors.

  4. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  5. Use of zinc and copper (I) salts to reduce sulfur and nitrogen impurities during the pyrolysis of plastic and rubber waste to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wingfield, Jr., Robert C.; Braslaw, Jacob; Gealer, Roy L.

    1984-01-01

    An improvement in a process for the pyrolytic conversion of rubber and plastic waste to hydrocarbon products which results in reduced levels of nitrogen and sulfur impurities in these products. The improvement comprises pyrolyzing the waste in the presence of at least about 1 weight percent of salts, based on the weight of the waste, preferably chloride or carbonate salts, of zinc or copper (I). This invention was made under contract with or subcontract thereunder of the Department of Energy Contract #DE-AC02-78-ER10049.

  6. Apparatus for photocatalytic destruction of internal combustion engine emissions during cold start

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janata, Jiri (Richland, WA); McVay, Gary L. (Richland, WA); Peden, Charles H. (West Richland, WA); Exarhos, Gregory J. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the destruction of emissions from an internal combustion engine wherein a substrate coated with TiO.sub.2 is exposed to a light source in the exhaust system of an internal combustion engine thereby catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions between gaseous hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and oxygen in the exhaust of the internal combustion engine.

  7. Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  8. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process employing a moderated ruthenium catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrevaya, Hayim (Wilmette, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A Fischer-Tropsch type process produces hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a novel catalyst comprising moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation.

  9. Catalysts for low temperature oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toops, Todd J.; Parks, III, James E.; Bauer, John C.

    2016-03-01

    The invention provides a composite catalyst containing a first component and a second component. The first component contains nanosized gold particles. The second component contains nanosized platinum group metals. The composite catalyst is useful for catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and other pollutants at low temperatures.

  10. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  11. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process employing a moderated ruthenium catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abrevaya, H.

    1990-07-31

    A Fischer-Tropsch type process produces hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using a novel catalyst comprising moderated ruthenium on an inorganic oxide support. The preferred moderator is silicon. Preferably the moderator is effectively positioned in relationship to ruthenium particles through simultaneous placement on the support using reverse micelle impregnation. 1 fig.

  12. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-12

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  13. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

    1985-12-03

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  14. Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1986-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  15. Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Peter K.; Rabo, Jule A.

    1985-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

  16. Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

    2014-05-06

    A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

  17. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The area is identical to the 2011 biochemical ethanol design ... catalyst lifetimes and minimizing processing costs. ... will improve process integration and carbon efficiency ...

  18. Geology and hydrocarbon habitat of the Amu-Darya region (central Asia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoecklin, J.; Orassianou, T. )

    1991-08-01

    The Amu-Darya region, shared by the Soviet Republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tadzhikistan, is the second-largest gas province of the USSSR after western Siberia both production and reserves. Its more than 180 gas, gas-condensate, and minor oil fields include 6 giants with reserves of over 3 tcf, such as the Sovietabad field of eastern Turkmenistan, which in 1989 produced nearly 1 tcf of gas and which had an initial recoverable reserve of 38 tcf of gas. oil in addition to gas is produced mainly in the eastern Uzbekian and Tadzhikian parts. The region represents a large depression covering the southeastern portion of the epi-Hercynian Turan platform to the north of the Alpine-Himalayan fold belts of northeastern Iran and northern Afghanistan. Continental, paralic, lagoonal, and shallow-marine environments characterized Mesozoic-Tertiary platform sedimentation, with maximum sediment thicknesses of about 10 km in the Alpine foredeeps at the southern platform margin. Large amounts of essentially gas-prone organic matter accumulated in the Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic. Main hydrocarbon reservoirs are Callovian-Oxfordian shelf-platform and reefal carbonates under cover of thick Kimmeridgian-Tithonian salt, and shale-sealed Lower Cretaceous continental and near-shore deltaic sandstones. In the Tadzhik basin in the extreme east, oil is contained in Lower Tertiary fractured carbonates interbedded with bituminous shales. Synsedimentary differential movements and gently folding in the Miocene to Pliocene were the main trap mechanisms. The region has still a considerable undrilled future potential, particularly in its deeper southern parts.

  19. Carbon Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Capital Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: Manages a carbon fund specialised in forestry projects References: Carbon...

  20. Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide from liquid hydrocarbons with activated alumina and other adsorbents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P.K.T. (Alcoa Separations Technology Div., Aluminum Co. of America, Warrendale, PA (US))

    1988-01-01

    Contamination of Liquid hydrocarbon streams with carbonyl sulfide (COS) is not desirable; particularly in propylene. COS may poison the down stream polymerization catalyst. Thus, it is usually required to reduce the COS concentration to an extremely low level, e.g. 1 ppm or less, for polymer grade propylene. Many technologies generally available for sulfur removal, such as scrubbing and distillation are not applicable to the removal of COS from propylene. The former is not suitable for a low level removal. With the boiling point of COS (-50{sup 0}C) very close to that of propylene (-48{sup 0}C) it is difficult to achieve a very efficient separation with distillation. Adsorption technology provides a very energy efficient process in addition to its ability of the low level removal. Adsorbents selected in this study include activated carbon, molecular sieves, zinc oxide and activated alumina. The results show that activated alumina is far superior in both adsorption capacity and rate. An adsorption mechanism with activated alumina is proposed. It is believed that adsorption of COS takes place simultaneously with the hydrolysis of COS on the alumina surface. Adsorption isotherms of COS up to 100 ppm and the effect of moisture content are also addressed in this study.

  1. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen ranged from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.

  2. Hydrocarbon Liquid Production via the bioCRACK Process and Catalytic Hydroprocessing of the Product Oil

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwaiger, Nikolaus; Elliott, Douglas C.; Ritzberger, Jurgen; Wang, Huamin; Pucher, Peter; Siebenhofer, Matthaus

    2015-02-13

    Continuous hydroprocessing of liquid phase pyrolysis bio-oil, provided by BDI-BioEnergy International bioCRACK pilot plant at OMV Refinery in Schwechat/Vienna Austria was investigated. These hydroprocessing tests showed promising results using catalytic hydroprocessing strategies developed for unfractionated bio-oil. A sulfided base metal catalyst (CoMo on Al2O3) was evaluated. The bed of catalyst was operated at 400 °C in a continuous-flow reactor at a pressure of 12.1 MPa with flowing hydrogen. The condensed liquid products were analyzed and found that the hydrocarbon liquid was significantly hydrotreated so that nitrogen and sulfur were below the level of detection (<0.05), while the residual oxygen rangedmore » from 0.7 to 1.2%. The density of the products varied from 0.71 g/mL up to 0.79 g/mL with a correlated change of the hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio from 2.1 down to 1.9. The product quality remained high throughout the extended tests suggesting minimal loss of catalyst activity through the test. These tests provided the data needed to assess the quality of liquid fuel products obtained from the bioCRACK process as well as the activity of the catalyst for comparison with products obtained from hydrotreated fast pyrolysis bio-oils from fluidized-bed operation.« less

  3. A process economic assessment of hydrocarbon biofuels production using chemoautotrophic organisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, NE; Myers, JA; Tuerk, AL; Curtis, WR

    2014-11-01

    Economic analysis of an ARPA-e Electrofuels (http://arpa-e.energy.gov/?q=arpa-e-programs/electrofuels) process is presented, utilizing metabolically engineered Rhodobacter capsulatus or Ralstonia eutropha to produce the C30+ hydrocarbon fuel, botryococcene, from hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The analysis is based on an Aspen plus (R) bioreactor model taking into account experimentally determined Rba. capsulatus and Rls. eutropha growth and maintenance requirements, reactor residence time, correlations for gas-liquid mass-transfer coefficient, gas composition, and specific cellular fuel productivity. Based on reactor simulation results encompassing technically relevant parameter ranges, the capital and operating costs of the process were estimated for 5000 bbl-fuel/day plant and used to predict fuel cost. Under the assumptions used in this analysis and crude oil prices, the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) required for economic feasibility must be less than 2(sic)/kWh. While not feasible under current market prices and costs, this work identifies key variables impacting process cost and discusses potential alternative paths toward economic feasibility. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of SPMDs to determine average water concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVita, W.; Crunkilton, R.

    1995-12-31

    Semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDS) were deployed for 30 day periods to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an urban stream which receives much of its flow from urban runoff. SPMDs are capable of effectively sampling several liters of water per day for some PAHs. Unlike conventional methods, SPMDs sample only those non-polar organic contaminants which are truly dissolved and available for bioconcentration. Also, SPMDs may concentrate contaminants from episodic events such as stormwater discharge. The State of Wisconsin has established surface water quality criteria based upon human lifetime cancer risk of 23 ppt for benzo(a)pyrene and 23 ppt as the sum of nine other potentially carcinogenic PAHs. Bulk water samples analyzed by conventional methodology were routinely well above this criteria, but contained particulate bound PAHs as well as PAHs bound by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which are not available for bioconcentration. Average water concentrations of dissolved PAHs determined using SPMDs were also above this criteria. Variables used for determining water concentration included sampling rate at the exposure temperature, length of exposure and estimation of biofouling of SPMD surface.

  5. Transition metal ion-assisted photochemical generation of alkyl halides and hydrocarbons from carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraher, Jack; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2012-03-14

    Near-UV photolysis of aqueous solutions of propionic acid and aqueous Fe3+ in the absence of oxygen generates a mixture of hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene and butane), carbon dioxide, and Fe2+. The reaction becomes mildly catalytic (about five turnovers) in the presence of oxygen which converts a portion of alkyl radicals to oxidizing intermediates that reoxidize Fe2+. The photochemistry in the presence of halide ions (X? = Cl?, Br?) generates ethyl halides via halogen atom abstraction from FeXn3?n by ethyl radicals. Near-quantitative yields of C2H5X are obtained at ?0.05 M X?. Competition experiments with Co(NH3)5Br2+ provided kinetic data for the reaction of ethyl radicals with FeCl2+ (k = (4.0 0.5) 106 M?1 s?1) and with FeBr2+ (k = (3.0 0.5) 107 M?1 s?1). Photochemical decarboxylation of propionic acid in the presence of Cu2+ generates ethylene and Cu+. Longer-chain acids also yield alpha olefins as exclusive products. These reactions become catalytic under constant purge with oxygen which plays a dual role. It reoxidizes Cu+ to Cu2+, and removes gaseous olefins to prevent accumulation of Cu+(olefin) complexes and depletion of Cu2+. The results underscore the profound effect that the choice of metal ions, the medium, and reaction conditions exert on the photochemistry of carboxylic acids.

  6. Statistically designed study of the variables and parameters of carbon dioxide equations of state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donohue, M.D.; Naiman, D.Q.; Jin, Gang; Loehe, J.R.

    1991-05-01

    Carbon dioxide is used widely in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes to maximize the production of crude oil from aging and nearly depleted oil wells. Carbon dioxide also is encountered in many processes related to oil recovery. Accurate representations of the properties of carbon dioxide, and its mixtures with hydrocarbons, play a critical role in a number of enhanced oil recovery operations. One of the first tasks of this project was to select an equation of state to calculate the properties of carbon dioxide and its mixtures. The equations simplicity, accuracy, and reliability in representing phase behavior and thermodynamic properties of mixtures containing carbon dioxide with hydrocarbons at conditions relevant to enhanced oil recovery were taken into account. We also have determined the thermodynamic properties that are important to enhanced oil recovery and the ranges of temperature, pressure and composition that are important. We chose twelve equations of state for preliminary studies to be evaluated against these criteria. All of these equations were tested for pure carbon dioxide and eleven were tested for pure alkanes and their mixtures with carbon dioxide. Two equations, the ALS equation and the ESD equation, were selected for detailed statistical analysis. 54 refs., 41 figs., 36 tabs.

  7. Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oil (Patent) | SciTech Connect Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Alternative fuel comprised of sewage sludge and a liquid hydrocarbon fuel oil An improved fuel composition is provided comprising in minor proportion a non-dewatered sewage sludge and in major proportion an organic fuel comprised of a hydrocarbon fuel oil. A method is also provided for the incineration of sewage sludge comprised of providing

  8. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  9. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions.

  10. Hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction catalyst for NO.sub.x emissions control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Furbeck, Howard; Koermer, Gerald; Moini, Ahmad

    2016-04-12

    The present disclosure provides an AgBi catalyst over alumina suitable for performing hydrocarbon selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR).

  11. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IMPACT OF LOW OCTANE HYDROCARBON BLENDING STREAMS ON "E85" ENGINE OPTIMIZATION Jim Szybist ... Year ETHANOL IS CURRENTLY THE LARGEST VOLUME BIOFUEL, VERY IMPORTANT FOR EISA COMPLIANCE * ...

  12. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses results of a project focused on overcoming hydrocarbon inhibition on Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts by using a rational catalyst design approach.

  13. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand catalyst ... Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel ...

  14. Nonthermal plasma systems and methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2005-05-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  15. Thermokinetic/mass-transfer analysis of carbon capture for reuse/sequestration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Brady, Patrick Vane; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Luketa, Anay Josephine

    2010-09-01

    Effective capture of atmospheric carbon is a key bottleneck preventing non bio-based, carbon-neutral production of synthetic liquid hydrocarbon fuels using CO{sub 2} as the carbon feedstock. Here we outline the boundary conditions of atmospheric carbon capture for recycle to liquid hydrocarbon fuels production and re-use options and we also identify the technical advances that must be made for such a process to become technically and commercially viable at scale. While conversion of atmospheric CO{sub 2} into a pure feedstock for hydrocarbon fuels synthesis is presently feasible at the bench-scale - albeit at high cost energetically and economically - the methods and materials needed to concentrate large amounts of CO{sub 2} at low cost and high efficiency remain technically immature. Industrial-scale capture must entail: (1) Processing of large volumes of air through an effective CO{sub 2} capture media and (2) Efficient separation of CO{sub 2} from the processed air flow into a pure stream of CO{sub 2}.

  16. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B.

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  17. Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (PCCI) combustion | Department of Energy Analyzed the effects of higher hydrocarbon emissions from PCCI combustion on SCR catalysts in operating a light-duty 1.9-liter GM diesel engine in both PCCI and conventional combustion modes PDF icon deer11_parks.pdf More Documents & Publications Efficient Emissions Control for Multi-Mode Lean DI Engines Impact of Biodiesel-Based Na on the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) of NOx Using Cu-zeolite Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies

  18. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  19. Forest Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of carbon is the difference of two large fluxes: photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon fixation by photosynthesis is, to a large extent, a single process with theoretical...

  20. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitze, Arnold; Durrant, Marie

    2011-03-31

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­‐year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-­‐three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­‐and-­‐trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  1. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Pekala, Richard W.; Kaschmitter, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  2. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  3. Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamse, T.; Marr, R.; Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

  4. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  5. Hydrocarbon potential of Altiplano and northern Subandean, Bolivia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edman, J.D.; Kirkpatrick, J.R.; Lindsey, D.D.; Lowell, J.D.; Cirbian, M.; Lopez, M.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic, stratigraphic, structural, and geochemical data from the Altiplano, northern Subandean, and northern plains of Bolivia were interpreted in order to evaluate the exploration potential of each province. Identification of three possible source rock intervals, primarily the Devonian and secondarily the Permian and Cretaceous, was used as the basis for recognizing active hydrocarbon systems. For those areas containing source intervals, their analysis revealed that possible reservoir and seal units range in age from Paleozoic to Tertiary; the majority of structures, however, are Eocene or younger. With these general concepts in mind, traps were identified in all three sedimentary provinces. In the northern Altiplano, the most prospective area is along the eastern margin near a southwest and west-vergent thrust belt where hanging-wall anticlines and a warped Eocene-Oligocene(.) unconformity surface form the most likely potential traps. In the central and southern Altiplano, both thrust-related and wrench-related structures present possible exploration targets. In the northern Subandean and Beni plains north of the Isiboro-Chapare area, traps can be classified into two broad groups. First, there are a wide variety of structural traps within the northern Subandean thrust belt, the most attractive of which are footwall structures that have been shielded from surface flushing by hanging-wall strata. Second, in the plains just northeast of the thrust belt, hydrocarbons sourced from the remnant Paleozoic basin may have migrated onto the Isarsama and Madidi highs.

  6. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael; Papadopoulos, Christos G.; Logsdon, Jeffrey S.; Eng, Wayne W. Y.; Lee, Guang-Chung; Sinclair, Ian

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  7. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J.; Basel, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  8. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  9. Methanol Decomposition over Palladium Particles Supported on Silica: Role of Particle Size and Co-Feeding Carbon Dioxide on the Catalytic Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hokenek, Selma; Kuhn, John N. (USF)

    2012-10-23

    Monodisperse palladium particles of six distinct and controlled sizes between 4-16 nm were synthesized in a one-pot polyol process by varying the molar ratios of the two palladium precursors used, which contained palladium in different oxidation states. This difference permitted size control by regulation of the nucleation rate because low oxidation state metals ions nucleate quickly relative to high oxidation state ions. After immobilization of the Pd particles on silica by mild sonication, the catalysts were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and applied toward catalytic methanol decomposition. This reaction was determined as structure sensitive with the intrinsic activity (turnover frequency) increasing with increasing particle size. Moreover, observed catalytic deactivation was linked to product (carbon monoxide) poisoning. Co-feeding carbon dioxide caused the activity and the amount of deactivation to decrease substantially. A reaction mechanism based on the formation of the {pi}-bond between carbon and oxygen as the rate-limiting step is in agreement with antipathetic structure sensitivity and product poisoning by carbon monoxide.

  10. Biomass-derived Lignin to Jet Fuel Range Hydrocarbons via Aqueous Phase Hydrodeoxygenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hongliang; Ruan, Hao; Pei, Haisheng; Wang, Huamin; Chen, Xiaowen; Tucker, Melvin P.; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2015-09-14

    A catalytic process, involving the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the dilute alkali extracted corn stover lignin catalysed by noble metal catalyst (Ru/Al2O3) and acidic zeolite (H+-Y), to produce lignin-substructure-based hydrocarbons (C7-C18), primarily C12-C18 cyclic structure hydrocarbons in the jet fuel range, was demonstrated.

  11. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  12. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  13. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  14. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Based Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Mian; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-11-01

    This review article provides a comprehensive review on sensors and biosensors based on functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  16. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  17. Natural Oil Production from Microorganisms: Bioprocess and Microbe Engineering for Total Carbon Utilization in Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen generated from electricity to produce natural oils that can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels. MIT has designed a 2-stage biofuel production system. In the first stage, hydrogen and CO2 are fed to a microorganism capable of converting these feedstocks to a 2-carbon compound called acetate. In the second stage, acetate is delivered to a different microorganism that can use the acetate to grow and produce oil. The oil can be removed from the reactor tank and chemically converted to various hydrocarbons. The electricity for the process could be supplied from novel means currently in development, or more proven methods such as the combustion of municipal waste, which would also generate the required CO2 and enhance the overall efficiency of MIT’s biofuel-production system.

  18. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  19. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

  20. Biofuel from Bacteria and Sunlight: Shewanella as an Ideal Platform for Producing Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Minnesota is developing clean-burning, liquid hydrocarbon fuels from bacteria. The University is finding ways to continuously harvest hydrocarbons from a type of bacteria called Shewanella by using a photosynthetic organism to constantly feed Shewanella the sugar it needs for energy and hydrocarbon production. The two organisms live and work together as a system. Using Shewanella to produce hydrocarbon fuels offers several advantages over traditional biofuel production methods. First, it eliminates many of the time-consuming and costly steps involved in growing plants and harvesting biomass. Second, hydrocarbon biofuels resemble current petroleum-based fuels and would therefore require few changes to the existing fuel refining and distribution infrastructure in the U.S.