National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydrocarbons alkyl nitrates

  1. Methods of producing alkylated hydrocarbons from an in situ heat treatment process liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2009-09-01

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation.

  2. Alkylate

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Day) Product: Alkylate Aromatics Asphalt & Road Oil Isomers Isobutane Isopentane & Isohexane Isooctane Lubricants Marketable Petroleum Coke Hydrogen Sulfur Period: Annual (as of January 1) Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 View History U.S. 1,248,514 1,262,443 1,246,875 1,269,361 1,266,352 1,267,246 1982-2015 PAD District 1 95,500 108,629 79,429 91,429

  3. Transition metal ion-assisted photochemical generation of alkyl halides and hydrocarbons from carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraher, Jack; Pestovsky, Oleg; Bakac, Andreja

    2012-03-14

    Near-UV photolysis of aqueous solutions of propionic acid and aqueous Fe3+ in the absence of oxygen generates a mixture of hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene and butane), carbon dioxide, and Fe2+. The reaction becomes mildly catalytic (about five turnovers) in the presence of oxygen which converts a portion of alkyl radicals to oxidizing intermediates that reoxidize Fe2+. The photochemistry in the presence of halide ions (X? = Cl?, Br?) generates ethyl halides via halogen atom abstraction from FeXn3?n by ethyl radicals. Near-quantitative yields of C2H5X are obtained at ?0.05 M X?. Competition experiments with Co(NH3)5Br2+ provided kinetic data for the reaction of ethyl radicals with FeCl2+ (k = (4.0 0.5) 106 M?1 s?1) and with FeBr2+ (k = (3.0 0.5) 107 M?1 s?1). Photochemical decarboxylation of propionic acid in the presence of Cu2+ generates ethylene and Cu+. Longer-chain acids also yield alpha olefins as exclusive products. These reactions become catalytic under constant purge with oxygen which plays a dual role. It reoxidizes Cu+ to Cu2+, and removes gaseous olefins to prevent accumulation of Cu+(olefin) complexes and depletion of Cu2+. The results underscore the profound effect that the choice of metal ions, the medium, and reaction conditions exert on the photochemistry of carboxylic acids.

  4. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, R.L.; Pinkerton, A.B.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

    1997-02-11

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C{sub 2}R{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 9}){sub 2}{sup {minus}}(CoB{sub 2}R{sub 4}{sup {minus}}; R=CH{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 13}) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10{sup 4}) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described. 6 figs.

  5. Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Rebecca L. (Los Alamos, NM); Pinkerton, Anthony B. (Santa Fe, NM); Abney, Kent D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C.sub.2 R.sub.2 B.sub.9 H.sub.9).sub.2.sup.- (CoB.sub.2 R.sub.4.sup.- ; R=CH.sub.3 and C.sub.6 H.sub.13) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10.sup.4) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described.

  6. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ZIRCONIUM VALUES FROM HAFNIUM VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH AN ALKYL PHOSPHATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peppard, D.F.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating hafnium nitrate from zirconium nitrate contained in a nitric acid solution by selectively. extracting the zirconium nitrate with a water-immiscible alkyl phosphate is reported.

  7. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-09-22

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  8. Enhancement of alkylation catalysts for improved supercritical fluid regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-12-28

    A method of modifying an alkylation catalyst to reduce the formation of condensed hydrocarbon species thereon. The method comprises providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a plurality of active sites. The plurality of active sites on the alkylation catalyst may include a plurality of weakly acidic active sites, intermediate acidity active sites, and strongly acidic active sites. A base is adsorbed to a portion of the plurality of active sites, such as the strongly acidic active sites, selectively poisoning the strongly acidic active sites. A method of modifying the alkylation catalyst by providing an alkylation catalyst comprising a pore size distribution that sterically constrains formation of the condensed hydrocarbon species on the alkylation catalyst or by synthesizing the alkylation catalyst to comprise a decreased number of strongly acidic active sites is also disclosed, as is a method of improving a regeneration efficiency of the alkylation catalyst.

  9. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, J.E.; Fritz, J.S.

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C[sub 3] or larger.

  10. Decontamination of water using nitrate selective ion exchange resin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lockridge, James E. (Ames, IA); Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA)

    1990-07-31

    A method for nitrate decontamination of water which involves passing the water through a bed of alkyl phosphonium anion exchange resin which has pendant alkyl groups of C.sub.3 or larger.

  11. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  12. Nitrate reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  13. Method of making alkyl esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2010-09-14

    Methods of making alkyl esters are described herein. The methods are capable of using raw, unprocessed, low-cost feedstocks and waste grease. Generally, the method involves converting a glyceride source to a fatty acid composition and esterifying the fatty acid composition to make alkyl esters. In an embodiment, a method of making alkyl esters comprises providing a glyceride source. The method further comprises converting the glyceride source to a fatty acid composition comprising free fatty acids and less than about 1% glyceride by mass. Moreover, the method comprises esterifying the fatty acid composition in the presence of a solid acid catalyst at a temperature ranging firm about 70.degree. C. to about 120.degree. C. to produce alkyl esters, such that at least 85% of the free fatty acids are converted to alkyl esters. The method also incorporates the use of packed bed reactors for glyceride conversion and/or fatty acid esterification to make alkyl esters.

  14. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

    1999-06-22

    A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

  15. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2001-01-01

    A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  16. Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    2000-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  17. Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

    1999-01-01

    A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

  18. Mild Catalytic methods for Alkyl-Alkyl Bond Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicic, David A

    2009-08-10

    Overview of Research Goals and Accomplishments for the Period 07/01/06 06/30/07: Our overall research goal is to transform the rapidly emerging synthetic chemistry involving alkyl-alkyl cross-couplings into more of a mechanism-based field so that that new, rationally-designed catalysts can be performed under energy efficient conditions. Our specific objectives for the previous year were 1) to obtain a proper electronic description of an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and 2) to determine the effect of ligand structure on the rate, scope, selectivity, and functional group compatibility of C(sp3)-C(sp3) cross-coupling catalysis. We have completed both of these initial objectives and established a firm base for further studies. The specific significant achievements of the current grant period include: 1) we have performed magnetic and computational studies on (terpyridine)NiMe, an active catalyst for alkyl-alkyl cross couplings, and have discovered that the unpaired electron resides heavily on the terpyridine ligand and that the proper electronic description of this nickel complex is a Ni(II)-methyl cation bound to a reduced terpyridine ligand; 2) we have for the first time shown that alkyl halide reduction by terpyridyl nickel catalysts is substantially ligand based; 3) we have shown by isotopic labeling studies that the active catalyst (terpyridine)NiMe is not produced via a mechanism that involves the formation of methyl radicals when (TMEDA)NiMe2 is used as the catalyst precursor; 4) we have performed an extensive ligand survey for the alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions and have found that electronic factors only moderately influence reactivity in the terpyridine-based catalysis and that the most dramatic effects arise from steric and solubility factors; 5) we have found that the use of bis(dialkylphosphino)methanes as ligands for nickel does not produce active catalysts for cross-coupling but rather leads to bridging hydride complexes of varying geometries; 6) we have determined that the geometry of aforementioned bridging hydride complexes is largely determined by external forces such as hydrogen bonding interactions and crystal packing forces; 7) we have found that the rate of reductive elimination of alkane from a (pyridyl-2-pyrrolide)AuMe2 complex is severely inhibited due to the rigid geometry of the pyridyl-2-pyrrolide ligand; 8) we have prepared, structurally characterized, and explored the reactivity of 1-adamantylzinc reagents as model nucleophiles for sterically challenging alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions. The continued success of this work will lead to alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling catalysts with broad scope and selectivities. The work has potential to significantly impact science and technologies of interest to the DOE as the chemistry is focused on developing useful reactions using reagents that can be directly prepared from petroleum and natural gas feedstocks. Moreover, the developing synthetic chemistry can profoundly affect the way materials, fine chemicals, and drugs are made. Since the methodology we are developing can shorten existing synthetic protocols, proceed at room temperature, and operate under environmentally benign conditions, it can greatly reduce energy expenditures, especially considering the contribution of the chemical manufacturing field to the gross domestic product.

  19. Polyethylene composites containing a phase change material having a C14 straight chain hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1987-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyethylene matrix having a straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyethylene being crosslinked to such a degree that said polyethylene matrix is form stable and said polyethylene matrix is capable of absorbing at least 10% by weight of said straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon; the composite is useful in forming pellets or sheets having thermal energy storage characteristics.

  20. Alkali metal nitrate purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Morgan, Michael J. (Guilford, CT)

    1986-02-04

    A process is disclosed for removing contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises heating the impure alkali metal nitrates in solution form or molten form at a temperature and for a time sufficient to effect precipitation of solid impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified alkali metal nitrates in solution form may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrates suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of purified alkali metal nitrates.

  1. WIPP Nitrate Updates 2015

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update, July 23, 2015 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF WIPP Nitrate Salt...

  2. Methods of making alkyl esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian

    2010-08-03

    A method comprising contacting an alcohol, a feed comprising one or more glycerides and equal to or greater than 2 wt % of one or more free fatty acids, and a solid acid catalyst, a nanostructured polymer catalyst, or a sulfated zirconia catalyst in one or more reactors, and recovering from the one or more reactors an effluent comprising equal to or greater than about 75 wt % alkyl ester and equal to or less than about 5 wt % glyceride.

  3. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  4. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, John L. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  5. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  6. Theory Of Alkyl Terminated Silicon Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reboredo, F; Galli, G

    2004-08-19

    We have carried out a series of ab-initio calculations to investigate changes in the optical properties of Si quantum dots as a function of surface passivation. In particular, we have compared hydrogen passivated dots with those having alkyl groups at the surface. We find that, while on clusters with reconstructed surfaces a complete alkyl passivation is possible, steric repulsion prevents full passivation of Si dots with unreconstructed surfaces. In addition, our calculations show that steric repulsion may have a dominant effect in determining the surface structure, and eventually the stability of alkyl passivated clusters, with results dependent on the length of the carbon chain. Alkyl passivation weakly affects optical gaps of silicon quantum dots, while it substantially decreases ionization potentials and electron affinities and affect their excited state properties. On the basis of our results we propose that alkyl terminated quantum dots may be size selected taking advantage of the change in ionization potential as a function of the cluster size.

  7. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-09-07

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 figures.

  8. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1989-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  9. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene to about the mid point of the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  10. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1994-06-14

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a molecular sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  11. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1993-01-05

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  12. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1993-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

  13. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Arganbright, Robert P.; Hearn, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C.sub.2 to C.sub.10 olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80.degree. C. to 500.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms.

  14. Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1989-07-18

    Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a catalytic distillation, wherein the catalyst structure also serves as a distillation component by contacting the aromatic compound with a C[sub 2] to C[sub 10] olefin in the catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 80 C to 500 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic or an acidic cation exchange resin. For example, ethyl benzene is produced by feeding ethylene below the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux in molar excess to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene in the bottoms. 1 fig.

  15. Chlorinated Hydrocarbons

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by Satish C. B. Myneni, Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 When we think of chlorine, we often relate it to the salt used in food preparation, chloride in the oceans, chlorine gas from swimming pools, and gaseous chlorofluorocarbons that have close links to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. We rarely think of thousands of chlorinated hydrocarbons that exist in the natural systems, several of which are highly toxic to humans (1). The C-Cl bond, common to all

  16. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

    1992-06-02

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  17. WIPP Nitrate Updates 2014

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Update, December 4, 2014 Waste Isolation Pilot Plant EPA I.D. Number: NM4890139088-TSDF Jose R. FrancoCBFO and Robert L. McQuinnNWP dated December 5, 2014 WIPP Nitrate Salt...

  18. Solid Catalyst - Alkylation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Solid Catalyst - Alkylation Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This is a method used to reactivate solid/liquid catalysts used in INL's super critical process to produce alkylates. The method brings the catalyst into contact with the designated fluid that serves as the reactivating agent and has the density to dissolve the impurities. The process reactivates the

  19. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: apparatus; recovering; ... hydrates; located; land; water; vast; natural; resources; hydrocarbon; hydrates; ...

  20. Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

  1. Purification of alkali metal nitrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C. (Hamden, CT); Gregory, Kevin M. (Woodridge, IL)

    1985-05-14

    A process is disclosed for removing heavy metal contaminants from impure alkali metal nitrates containing them. The process comprises mixing the impure nitrates with sufficient water to form a concentrated aqueous solution of the impure nitrates, adjusting the pH of the resulting solution to within the range of between about 2 and about 7, adding sufficient reducing agent to react with heavy metal contaminants within said solution, adjusting the pH of the solution containing reducing agent to effect precipitation of heavy metal impurities and separating the solid impurities from the resulting purified aqueous solution of alkali metal nitrates. The resulting purified solution of alkali metal nitrates may be heated to evaporate water therefrom to produce purified molten alkali metal nitrate suitable for use as a heat transfer medium. If desired, the purified molten form may be granulated and cooled to form discrete solid particles of alkali metal nitrates.

  2. Poly(ethyleneoxide) functionalization through alkylation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sivanandan, Kulandaivelu; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Li, Yan; Pratt, Russell Clayton

    2015-04-21

    A new and efficient method of functionalizing high molecular weight polymers through alkylation using a metal amide base is described. This novel procedure can also be used to synthesize polymer-based macro-initiators containing radical initiating groups at the chain-ends for synthesis of block copolymers.

  3. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  4. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon

  5. Poly(ethyleneoxide) functionalization through alkylation (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Poly(ethyleneoxide) functionalization through alkylation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Poly(ethyleneoxide) functionalization through alkylation A new and efficient method of functionalizing high molecular weight polymers through alkylation using a metal amide base is described. This novel procedure can also be used to synthesize polymer-based macro-initiators containing radical initiating groups at the chain-ends for synthesis of block copolymers. Authors: Sivanandan,

  6. Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments The goals of this project were to design new electrophilic metal alkyl complexes and to exploit these systems in fundamental studies of olefin polymerization and other important and new catalytic reactions. A key target reaction is insertion copolymerization of olefins and polar

  7. Electrophilic Metal Alkyl Chemistry in New Ligand Environments...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The goals of this project were to design new electrophilic metal alkyl complexes and to ... Pd catalysts that produce high molecular weight linear polyethylene and ...

  8. Recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirza, Zia I. (La Verne, CA); Knell, Everett W. (Los Alamitos, CA); Winter, Bruce L. (Danville, CA)

    1980-09-30

    Values are recovered from a hydrocarbon-containing vapor by contacting the vapor with quench liquid consisting essentially of hydrocarbons to form a condensate and a vapor residue, the condensate and quench fluid forming a combined liquid stream. The combined liquid stream is mixed with a viscosity-lowering liquid to form a mixed liquid having a viscosity lower than the viscosity of the combined liquid stream to permit easy handling of the combined liquid stream. The quench liquid is a cooled portion of the mixed liquid. Viscosity-lowering liquid is separated from a portion of the mixed liquid and cycled to form additional mixed liquid.

  9. The photodissociation dynamics of alkyl radicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giegerich, Jens; Fischer, Ingo

    2015-01-28

    The photodisscociation dynamics of the alkyl radicals i-propyl (CH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}) and t-butyl (C(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}) are investigated by H-atom photofragment imaging. While i-propyl is excited at 250 nm, the photodynamics of t-butyl are explored over a large energy range using excitation wavelengths between 347 nm and 233 nm. The results are compared to those obtained previously for ethyl, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}, and to those reported for t-butyl using 248 nm excitation. The translational energy (E{sub T}) distribution of the H-atom photofragments is bimodal and appears rather similar for all three radicals. The low E{sub T} part of the distribution shows an isotropic photofragment angular distribution, while the high E{sub T} part is associated with a considerable anisotropy. Thus, for t-butyl, two H-atom loss channels of roughly equal importance have been identified in addition to the CH{sub 3}-loss channel reported previously. A mechanism for the photodissociation of alkyl radicals is suggested that is based on interactions between Rydberg- and valence states.

  10. Plutonium nitrate bottle counter manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menlove, H.O.; Adams, E.L.; Holbrooks, O.R.

    1984-03-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for plutonium nitrate assay in large storage bottles. This assay system can be used in the reprocessing plant or in the nitrate-to-oxide conversion facility. The system is based on the family of neutron detectors similar to the high-level neutron coincidence counter. This manual describes the system and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications. 4 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the NO2 radical.

  12. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Funk, Edward W.; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

  13. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, Alfred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product.

  14. Process for reducing aqueous nitrate to ammonia

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mattus, A.J.

    1993-11-30

    Powdered aluminum is added to a nitrate-containing alkaline, aqueous solution to reduce the nitrate and/or nitrite to ammonia and co-produce a sinterable ceramic product. 3 figures.

  15. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy PDF icon Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons More...

  16. Solid Catalyzed Isoparaffin Alkylation at Supercritical Fluid and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Near-Supercritical Fluid Conditions - Energy Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Find More Like This Return to Search Solid Catalyzed Isoparaffin Alkylation at Supercritical Fluid and Near-Supercritical Fluid Conditions Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has developed a solid catalyst process for the alkylation reaction of isoparaffins with olefins over solid catalysts. The process includes contacting a mixture of an

  17. Poly(ethyleneoxide) functionalization through alkylation (Patent) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Poly(ethyleneoxide) functionalization through alkylation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Poly(ethyleneoxide) functionalization through alkylation × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of this document is

  18. Final Technical Report [Development of Catalytic Alkylation and Fluoroalkylation Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vicic, David A.

    2014-05-01

    In the early stages of this DOE-funded research project, we sought to prepare and study a well-defined nickel-alkyl complex containing tridentate nitrogen donor ligands. We found that reaction of (TMEDA)NiMe2 (1) with terpyridine ligand cleanly led to the formation of (terpyridyl)NiMe (2), which we also determined to be an active alkylation catalyst. The thermal stability of 2 was unlike that seen for any of the active pybox ligands, and enabled a number of key studies on alkyl transfer reactions to be performed, providing new insights into the mechanism of nickel-mediated alkyl-alkyl cross-coupling reactions. In addition to the mechanistic studies, we showed that the terpyridyl nickel compounds can catalytically cross-couple alkyl iodides in yields up to 98% and bromides in yields up to 46 %. The yields for the bromides can be increased up to 67 % when the new palladium catalyst [(tpy)Pd-Ph]I is used. The best route to the targeted [(tpy)NiBr] (1) was found to involve the comproportionation reaction of [(dme)NiBr{sub 2}] and [Ni(COD){sub 2}] in the presence of two equivalents of terpyridine. This reaction was driven to high yields of product formation (72 % isolated) by the precipitation of 1 from THF solvent.

  19. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  20. Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1997-03-11

    A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

  1. Hydrocarbon Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrocarbon Technologies Place: Lawrenceville, New Jersey Zip: 8648 Sector: Efficiency Product: String representation...

  2. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop:...

  3. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Holly (Bethel Island, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethel Island, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  4. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Holly (Bethel Island, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA); Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Miller, Fred S. (Bethel Island, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons.

  5. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1987-05-19

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 6 figs.

  6. Optrode for sensing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, H.; Milanovich, F.P.; Hirschfeld, T.B.; Miller, F.S.

    1988-09-13

    A two-phase system employing the Fujiwara reaction is provided for the fluorometric detection of halogenated hydrocarbons. A fiber optic is utilized to illuminate a column of pyridine trapped in a capillary tube coaxially attached at one end to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A strongly alkaline condition necessary for the reaction is maintained by providing a reservoir of alkali in contact with the column of pyridine, the surface of contact being adjacent to the illuminating end of the fiber optic. A semipermeable membrane caps the other end of the capillary tube, the membrane being preferentially permeable to the halogenated hydrocarbon and but preferentially impermeable to water and pyridine. As the halogenated hydrocarbon diffuses through the membrane and into the column of pyridine, fluorescent reaction products are formed. Light propagated by the fiber optic from a light source, excites the fluorescent products. Light from the fluorescence emission is also collected by the same fiber optic and transmitted to a detector. The intensity of the fluorescence gives a measure of the concentration of the halogenated hydrocarbons. 5 figs.

  7. Hydrocarbonization research: completion report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E.; Barker, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple process used for producing oil, substitute natural gas, and char by heating coal under a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. This report describes studies that were performed in a bench-scale hydrocarbonization system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period 1975 to 1978. The results of mock-up studies, coal metering valve and flowmeter development, and supporting work in an atmospheric hydrocarbonization system are also described. Oil, gas, and char yields were determined by hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.1-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at a pressure of 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 854 K. The nominal coal feed rate was 4.5 kg/h. Wyodak subbituminous coal was used for most of the experiments. A maximum oil yield of approx. 21% based on moisture- and ash-free (maf) coal was achieved in the temperature range of 810 to 840 K. Recirculating fluidized-bed, uniformly fluidized-bed, and rapid hydropyrolysis reactors were used. A series of operability tests was made with Illinois No. 6 coal to determine whether caking coal could be processed in the recirculating fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were generally unsuccessful because of agglomeration and caking problems; however, these problems were eliminated by the use of chemically pretreated coal. Hydrocarbonization experiments were carried out with Illinois No. 6 coal that had been pretreated with CaO-NaOH, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and CaO-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Oil yields of 14, 24, and 21%, respectively, were obtained from the runs with treated coal. Gas and char yield data and the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.

  8. Preparation and reactivity of macrocyclic rhodium(III) alkyl complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carraher, Jack M.; Ellern, Arkady; Bakac, Andreja

    2013-09-21

    Macrocyclic rhodium(II) complexes LRh(H2O)(2+) (L = L-1 = cyclam and L-2 = meso-Me-6-cyclam) react with alkyl hydroperoxides RC(CH3)(2)OOH to generate the corresponding rhodium(III) alkyls L(H2O)RhR2+ (R = CH3, C2H5, PhCH2). Methyl and benzyl complexes can also be prepared by bimolecular group transfer from alkyl cobaloximes (dmgH)(2)(H2O) CoR and (dmgBF(2))(2)(H2O) CoR (R = CH3, PhCH2) to LRh(H2O)(2+). The new complexes were characterized by solution NMR and by crystal structure analysis. They exhibit great stability in aqueous solution at room temperature, but undergo efficient Rh-C bond cleavage upon photolysis. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  10. Laser photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated heterocyclic compounds. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noyes, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Partial Contents: Laser Desorption-Laser Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry; Basic Principles of TOFMS; Factors Affecting Flight Time; Source of Broadening; Laser Desorption; Theory of Multiphoton Ionization: Application to Mass Spectrometry; Quantum Theory of MPI; Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory; Time-Dependent Coefficients; Probability of a Two-Photon Process; and Attributes of R2PI.

  11. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  12. Alkyl phospholipid antihypertensive agents in method of lowering blood pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.; Muirhead, Ernest E.; Leach, deceased, Byron E.; Byers, Lawrence W.

    1988-01-01

    The composition of this invention is 1-O-alkyl-2-acetoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, having the ionic structural formula; ##STR1## wherein R is saturated alkyl having 9-21 carbon atoms, or salts or hydrates of the composition. Preferably R has 13-19 carbon atoms and most preferably R has 15 carbon atoms. The composition of this invention is useful for reducing hypertension in warm-blooded animals, including humans, when administered either orally or by injection or innoculation, e.g., intravenous injection. The composition can be prepared from naturally occurring lipids or synthetically from commercially available material.

  13. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  14. Plasma-Hydrocarbon conversion - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon conversion Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's Plasma-Hydrocarbon Conversion process enables conversion of heavy hydrocarbons, such as heavy crude oil and hydrocarbon gases like natural gas, into lighter hydrocarbon materials (e.g. synthetic light oil). Description It can convert hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels/chemicals. The dielectric barrier discharge plasma process that adds carbon and hydrogen simultaneously to heavy

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan The purpose of this document is to provide the ...

  17. Sandia Energy - Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous Success Home Renewable Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous...

  18. Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

  19. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and...

  20. Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heller, John P.; Dandge, Dileep K.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

  1. Method for reactivating solid catalysts used in alkylation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Coates, Kyle; Zalewski, David J.; Fox, Robert V.

    2003-06-17

    A method for reactivating a solid alkylation catalyst is provided which can be performed within a reactor that contains the alkylation catalyst or outside the reactor. Effective catalyst reactivation is achieved whether the catalyst is completely deactivated or partially deactivated. A fluid reactivating agent is employed to dissolve catalyst fouling agents and also to react with such agents and carry away the reaction products. The deactivated catalyst is contacted with the fluid reactivating agent under pressure and temperature conditions such that the fluid reactivating agent is dense enough to effectively dissolve the fouling agents and any reaction products of the fouling agents and the reactivating agent. Useful pressures and temperatures for reactivation include near-critical, critical, and supercritical pressures and temperatures for the reactivating agent. The fluid reactivating agent can include, for example, a branched paraffin containing at least one tertiary carbon atom, or a compound that can be isomerized to a molecule containing at least one tertiary carbon atom.

  2. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  3. Energetic Material - Electro Nitration - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro Nitration Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryINL has developed an improved method of nitrating a nitro compound by oxidizing a chemical mediator in the presence of a voltage in order to produce an oxidizing agent. Then, the agent reacts with a nitro compound and ion source in a solution in order to form a geminaldinitro compound. The electrochemical synthesis of geminaldinitro results in the formation of a nitro compound that may be

  4. Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Safety Update | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Safety Update Remediated Nitrate Salt Drums Safety Update Topic: Mr. Nickless, Environmental Management Los Alamos, Provided a presentation on the status of the Nitrate Salt waste at Los Alamos. More Documents & Publications Los Alamos National Laboratory TRU Waste Update Los Alamos National Laboratory Accident Investigation Board Corrective Action Plan Update Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts

  5. Process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chavez, David E; Naud, Darren L; Hiskey, Michael A

    2013-12-17

    A process for the preparation of an energetic nitrate ester compound and related intermediates is provided.

  6. Process for decomposing nitrates in aqueous solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a process for decomposing ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrates in an aqueous solution at an elevated temperature and pressure. Where the compound to be decomposed is a metal nitrate (e.g., a nuclear-fuel metal nitrate), a hydroxylated organic reducing agent therefor is provided in the solution. In accordance with the invention, an effective proportion of both nitromethane and nitric acid is incorporated in the solution to accelerate decomposition of the ammonium nitrate and/or selected metal nitrate. As a result, decomposition can be effected at significantly lower temperatures and pressures, permitting the use of system components composed of off-the-shelf materials, such as stainless steel, rather than more costly materials of construction. Preferably, the process is conducted on a continuous basis. Fluid can be automatically vented from the reaction zone as required to maintain the operating temperature at a moderate value--e.g., at a value in the range of from about 130.degree.-200.degree. C.

  7. Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils and Terrestrial Biota After a Spill of Crude Oil in Trecate, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandt, Charles A. ); Becker, James M. ); Porta, Augusto C.

    2001-12-01

    Following a large blowout of crude oil in northern Italy in 1994, the distribution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was examined over time and space in soils, uncultivated wild vegetation, insects, mice, and frogs in the area. Within 2 y of the blowout, PAH concentrations declined to background levels over much of the area where initial concentrations were within an order of magnitude above background, but had not declined to background in areas where starting concentrations exceeded background by two orders of magnitude. Octanol-water partitioning and extent of alkylation explained much of the variance in uptake of PAHs by plants and animals. Lower Kow PAHs and higher-alkylated PAHs had higher soil-to-biota accumulation factors (BSAFs) than did high-Kow and unalkylated forms. BSAFs for higher Kow PAHs were very low for plants, but much higher for animals, with frogs accumulating more of these compounds than other species.

  8. Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sugars To Hydrocarbons Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF on catalytic bioenergy process PDF icon Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons More Documents &...

  9. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2010-08-10

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  10. Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

    2011-11-29

    Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

  11. Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06

    A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

  12. Method for producing viscous hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, Robert S. (Winter Park, FL)

    1982-01-01

    A method for recovering viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels from a subterranean formation by drilling a well bore through the formation and completing the well by cementing a casing means in the upper part of the pay zone. The well is completed as an open hole completion and a superheated thermal vapor stream comprised of steam and combustion gases is injected into the lower part of the pay zone. The combustion gases migrate to the top of the pay zone and form a gas cap which provides formation pressure to produce the viscous hydrocarbons and synthetic fuels.

  13. Nitrate Salt Surrogate Blending Scoping Test Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    Test blending equipment identified in the “Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing”. Determine if the equipment will provide adequate mixing of zeolite and surrogate salt/Swheat stream; optimize equipment type and operational sequencing; impact of baffles and inserts on mixing performance; and means of validating mixing performance

  14. Denitration of High Nitrate Salts Using Reductants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HD Smith; EO Jones; AJ Schmidt; AH Zacher; MD Brown; MR Elmore; SR Gano

    1999-05-03

    This report describes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in conjunction with Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), to remove nitrates in simulated low-activity waste (LAW). The major objective of this work was to provide data for identifying and demonstrating a technically viable and cost-effective approach to condition LAW for immobilization (grout).

  15. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation by Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Argonne National Laboratory, during the "Targeting High-Value Challenges" panel at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. PDF icon Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production More Documents &

  16. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs. nitrite; and (11) Cost of deactivation and demolition. Each technology was given a score from one

  17. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors...

  18. Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts Treatment of Remediated Nitrate Salts Topic: Plan for remediation the nitrate salt waste from the 3706 campaign that is currently stored at Material Disposal Area G, presenter was David Funk, LANS. PDF icon Nitrate Salts - November 18, 2015 More Documents & Publications Accident Investigation Report Phase II Accident Investigation Report - Radiological Release Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the Energetic Materials

  19. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop: Agenda and Objectives | Department of Energy Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop: Agenda and Objectives Agenda and objectives for the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19, 2015. PDF icon Workshop Agenda and Objectives More Documents & Publications Anaerobic MBR: Challenges and

  20. Identification of biological processes in a mixed hydrocarbon plume at a paint manufacturing facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLaughlan, R.G.; Walsh, K.P.; Henkler, R.D.; Anderson, B.N.

    1996-12-31

    In situ biodegradation is increasingly being used as a cost effective remedial strategy for contaminated sites. However, for the remediation to be successful, it is necessary to understand the fundamental geochemical and microbiological processes occurring at a particular site. At a paint manufacturing facility, a mixed hydrocarbon plume containing both BTEX and paraffinic hydrocarbons (Stoddard solvent) has contaminated the aquifer. The microbial processes occurring in the plume were investigated to better define the capacity of the aquifer to degrade hydrocarbons. Microbial oxidation of hydrocarbons is known to be coupled with the reduction of redox active species including oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron and sulphate as well as the production of methane. Water quality data, redox parameters and contaminant information were collected from the site to identify candidate biological processes occurring. The results show that as the contaminant concentration increases, the redox decreases indicating the generation of a more reduced environment. The decreasing redox correlates with increased concentrations of ammonia, ferrous iron and sulphide. The data indicates that there have been a range of different electron acceptor systems operating at the site. This has been correlated with a theoretical amount of benzene consumed. The chemistry from the wells at the site show that at least 47 mg/L of benzene is capable of being mineralized within the aquifer by microbial based transformations given the current contaminant loading and flowrate. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  2. Supplemental Cooling for Nitrate Salt Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldberg, Mitchell S.

    2015-08-19

    In July 2015, Los Alamos National Laboratory completed installation of a supplemental cooling system in the structure where remediated nitrate salt waste drums are stored. Although the waste currently is in a safe configuration and is monitored daily,controlling the temperature inside the structure adds another layer of protection for workers, the public,and the environment.This effort is among several layers of precautions designed to secure the waste.

  3. Catalytic method for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Sansone, Michael J. (Summit, NJ); Slegeir, William A. R. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A method for synthesizing hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen by contacting said gases with a slurry of a catalyst composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants.

  4. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  5. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either

  6. HYDROCARBON AND SULFUR SENSORS FOR SOFC SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Azad; Chris Holt; Todd Lesousky; Scott Swartz

    2003-11-01

    The following report summarizes work conducted during the Phase I program Hydrocarbon and Sulfur Sensors for SOFC Systems under contract No. DE-FC26-02NT41576. For the SOFC application, sensors are required to monitor hydrocarbons and sulfur in order to increase the operation life of SOFC components. This report discusses the development of two such sensors, one based on thick film approach for sulfur monitoring and the second galvanic based for hydrocarbon monitoring.

  7. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  8. Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Research on future fuels chemistry and effects ...

  9. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Chang, Y. Alice; Gatsis, John G.; Funk, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  10. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge EA-1628: Final Environmental Assessment Biogas Markets and ...

  11. Molecular catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    catalytic hydrogenation of aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrotreating of coal liquids. Yang, Shiyong; Stock, L.M. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 40 CHEMISTRY; COAL LIQUIDS;...

  12. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

    1988-06-14

    Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

  13. Project Profile: Advanced Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Project Profile: Advanced Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Abengoa logo Abengoa, under the Baseload CSP FOA, will demonstrate a 100-megawatt electrical (MWe) central receiver plant using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator. Approach Photo of two lit towers surrounded by much smaller blue flat plates that are mounted on the ground. The plan is to

  14. Electrochemical cell having an alkali-metal-nitrate electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roche, M.F.; Preto, S.K.

    1982-06-04

    A power-producing secondary electrochemical cell includes a molten alkali metal as the negative-electrode material and a molten-nitrate salt as the positive-electrode material. The molten material in the respective electrodes are separated by a solid barrier of alkali-metal-ion conducting material. A typical cell includes active materials of molten sodium separated from molten sodium nitrate and other nitrates in mixture by a layer of sodium ..beta..'' alumina.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared in Response to New Mexico ... (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. ...

  16. Molten Nitrate Salt Development for Thermal Energy Storage in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MOLTEN NITRATE SALT DEVELOPMENT FOR THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN PARABOLIC TROUGH SOLAR POWER SYSTEMS Robert W. Bradshaw and Nathan P. Siegel Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 969 ...

  17. Operating Experience Level 2, Evaluation of Nitrate Bearing Transurani...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    015 OE-2 2015-01: Evaluation of Nitrate Bearing Transuranic Waste Streams This Operating Experience Level 2 (OE-2) document provides actions to perform an evaluation of...

  18. Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  20. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  1. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

    2006-12-19

    This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

  2. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support ...

  3. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon ...

  4. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with...

  5. Use of tensiometer for in situ measurement of nitrate leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, K.; Reddy, M.R.

    1999-07-01

    In order to monitor nitrate leaching from non-point source pollution, this study used tensiometers to measure in situ nitrate concentration and soil-moisture potential. Instead of filling the tensiometers with pure water, the study filled the tensiometers with nitrate ionic strength adjuster (ISA, 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}). After the installation of the tensiometers at various depths along soil profiles, a portable pressure transducer was used to measure the soil moisture potential, and a nitrate electrode attached to an ion analyzer was used to measure the nitrate concentration in situ. The measurement was continuous and non-destructive. To test this method in the laboratory, eight bottles filled with pure sand were treated with known nitrate solutions, and a tensiometer was placed in each bottle. Measurements were taken every day for 30 days. Laboratory test showed a linear relationship between the known nitrate concentration and the tensiometer readings (R{sup 2} = 0.9990). Then a field test was conducted in a watermelon field with green manure mulch. Field data indicated a potential of nitrate leaching below the soil depth of 100 cm when crop uptake of nutrients was low.

  6. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, P.A.; Stines, W.B.

    1981-01-21

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates is described, wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300 to 800/sup 0/C is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  7. Method for improved decomposition of metal nitrate solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A. (Knoxville, TN); Stines, William B. (Knoxville, TN)

    1983-10-11

    A method for co-conversion of aqueous solutions of one or more heavy metal nitrates wherein thermal decomposition within a temperature range of about 300.degree. to 800.degree. C. is carried out in the presence of about 50 to 500% molar concentration of ammonium nitrate to total metal.

  8. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenters logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  9. Suppression of alkylating agent induced cell transformation and gastric ulceration by low-dose alkylating agent pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onodera, Akira; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobegakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-8586 ; Kawai, Yuichi; Kashimura, Asako; Ogita, Fumiya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Itoh, Norio

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: Low-dose MNNG pretreatment suppresses high-dose MNNG induced in vitro transformation. Gastric ulcers induced by high-dose MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Efficacy of low-dose MNNG related to resistance of mutation and oxidative stress. -- Abstract: Exposure to mild stress by chemicals and radiation causes DNA damage and leads to acquired stress resistance. Although the linear no-threshold (LNT) model of safety assessment assumes risk from any dose, evidence from radiological research demonstrates a conflicting hormetic phenomenon known as the hormesis effect. However, the mechanisms underlying radiation hormesis have not yet been clarified, and little is known about the effects of low doses of chemical carcinogens. We analyzed the efficacy of pretreatment with low doses of the alkylating agent N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) on the subsequent induction of cell transformation and gastric ulceration by high-dose MNNG. We used an in vitro Balb/3T3 A31-1-1 cell transformation test and monitored the formation of gastric ulcers in 5-week-old male ICR mice that were administered MNNG in drinking water. The treatment concentrations of MNNG were determined by the cell survival rate and past reports. For low-dose in vitro and in vivo experiments, MNNG was used at 0.028 ?M, and 2.8 ?g/mL, respectively. The frequency of cell transformation induced by 10 ?m MNNG was decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment to levels similar to that of spontaneous transformation. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutation frequencies induced by 10 ?m MNNG were decreased by low-dose MNNG pretreatment. Importantly, low-dose MNNG pretreatment had no effect on cell proliferation. In vivo studies showed that the number of gastric ulcers induced by 1 mg/mL MNNG decreased after low-dose MNNG pretreatment. These data indicate that low-dose pretreatment with carcinogens may play a beneficial role in the prevention of chemical toxicity under specified conditions.

  10. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  11. George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    George A. Olah, Carbocation and Hydrocarbon Chemistry Resources with Additional Information * Patents George A. Olah Courtesy Rand Larson, Morningstar Productions George Olah received the 1994 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry" and his 'role in the chemistry of hydrocarbons. In particular, he developed superacids ... that are much stronger than ordinary acids, are non-nucleophilic, and are fluid at low temperatures. In such media ... carbocations

  12. Department of Chemistry | Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Functionalization Chemistry Open Rank Faculty Position Faculty & Research Outreach Programs Graduate Studies Events & Seminars Undergraduate Studies Contact Us Faculty & Research > Research Centers & Programs > Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization CCHF Center for Catalytic Hydrocarbon Functionalization Catalysts are central to the efficient and clean utilization of energy resources, and they impact all aspects of the energy sector. With the University of

  13. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates

  14. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates (Patent) | SciTech Connect Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and

  15. Oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate derivatives capable of crosslinking with or cleaving nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, P.S.; Ts'o, P.O.P.

    1999-06-15

    A composition for inactivating a target nucleic acid which comprises an oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate analogue which is complementary to the sequence of the target nucleic acid is provided. It includes a functional group which reacts with the target nucleic acid to render the target nucleic acid inactive or nonfunctional. 16 figs.

  16. Oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate derivatives capable of crosslinking with or cleaving nucleic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Paul S. (Baltimore, MD); Ts'o, Paul O.P. (Lutherville, MD)

    1999-06-15

    A composition for inactivating a target nucleic acid which comprises an oligonucleoside alkyl or arylphosphonate analogue which is complementary to the sequence of the target nucleic acid and includes a functional group which reacts with the target nucleic acid to render the target nucleic acid inactive or nonfunctional.

  17. Evaluation of Nitrate-Bearing Transuranic Waste Streams

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    OE-2: 2015-1 June 2015 Evaluation of Nitrate-Bearing Transuranic Waste Streams PURPOSE This Operating Experience Level 2 (OE-2) document provides actions to perform an evaluation...

  18. Molecular recognition of nitrated fatty acids by PPAR[gamma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Schopfer, Francisco J.; Martynowski, Dariusz; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Baker, Paul R.S.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2010-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates metabolic homeostasis and adipocyte differentiation, and it is activated by oxidized and nitrated fatty acids. Here we report the crystal structure of the PPAR{gamma} ligand binding domain bound to nitrated linoleic acid, a potent endogenous ligand of PPAR{gamma}. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal the molecular basis of PPAR{gamma} discrimination of various naturally occurring fatty acid derivatives.

  19. Nitrate Salt Bearing Transuranic Waste Container Monitoring | Department of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Energy Nitrate Salt Bearing Transuranic Waste Container Monitoring Nitrate Salt Bearing Transuranic Waste Container Monitoring This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident Investigation Board's investigation into the radiological release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Additional documents referenced and listed in the Phase 2 Radiological Release Event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on February 14, 2014, report in Attachment

  20. Nonaqueous purification of mixed nitrate heat transfer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiorucci, Louis C.; Morgan, Michael J.

    1983-12-20

    A nonaqueous, in-line method for removing carbonate and hydroxide contamination from a molten mixed sodium nitrate/potassium nitrate heat transfer salt. The method comprises dissolving a stoichiometric quantity of anhydrous Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2 in the melt whereby an insoluble CaCO.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2 precipitate is formed. The precipitate can be removed by settling, filtration or floatation techniques.

  1. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plan | Department of Energy The purpose of this document is to provide the Plan required by the New Mexico Environment Department Administrative Order 05-20001 issued on May 20, 2014 to the U. S. Department of Energy and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC. The Order, at paragraph 22, requires the Permittees to submit a WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan for identified nitrate salt bearing waste disposed in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant underground disposal facility. PDF

  2. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

  3. Use of Advanced Oxidation and Aerobic Degradation for Remediation of Various Hydrocarbon Contaminates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-03-06

    Western Research Institute in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., Tetra Tech, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory and field studies to test different approaches to enhance degradation of hydrocarbons and associated contaminants. WRI in conjunction with Sierra West Consultants, Inc., conducted a laboratory and field study for using ozone to treat a site contaminated with MTBE and other hydrocarbons. Results from this study demonstrate that a TOD test can be used to resolve the O{sub 3} dosage problem by establishing a site-specific benchmark dosage for field ozone applications. The follow-up testing of the laboratory samples provided indications that intrinsic biodegradation could be stimulated by adding oxygen. Laboratory studies also suggests that O3 dosage in the full-scale field implementation could be dialed lower than stoichiometrically designed to eliminate the formation of Cr(VI). WRI conducted a study involving a series of different ISCO oxidant applications to diesel-contaminated soil and determined the effects on enhancing biodegradation to degrade the residual hydrocarbons. Soils treated with permanganate followed by nutrients and with persulfate followed by nutrients resulted in the largest decrease in TPH. The possible intermediates and conditions formed from NOM and TPH oxidation by permanganate and activated persulfate favors microbial TPH degrading activity. A 'passive-oxidation' method using microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology was conducted by WRI in conjunction with Tetra Tech, Inc., to degrade MTBE in groundwater. These experiments have demonstrated that a working MFC (i.e., one generating power) could be established in the laboratory using contaminated site water or buffered media inoculated with site water and spiked with MTBE, benzene, or toluene. Electrochemical methods were studied by WRI with goal of utilizing low voltage and amperage electrical sources for 'geo-oxidation' of organic contaminants. The results from a study with TCE contaminated-clay indicate that electrochemically inducing reductive dechlorination of TCE in a saturated matrix may offer an effective and viable alternative to remediation TCE and other contaminants with potential of being reduced. Another study focused on steel wool oxidation to electrochemically increase population of hydrocarbon-degrading denitrifying bacteria. Significantly larger denitrifying activity was observed in the cathode chamber of a treatment unit setup like an MFC with steel wool as the anode. This enhanced nitrate reduction could be due to direct electron utilization by denitrifying bacteria on the cathode, thereby stimulating microbial denitrification or a combination of electron transfer directly to NO{sub 3}{sup -} and electron transfer to nitrate reducing bacteria, which may serve as a type of bio-catalyst on the cathode for nitrate reduction. Overall, the studies conducted under Task 72 demonstrated different innovative methods to enhance petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and associated contaminants.

  4. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  5. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures thereof; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution therefrom.

  6. Methods for dispersing hydrocarbons using autoclaved bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-11-26

    A method of dispersing a hydrocarbon includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 85527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution; and contacting the dispersant solution with a hydrocarbon to disperse the hydrocarbon. Moreover, a method for preparing a dispersant solution includes the following steps: providing a bacterium selected from the following group: ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, and ATCC 55638, a mutant of any one of these bacteria possessing all the identifying characteristics of any one of these bacteria, and mixtures; and autoclaving the bacterium to derive a dispersant solution.

  7. Analytical Characterization of the Thorium Nitrate Stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattus, CH

    2003-12-30

    For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been supporting the Defense Logistics Agency-Defense National Stockpile Center with stewardship of a thorium nitrate (ThN) stockpile. The effort for fiscal year 2002 was to prepare a sampling and analysis plan and to use the activities developed in the plan to characterize the ThN stockpile. The sampling was performed in June and July 2002 by RWE NUKEM with oversight by ORNL personnel. The analysis was performed by Southwest Research Institute of San Antonio, Texas, and data validation was performed by NFT, Inc., of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Of the {approx} 21,000 drums in the stockpile, 99 were sampled and 53 were analyzed for total metals composition, radiological constituents (using alpha and gamma spectrometry), and oxidizing characteristics. Each lot at the Curtis Bay Depot was sampled. Several of the samples were also analyzed for density. The average density of the domestic ThN was found to be 1.89 {+-} 0.08 g/cm{sup 3}. The oxidizer test was performed following procedures issued by the United Nations in 1999. Test results indicated that none of the samples tested was a Division 5.1 oxidizer per Department of Transportation definition. The samples were analyzed for total metals following the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods SW-846-6010B and 6020 (EPA 2003) using a combination of inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma--mass spectroscopy techniques. The results were used to compare the composition of the eight Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals present in the sample (arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, and silver) to regulatory limits. None of the samples was found to be hazardous for toxicity characteristics. The radiological analyses confirmed, when possible, the results obtained by the inductively coupled plasma analyses. These results--combined with the historical process knowledge acquired on the material and the results of previous tests--classified the ThN as low-level radioactive waste for disposal purposes. This characterization was necessary to continue the efforts associated with disposition of the material at the Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada. With the current work presented in this report, the analytical characterization phase is completed for this source material stockpile.

  8. Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

  9. Solid catalyzed isoparaffin alkylation at supercritical fluid and near-supercritical fluid conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method for the alkylation reaction of isoparaffins with olefins over solid catalysts including contacting a mixture of an isoparaffin, an olefin and a phase-modifying material with a solid acid catalyst member under alkylation conversion conditions at either supercritical fluid, or near-supercritical fluid conditions, at a temperature and a pressure relative to the critical temperature(T.sub.c) and the critical pressure(P.sub.c) of the reaction mixture. The phase-modifying phase-modifying material is employed to promote the reaction's achievement of either a supercritical fluid state or a near-supercritical state while simultaneously allowing for decreased reaction temperature and longer catalyst life.

  10. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  11. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    MICROALGAE; ALGAL BIOMASS; HYDROCARBON BIOFUELS; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy BIOMASS...

  12. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reagen, William Kevin (Stillwater, MN); Janikowski, Stuart Kevin (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  13. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of

  14. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization December 16, 2015 - 2:23pm Addthis Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology to explain the underlying process. Photo courtesy Oak Ride National Laboratory. Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion

  15. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, R.L.

    1996-09-24

    A new protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. The isolated consortia and bacteria are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. The isolated consortia, bacteria, and dispersants are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  16. Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1996-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  17. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

    1981-02-19

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  18. Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  19. Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

  20. Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, P.L.

    1981-09-08

    An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

  1. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, Edward J. (Havertown, PA); Hollstein, Elmer J. (Wilmington, DE)

    1985-12-31

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  2. Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

    1984-09-29

    A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

  3. DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels Zia Haq, DPA Coordinator, presentation on DOE Perspectives on Advanced Hydrocarbon-based Biofuels. PDF icon 4_haq_roundtable.pdf More Documents & Publications A Review of DOE Biofuels Program Technology Pathway Selection Effort Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels

  4. Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Critical experiments with mixed plutonium-uranium nitrate solutions having Pu:(Pu + U) ratios greater than 0.5 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical

  5. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  6. Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

    1996-01-01

    A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

  7. Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions This document was...

  8. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  9. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1983-06-21

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

  10. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  11. Conversion method for gas streams containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallinson, Richard G. (Norman, OK); Lobban, Lance (Norman, OK); Liu, Chang-jun (Tianjin, CN)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and a method of using the apparatus are provided for converting a gas stream containing hydrocarbons to a reaction product containing effluent molecules having at least one carbon atom, having at least one interior surface and at least one exterior surface, a first electrode and a second electrode with the first and second electrodes being selectively movable in relation to each other and positioned within the housing so as to be spatially disposed a predetermined distance from each other, a plasma discharge generator between the first and second electrodes, gas stream introducer and a collector for collecting the reaction product effluent produced by the reaction of the gas stream containing hydrocarbons with the plasma discharge between the first and second electrodes.

  12. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen L. (Danville, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm.sup.2. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000.degree. C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity.

  13. Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wen Ling

    1987-10-14

    A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

  14. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

    1988-10-11

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  15. Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kung, Harold H. (Wilmette, IL); Chaar, Mohamed A. (Homs, SY)

    1988-01-01

    Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M.sub.3 (VO.sub.4).sub.2 and MV.sub.2 O.sub.6, M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

  16. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway Michael Talmadge, Mary Biddy, and Abhijit Dutta National Renewable Energy Laboratory Susanne Jones and Aye Meyer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the United States

  17. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  18. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  19. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  20. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anast, Kurt Roy

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  1. Methods for retarding coke formation during pyrolytic hydrocarbon processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    A method is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of pyrolytic coke on the heated metal surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon feedstock which is undergoing pyrolytic processing to produce lower hydrocarbon fractions and said metal surfaces having a temperature of about 1,400 F or higher, consisting essentially of adding to said hydrocarbon feedstock being pyrolytically processed a coke inhibiting amount of hydroquinone.

  2. Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with Rational Catalyst Design Approach | Department of Energy Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Overcoming Hydrocarbon Inhibition on Pd-based Diesel Oxidation Catalysts with Rational Catalyst Design Approach Discusses results of a project focused on overcoming hydrocarbon inhibition on Pd-based diesel oxidation catalysts by using a rational catalyst design approach. PDF icon deer11_kapur.pdf More Documents & Publications

  3. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading

  4. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research

  5. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs

  6. Process for removing carbonyl-sulfide from liquid hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Debras, G.L.G.; DeClippeleir, G.E.M.J.; Cahen, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    A process is described for removing carbonyl sulfide from a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising: (a) passing the hydrocarbon feedstock over an absorbent material comprising zinc oxide and a promoter selected from the group consisting of alumina, silico-aluminas and any combination thereof wherein the promoter is present in amounts from about 3 to about 15 percent by weight of the absorbent material; and (b) recovering a liquid olefinic hydrocarbon stream having a substantially reduced carbonyl sulfide content.

  7. Hydrocarbon/Total Combustibles Sensor - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon/Total Combustibles Sensor Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summarythe invention is an electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor that is more reliable and reproducible than any other hydrocarbon sensor on the market today. The patented method for producing the sensor ensures reproducibility and reduces the need for calibration of every sensor coming off the production line.DescriptionLiquefied petroleum gas (LPF) is transported around the

  8. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop | Department of Energy Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview: 2015 Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Introductory presentation by Sunita Satyapal, U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Director, at the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop held March 18-19,

  9. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sewage Sludge | Department of Energy Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste Feedstocks Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production from Sewage Sludge Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Principal Environmental Engineer, Argonne National Laboratory

  10. Effect of the Composition of Hydrocarbon Streams on HCCI Performance |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy the Composition of Hydrocarbon Streams on HCCI Performance Effect of the Composition of Hydrocarbon Streams on HCCI Performance §To apply an advanced statistical analysis technique to 2D-GC data for 17 oil sands derived fuels and correlate results to measured fuel chemical / physical properties, and then to HCCI engine performance PDF icon deer09_fairbridge.pdf More Documents & Publications Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Prepared in Response to New Mexico Environment Department Administrative Order 05-20001 Issued May 20, 2014 1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this document is to provide the Plan required by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Administrative Order 05-20001 (Order) issued on May 20, 2014 to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Waste Partnership LLC (NWP), collectively referred to as the Permittees. The Order, at paragraph 22,

  12. WIPP Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Bearing Waste Container Isolation Plan Implementation Update May 12, 2015 Panel 6 and Panel 7, Room 7 a. Rollback * Contamination Assessment-This prerequisite is complete and therefore status updates are no longer required. * Fixing/Decontamination Activities-Decontaminated equipment has been removed from Room 7 of Panel 7 to prepare for Room 7 closure activities. Remaining items in Panel 7, Room 7 include thirteen empty magnesium oxide racks, about 200 roof bolts, nine messenger

  13. High-Octane Fuel from Refinery Exhaust Gas: Upgrading Refinery Off-Gas to High-Octane Alkylate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Exelus is developing a method to convert olefins from oil refinery exhaust gas into alkylate, a clean-burning, high-octane component of gasoline. Traditionally, olefins must be separated from exhaust before they can be converted into another source of useful fuel. Exelus process uses catalysts that convert the olefin to alkylate without first separating it from the exhaust. The ability to turn up to 50% of exhaust directly into gasoline blends could result in an additional 46 million gallons of gasoline in the U.S. each year.

  14. Methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID); Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2009-02-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  15. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HYDROCARBON FUELS; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview ...

  16. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HYDROCARBON FUELS; BIOMASS TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE; NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY; PACIFIC NORTHWEST NATIONAL LABORATORY; Bioenergy Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview ...

  17. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ...-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions. PDF icon deer08rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature ...

  18. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  19. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  20. Sandia Energy - ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ECIS-Automotive Fuel Cell Corporation: Hydrocarbon Membrane Fuels the Success of Future Generation Vehicles Home Energy Transportation Energy CRF Partnership Energy Efficiency...

  1. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid ...

  2. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol...

  3. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal...

  4. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with...

  5. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium...

  6. Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Performance of a Thermally Stable Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon in a Simulated Concentrating Solar Power Loop Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Performance of a Thermally...

  7. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  8. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Yuschak, Thomas; LaPlante, Timothy J.; Rankin, Scott; Perry, Steven T.; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick; Simmons, Wayne W.; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  9. Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion...

  10. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Sansone, M.J.; Slegeir, W.A.R.

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint. 9 figs.

  11. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  12. Hydrocarbon synthesis catalyst and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Sansone, Michael J. (Summit, NJ); Slegeir, William A. R. (Hampton Bays, NY)

    1983-08-02

    A catalyst for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and hydrogen composed of palladium or platinum and cobalt supported on a solid phase is disclosed. The catalyst is prepared by heating a heterogeneous component of the palladium or platinum deposited on the solid support in a solution of cobalt carbonyl or precursors thereof. The catalyst exhibits excellent activity, stability in air, and produces highly desirable product fractions even with dilute gaseous reactants. The catalyst is preferably used in dilute slurry form, which is desirable from a heat transfer standpoint.

  13. Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

    2008-10-01

    Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

  14. Characterization and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breuer, G.M.; Smith, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Sampling and analytical procedures were developed for determining the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in animal-exposure chambers during studies on exposure to diesel exhaust, coal dust, or mixtures of these two pollutants. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were used as representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for analysis. Coal-dust only samples revealed a broad, rising background in the chromatogram with small peaks superimposed corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene, diesel exhaust only samples showed many peaks on a flat baseline including those corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. In general, no polynuclear aromatics were noted in the clean air samples. The authors note that relatively minor changes in air/fuel ratio, lubricant, fuel, and load may have substantial effects on very minor components of the exhaust emission.

  15. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  16. Garbage to hydrocarbon fuel conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gould, W.A.

    1986-07-15

    A garbage to hydrocarbon fuel conversion system is described which consists of: (a) a source of combustible garbage; (b) means for pulverizing the garbage; (c) a furnace to burn the garbage; (d) means for transporting the pulverized garbage to the furnace which comprises a motor operated worm feed automatic stoker; (e) a steam generating coil inside the furnace which supplies live steam to power a turbine which in turn powers an alternating current generator; and a condenser which returns remaining the steam to a liquid state for re-circulation through the steam generating coils; (f) means for collecting incompletely combusted waste gases from the furnace; precipitating out dust and light oil for re-combustion in the furnace; and, extracting hydrocarbon gas; where in the means for precipitating out dust and light oil for re-combustion in the furnace comprise a cottrell precipitator wherein oil from an external source is mixed with fine dust received from the exhaust port, wherein an electrostatic charge helps to precipitate the dust; a dust and light oil mixer which provides a homogeneous mixture; and, an oil burner mounted to the furnace whose heat output is supplied to the furnace to add energy thereto; and (g) means for burning trapped heavy gases and removing waste ash from the furnace for disposal.

  17. Alkyl-bis(imidazolium) salts: a new amphiphile platform that forms thermotropic and non-aqueous lyotropic bicontinuous cubic phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, LA; Schenkel, MR; Wiesenauer, BR; Gin, DL

    2013-01-01

    New ionic amphiphiles with a hexyl-bridged bis(imidazolium) headgroup; Br-, BF4-, or Tf2N- anions; and a long n-alkyl tail can form thermotropic bicontinuous cubic liquid crystal phases in neat form and/or lyotropic bicontinuous cubic phases with several non-aqueous solvents or water.

  18. Alkyl group substitution by oxime-bound palladium(II) (the Shaw reaction): Alkly group selectivity and deuterium isotope effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, A.P.; Kitching, W.

    1992-08-01

    This report provides information regarding the selectivity of alkyl groups and the nature of the transition state for C-H palladation by oxime-bound palladium(II) (the Shaw reaction). The kinetic deuterium isotope effects are also presented. 21 refs.

  19. Hydrocarbon radical thermochemistry: Gas-phase ion chemistry techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ervin, Kent M.

    2014-03-21

    Final Scientific/Technical Report for the project "Hydrocarbon Radical Thermochemistry: Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Techniques." The objective of this project is to exploit gas-phase ion chemistry techniques for determination of thermochemical values for neutral hydrocarbon radicals of importance in combustion kinetics.

  20. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  1. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  2. Laboratory Investigation of Organic Aerosol Formation from Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Zhang, Renyi

    2006-08-23

    Our work for this DOE funded project includes: (1) measurements of the kinetics and mechanism of the gas-phase oxidation reactions of the aromatic hydrocarbons initiated by OH; (2) measurements of aerosol formation from the aromatic hydrocarbons; and (3) theoretical studies to elucidate the OH-toluene reaction mechanism using quantum-chemical and rate theories.

  3. Vapor pressures of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquids with long alkyl chains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rocha, Marisa A. A. E-mail: marisa.alexandra.rocha@gmail.com; Coutinho, João A. P.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F. E-mail: marisa.alexandra.rocha@gmail.com

    2014-10-07

    This work presents the vapor pressure at several temperatures for the 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide series, [C{sub N/2}C{sub N/2}im][NTf{sub 2}] (N = 14, 16, 18, and 20), measured by a Knudsen effusion method combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. The thermodynamic properties of vaporization of the ionic liquids under study are analysed together with the results obtained previously for the shorter alkyl chain length [C{sub N/2}C{sub N/2}im][NTf{sub 2}] (N = 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12), in order to evaluate the effect of the alkyl side chains of the cation and to get additional insights concerning the nanostructuration of ionic liquids. The symmetry effect is explored, based on the comparison with the asymmetric imidazolium based ionic liquids, [C{sub N-1}C{sub 1}im][NTf{sub 2}]. A trend shift on the thermodynamic properties of vaporization along the alkyl side chains of the extended symmetric ionic liquids, around [C{sub 6}C{sub 6}im][NTf{sub 2}], was detected. An intensification of the odd-even effect was observed starting from [C{sub 6}C{sub 6}im][NTf{sub 2}], with higher enthalpies and entropies of vaporization for the odd numbered ionic liquids, [C{sub 7}C{sub 7}im][NTf{sub 2}] and [C{sub 9}C{sub 9}im][NTf{sub 2}]. Similar, but less pronounced, odd-even effect was found for the symmetric ionic liquids with lower alkyl side chains length, [C{sub N/2}C{sub N/2}im][NTf{sub 2}] (with N = 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12). This effect is related with the predominant orientation of the terminal methyl group of the alkyl chain to the imidazolium ring and their influence in the cation-anion interaction. The same Critical Alkyl length at the hexyl, (C{sub 6}C{sub 1}and C{sub 6}C{sub 6}) was found for both asymmetric and symmetric series indicating that the nanostructuration of the ionic liquids is related with alkyl chain length.

  4. Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

    2006-04-19

    Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

  5. Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Fowler, Thomas David; Karanikas, John Michael

    2009-12-29

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

  6. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-21

    Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

  7. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization PDF icon...

  8. Real time in situ detection of organic nitrates in atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2010-06-11

    A new field instrument is described that quantifies total particle phase organic nitrates. The instrument is based on the thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) method that thermally converts nitrates to NO2 which is then detected by LIF. This instrument is unique in its ability to provide fast sensitive measurements of particle phase organic nitrates, without interference from inorganic nitrate. Here we use it to quantify organic nitrates in SOA generated from high-NOx photooxidation of limonene, a-pinene, D-3-carene, and tridecane. In these experiments the organic nitrate moiety is observed to be 6-15percent of the total SOA mass, depending on the organic precursor.

  9. Effect of composition on the density of multi-component molten nitrate salts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2009-12-01

    The density of molten nitrate salts was measured to determine the effects of the constituents on the density of multi-component mixtures. The molten salts consisted of various proportions of the nitrates of potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium. Density measurements ere performed using an Archimedean method and the results were compared to data reported in the literature for the individual constituent salts or simple combinations, such as the binary Solar Salt mixture of NaNO3 and KNO3. The addition of calcium nitrate generally ncreased density, relative to potassium nitrate or sodium nitrate, while lithium nitrate decreased density. The temperature dependence of density is described by a linear equation regardless of composition. The molar volume, and thereby, density of multi-component mixtures an be calculated as a function of temperature using a linear additivity rule based on the properties of the individual constituents.

  10. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Brosseau, Douglas A.

    2009-09-15

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopic study of ammonium nitrate plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanif, M.; Salik, M.; Baig, M. A.

    2013-12-15

    We present the optical emission studies of the ammonium nitrate plasma produced by the fundamental (1064 nm) and second (532 nm) harmonics of a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser. The target material was placed in front of the laser beam in an open atmospheric air. The spectrum reveals numerous transitions of neutral nitrogen. We have studied the spatial behavior of the plasma temperature (T{sub e}) and electron number density (N{sub e}) determined using the Boltzmann plot method and Stark broadened line profiles, respectively. Besides, we have studied the variation of the plasma parameters as a function of the laser irradiance.

  12. Method and apparatus for detecting halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Monagle, Matthew (Los Alamos, NM); Coogan, John J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A halogenated hydrocarbon (HHC) detector is formed from a silent discharge (also called a dielectric barrier discharge) plasma generator. A silent discharge plasma device receives a gas sample that may contain one or more HHCs and produces free radicals and excited electrons for oxidizing the HHCs in the gas sample to produce water, carbon dioxide, and an acid including halogens in the HHCs. A detector is used to sensitively detect the presence of the acid. A conductivity cell detector combines the oxidation products with a solvent where dissociation of the acid increases the conductivity of the solvent. The conductivity cell output signal is then functionally related to the presence of HHCs in the gas sample. Other detectors include electrochemical cells, infrared spectrometers, and negative ion mobility spectrometers.

  13. Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

    2012-08-14

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  14. Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

    1985-04-16

    A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

  15. Hydrocarbon fuel reforming catalyst and use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, Todd; Irving, Patricia Marie

    2006-06-27

    The subject invention is a catalyst consisting of an oxide or mixed oxide support and bimetallic catalytically active compounds. The supporting oxide can be a single oxide, such as Al.sub.2O.sub.3; it also can be a mixture of oxides, such as Y.sub.2O.sub.3 stabilized ZrO.sub.2 (YSZ), Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with CeO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3 with YSZ and others. The bimetallic compounds, acting as active components, are selected from platinum, and ruthenium, prepared in an appropriate ratio. The catalyst is used in the steam reforming of hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for applications such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  16. System and process for upgrading hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Smith, Joseph D.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2015-08-25

    In one embodiment, a system for upgrading a hydrocarbon material may include a black wax upgrade subsystem and a molten salt gasification (MSG) subsystem. The black wax upgrade subsystem and the MSG subsystem may be located within a common pressure boundary, such as within a pressure vessel. Gaseous materials produced by the MSG subsystem may be used in the process carried out within the black wax upgrade subsystem. For example, hydrogen may pass through a gaseous transfer interface to interact with black wax feed material to hydrogenate such material during a cracking process. In one embodiment, the gaseous transfer interface may include one or more openings in a tube or conduit which is carrying the black wax material. A pressure differential may control the flow of hydrogen within the tube or conduit. Related methods are also disclosed.

  17. Hydrocarbon characterization experiments in fully turbulent fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricks, Allen; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-05-01

    As the capabilities of numerical simulations increase, decision makers are increasingly relying upon simulations rather than experiments to assess risks across a wide variety of accident scenarios including fires. There are still, however, many aspects of fires that are either not well understood or are difficult to treat from first principles due to the computational expense. For a simulation to be truly predictive and to provide decision makers with information which can be reliably used for risk assessment the remaining physical processes must be studied and suitable models developed for the effects of the physics. The model for the fuel evaporation rate in a liquid fuel pool fire is significant because in well-ventilated fires the evaporation rate largely controls the total heat release rate from the fire. A set of experiments are outlined in this report which will provide data for the development and validation of models for the fuel regression rates in liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. The experiments will be performed on fires in the fully turbulent scale range (> 1 m diameter) and with a number of hydrocarbon fuels ranging from lightly sooting to heavily sooting. The importance of spectral absorption in the liquid fuels and the vapor dome above the pool will be investigated and the total heat flux to the pool surface will be measured. The importance of convection within the liquid fuel will be assessed by restricting large scale liquid motion in some tests. These data sets will provide a sound, experimentally proven basis for assessing how much of the liquid fuel needs to be modeled to enable a predictive simulation of a fuel fire given the couplings between evaporation of fuel from the pool and the heat release from the fire which drives the evaporation.

  18. Investigating In Situ Bioremediation Approaches for Sustained Uranium Immobilization Independent of Nitrate Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, Tommy; Balkwill, David

    2006-06-01

    The daunting prospect of complete nitrate removal at DOE sites, such as the ERSP Oak Ridge Field Research Center (FRC), provides strong incentive to explore bioremediation strategies that will allow for uranium bioreduction and long-term stabilization in the presence of nitrate. The cost and effort required for complete nitrate removal from the FRC and similar DOE-contaminated sites may prove to be unworkable. For example, field tests of uranium bioreduction at the FRC have shown that nitrate levels rebound quickly and completely after cessation of active biostimulation.

  19. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Ahmed, Shabbir (Bolingbrook, IL); Kumar, Romesh (Naperville, IL); Doshi, Rajiv (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  20. Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doshi, R.

    1999-07-27

    A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400 C for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide. 4 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for detecting gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, deceased, William G. (late of Livermore, CA); Anderson, legal representative, Johanna S. (Palm Springs, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A method and optrode for detecting gem polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in a sample fluid based on a single phase Fujiwara reaction as provided. The method comprises contacting a reaction mixture with a sample fluid which contains the gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. The reaction mixture comprises an aqueous solution of pyridine or derivative thereof and a hindered nitrogen base. Upon contact a fluorescent and/or chromgenic reaction product forms whose fluorescence and/or absorbance is related to the concentration of gem-polyhalogenated hydrocarbons in the sample fluid.

  2. Stainless steel corrosion by molten nitrates : analysis and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael

    2011-09-01

    A secondary containment vessel, made of stainless 316, failed due to severe nitrate salt corrosion. Corrosion was in the form of pitting was observed during high temperature, chemical stability experiments. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were all used to diagnose the cause of the failure. Failure was caused by potassium oxide that crept into the gap between the primary vessel (alumina) and the stainless steel vessel. Molten nitrate solar salt (89% KNO{sub 3}, 11% NaNO{sub 3} by weight) was used during chemical stability experiments, with an oxygen cover gas, at a salt temperature of 350-700 C. Nitrate salt was primarily contained in an alumina vessel; however salt crept into the gap between the alumina and 316 stainless steel. Corrosion occurred over a period of approximately 2000 hours, with the end result of full wall penetration through the stainless steel vessel; see Figures 1 and 2 for images of the corrosion damage to the vessel. Wall thickness was 0.0625 inches, which, based on previous data, should have been adequate to avoid corrosion-induced failure while in direct contact with salt temperature at 677 C (0.081-inch/year). Salt temperatures exceeding 650 C lasted for approximately 14 days. However, previous corrosion data was performed with air as the cover gas. High temperature combined with an oxygen cover gas obviously drove corrosion rates to a much higher value. Corrosion resulted in the form of uniform pitting. Based on SEM and EDS data, pits contained primarily potassium oxide and potassium chromate, reinforcing the link between oxides and severe corrosion. In addition to the pitting corrosion, a large blister formed on the side wall, which was mainly composed of potassium, chromium and oxygen. All data indicated that corrosion initiated internally and moved outward. There was no evidence of intergranular corrosion nor were there any indication of fast pathways along grain boundaries. Much of the pitting occurred near welds; however this was the hottest region in the chamber. Pitting was observed up to two inches above the weld, indicating independence from weld effects.

  3. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

    1999-01-01

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

  4. Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

    1999-05-25

    This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

  5. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop was held March 18–19, 2015, hosted at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Washington D.C. offices.

  6. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at a refinery to produce biofuels such as drop-in hydrocarbon fuel, jet fuel, or diesel, or to produce renewable commodity chemicals such as BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylenes). ...

  7. Process for converting light alkanes to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1988-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of aromatic-rich, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons from the lower alkanes, particularly from methane. The process is carried out in two stages. In the first, alkane is reacted with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over an oxyhydrochlorination catalyst such as copper chloride with minor proportions of potassium chloride and rare earth chloride. This produces an intermediate gaseous mixture containing water and chlorinated alkanes. The chlorinated alkanes are contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate catalyst in the hydrogen or metal promoted form to produce gasoline range hydrocarbons with a high proportion of aromatics and a small percentage of light hydrocarbons (C.sub.2 -C.sub.4). The light hydrocarbons can be recycled for further processing over the oxyhydrochlorination catalyst.

  8. Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    2002-05-10

    Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

  9. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants Low-Temperature ...

  10. A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the Product Distribution from a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor A Parametric Study of the Effect of ...

  11. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  12. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Available for sale to the public, in paper, from: U.S. ... pathway, the overall economics for hydrocarbon biofuels ... Journal of Applied Phycology (21); pp. 493-507. Humbird, D.; ...

  13. Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory published an article in Scientific Reports on its new method to directly convert biomass-derived ethanol to a hydrocarbon blendstock and is continuing work with...

  14. Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

    1999-09-28

    A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

  15. Hydrocarbon Separations in Metal-Organic Frameworks | Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon Separations in Metal-Organic Frameworks Previous Next List Zoey R. Herm, Eric D. Bloch, and Jeffrey R. Long, Chem. Mater., 26 (1), pp 323-338 (2014) DOI: 10.1021...

  16. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  17. Cooling and solidification of heavy hydrocarbon liquid streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antieri, Salvatore J. (Trenton, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process and apparatus for cooling and solidifying a stream of heavy hydrocarbon material normally boiling above about 850.degree. F., such as vacuum bottoms material from a coal liquefaction process. The hydrocarbon stream is dropped into a liquid bath, preferably water, which contains a screw conveyor device and the stream is rapidly cooled, solidified and broken therein to form discrete elongated particles. The solid extrudates or prills are then dried separately to remove substantially all surface moisture, and passed to further usage.

  18. Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (PCCI) combustion | Department of Energy fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion Hydrocarbon fouling of SCR during Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion Analyzed the effects of higher hydrocarbon emissions from PCCI combustion on SCR catalysts in operating a light-duty 1.9-liter GM diesel engine in both PCCI and conventional combustion modes PDF icon deer11_parks.pdf More Documents & Publications Efficient Emissions Control for

  19. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office and Fuel Cell Technologies Office jointly sponsored a workshop on Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters on March 17–18, 2015, in Washington, D.C. The workshop focused on the use of biological, biochemical, and other techniques to produce hydrogen and higher hydrocarbons from wastewaters.The ideas presented in this report represent a snapshot of the perspectives and concepts offered by the individuals who attended the workshop.

  20. Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions | Department of Energy Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-19_lilik.pdf More Documents & Publications Effects of Ignition Quality and Fuel Composition on Critical Equivalence Ratio Particulate Produced from Advanced Combustion

  1. Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research | Department of Energy advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Research on future fuels chemistry and effects on combustion in advanced internal combustion engines PDF icon p-14_gieleciak.pdf More Documents & Publications

  2. Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Startup America Startup America Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00219_ID2414.pdf (629 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryA method for catalytically converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon without requiring

  3. Co-cultured Synechococcus and Shewanella Produce Hydrocarbons without

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cellulosic Feedstock - Energy Innovation Portal Co-cultured Synechococcus and Shewanella Produce Hydrocarbons without Cellulosic Feedstock DOE Grant Recipients University of Minnesota Contact University of Minnesota About This Technology <span id="Caption"><span id="ctl00_MainContentHolder_zoomimage_defaultCaption">Shewanella Oneidensis naturally produces hydrocarbons without cellulosic feedstock.</span></span> Shewanella Oneidensis naturally

  4. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Brown, David B. (Brighton, MI)

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  5. Viscosity of multi-component molten nitrate salts : liquidus to 200 degrees C.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.

    2010-03-01

    The viscosity of molten salts comprising ternary and quaternary mixtures of the nitrates of sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium was determined experimentally. Viscosity was measured over the temperature range from near the relatively low liquidus temperatures of he individual mixtures to 200C. Molten salt mixtures that do not contain calcium nitrate exhibited relatively low viscosity and an Arrhenius temperature dependence. Molten salt mixtures that contained calcium nitrate were relatively more viscous and viscosity increased as the roportion of calcium nitrate increased. The temperature dependence of viscosity of molten salts containing calcium nitrate displayed curvature, rather than linearity, when plotted in Arrhenius format. Viscosity data for these mixtures were correlated by the Vogel-Fulcher- ammann-Hesse equation.

  6. Integrated hydrocarbon reforming system and controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G.; Dorson, Matthew H.; Mitchell, William L.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Thijssen, Johannes; Davis, Robert; Papile, Christopher; Rumsey, Jennifer W.; Longo, Nathan; Cross, III, James C.; Rizzo, Vincent; Kleeburg, Gunther; Rindone, Michael; Block, Stephen G.; Sun, Maria; Morriseau, Brian D.; Hagan, Mark R.; Bowers, Brian

    2003-11-04

    A hydrocarbon reformer system including a first reactor configured to generate hydrogen-rich reformate by carrying out at least one of a non-catalytic thermal partial oxidation, a catalytic partial oxidation, a steam reforming, and any combinations thereof, a second reactor in fluid communication with the first reactor to receive the hydrogen-rich reformate, and having a catalyst for promoting a water gas shift reaction in the hydrogen-rich reformate, and a heat exchanger having a first mass of two-phase water therein and configured to exchange heat between the two-phase water and the hydrogen-rich reformate in the second reactor, the heat exchanger being in fluid communication with the first reactor so as to supply steam to the first reactor as a reactant is disclosed. The disclosed reformer includes an auxiliary reactor configured to generate heated water/steam and being in fluid communication with the heat exchanger of the second reactor to supply the heated water/steam to the heat exchanger.

  7. Combined Extraction of Cesium and Strontium from Akaline Nitrate Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Haverlock, Tamara; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    The combined extraction of cesium and strontium from caustic wastes can be achieved by adding a crown ether and a carboxylic acid to the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent. The ligand 4,4'(5')-di(tert-butyl)cyclohexano-18-crown-6 and one of four different carboxylic acids were combined with the components of the CSSX solvent optimized for the extraction of cesium, allowing for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from alkaline nitrate media simulating alkaline high level wastes present at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Extraction and stripping experiments were conducted independently and exhibited adequate results for mimicking waste simulant processing through batch contacts. The promising results of these batch tests showed that the system could reasonably be tested on actual waste.

  8. Analysis of Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Nested Annular Tank Array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; James D. Cleaver

    2009-06-01

    Two series of experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory during the 1980s using highly enriched (93%) uranyl nitrate solution in annular tanks. [1, 2] Tanks were of typical sizes found in nuclear production plants. Experiments looked at tanks of varying radii in a co-located set of nested tanks, a 1 by 2 array, and a 1 by 3 array. The co-located set of tanks had been analyzed previously [3] as a benchmark for inclusion within the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. [4] The current study represents the benchmark analysis of the 1 by 3 array of a series of nested annular tanks. Of the seventeen configurations performed in this set of experiments, twelve were evaluated and nine were judged as acceptable benchmarks.

  9. Hydroxylamine Nitrate Decomposition under Non-radiological Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarlane, Joanna; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; DePaoli, David W.; Mattus, Catherine H.; Phelps, Clarice E.; Roach, Benjamin D.

    2015-07-01

    Hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) is used to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III) in the separation of plutonium from uranium. HAN becomes unstable under certain conditions and has been known to explode, causing injury to humans including death. Hence, it is necessary to deactivate HAN once the reduction of plutonium is finished. This report reviews what is known about the chemistry of HAN and various methods to achieve a safe decomposition. However, there are areas where more information is needed to make a decision about the handling of HAN in reprocessing of nuclear fuel. Experiments have demonstrated a number of non-radiolytic ways to safely decompose HAN, including heating in HNO3, photolytic oxidation in the presence of H2O2, and the addition of a metal such as Fe(III) that will oxidize the HAN.

  10. Molecular dynamics study of the effect of alkyl chain length on melting points of [CnMIM][PF6] ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y; Maginn, EJ

    2014-01-01

    Based on molecular dynamics simulations, the melting points T-m of a series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquids [CnMIM][PF6] with n = 2, 4, 10, 12, and 14 were studied using the free energy-based pseudosupercritical path (PSCP) method. The experimental trend that the Tm decreases with increasing alkyl chain length for ILs with short alkyl chains and increases for the ones with long alkyl chains was correctly captured. Further analysis revealed that the different trends are the results of the balance between fusion enthalpy and fusion entropy. For the ILs with short alkyl chains (ethyl and butyl groups), fusion entropy plays the dominant role so that [C4MIM][PF6], which has a larger fusion entropy due to its higher liquid phase entropy has the lower melting temperature. As for the ILs with long alkyl chains, due to the enhanced van der Waals interactions brought about by the long non-polar alkyl chains, enthalpy becomes the deciding factor and the melting points increase when the alkyl chain goes from C10 to C14. While the melting points for [C2MIM][PF6] and [C4MIM][PF6] were quantitatively predicted and the trends for the long chain ILs were captured correctly, the absolute melting points for [C10MIM][PF6], [C12MIM][PF6] and [C14MIM][PF6] were systematically overestimated in the simulations. Three possible reasons for the overestimation were studied but all ruled out. Further simulation or experimental studies are needed to explain the difference.

  11. Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst Understanding what reactions and which catalytic functions are affected by hydrocarbons can lead to improved tolerances for selective catalytic reduction performance PDF icon deer09_toops.pdf More Documents & Publications Mechanisms of Hydrocarbon Poisoning of A Urea SCR Catalyst The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst CLEERS Coordination &

  12. Phase change compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH); Griffen, Charles W. (Mason, OH)

    1986-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, long chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  13. Phase change compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1989-01-01

    Compositions containing crystalline, straight chain, alkyl hydrocarbons as phase change materials including cementitious compositions containing the alkyl hydrocarbons neat or in pellets or granules formed by incorporating the alkyl hydrocarbons in polymers or rubbers; and polymeric or elastomeric compositions containing alkyl hydrocarbons.

  14. Terrestrial fate of coal-liquid constituents: behavior of alkyl anilines in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, L.J.; Zachara, J.M.; Rogers, J.E.

    1982-07-01

    The low molecular weight aromatic amines (anilines) are important water soluble constituents of coal liquids. The impact of anilines released to the terrestrial environment will largely depend on their mobility and persistence. Studies were conducted to investigate those processes governing the mobility and persistence of the alkylanilines, namely, soil sorption and chemical/microbial degradation. Soil sorption measurements were conducted on aniline and several methyl substituted anilines on A and B horizons of a soil profile collected from Davies County, Kentucky. The magnitude of sorption was large in all horizons. Sorption in the B horizons was larger than in the A horizon for many of the anilines studied, indicating the importance of both the mineral matrix and organic carbon content of the soil in determining the magnitude of sorption. Results of these measurements indicate that movement of the anilines through the soil would be significantly attenuated by sorption reactions. Aniline sorption measurement in the A horizon after removal of the organic matter and in the B/sub 22/ horizon after removal of amorphous iron oxides and crystalline iron oxides indicate that organic matter largely controls aniline sorption in the A horizon, while crystalline iron oxides and phyllosilicates are important in the B horizons. The effects of pH on aniline sorption was also examined and shown to have significant effects on the magnitude of sorption in both A and B horizons. Soil degradation studies using /sup 14/C-3-methylaniline as a model for alkyl aniline degradation show that 3-methylaniline is readily metabolized by soil microorganisms during the 32-day period examined.

  15. Methane-derived hydrocarbons produced under upper-mantle conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesnikov, Anton; Kutcherov, Vladimir G.; Goncharov, Alexander F.

    2009-08-13

    There is widespread evidence that petroleum originates from biological processes. Whether hydrocarbons can also be produced from abiogenic precursor molecules under the high-pressure, high-temperature conditions characteristic of the upper mantle remains an open question. It has been proposed that hydrocarbons generated in the upper mantle could be transported through deep faults to shallower regions in the Earth's crust, and contribute to petroleum reserves. Here we use in situ Raman spectroscopy in laser-heated diamond anvil cells to monitor the chemical reactivity of methane and ethane under upper-mantle conditions. We show that when methane is exposed to pressures higher than 2 GPa, and to temperatures in the range of 1,000-1,500 K, it partially reacts to form saturated hydrocarbons containing 2-4 carbons (ethane, propane and butane) and molecular hydrogen and graphite. Conversely, exposure of ethane to similar conditions results in the production of methane, suggesting that the synthesis of saturated hydrocarbons is reversible. Our results support the suggestion that hydrocarbons heavier than methane can be produced by abiogenic processes in the upper mantle.

  16. Recovery of nitrogen and light hydrocarbons from polyalkene purge gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zwilling, Daniel Patrick; Golden, Timothy Christoph; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis; Ludwig, Keith Alan

    2003-06-10

    A method for the separation of a gas mixture comprises (a) obtaining a feed gas mixture comprising nitrogen and at least one hydrocarbon having two to six carbon atoms; (b) introducing the feed gas mixture at a temperature of about 60.degree. F. to about 105.degree. F. into an adsorbent bed containing adsorbent material which selectively adsorbs the hydrocarbon, and withdrawing from the adsorbent bed an effluent gas enriched in nitrogen; (c) discontinuing the flow of the feed gas mixture into the adsorbent bed and depressurizing the adsorbent bed by withdrawing depressurization gas therefrom; (d) purging the adsorbent bed by introducing a purge gas into the bed and withdrawing therefrom an effluent gas comprising the hydrocarbon, wherein the purge gas contains nitrogen at a concentration higher than that of the nitrogen in the feed gas mixture; (e) pressurizing the adsorbent bed by introducing pressurization gas into the bed; and (f) repeating (b) through (e) in a cyclic manner.

  17. Process for light-driven hydrocarbon oxidation at ambient temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A photochemical reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbons uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant. A reductive photoredox cycle that uses a tin(IV)- or antimony(V)-porphyrin photosensitizer generates the reducing equivalents required to activate oxygen. This artificial photosynthesis system drives a catalytic cycle, which mimics the cytochrome P.sub.450 reaction, to oxidize hydrocarbons. An iron(III)- or manganese(III)-porphyrin is used as the hydrocarbon-oxidation catalyst. Methylviologen can be used as a redox relay molecule to provide for electron-transfer from the reduced photosensitizer to the Fe or Mn porphyrin. The system is long-lived and may be used in photo-initiated spectroscopic studies of the reaction to determine reaction rates and intermediates.

  18. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Lessing, P.A.

    1995-06-27

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: (a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; (b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; (c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and (d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed. 4 figs.

  19. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis for the Production of the Hydrocarbon Biofuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimlos, M. R.; Robichaud, D. J.; Mukaratate, C.; Donohoe, B. S.; Iisa, K.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising technique for conversion of biomass into hydrocarbons for use as transportation fuels. For over 30 years this process has been studied and it has been demonstrated that oils can be produced with high concentrations of hydrocarbons and low levels of oxygen. However, the yields from this type of conversion are typically low and the catalysts, which are often zeolites, are quickly deactivated through coking. In addition, the hydrocarbons produced are primarily aromatic molecules (benzene, toluene, xylene) that not desirable for petroleum refineries and are not well suited for diesel or jet engines. The goals of our research are to develop new multifunction catalysts for the production of gasoline, diesel and jet fuel range molecules and to improve process conditions for higher yields and low coking rates. We are investigating filtration and the use of hydrogen donor molecules to improve catalyst performance.

  20. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

  1. Method and apparatus for producing oxygenates from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A chemical reactor for oxygenating hydrocarbons includes: a) a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell, the plasma cell comprising a pair of electrodes having a dielectric material and void therebetween, the plasma cell comprising a hydrocarbon gas inlet feeding to the void; b) a solid oxide electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell comprising a solid oxide electrolyte positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, an oxygen containing gas inlet stream feeding to the porous cathode side of the electrochemical cell; c) a first gas passageway feeding from the void to the anode side of the electrochemical cell; and d) a gas outlet feeding from the anode side of the electrochemical cell to expel reaction products from the chemical reactor. A method of oxygenating hydrocarbons is also disclosed.

  2. Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

  3. Ab initio calculations of singlet and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grana, A.M.; Head-Gordon, M. |; Lee, T.J.

    1995-03-16

    Ab initio calculations of vertical excitations to single and triplet excited states of chlorine nitrate and nitric acid are reported, using the CIS, CIS(D), and CCSD methods. The effects of basis set composition and calculational methods are investigated. The nature of the electronic transitions are examined by decomposing the difference density into the sum of detachment and attachment densities. Counterparts for the three lowest singlet excited states of nitric acid survive relatively unperturbed in chlorine nitrate, while other low lying singlet states of chlorine nitrate appear to be directly dissociative in the CIO chromophore. These results suggest an assignment of the two main peaks in the experimental chlorine nitrate absorption spectrum. In addition, triplet vertical excitations and the lowest optimized triplet geometries of both molecules are studied. 70 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Effective Date: 5282014 The Responsible Manager has determined that the following...

  5. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and recommendation. Conclusions: 1. Nitrate salts not yet remediated having no free liquid should be mixed with at least 1.2 volumes of Kitty LitterZeolite clay per...

  6. Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Instructions | Department of Energy Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Technical Area (TA)-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions This document was used to determine facts and conditions during the Department of Energy Accident Investigation Board's investigation into the radiological release event at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Additional documents referenced and listed in the Phase 2 Radiological Release Event at the

  7. In situ mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate following

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    sulfate-reducing conditions (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Published Article: In situ mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate following sulfate-reducing conditions « Prev Next » Title: In situ mobility of uranium in the presence of nitrate following sulfate-reducing conditions Authors: Paradis, Charles J. ; Jagadamma, Sindhu ; Watson, David B. ; McKay, Larry D. ; Hazen, Terry C. ; Park, Melora ; Istok, Jonathan D. Publication Date: 2016-04-01 OSTI Identifier: 1237977 Grant/Contract

  8. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  9. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  10. Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard

    2014-09-09

    A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

  11. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1995-01-01

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

  12. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, J.W.

    1995-01-17

    A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

  13. Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Getsoian, John (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

  14. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  15. Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2005-11-15

    Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

  16. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-02-01

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

  17. Analytical Chemistry and Materials Characterization Results for Debris Recovered from Nitrate Salt Waste Drum S855793

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Patrick Thomas; Chamberlin, Rebecca M.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Worley, Christopher Gordon; Garduno, Katherine; Lujan, Elmer J. W.; Borrego, Andres Patricio; Castro, Alonso; Colletti, Lisa Michelle; Fulwyler, James Brent; Holland, Charlotte S.; Keller, Russell C.; Klundt, Dylan James; Martinez, Alexander; Martin, Frances Louise; Montoya, Dennis Patrick; Myers, Steven Charles; Porterfield, Donivan R.; Schake, Ann Rene; Schappert, Michael Francis; Soderberg, Constance B.; Spencer, Khalil J.; Stanley, Floyd E.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Townsend, Lisa Ellen; Xu, Ning

    2015-09-16

    Solid debris was recovered from the previously-emptied nitrate salt waste drum S855793. The bulk sample was nondestructively assayed for radionuclides in its as-received condition. Three monoliths were selected for further characterization. Two of the monoliths, designated Specimen 1 and 3, consisted primarily of sodium nitrate and lead nitrate, with smaller amounts of lead nitrate oxalate and lead oxide by powder x-ray diffraction. The third monolith, Specimen 2, had a complex composition; lead carbonate was identified as the predominant component, and smaller amounts of nitrate, nitrite and carbonate salts of lead, magnesium and sodium were also identified. Microfocused x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) mapping showed that lead was ubiquitous throughout the cross-sections of Specimens 1 and 2, while heteroelements such as potassium, calcium, chromium, iron, and nickel were found in localized deposits. MXRF examination and destructive analysis of fragments of Specimen 3 showed elevated concentrations of iron, which were broadly distributed through the sample. With the exception of its high iron content and low carbon content, the chemical composition of Specimen 3 was within the ranges of values previously observed in four other nitrate salt samples recovered from emptied waste drums.

  18. Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Syngas upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels is one of eight priority pathways chosen to convert biomass into hydrocarbon fuels by the Bioenergy Technologies Office. These pathways were down-selected from an initial list of 18.

  19. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joel, E-mail: jsavarino@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, LGGE, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-06-28

    Post-depositional processes alter nitrate concentration and nitrate isotopic composition in the top layers of snow at sites with low snow accumulation rates, such as Dome C, Antarctica. Available nitrate ice core records can provide input for studying past atmospheres and climate if such processes are understood. It has been shown that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack plays a major role in nitrate loss and that the photolysis products have a significant influence on the local troposphere as well as on other species in the snow. Reported quantum yields for the main reaction spans orders of magnitude apparently a result of whether nitrate is located at the air-ice interface or in the ice matrix constituting the largest uncertainty in models of snowpack NO{sub x} emissions. Here, a laboratory study is presented that uses snow from Dome C and minimizes effects of desorption and recombination by flushing the snow during irradiation with UV light. A selection of UV filters allowed examination of the effects of the 200 and 305nm absorption bands of nitrate. Nitrate concentration and photon flux were measured in the snow. The quantum yield for loss of nitrate was observed to decrease from 0.44 to 0.003 within what corresponds to days of UV exposure in Antarctica. The superposition of photolysis in two photochemical domains of nitrate in snow is proposed: one of photolabile nitrate, and one of buried nitrate. The difference lies in the ability of reaction products to escape the snow crystal, versus undergoing secondary (recombination) chemistry. Modeled NO{sub x} emissions may increase significantly above measured values due to the observed quantum yield in this study. The apparent quantum yield in the 200nm band was found to be ?1%, much lower than reported for aqueous chemistry. A companion paper presents an analysis of the change in isotopic composition of snowpack nitrate based on the same samples as in this study.

  20. Communication: Spectroscopic characterization of an alkyl substituted Criegee intermediate syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO through pure rotational transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-01-07

    An alkyl-substituted Criegee intermediate syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO was detected in the gas phase through Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. Observed pure rotational transitions show a small splitting corresponding to the A/E components due to the threefold methyl internal rotation. The rotational constants and the barrier height of the hindered methyl rotation were determined to be A = 17?586.5295(15) MHz, B = 7133.4799(41) MHz, C = 5229.1704(40) MHz, and V{sub 3} = 837.1(17)cm{sup ?1}. High-level ab initio calculations which reproduce the experimentally determined values well indicate that the in-plane CH bond in the methyl moiety is trans to the CO bond, and other two protons are directed to the terminal oxygen atom for the most stable structure of syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO. The torsional barrier of the methyl top is fairly large in syn-CH{sub 3}CHOO, implying a significant interaction between the terminal oxygen and the protons of the methyl moiety, which may be responsible for the high production yields of the OH radical from energized alkyl-substituted Criegee intermediates.

  1. UV-visible spectroscopy of macrocyclic alkyl, nitrosyl and halide complexes of cobalt and rhodium. Experiment and calculation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hull, Emily A.; West, Aaron C.; Pestovsky, Oleg; Kristian, Kathleen E.; Ellern, Arkady; Dunne, James F.; Carraher, Jack M.; Bakac, Andreja; Windus, Theresa L.

    2015-01-22

    In this paper, transition metal complexes (NH3)5CoX2+ (X = CH3, Cl) and L(H2O)MX2+, where M = Rh or Co, X = CH3, NO, or Cl, and L is a macrocyclic N4 ligand are examined by both experiment and computation to better understand their electronic spectra and associated photochemistry. Specifically, irradiation into weak visible bands of nitrosyl and alkyl complexes (NH3)5CoCH32+ and L(H2O)MIIIX2+ (X = CH3 or NO) leads to photohomolysis that generates the divalent metal complex and ˙CH3 or ˙NO, respectively. On the other hand, when X = halide or NO2, visible light photolysis leads to dissociation of X– and/ormore » cis/trans isomerization. Computations show that visible bands for alkyl and nitrosyl complexes involve transitions from M–X bonding orbitals and/or metal d orbitals to M–X antibonding orbitals. In contrast, complexes with X = Cl or NO2 exhibit only d–d bands in the visible, so that homolytic cleavage of the M–X bond requires UV photolysis. UV-Vis spectra are not significantly dependent on the structure of the equatorial ligands, as shown by similar spectral features for (NH3)5CoCH32+ and L1(H2O)CoCH32+.« less

  2. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, P.E.; Mackenzie, P.D.; Horney, D.P.

    1996-08-06

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons. 3 figs.

  3. Enhanced reactive metal wall for dehalogenation of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howson, Paul E. (Latham, NY); Mackenzie, Patricia D. (Clifton Park, NY); Horney, David P. (Mayfield, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for remediation of contaminated solutions using a tiered metal wall or column. The tiered metal wall or column has at least three zones with graduated sizes of reducing metal particles. Contaminated solutions pass through the tiered wall or column to dehalogenate contaminant halogenated hydrocarbons.

  4. Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Materials from the Hydrogen, Hydrocarbons, and Bioproduct Precursors from Wastewaters Workshop that was held March 18-19, 2015, hosted by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Washington D.C. offices and sponsored by DOE's Bioenergy and Fuel Cell Technologies Offices.

  5. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moos, Daniel (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

  6. Recovery of co-adsorbed hydrocarbons from molecular sieve adsorption units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, K.R.

    1990-11-20

    This patent describes a process for removing carbonyl sulfide from a hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises: providing a feedstock of hydrocarbons; passing the feedstock in the liquid phase; terminating the passage; draining the bed; concurrently to the direction of flow into the bed; recovering the hydrocarbon; and regenerating the adsorption bed.

  7. Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orona, N.S.; Tasat, D.R.

    2012-06-15

    Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

  8. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Jol [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Gophysique de lEnvironnement, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research (CCAR), Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jost, Rmy [Laboratoire de Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPHY) Univ. de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Bhattacharya, S. K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (?{sup 15}N, ?{sup 18}O, and ?{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?15 1.2) was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}? = (?47.9 6.8), in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from ?40 to ?74.3. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup ?} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying this model under the experimental temperature as well as considering the shift in width and center well reproduced the values obtained in the laboratory study. These cross sections can be used in isotopic models to reproduce the stable isotopic composition of nitrate found in Antarctic snow profiles.

  9. Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

    2014-07-11

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

  10. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  11. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler manufacturing. The cost and design goals for the project were met with this task, but the most interesting results had to do with defining the failure modes and looking at a “shakedown analysis” of the combined creep-fatigue failure. A separate task also looked at improving the absorber coatings on the receiver tubes that would improve the efficiency of the receiver. Significant progress was made on developing a novel paint with a high absorptivity that was on par with the current Pyromark, but shows additional potential to be optimized further. Although the coating did not meet the emissivity goals, preliminary testing the new paint shows potential to be much more durable, and potential to improve the receiver efficiency through a higher average absorptivity over the lifetime. Additional coatings were also designed and modeled results meet the project goals, but were not tested. Testing for low cycle fatigue of the full length receiver tubes was designed and constructed, but is still currently undergoing testing. A novel small heliostat was developed through an extensive brainstorming and down select. The concept was then detailed further with inputs from component testing and eventually a full prototype was built and tested. This task met or exceeded the accuracy and structure goals and also beat the cost goal. This provides a significant solar field costs savings for Abengoa that will be developed further to be used in future commercial plants. Ultimately the $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $) and 6,400 hours goals of the project were met.

  12. Method for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-03-07

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  13. Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01

    Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700.degree. to 900.degree. C. are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025-0.4 mole and about 0.1-0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800.degree. to 850.degree. C. with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C.sub.2 hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

  14. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  15. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  16. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  17. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  18. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  19. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  20. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  1. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  2. Biological Redox Cycling Of Iron In Nontronite And Its Potential Application In Nitrate Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Linduo; Dong, Hailiang; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Zeng, Qiang; Edelmann, Richard E.; Pentrak, Martin; Agrawal, Abinash

    2015-05-05

    Redox cycling of structural Fe in phyllosilicates provides a potential method to remediate nitrate contamination in natural environment. Past research has only studied chemical redox cycles or a single biologically mediated redox cycle of Fe in phyllosilicates. The objective of this research was to study three microbially driven redox cycles of Fe in one phyllosilicate, nontronite (NAu-2). During the reduction phase structural Fe(III) in NAu-2 served as electron acceptor, lactate as electron donor, AQDS as electron shuttle, and dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacteria Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 as mediator in bicarbonate-buffered and PIPES-buffered media. During the oxidation phase, biogenic Fe(II) served an electron donor, nitrate as electron acceptor, and nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002 as mediator in the same media. For all three cycles, structural Fe in NAu-2 was able to reversibly undergo 3 redox cycles without significant reductive or oxidative dissolution. X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that NAu-2 was the dominant residual mineral throughout the 3 redox cycles with some dissolution textures but no significant secondary mineralization. Mssbauer spectroscopy revealed that Fe(II) in bio-reduced samples likely occurred in two distinct environments, at edges and the interior of the NAu-2 structure. Nitrate was completely reduced to nitrogen gas under both buffer conditions and this extent and rate did not change with Fe redox cycles. Mssbauer spectroscopy further revealed that nitrate reduction was coupled to predominant/preferred oxidation of edge Fe(II). These results suggest that structural Fe in phyllosilicates may represent a renewable source to continuously remove nitrate in natural environments.

  3. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Ryan Davis, Mary Biddy, Eric Tan, and Ling Tao National Renewable Energy Laboratory Susanne Jones Pacific Northwest National Laboratory NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the United States

  4. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  5. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Removal | Department of Energy and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal This paper reports on studies carried out at ORNL to examine the shear force required to remove particles from a well-developed EGR cooler deposit. PDF icon deer11_sluder.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Materials Issues Associated with EGR

  6. Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01

    A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

  7. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1992-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  8. Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

    1994-01-01

    A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

  9. Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

    2014-08-26

    Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

  10. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Mary Biddy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Susanne Jones Pacific Northwest National Laboratory NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the United States Department of Energy under contract

  11. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids (HGL): Recent Market Trends and Issues Release date: November 25, 2014 Executive summary Over the past five years, rapid growth in U.S. onshore natural gas and oil production has led to increased volumes of natural gas plant liquids (NGPL) and liquefied refinery gases (LRG). The increasing economic importance of these volumes, as a result of their significant growth in production, has revealed the need for better data accuracy and transparency to improve the quality of

  12. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

    2012-06-12

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

  14. Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Ryan Davis, Mary Biddy, Eric Tan, and Ling Tao National Renewable Energy Laboratory Susanne Jones Pacific Northwest National Laboratory NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the United States

  15. Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Mary Biddy National Renewable Energy Laboratory Susanne Jones Pacific Northwest National Laboratory NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC, under contract DE-AC36-08GO28308. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the United States Department of Energy under contract

  16. Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical NAP and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NRF systems with NapB as a preferred electron transport protein from CymA to NapA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical NAP and NRF systems with NapB as a preferred electron transport protein from CymA to NapA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reduction of Nitrate in Shewanella oneidensis depends on atypical NAP and NRF systems with NapB as a preferred electron transport protein from CymA to NapA In the genome of

  17. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts 5/8/2012 LANL-Carlsbad Office Difficult Waste Team P2010-3306 Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the EMRTC Report RF 10- 13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts 2 Purpose: The following document was developed in support of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Program (LTP) by the LANL-Carlsbad Office, Difficult

  18. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  19. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

  20. Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-06-18

    A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

  1. Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Batzle

    2006-04-30

    During this last period of the ''Seismic Evaluation of Hydrocarbon Saturation in Deep-Water Reservoirs'' project (Grant/Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT15342), we finalized integration of rock physics, well log analysis, seismic processing, and forward modeling techniques. Most of the last quarter was spent combining the results from the principal investigators and come to some final conclusions about the project. Also much of the effort was directed towards technology transfer through the Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators mini-symposium at UH and through publications. As a result we have: (1) Tested a new method to directly invert reservoir properties, water saturation, Sw, and porosity from seismic AVO attributes; (2) Constrained the seismic response based on fluid and rock property correlations; (3) Reprocessed seismic data from Ursa field; (4) Compared thin layer property distributions and averaging on AVO response; (5) Related pressures and sorting effects on porosity and their influence on DHI's; (6) Examined and compared gas saturation effects for deep and shallow reservoirs; (7) Performed forward modeling using geobodies from deepwater outcrops; (8) Documented velocities for deepwater sediments; (9) Continued incorporating outcrop descriptive models in seismic forward models; (10) Held an open DHI symposium to present the final results of the project; (11) Relations between Sw, porosity, and AVO attributes; (12) Models of Complex, Layered Reservoirs; and (14) Technology transfer Several factors can contribute to limit our ability to extract accurate hydrocarbon saturations in deep water environments. Rock and fluid properties are one factor, since, for example, hydrocarbon properties will be considerably different with great depths (high pressure) when compared to shallow properties. Significant over pressure, on the other hand will make the rocks behave as if they were shallower. In addition to the physical properties, the scale and tuning will alter our hydrocarbon indicators. Gas saturated reservoirs change reflection amplitudes significantly. The goal for the final project period was to systematically combine and document these various effects for use in deep water exploration and transfer this knowledge as clearly and effectively as possible.

  2. Sodium nitrate containing mixture for producing ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by microwave heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, R.D.; Meek, T.T.

    1984-10-10

    A mixture for, and method of using such a mixture, for producing a ceramic-glass-ceramic seal by the use of microwave energy are disclosed, wherein the mixture comprises a glass sealing material, a coupling agent, and an oxidizer. The seal produced exhibits greater strength due to its different microstructure. Sodium nitrate is the most preferred oxidizer.

  3. Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

    2014-05-06

    A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

  4. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  5. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control | Department of Energy Development of catalyst materials to facilitate the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons and CO in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) emissions. PDF icon deer08_rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Lean NOx Catalysis Research and Development

  6. EERE Success Story-Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Commercialization | Department of Energy Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization EERE Success Story-Ethanol-to-Hydrocarbon Technology Moves Closer to Commercialization January 27, 2016 - 1:40pm Addthis Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory biofuel-to-hydrocarbon conversion technology to explain the underlying process. Photo courtesy Oak Ride National Laboratory. Dr. Chaitanya Narula led analysis of an Oak Ride National Laboratory

  7. Nonthermal plasma systems and methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

    2005-05-24

    A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

  8. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost PDF icon deer10lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in...

  9. The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst The Effects of Hydrocarbons on NOx Reduction over Fe-based SCR Catalyst Study of effects of hydrocarbons on ammonia storage and NOx reduction over a commercial Fe-zeolite SCR catalyst to understand catalyst behaviors at low temperatures and improve NOx reduction performance and reduce system cost PDF icon deer10_lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite

  10. Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

    2014-12-09

    The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

  11. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  12. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1996-01-01

    A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

  13. Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

    1996-03-12

    A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

  14. Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2014-05-18

    Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

  15. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS

    2015-01-28

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  16. Reaction of Si(111) Surface with Saturated Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suryana, Risa; Nakahara, Hitoshi; Saito, Yahachi; Ichimiya, Ayahiko

    2011-12-10

    Reaction of Si(111) surface with saturated hydrocarbon such as methane (CH{sub 4}) and ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) was carried out in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy (GSMBE). After carbonization, structures formed on the surface were observed by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Structures transition formed on the surface were 7x7, {delta}-7x7, 1x1, and SiC structures. In the case of CH{sub 4}, the Si surfaces were carbonized at 800 deg. C for 120 min (7.2x10{sup 4} L) with a W-filament of 2800 deg. C, and SiC layers were obtained. In the case of C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, the mixture of 7x7 and SiC structure was observed. Decomposition of hydrocarbon was characterized in quadrupole mass spectroscopy (QMS) measurements. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the mixture of 7x7 and SiC shows a wandering shape. Whereas, the SiC layer shows a regular step. This result seems to be related to the different in the amount of CH{sub 3} molecules on the surface.

  17. Quantifying the Sigma and Pi interactions between U(V) f orbitals and halide, alkyl, alkoxide, amide and ketimide ligands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Lukens, Wayne W.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Magnani, Nicola; Hayton, Trevor W.; Fortier, Skye; Seaman, Lani A.

    2013-06-20

    f Orbital bonding in actinide and lanthanide complexes is critical to their behavior in a variety of areas from separations to magnetic properties. Octahedral f1 hexahalide complexes have been extensively used to study f orbital bonding due to their simple electronic structure and extensive spectroscopic characterization. The recent expansion of this family to include alkyl, alkoxide, amide, and ketimide ligands presents the opportunity to extend this study to a wider variety of ligands. To better understand f orbital bonding in these complexes, the existing molecular orbital (MO) model was refined to include the effect of covalency on spin orbit coupling in addition to its effect on orbital angular momentum (orbital reduction). The new MO model as well as the existing MO model and the crystal field (CF) model were applied to the octahedral f1 complexes to determine the covalency and strengths of the ? and ? bonds formed by the f orbitals. When covalency is significant, MO models more precisely determined the strengths of the bonds derived from the f orbitals; however, when covalency was small, the CF model was better than either MO model. The covalency determined using the new MO model is in better agreement with both experiment and theory than that predicted by the existing MO model. The results emphasize the role played by the orbital energy in determining the strength and covalency of bonds formed by the f orbitals.

  18. Cyclization of N-alkyl azinium cations with bifunctional nucleophiles. 21. Regioisomeric 1,3,4-thiadiazino(5,6-b)quinoxalines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baklykov, V.G.; Charushin, V.N.; Chupakhin, O.N.; Drozd, V.N.

    1987-10-01

    Thiobenzyhydrazides undergo cyclization with N-alkyl-quinoxalinium salts to give 5-alkyl-substituted 1,4,4a,5,10,10a-hexahydro-1,3,4-thiadiazino(5,6-b)quinoxalines, which undergo isomerization to 10-alkyl-substituted thiadiazinoquinoxalines when they are heated in ethanol or in the presence of acids. The IR spectra of suspensions of the compounds in mineral oil were recorded with a UR-20 spectrometer. The PMR spectra of solutions in d/sub 6/-DMSO were recorded with Perkin-Elmer R-12B (60 MHz) and Brucker WP-80 (80 MHz) spectrometers with tetramethylsilane (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) as the internal standards. The /sup 13/C NMR spectra of solutions in d/sub 6/-DMSO were recorded with Brucker WH-90 (22.62 MHz) and Varian FT-80A (20.13 MHz) spectrometers. The chemical shifts were measured with respect to the signal of the solvent (d/sub 6/-DMSO, 39.6 ppm).

  19. Synthesis of condensed phases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fullerenes and nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2004-10-19

    The invention relates to methods for producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and nanotubes, comprising: a. heating at least one carbon-containing material to form a condensed phase comprising at least one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; b. collecting at least some of the condensed phase; c. reacting the condensed phase to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes.

  20. Options assessment report: Treatment of nitrate salt waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-09-16

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognized that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and the a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL's preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  1. DWPF coupled feed flowsheet material balance with batch one sludge and copper nitrate catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1993-09-28

    The SRTC has formally transmitted a recommendation to DWPF to replace copper formate with copper nitrate as the catalyst form during precipitate hydrolysis [1]. The SRTC was subsequently requested to formally document the technical bases for the recommendation. A memorandum was issued on August 23, 1993 detailing the activities (and responsible individuals) necessary to address the impact of this change in catalyst form on process compatibility, safety, processibility environmental impact and product glass quality [2]. One of the activities identified was the preparation of a material balance in which copper nitrate is substituted for copper formate and the identification of key comparisons between this material balance and the current Batch 1 sludge -- Late Wash material balance [3].

  2. Biofuel from Bacteria and Sunlight: Shewanella as an Ideal Platform for Producing Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Minnesota is developing clean-burning, liquid hydrocarbon fuels from bacteria. The University is finding ways to continuously harvest hydrocarbons from a type of bacteria called Shewanella by using a photosynthetic organism to constantly feed Shewanella the sugar it needs for energy and hydrocarbon production. The two organisms live and work together as a system. Using Shewanella to produce hydrocarbon fuels offers several advantages over traditional biofuel production methods. First, it eliminates many of the time-consuming and costly steps involved in growing plants and harvesting biomass. Second, hydrocarbon biofuels resemble current petroleum-based fuels and would therefore require few changes to the existing fuel refining and distribution infrastructure in the U.S.

  3. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

  4. Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bernard (Houston, TX); Hale, Arthur Herman (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-12-22

    A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation may include providing heat to a first hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a first heater located in an opening in the formation. The opening and the first heater may have a horizontal or inclined portion located in the first hydrocarbon layer and at least one connecting portion extending between the horizontal or inclined portion and the surface. Isolation material is placed in the opening such that the isolation material partially isolates the layer in which the horizontal or inclined portion of the first heater is located. An additional horizontal or inclined opening portion that extends from at least one of the connecting portions of the opening is formed in a second hydrocarbon layer. A second heater to provide heat the second hydrocarbon formation is placed in the additional substantially horizontal opening portion.

  5. Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.

    1997-05-06

    A method is described for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap there between. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition. 6 figs.

  6. Process for removal of carbonyl sulfide in liquified hydrocarbon gases with absorption of acid gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beavon, D.K.; Mackles, M.

    1980-11-11

    Liquified hydrocarbon gases containing at least carbonyl sulfide as an impurity are purified by intimately mixing the liquified hydrocarbon gas with an aqueous absorbent for hydrogen sulfide in a hydrolysis zone maintained at a temperature and a pressure sufficient to maintain the liquified hydrocarbon gas in the liquid state and hydrolyze the carbonyl sulfide to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The liquified hydrocarbon gas containing at least a portion of the formed carbonyl sulfide and carbon dioxide is separated from the liquid absorbent and passed to an absorption zone where it is contacted with a liquid hydrogen sulfide absorbent where at least the formed hydrogen sulfide is separated from the liquified petroleum gas. A stage of absorption of at least hydrogen sulfide may proceed mixing of the liquified hydrocarbon gas with the absorbent in the hydrolysis reaction zone. The absorbent employed does not combine irreversibly with carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, and preferably is an aqueous solution of diethanolamine.

  7. Aqueous nitrate waste treatment: Technology comparison, cost/benefit, and market analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide information necessary for the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the practical utility of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic or Glass (NAC/NAG/NAX) process, which is under development in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The NAC/NACx/NAX process can convert aqueous radioactive nitrate-laden waste to a glass, ceramic, or grout solid waste form. The tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Identify current commercial technologies to meet hazardous and radiological waste disposal requirements. The technologies may be thermal or non-thermal but must be all inclusive (i.e., must convert a radionuclide-containing nitrate waste with a pH around 12 to a stable form that can be disposed at permitted facilities); evaluate and compare DOE-sponsored vitrification, grouting, and minimum additive waste stabilization projects for life-cycle costs; compare the technologies above with respect to material costs, capital equipment costs, operating costs, and operating efficiencies. For the NAC/NAG/NAX process, assume aluminum reactant is government furnished and ammonia gas may be marketed; compare the identified technologies with respect to frequency of use within DOE for environmental management applications with appropriate rationale for use; Assess the potential size of the DOE market for the NAC/NAG/NAX process; assess and off-gas issues; and compare with international technologies, including life-cycle estimates.

  8. Effect of Phosphate, Fluoride, and Nitrate on Gibbsite Dissolution Rate and Solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herting, Daniel L.

    2014-01-29

    Laboratory tests have been completed with simulated tank waste samples to investigate the effects of phosphate, fluoride, and nitrate on the dissolution rate and equilibrium solubility of gibbsite in sodium hydroxide solution at 22 and 40{degrees}C. Results are compared to relevant literature data and to computer model predictions. The presence of sodium nitrate (3 M) caused a reduction in the rate of gibbsite dissolution in NaOH, but a modest increase in the equilibrium solubility of aluminum. The increase in solubility was not as large, though, as the increase predicted by the computer model. The presence of phosphate, either as sodium phosphate or sodium fluoride phosphate, had a negligible effect on the rate of gibbsite dissolution, but caused a slight increase in aluminum solubility. The magnitude of the increased solubility, relative to the increase caused by sodium nitrate, suggests that the increase is due to ionic strength (or water activity) effects, rather than being associated with the specific ion involved. The computer model predicted that phosphate would cause a slight decrease in aluminum solubility, suggesting some Al-PO4 interaction. No evidence was found of such an interaction.

  9. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Jinjing; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology, 2012, 2, 2116-2127. 2. Zhu, Y., Jones, S.B., Biddy, M.J., Dagle, R.A., Palo, D.P., Bioresource Technology, 2012, 117, 341-351. 3. Gujar, A.C., Guda, V.K., Nolan, M., Yan W., Toghiani, H., White, M.G., Applied Catalysis A: General, 2009, 363, 115-121.

  10. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  11. Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

    2012-03-13

    A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

  12. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, James D.; Harak, Arnold E.

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  13. Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

    2009-12-15

    Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

  14. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre (Rijswijk, NL); Schoeling, Lanny Gene (Katy, TX)

    2009-07-14

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  16. Hydrocarbon-free resonance transition 795-nm rubidium laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, S Q; Soules, T F; Page, R H; Mitchell, S C; Kanz, V K; Beach, R J

    2008-01-09

    An optical resonance transition rubidium laser (5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} {yields} 5{sup 2}S{sub 1/2}) is demonstrated with a hydrocarbon-free buffer gas. Prior demonstrations of alkali resonance transition lasers have used ethane as either the buffer gas or a buffer gas component to promote rapid fine-structure mixing. However, our experience suggests that the alkali vapor reacts with the ethane producing carbon as one of the reaction products. This degrades long term laser reliability. Our recent experimental results with a 'clean' helium-only buffer gas system pumped by a Ti:sapphire laser demonstrate all the advantages of the original alkali laser system, but without the reliability issues associated with the use of ethane.

  17. Catalytic deoxygenation of microalgae oil to green hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chen; Bruck, Thomas; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-05-14

    Microalgae are high potential raw biomass material for triglyceride feedstock, due to their high oil content and rapid growth rate, and because algae cultivation does not compete with edible food on arable land. This review addresses first the microalgae cultivation with an overview of the productivity and growth of microalgae, the recovery of lipids from the microalgae, and chemical compositions of microalgae biomass and microalgal oil. Second, three basic approaches are discussed to downstream processing for the production of green gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons from microalgae oil, including cracking with zeolite, hydrotreating with supported sulfided catalysts and hydrodeoxygenation with non-sulfide metal catalysts. For the triglyceride derived bio-fuels, only drop-in gasoline and diesel range components are discussed in this review.

  18. The Stimulation of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs with Subsurface Nuclear Explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LORENZ,JOHN C.

    2000-12-08

    Between 1965 and 1979 there were five documented and one or more inferred attempts to stimulate the production from hydrocarbon reservoirs by detonating nuclear devices in reservoir strata. Of the five documented tests, three were carried out by the US in low-permeability, natural-gas bearing, sandstone-shale formations, and two were done in the USSR within oil-bearing carbonates. The objectives of the US stimulation efforts were to increase porosity and permeability in a reservoir around a specific well by creating a chimney of rock rubble with fractures extending beyond it, and to connect superimposed reservoir layers. In the USSR, the intent was to extensively fracture an existing reservoir in the more general vicinity of producing wells, again increasing overall permeability and porosity. In both countries, the ultimate goals were to increase production rates and ultimate recovery from the reservoirs. Subsurface explosive devices ranging from 2.3 to about 100 kilotons were used at depths ranging from 1208 m (3963 ft) to 2568 m (8427 ft). Post-shot problems were encountered, including smaller-than-calculated fracture zones, formation damage, radioactivity of the product, and dilution of the BTU value of tie natural gas with inflammable gases created by the explosion. Reports also suggest that production-enhancement factors from these tests fell short of expectations. Ultimately, the enhanced-production benefits of the tests were insufficient to support continuation of the pro-grams within increasingly adversarial political, economic, and social climates, and attempts to stimulate hydrocarbon reservoirs with nuclear devices have been terminated in both countries.

  19. Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mani, Devleena; Kumar, T. Satish; Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V.

    2011-03-15

    The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

  20. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons into distillate fuels using an integral LPG dehydrogenation-MOGD process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, H.; Zahner, J.C.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a process for converting lower paraffinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising propane and/or butane into heavier hydrocarbons comprising gasoline and distillate, comprising the steps of: feeding the paraffinic feedstock to a dehydrogenation zone under conversion conditions for dehydrogenating at least a portion of the feedstock; recovering a first dehydrogenation gaseous effluent stream comprising propene and/or butene; contacting the first gaseous effluent steam with a liquid lean oil sorbent stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ hydrocarbons under sorption conditions to produce a C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream and a light gas stream; sequentially pressurizing, heating and passing the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream to an oligomerization reactor zone at elevated temperature and pressure; contacting the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich stream with oligomerization catalyst in the oligomerization reactor zone for conversion of at least a portion of lower olefins to heavier hydrocarbons under oligomerization reaction conditions to provide a second reactor effluent stream comprising gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons; flash separating the second reactor effluent stream into a separator vapor stream comprising a major portion of the hydrocarbons which later form the lean oil stream, and a major portion of the C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a separator liquid stream comprising the gasoline and distillate boiling range materials produced in the oligomerization reactor zone; fractionating the separator liquid stream in a first product debutanizer tower into a first debutanizer overhead vapor stream comprising C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a product debutanizer liquid bottoms stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  1. Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glatzmaier, G.C.

    1994-06-28

    A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400 C to 1000 C where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100 C to 1600 C to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process. 5 figures.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mid-infrared continuum emission in a z

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    > 4 submillimeter galaxy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mid-infrared continuum emission in a z > 4 submillimeter galaxy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mid-infrared continuum emission in a z > 4 submillimeter galaxy We report the detection of 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and rest-frame 4-7 μm continuum emission in the z = 4.055 submillimeter galaxy GN20, using the Infrared

  3. Method for reducing the sulfur content of a sulfur-containing hydrocarbon stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2004-12-28

    The sulfur content of a liquid hydrocarbon stream is reduced under mild conditions by contracting a sulfur-containing liquid hydrocarbon stream with transition metal particles containing the transition metal in a zero oxidation state under conditions sufficient to provide a hydrocarbon product having a reduced sulfur content and metal sulfide particles. The transition metal particles can be produced in situ by adding a transition metal precursor, e.g., a transition metal carbonyl compound, to the sulfur-containing liquid feed stream and sonicating the feed steam/transition metal precursor combination under conditions sufficient to produce the transition metal particles.

  4. Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

    2014-01-14

    A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

  5. Cold adaptation of the mononuclear molybdoenzyme periplasmic nitrate reductase from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; Codd, Rachel; School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 2006

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cold-adapted phenotype of NapA from the Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protein homology model of NapA from S. gelidimarina and mesophilic homologue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Six amino acid residues identified as lead candidates governing NapA cold adaptation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Molecular-level understanding of designing cool-temperature in situ oxyanion sensors. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalysed in bacteria by periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) which describes a system of variable protein subunits encoded by the nap operon. Nitrate reduction occurs in the NapA subunit, which contains a bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Mo-MGD) cofactor and one [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster. The activity of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap) isolated as native protein from the cold-adapted (psychrophilic) Antarctic bacterium Shewanella gelidimarina (Nap{sub Sgel}) and middle-temperature adapted (mesophilic) Shewanella putrefaciens (Nap{sub Sput}) was examined at varied temperature. Irreversible deactivation of Nap{sub Sgel} and Nap{sub Sput} occurred at 54.5 and 65 Degree-Sign C, respectively. When Nap{sub Sgel} was preincubated at 21-70 Degree-Sign C for 30 min, the room-temperature nitrate reductase activity was maximal and invariant between 21 and 54 Degree-Sign C, which suggested that Nap{sub Sgel} was poised for optimal catalysis at modest temperatures and, unlike Nap{sub Sput}, did not benefit from thermally-induced refolding. At 20 Degree-Sign C, Nap{sub Sgel} reduced selenate at 16% of the rate of nitrate reduction. Nap{sub Sput} did not reduce selenate. Sequence alignment showed 46 amino acid residue substitutions in Nap{sub Sgel} that were conserved in NapA from mesophilic Shewanella, Rhodobacter and Escherichia species and could be associated with the Nap{sub Sgel} cold-adapted phenotype. Protein homology modeling of Nap{sub Sgel} using a mesophilic template with 66% amino acid identity showed the majority of substitutions occurred at the protein surface distal to the Mo-MGD cofactor. Two mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions (Asn {r_reversible} His, Val {r_reversible} Trp) occurred in a region close to the surface of the NapA substrate funnel resulting in potential interdomain {pi}-{pi} and/or cation-{pi} interactions. Three mesophilic {r_reversible} psychrophilic substitutions occurred within 4.5 A of the Mo-MGD cofactor (Phe {r_reversible} Met, Ala {r_reversible} Ser, Ser {r_reversible} Thr) resulting in local regions that varied in hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding networks. These results contribute to the understanding of thermal protein adaptation in a redox-active mononuclear molybdenum enzyme and have implications in optimizing the design of low-temperature environmental biosensors.

  6. Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

    2005-12-21

    A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

  7. Chemistry of enol ethers. LXXXIV. Condensation of acetals of saturated aldehydes with 2-trimethylsilyloxy-1,3-dienes. Synthesis of /beta/-alkoxy-alkyl vinyl and divinyl ketones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makin, S.M.; Nazarova, O.N.; Dymshakova, G.M.; Kundryutskova, L.A.

    1988-11-10

    The addition of the acetals of saturated aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and isobutyraldehyde) to 2-trimethylsilyloxy-4-methyl-1,3-pentadiene in the presence of aprotic acids (ZnCl/sub 2/, ZnBr/sub 2/, FeCl/sub 3/, SnCl/sub 4/, BF/sub 3/ /times/ OEt/sub 2/) takes place at positions 1, 2 of the diene system with the formation of /beta/-alkoxyalkyl vinyl ketones. The most effective catalysts of this reaction were stannic chloride and zinc bromide. The alkyl derivatives of divinyl ketones are formed when the obtained /beta/-alkoxyalkyl vinyl ketones are heated with p-toluenesulfonic acid.

  8. Comparison of FTIR and Particle Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement of Paticulate Organic Nitrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruns, Emily; Perraud, Veronique; Zelenyuk, Alla; Ezell, Michael J.; Johnson, Stanley N.; Yu, Yong; Imre, D.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.; Alexander, M. L.

    2010-02-01

    While multifunctional organic nitrates are formed during the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic compounds, relatively little is known about their signatures in particle mass spectrometers. High resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS) was applied to NH4NO3, NaNO3 and isosorbide 5-mononitrate (IMN) particles, and to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from NO3 radical reactions at 22 C and 1 atm in air with and pinene, 3-carene, limonene and isoprene. For comparison, single particle laser ablation mass spectra (SPLAT II) were also obtained for IMN and SOA from the pinene reaction. The mass spectra of all particles exhibit significant intensity at m/z 30, and for the SOA, weak peaks corresponding to various organic fragments containing nitrogen [CxHyNzOa]+ were identified using HR-ToF-AMS. The NO+/NO2+ ratios from HR-ToF-AMS were 10-15 for IMN and the SOA from the and pinene, 3-carene and limonene reactions, ~5 for the isoprene reaction, 2.4 for NH4NO3 and 80 for NaNO3. The N/H ratios from HR-ToF-AMS for the SOA were smaller by a factor of 2 to 4 than the -ONO2/C-H ratios measured using FTIR on particles impacted on ZnSe windows. While the NO+/NO2+ ratio may provide a generic indication of organic nitrates under some conditions, specific identification of particulate organic nitrates awaits further development of particle mass spectrometry techniques.

  9. Season and diurnal variations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in a suburban area of central Italy and their relation with the meteorological conditions and the concentration of other photochemical oxidants and their precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciccioli, P.; Cecinato, A.; Brancaleoni, E.; Brachetti, A. )

    1988-09-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), is a photochemical oxidant formed in the atmosphere when large amounts of hydrocarbons (HC) and NO{sub x} are emitted in air and exposed to the UV radiation coming from the sun. Its formation proceeds through the conversion of HC, mainly olefins, into aldehydes that, after oxidation into peroxyradicals, react with NO{sub 2} to give this gaseous pollutant. Although the amount of PAN in air represents a suitable index for measuring photochemical smog and photochemical episodes can easily be observed in many Italian cities, almost no data have been collected in their country. In this paper the authors present the results obtained during a two years monitoring campaign carried in a suburban area of Central Italy placed downwind to Rome. Seasonal and daily trends of PAN will be reported together with the meteorological parameters and the change in concentration of other photochemical oxidants (ozone), its precursors (HC and aldehydes) and some acidic species. The results indicate that PAN, formed within the city, is transported into site together with other oxidants.

  10. Development of Advanced Membranes Technology Platform for Hydrocarbon Separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalthod, Dr Dilip

    2010-03-01

    Virtually all natural gas is dehydrated during its production, transmission and storage, mostly by absorption processes. Membranes offer many potential advantages over absorption, including smaller footprints, lighter-weight packages, packaging flexibility, minimal electrical power duty, amenability to expansion due to system modularity, reduced maintenance costs, reduced emissions of heavy hydrocarbons, no liquid waste streams, and amenability to unmanned operation. The latter is particularly valuable because new natural gas sources are generally located in remote onshore and offshore sites. Most commercially-available membranes for natural gas upgrading involve high capital costs, high methane loss and performance degradation from operational upsets all of which are barriers to their widespread adoption by the industry. The original focus of the project was to develop and demonstrate robust, high-performance membranes for natural gas dehydration. The first task completed was a user needs-and-wants study to 1) clarify the expectations of system fabricators and end users of the new separations equipment, and 2) establish the required technical and commercial targets for the membrane products. Following this, membrane system modeling and membrane development in the lab proceeded in parallel. Membrane module diameter and length, as well as and the fiber outer and inner fiber diameter, were optimized from a mathematical model that accounts for the relevant fluid dynamics and permeation phenomena. Module design was evaluated in the context of overall system design, capital costs and energy consumption, including the process scheme (particularly sweep generation), feed pretreatment, system layout, and process control. This study provided targets for membrane permeation coefficients and membrane geometry in a commercial offering that would be competitive with absorption systems. A commercially-available polymer with good tensile strength and chemical resistance was selected for membrane development. A novel dope composition and spinning process were developed, which provide a new approach to controlling membrane porosity and wall and skin morphology. A hollow-fiber membrane with an external dense skin was produced that has a high water vapor permeation coefficient and selectivity, durability when in operation at 1000 psig and 70C, and the ability to withstand aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon vapors for an extended period. The fiber meets the technical requirements for a commercial product offering in gas dehydration. It can be readily manufactured with some changes in process equipment and process conditions, and is an excellent candidate for scale-up to full-size membrane modules.

  11. Conversion of actinide and RE oxides into nitrates and their recovery into fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondin, V.V.; Bychkov, S.I.; Efremov, I.G.; Revenko, Y.A.; Babain, V.A.; Murzin, A.A.; Romanovsky, V.N; Fedorov, Y.S.; Shadrin, A.Y.; Ryabkova, N.V.; Li, E.N.

    2007-07-01

    The conditions for uranium oxides completely convert into uranyl nitrate hexahydrate in nitrogen tetra-oxide media (75 deg. C, 0,5-3,0 MPa, [UO{sub x}]:[H{sub 2}O]:[NO{sub 2}]=1:8:6) were found out. The conversion of Pu contained simulator of oxide spent nuclear fuel of thermal reactors was successfully demonstrated. The possibility of uranium recovery up to 95% from TR SNF without plutonium separation from FP is practically showed, what corresponds with Non-proliferation Treaty. (authors)

  12. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  13. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  14. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  15. Method for determining asphaltene stability of a hydrocarbon-containing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-02-05

    A method for determining asphaltene stability in a hydrocarbon-containing material having solvated asphaltenes therein is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, it involves the steps of: (a) precipitating an amount of the asphaltenes from a liquid sample of the hydrocarbon-containing material with an alkane mobile phase solvent in a column; (b) dissolving a first amount and a second amount of the precipitated asphaltenes by changing the alkane mobile phase solvent to a final mobile phase solvent having a solubility parameter that is higher than the alkane mobile phase solvent; (c) monitoring the concentration of eluted fractions from the column; (d) creating a solubility profile of the dissolved asphaltenes in the hydrocarbon-containing material; and (e) determining one or more asphaltene stability parameters of the hydrocarbon-containing material.

  16. A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Product Distribution from a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor | Department of Energy A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the Product Distribution from a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the Product Distribution from a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Delphi Corporation PDF icon 2002_deer_fisher.pdf More Documents & Publications Lean-NOx Catalyst

  17. Pathways to Hydrocarbon Biofuels: Update on the Office's Techno-Economic Analysis Efforts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways to Hydrocarbon Biofuels: Update on the Office's Techno-Economic Analysis Efforts March 25, 2015 Alicia Lindauer Technology Manager Strategic Analysis Jay Fitzgerald ORISE Fellow Conversion R&D 2 | Bioenergy Technologies Office Overview * Progress on pathways to hydrocarbon fuels * Purpose of Techno-Economic Analysis (TEA) and design cases * TEA-Sustainability Coordination * Request for Information (RFI): Input on Biofuel Pathways * How BETO uses the design cases to inform R&D

  18. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control | Department of Energy 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon acep_03_rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Catalytic Filter for Diesel Exhaust Purification

  19. Processes for converting methane to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons via sulfur-containing intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, S.; Palermo, R.E.

    1989-09-05

    This patent describes a process for converting methane to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. The process comprising the steps of contacting methane with carbonyl sulfide in the presence of UV light under conditions sufficient to generate Ch/sub 3/SH; and contacting CH/sub 3/SH with a catalyst under conditions sufficient to produce hydrogen sulfide and a mixture of hydrocarbons having at least two carbon atoms.

  20. Hydrocarbon Separations in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Iron(II)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coordination Sites | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Hydrocarbon Separations in a Metal-Organic Framework with Open Iron(II) Coordination Sites Previous Next List E. D. Bloch, W. L. Queen, R. Krishna, J. M. Zadrozny, C. M. Brown, and J. R. Long, Science 335 (6076), 1606 (2012) DOI: 10.1126/science.1217544 Fig. 1 Abstract: The energy costs associated with large-scale industrial separation of light hydrocarbons by cryogenic distillation could

  1. Process for the conversion of alcohols and oxygenates to hydrocarbons in a turbulent fluid bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avidan, A. A.; Kam, A. Y.

    1985-04-23

    Improvements in converting C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ monohydric alcohols, particularly methanol, related oxygenates of said alcohols and/or oxygenates produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to light olefins, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons and/or distillate boiling range hydrocarbons are obtained in a fluidized bed of ZSM-5 type zeolite catalyst operating under conditions effective to provide fluidization in the turbulent regime.

  2. Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review Enhanced Anaerobic Digestion and Hydrocarbon Precursor Production March 24, 2015 Biochemical Conversion Area Review Meltem Urgun-Demirtas, Ph. D. Argonne National Laboratory Goal Statement  Ultimate Goal: Transform negative-value or low-value biosolids into high- energy-density, fungible hydrocarbon precursors through targeted research, development and demonstration. - Enhance anaerobic digestion of biosolids to produce biogas with ~90% methane content and hydrogen sulfide at

  3. Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-C: Navigating Roadblocks on the Path to Advanced Biofuels Deployment Alan A. Del Paggio, Vice President of Upstream & Renewables, CRI Catalyst Company PDF icon b13_del_paggio_2-c.pdf More Documents & Publications Shell. The Evolution of Movement Continues Renewable Chemicals and Advanced

  4. Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-12-15

    This study reports synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of the nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite with high mesoporosity produced via a solvent evaporation procedure. Further, this study compares hierarchical zeolites with conventional HZSM-5 zeolite with similar Si/Al ratios for the ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion process. The catalytic performance of the hierarchical and conventional zeolites was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor at 360 C, 300 psig, and a weight hourly space velocity of 7.9 h-1. For the low Si/Al ratio zeolite (~40), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical HZSM-5 was approximately 2 times greater than the conventional HZSM-5 despite its coking amount deposited 1.6 times higher than conventional HZSM-5. For the high Si/Al ratio zeolite (~140), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical zeolite was approximately 5 times greater than the conventional zeolite and the amount of coking deposited was 2.1 times higher. Correlation was observed between catalyst life time, porosity, and the crystal size of the zeolite. The nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites containing mesoporosity demonstrated improved catalyst life-time compared to the conventional catalyst due to faster removal of products, shorter diffusion path length, and the migration of the coke deposits to the external surface from the pore structure.

  5. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E.; Moriconi, M. L.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-06-20

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  6. Assessment of simulation predictions of hydrocarbon pool fire tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2010-04-01

    An uncertainty quantification (UQ) analysis is performed on the fuel regression rate model within SIERRA/Fuego by comparing to a series of hydrocarbon tests performed in the Thermal Test Complex. The fuels used for comparison for the fuel regression rate model include methanol, ethanol, JP8, and heptane. The recently implemented flamelet combustion model is also assessed with a limited comparison to data involving measurements of temperature and relative mole fractions within a 2-m diameter methanol pool fire. The comparison of the current fuel regression rate model to data without UQ indicates that the model over predicts the fuel regression rate by 65% for methanol, 63% for ethanol, 95% for JP8, and 15% for heptane. If a UQ analysis is performed incorporating a range of values for transmittance, reflectance, and heat flux at the surface the current model predicts fuel regression rates within 50% of measured values. An alternative model which uses specific heats at inlet and boiling temperatures respectively and does not approximate the sensible heat is also compared to data. The alternative model with UQ significantly improves the comparison to within 25% for all fuels except heptane. Even though the proposed alternative model provides better agreement to data, particularly for JP8 and ethanol (within 15%), there are still outstanding issues regarding significant uncertainties which include heat flux gauge measurement and placement, boiling at the fuel surface, large scale convective motion within the liquid, and semi-transparent behavior.

  7. Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del )

    1993-12-06

    Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

  8. Process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, J.C.; Gaiao, U.; Novicki, R.E.

    1987-11-17

    This patent describes a process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: (a) contacting the solid particles with superheated steam; (b) transporting, in an upward direction, the mixture obtained in the previous step, at a gas velocity close to the critical impact velocity, through a vertical multi-tube reactor, immersed in a vertical furnace, held at a temperature in the range from 800/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C; (c) heating the obtained mixture to the solids' pyrolysis temperature, by means of the heat generated by the burning of fuel inside the vertical furnace and supplied to the mixture through the walls of the reactor; (d) removing the products from the reactor, separating the solid phase from the retorting products, by forcing the products to pass through primary and secondary separators; (e) removing the gaseous phase from the retorting products exiting the secondary separator thus effecting a second separation stage, for the obtaining of fuel gas and oil the process further characterized in that spaced static devices are provided within the multi-tube reactor tube, so as to cause the solid particles to come close to the walls of the reactor, as a consequence of the superheated steam flow redistribution in order to increase heat transfer between the vertical furnace and the reactor walls.

  9. Process for removing carbonyl sulfide from hydrocarbon feedstreams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, E.S.; Kosseim, A.J.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a process for removing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide from a feedstream containing carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide and hydrocarbons. It comprises: contacting the feedstream in a hydrolysis zone with a first portion of a lean solution stream comprising an aqueous alkaline solution at an effective hydrolysis temperature to convert at least a portion of the carbonyl sulfide to carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, withdrawing a first effluent stream containing a reduced concentration of carbonyl sulfide relative to the feedstream, and withdrawing a first rich solution stream comprising the aqueous alkaline solution, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide; contacting the first effluent stream in an absorption zone with a second portion of the lean solution stream at an effective absorption temperature to absorb carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and withdrawing a second rich solution stream comprising the aqueous alkaline solution, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide; combining at least a portion of the first rich solution stream and the second rich solution stream and contacting the combined rich solution stream in a regeneration zone at effective conditions to desorb carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, withdrawing a vent gas stream comprising carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and withdrawing the lean solution stream; separating the lean solution stream into the first and second portions; and recycling the first portion of the lean solution stream to the hydrolysis zone and the second portion of the lean solution stream to the absorption zone.

  10. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gardner, Todd H. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV)

    2012-03-27

    A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

  12. Fluorescent growth bands in irradiated-bitumen nodules: Evidence of episodic hydrocarbon migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, B.

    1997-01-01

    Minute rims of solid bitumen ({approximately}40-50 {mu}m thick) surround detrital radioactive grains in the Permian-Triassic sandstones and Arranoo Member of the Kockatea Shale from the northern Perth basin, Australia. The bitumen formed as Th- and U-bearing minerals (monazite, xenotime, zircon, thorite) irradiated and immobilized fluid hydrocarbons coming within range of alpha-particle emissions. using transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy and rims appear compositionally homogeneous, but under blue/violet epifluorescent illumination the bitumen displays complex concentric and contorted banding. These fluorescent textures indicate that multiple influxes of hydrocarbons passed through the reservoir sandstones. Following radiation-induced immobilization of hydrocarbons from the first oil influx, the bitumen nodules grew through a process of swelling and expansion outward form the mineral core during subsequent oil influxes, producing graded fluorescent growth bands. Oil droplets and lamellae also were adsorbed onto the outer portion of the nodules. Such bitumen nodules are a new and potentially important source of data for understanding the movement of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins, specifically for identifying hydrocarbon pathways, the number of discrete hydrocarbon pulses, and the relative timing of oil migration.

  13. Options Assessment Report: Treatment of Nitrate Salt Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Bruce Alan; Stevens, Patrice Ann

    2015-12-17

    This report documents the methodology used to select a method of treatment for the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The method selected should treat the containerized waste in a manner that renders the waste safe and suitable for transport and final disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) repository, under specifications listed in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (DOE/CBFO, 2013). LANL recognizes that the results must be thoroughly vetted with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) and that a modification to the LANL Hazardous Waste Facility Permit is a necessary step before implementation of this or any treatment option. Likewise, facility readiness and safety basis approvals must be received from the Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents LANL’s preferred option, and the documentation of the process for reaching the recommended treatment option for RNS and UNS waste, and is presented for consideration by NMED and DOE.

  14. Speciation model selection by Monte Carlo analysis of optical absorption spectra: Plutonium(IV) nitrate complexes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, John M.; Veirs, D. Kirk; Vaughn, Randolph B.; Cisneros, Michael R.; Smith, Coleman A.

    2000-06-01

    Standard modeling approaches can produce the most likely values of the formation constants of metal-ligand complexes if a particular set of species containing the metal ion is known or assumed to exist in solution equilibrium with complexing ligands. Identifying the most likely set of species when more than one set is plausible is a more difficult problem to address quantitatively. A Monte Carlo method of data analysis is described that measures the relative abilities of different speciation models to fit optical spectra of open-shell actinide ions. The best model(s) can be identified from among a larger group of models initially judged to be plausible. The method is demonstrated by analyzing the absorption spectra of aqueous Pu(IV) titrated with nitrate ion at constant 2 molal ionic strength in aqueous perchloric acid. The best speciation model supported by the data is shown to include three Pu(IV) species with nitrate coordination numbers 0, 1, and 2. Formation constants are {beta}{sub 1}=3.2{+-}0.5 and {beta}{sub 2}=11.2{+-}1.2, where the uncertainties are 95% confidence limits estimated by propagating raw data uncertainties using Monte Carlo methods. Principal component analysis independently indicates three Pu(IV) complexes in equilibrium. (c) 2000 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.

  15. A study of the organic emission from a turbocharged diesel engine running on 12 percent hexyl nitrate dissolved in ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walde, N.; Westerholm, R.; Persson, K.-A.

    1984-01-01

    A highly rated turbocharged diesel engine adapted for an alternative fuel based on ethanol and hexyl nitrate has been investigated with respect to the emission of organic compounds in the exhausts. The adaption involves: ignition nozzles with larger holes, a change of injection timing and more fuel injected per stroke. Emissions were measured at four different driving modes ie, 1, 8, 10 and 12 respectively, in the California Cycle. The exhaust composition are different compared to conventional diesel emissions. The main part of the organic pollutants consists of unburned ethanol and hexyl nitrate, acetaldehyde being the most abundant aldehyde.

  16. Ethanol Conversion to Hydrocarbons on HZSM-5: Effect of Reaction Conditions and Si/Al Ratio on the Product Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-17

    The Conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon over HZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios was investigated under various reaction conditions. The catalyst with a higher Si/Al ratio (low acid density) deactivated faster and generated more unsaturated compounds at a similar time-on-stream. Temperature affects the catalytic activity with respect to liquid hydrocarbon generation and the hydrocarbon product composition. At lower temperatures (~300C), the catalyst deactivated faster with respect to the liquid hydrocarbon formation. Higher temperatures (~400C) reduced the formation of liquid range hydrocarbons and formed more gaseous fractions. Weight hourly space velocity was also found to affect product selectivity with higher weight hourly space velocity leading to a higher extent of ethylene formation. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the product composition and the coke content with respect to catalyst time-on-stream and compared with the catalyst lifetime with respect to the variables tested on the conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon.

  17. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity to desired C5+ hydrocarbons as the formation of CO2, CH4, and other light hydrocarbons is challenging to suppress in the presence of mixed metal and acid sites. When the 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu and HZSM-5 are operated sequentially by way of a two-step process the C5+ hydrocarbons fraction is lower and represents 30.4% of the hydrocarbons under comparable conditions. The yield toward the C5+ hydrocarbons is twice higher for the one-step process due to an improved CO conversion and higher C5+ hydrocarbons fraction. The main advantage of the one-step process is that higher syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed since they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbons product.

  18. Structural Aspects of Hydrogen Bonding with Nitrate and Sulfate: Design Criteria for Polyalcohol Hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hay, Benjamin P.; Dixon, David A.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Organic hosts for oxyanion complexation can be constructed by combining two or more hydrogen bonding sites. The deliberate design of architectures for such hosts requires knowledge of the optimal geometry for the hydrogen bonds formed between the host and the guest. Important structural parameters include the O--H distance, the O--H-D angle, the X-O--H angle, and the X-O--H-D dihedral angle (H-D=hydrogen bond donor, X=any atom). This information can be obtained through the analysis of hydrogen bonding observed in crystal structures and electronic structure calculations on simple gas-phase complexes. In this chapter, we present an analysis of hydrogen bonding structural parameters for alcohol hydrogen donors and the oxygen atom acceptors in nitrate and sulfate.

  19. Thermal behavior of glassy phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeager, J. D.; Chellappa, R.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2015-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a high interest material because of its wide usage in propellants and explosives but can be difficult to handle from a formulation standpoint. It is soluble in many common solvents and has complex phase behavior. Here, we formulate phase stabilized AN (PSAN) films in a polymer matrix and characterize thermal and phase behavior using neutron reflectometry and ellipsometry. Our PSAN films are generally stable up to 160 C, though we observe small material loss between 60 and 100 C, which we attribute to solvent interactions with the PSAN. Crystallization of AN from supersaturated polymer is most common at thicker regions of the film, suggesting a critical nucleation thickness for the AN which can be avoided by making very thin films.

  20. Thermal behavior of glassy phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yeager, J. D.; Chellappa, R.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2015-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a high interest material because of its wide usage in propellants and explosives but can be difficult to handle from a formulation standpoint. It is soluble in many common solvents and has complex phase behavior. Here, we formulate phase stabilized AN (PSAN) films in a polymer matrix and characterize thermal and phase behavior using neutron reflectometry and ellipsometry. Our PSAN films are generally stable up to 160 °C, though we observe small material loss between 60 and 100 °C, which we attribute to solvent interactions with the PSAN. Crystallization of AN from supersaturated polymer is mostmore » common at thicker regions of the film, suggesting a critical nucleation thickness for the AN which can be avoided by making very thin films.« less

  1. THE SENSITIVITY OF CARBON STEELS' SUSCEPTIBILITY TO LOCALIZED CORROSION TO THE PH OF NITRATE BASED NUCLEAR WASTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOOMER KD

    2010-01-14

    The Hanford tank reservation contains approximately 50 million gallons of liquid legacy radioactive waste from cold war weapons production, which is stored in 177 underground storage tanks. The tanks will be in use until waste processing operations are completed. The wastes tend to be high pH (over 10) and nitrate based. Under these alkaline conditions carbon steels tend to be passive and undergo relatively slow uniform corrosion. However, the presence of nitrate and other aggressive species, can lead to pitting and stress corrosion cracking. This work is a continuation of previous work that investigated the propensity of steels to suffer pitting and stress corrosion cracking in various waste simulants. The focus of this work is an investigation of the sensitivity of the steels' pitting and stress corrosion cracking susceptibility tosimulant pH. Previous work demonstrated that wastes that are high in aggressive nitrate and low in inhibitory nitrite are susceptible to localized corrosion. However, the previous work involved wastes with pH 12 or higher. The current work involves wastes with lower pH of 10 or 11. It is expected that at these lower pHs that a higher nitrite-to-nitrate ratio will be necessary to ensure tank integrity. This experimental work involved both electrochemical testing, and slow strain rate testing at either the free corrosion potential or under anodic polarization. The results of the current work will be discussed, and compared to work previously presented.

  2. Enhanced liquid-liquid anion exchange using macrocyclic anion receptors: effect of receptor structure on sulphate-nitrate exchange selectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Fowler, Christopher J; Haverlock, Tamara; Kang, Hyun Ah; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bau, Diadra; Hossain, Alamgir; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Gross, Mr. Dustin E.; Bill, Nathan; Marquez, Manuel; Lynch, Vincent M.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    When certain macrocyclic anion receptors are added to a chloroform solution of the nitrate form of a lipophilic quaternary ammonium salt (methyltri-C8,10-ammonium nitrate, Aliquat 336N), the extraction of sulphate from an aqueous sodium nitrate solution via exchange with the organic-phase nitrate is significantly enhanced. Eight macrocycles were surveyed, including two derivatives of a tetraamide macrocycle, five derivatives of calix[4]pyrrole and -decafluorocalix[5]pyrrole. Under the hypothesis that the enhancement originates from sulphate binding by the anion receptors in the chloroform phase, it was possible to obtain reasonable fits to the sulphate distribution survey data based on the formation of 1:1 and 2:1 receptor:sulphate complexes in the chloroform phase. Apparent 1:1 sulphate-binding constants obtained from the model in this system fell in the range . Comparison of the results for the various anion receptors included in this study reveals that sulphate binding is sensitive to the nature of the substituents on the parent macrocycle scaffolds in a way that does not follow straightforwardly from simple chemical expectations, such as electron-withdrawing effects on hydrogen-bond donor strength.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence for Microbacterium laevaniformans Strain OR221, a Bacterium Tolerant to Metals, Nitrate, and Low pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Panikov, Nikolai; Ariyawansa, Thilini; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Johnson, Courtney M; Land, Miriam L; Utturkar, Sagar M; Epstein, Slava

    2012-01-01

    Microbacterium laevaniformans strain OR221 was isolated from subsurface sediments obtained from the Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. It was characterized as a bacterium tolerant to heavy metals such as uranium, nickel, cobalt, cadmium, as well as nitrate and low pH. We present its draft genome sequence.

  4. Reduction of Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Zero-Valent Iron and Palladium Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Hun; Shin, Won Sik; Ko, Seok-Oh; Kim, Myung-Chul

    2004-03-31

    Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is an alternative technology for soil and groundwater remediation. Zero valent iron, which is the most popular PRB material, is only applicable to halogenated aliphatic organics and some heavy metals. The objective of this study was to investigate reductive dechlorination of halogenated compounds and reduction of non-halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons using zero valent metals (ZVMs) and catalysts as reactive materials for PRBs. A group of small aromatic hydrocarbons such as monochlorophenols, phenol and benzene were readily reduced with palladium catalyst and zero valent iron. Poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also tested with the catalysts and zero valent metal combinations. The aromatic rings were reduced and partly reduced PAHs were found as the daughter compounds. The current study demonstrates reduction of aromatic compounds by ZVMs and modified catalysts and implicates that PRB is applicable not only for halogenated organic compounds but nonhalogenated aromatic compounds such as PAHs.

  5. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

    2011-08-23

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  6. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  7. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rolllins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  8. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; Goldberg, Robert I.

    1987-01-01

    A method of converting low H.sub.2 /CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200.degree. to 350.degree. C. in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinium, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n+1).gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n.gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  9. DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON AEROSOLS FROM REACTIVITY CONTROLLED COMPRESSION IGNITION COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Parks, II, James E; Barone, Teresa L; Curran, Scott; Cho, Kukwon; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse; Wagner, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a novel combustion process that utilizes two fuels with different reactivity to stage and control combustion and enable homogeneous combustion. The technique has been proven experimentally in previous work with diesel and gasoline fuels; low NOx emissions and high efficiencies were observed from RCCI in comparison to conventional combustion. In previous studies on a multi-cylinder engine, particulate matter (PM) emission measurements from RCCI suggested that hydrocarbons were a major component of the PM mass. Further studies were conducted on this multi-cylinder engine platform to characterize the PM emissions in more detail and understand the effect of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) on the hydrocarbon-dominated PM emissions. Results from the study show that the DOC can effectively reduce the hydrocarbon emissions as well as the overall PM from RCCI combustion. The bimodal size distribution of PM from RCCI is altered by the DOC which reduces the smaller mode 10 nm size particles.

  10. Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

    1985-11-06

    A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

  11. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO.sub.2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO.sub.2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO.sub.2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  12. Separation of C2 Hydrocarbons by Porous Materials: Metal Organic Frameworks as Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Liu, Jun; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2014-12-22

    The effective separation of small hydrocarbon molecules (C1 C4) is an important process for petroleum industry, determining the end price of many essential commodities in our daily lives. Current technologies for separation of these molecules rely on energy intensive fractional distillation processes at cryogenic temperature, which is particularly difficult because of their similar volatility. In retrospect, adsorptive separation using solid state adsorbents might be a cost effective alternative. Several types of solid state adsorbents (e.g. zeolite molecular sieves) were tested for separation of small hydrocarbon molecules as a function of pressure, temperature or vacuum. Among different types of plausible adsorbents, metal organic frameworks (MOFs), a class of porous, crystalline, inorganic-organic hybrid materials, is particularly promising. In this brief comment article, we discuss the separation properties of different types of solid state adsorbents, with a particular emphasis on MOF based adsorbents for separation of C2 hydrocarbon molecules.

  13. Hydrocarbon Effect on a Fe-zeolite Urea-SCR Catalyst: An Experimental and Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Herling, Darrell R.

    2010-04-14

    Synergies between various catalytic converters such as SCR and DPF are vital to the success of an integrated aftertreatment system for simultaneous NOx and particulate matter control in diesel engines. Several issues such as hydrocarbon poisoning, thermal aging and other coupled aftertreatment dynamics need to be addressed to develop an effective emission control system. This paper reports an experimental and modeling study to understand the effect of hydrocarbons on a Fe-zeolite urea-SCR bench reactor. Several bench-reactor tests to understand the inhibition of NOx oxidation, to characterize hydrocarbon storage and to investigate the impact of hydrocarbons on SCR reactions were conducted. Toluene was chosen as a representative hydrocarbon in diesel exhaust and various tests using toluene reveal its inhibition of NO oxidation at low temperatures and its oxidation to CO and CO2 at high temperatures. Surface isotherm tests were conducted to characterize the adsorption-desorption equilibrium of toluene through Langmuir isotherms. Using the rate parameters, a toluene storage model was developed and validated in simulation. With toluene in the stream, controlled SCR tests were run on the reactor and performance metrics such as NOx conversion and NH3 slip were compared to a set of previously run tests with no toluene in the stream. Tests indicate a significant effect of toluene on NOx and NH3 conversion efficiencies even at temperatures greater than 300oC. A kinetic model to address the toluene inhibition during NO oxidation reaction was developed and is reported in the paper. This work is significant especially in an integrated DPF-SCR aftertreatment scenario where the SCR catalyst on the filter substrate is exposed to un-burnt diesel hydrocarbons during active regeneration of the particulate filter.

  14. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, Meyer; Fallon, Peter

    1986-01-01

    A process for the production of economically significant amounts of ethyl and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene, from coal is disclosed wherein coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500.degree. C. to 1100.degree. C. at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  15. Method for predicting fouling tendency of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2013-07-23

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock fouling tendency for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  16. Process and catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbon mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rao, V. Udaya S. (Monroeville, PA); Gormley, Robert J. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas containing CO and H.sub.2 is converted to a high-octane hydrocarbon liquid in the gasoline boiling point range by bringing the gas into contact with a heterogeneous catalyst including, in physical mixture, a zeolite molecular sieve, cobalt at 6-20% by weight, and thoria at 0.5-3.9% by weight. The contacting occurs at a temperature of 250.degree.-300.degree. C., and a pressure of 10-30 atmospheres. The conditions can be selected to form a major portion of the hydrocarbon product in the gasoline boiling range with a research octane of more than 80 and less than 10% by weight aromatics.

  17. Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  18. The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimization | Department of Energy The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization PDF icon deer12_szybist.pdf More Documents & Publications High Octane Fuels Can Make Better Use of Renewable Transportation Fuels Making Better Use of Ethanol as a Transportation Fuel With "Renewable Super Premium" Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced

  19. In situ recovery from residually heated sections in a hydrocarbon containing formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-14

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation is described herein. The methods may include providing heat to a first section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the first section of the formation. Heat is transferred from the heaters so that at least a first section of the formation reaches a selected temperature. At least a portion of residual heat from the first section transfers from the first section to a second section of the formation. At least a portion of hydrocarbons in the second section are mobilized by providing a solvation fluid and/or a pressurizing fluid to the second section of the formation.

  20. Scaling Relationships for Adsorption Energies of C2 Hydrocarbons on Transition Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G

    2011-08-18

    Using density functional theory calculations we show that the adsorption energies for C{sub 2}H{sub x}-type adsorbates on transition metal surfaces scale with each other according to a simple bond order conservation model. This observation generalizes some recently recognized adsorption energy scaling laws for AH{sub x}-type adsorbates to unsaturated hydrocarbons and establishes a coherent simplified description of saturated as well as unsaturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on transition metal surfaces. A number of potential applications are discussed. We apply the model to the dehydrogenation of ethane over pure transition metal catalysts. Comparison with the corresponding full density functional theory calculations shows excellent agreement.

  1. An integrated process for simultaneous desulfurization, dehydration, and recovery of hydrocarbon liquids from natural gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sciamanna, S.F. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    Conventional processing schemes for desulfurizing, drying, and separation of natural gas liquids from natural gas streams require treating the gas by a different process for each separation step. In a simpler process, based on the University of California, Berkeley Sulfur Recovery Process (UCBSRP) technology, hydrogen sulfide, propane and heavier hydrocarbons, and water are absorbed simultaneously by a polyglycol ether solvent containing a homogenous liquid phase catalyst. The catalyst promotes the subsequent reaction of hydrogen sulfide with added sulfur dioxide to produce a high quality sulfur product. Hydrocarbons are separated as two product streams with the split between propane and butane. This new process offers an overall reduction in both capital and energy costs.

  2. 2013 Survey of Non-Starch Ethanol and Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels Producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwab, A.; Geiger, J.; Lewis, J.

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the status of the industry for non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels as of the end of calendar year 2013, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the first of what is anticipated to be an annual survey of U.S. non-starch ethanol and renewable hydrocarbon biofuels producers. This report presents the results of this initial survey and describes the survey methodology. Subsequent surveys will report on the progress over time of the development of these facilities and companies.

  3. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X.; Wang, S.

    2014-01-29

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.

  4. Final technical report [ACCELERATED MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF REACTIVE HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, Steven J.

    2014-02-25

    The research activities in this project consisted of four different sub-projects. Three different accelerated dynamics techniques (parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics, and temperature-accelerated dynamics) were applied to the modeling of pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. In addition, parallel replica dynamics was applied to modeling of polymerization.

  5. Solution mining and heating by oxidation for treating hydrocarbon containing formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX)

    2009-06-23

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation. A second fluid is produced from the portion. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. A controlled amount of oxidant is provided to the portion of the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

  6. Site-Specific Scaling Relations for Hydrocarbon Adsorption on Hexagonal Transition Metal Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montemore, Matthew M.; Medlin, James W.

    2013-10-03

    Screening a large number of surfaces for their catalytic performance remains a challenge, leading to the need for simple models to predict adsorption properties. To facilitate rapid prediction of hydrocarbon adsorption energies, scaling relations that allow for calculation of the adsorption energy of any intermediate attached to any symmetric site on any hexagonal metal surface through a carbon atom were developed. For input, these relations require only simple electronic properties of the surface and of the gas-phase reactant molecules. Determining adsorption energies consists of up to four steps: (i) calculating the adsorption energy of methyl in the top site using density functional theory or by simple relations based on the electronic structure of the surface; (ii) using modified versions of classical scaling relations to scale between methyl in the top site and C? species with more metal-surface bonds (i.e., C, CH, CH?) in sites that complete adsorbate tetravalency; (iii) using gas-phase bond energies to predict adsorption energies of longer hydrocarbons (i.e., CR, CR?, CR?); and (iv) expressing energetic changes upon translation of hydrocarbons to various sites in terms of the number of agostic interactions and the change in the number of carbon-metal bonds. Combining all of these relations allows accurate scaling over a wide range of adsorbates and surfaces, resulting in efficient screening of catalytic surfaces and a clear elucidation of adsorption trends. The relations are used to explain trends in methane reforming, hydrocarbon chain growth, and propane dehydrogenation.

  7. Process, including PSA and membrane separation, for separating hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA); Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); He, Zhenjie (Fremont, CA); Pinnau, Ingo (Palo Alto, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved process for separating hydrogen from hydrocarbons. The process includes a pressure swing adsorption step, a compression/cooling step and a membrane separation step. The membrane step relies on achieving a methane/hydrogen selectivity of at least about 2.5 under the conditions of the process.

  8. Technological problems associated with subsea development of high pressure and high temperature hydrocarbon reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grillo, P.; Natarajan, S.

    1996-12-31

    The paper analyzes the implications in design of subsea completion for exploitation of HP/HT hydrocarbon reservoirs. The paper characterizes limitations associated with current subsea technology for HP/HT applications and outlines the engineering and technological development considered necessary to demonstrate the viability of subsea production technology for the exploitation of HP/HT reservoirs.

  9. Catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons to hydrogen and high-value carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shah, Naresh; Panjala, Devadas; Huffman, Gerald P.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention provides novel catalysts for accomplishing catalytic decomposition of undiluted light hydrocarbons to a hydrogen product, and methods for preparing such catalysts. In one aspect, a method is provided for preparing a catalyst by admixing an aqueous solution of an iron salt, at least one additional catalyst metal salt, and a suitable oxide substrate support, and precipitating metal oxyhydroxides onto the substrate support. An incipient wetness method, comprising addition of aqueous solutions of metal salts to a dry oxide substrate support, extruding the resulting paste to pellet form, and calcining the pellets in air is also discloses. In yet another aspect, a process is provided for producing hydrogen from an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant, comprising contacting the hydrocarbon reactant with a catalyst as described above in a reactor, and recovering a substantially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen product stream. In still yet another aspect, a process is provided for catalytic decomposition of an undiluted light hydrocarbon reactant to obtain hydrogen and a valuable multi-walled carbon nanotube coproduct.

  10. Co-cultured Synechococcus and Shewanella Produce Hydrocarbons without Cellulosic Feedstock

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2012-03-06

    The Shewanella bacteria naturally produce hydrocarbons but the University of Minnesota clarified the key protein responsible for fuel production, OleA and recently obtained the proteins’s crystal structure. Based on this knowledge, experiments are currently in process to optimize fuel production through both metabolic engineering and optimization of OleA....

  11. Isotopic identification of soil and permafrost nitrate sources in an Arctic tundra ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Perkins, George B.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Graham, David E.; Norby, Richard J.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-06-08

    The nitrate (NO??) dual isotope approach was applied to snowmelt, tundra active layer pore waters, and underlying permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, USA, to distinguish between NO?? derived from at NO?? signal with ??N averaging 4.8 1.0 (standard error of the mean) and ??O averaging 70.2 1.7. In active layer pore waters, NO?? primarily occurred at concentrations suitable for isotopic analysis in the relatively dry and oxic centers of high-centered polygons. The average ??N and ??O of NO?? from high-centered polygons were 0.5 1.1 and 4.1 0.6, respectively. When compared to the ??N of reduced nitrogen (N) sources, and the ??O of soil pore waters, it was evident that NO?? in high-centered polygons was primarily from microbial nitrification. Permafrost NO?? had ??N ranging from approximately 6 to 10, similar to atmospheric and microbial NO??, and highly variable ??O ranging from approximately 2 to 38. Permafrost ice wedges contained a significant atmospheric component of NO??, while permafrost textural ice contained a greater proportion of microbially derived NO??. Large-scale permafrost thaw in this environment would release NO?? with a ??O signature intermediate to that of atmospheric and microbial NO?. Consequently, while atmospheric and microbial sources can be readily distinguished by the NO?? dual isotope technique in tundra environments, attribution of NO?? from thawing permafrost will not be straightforward. The NO?? isotopic signature, however, appears useful in identifying NO?? sources in extant permafrost ice.

  12. Materials corrosion of high temperature alloys immersed in 600C binary nitrate salt.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Gill, David Dennis; LaFord, Marianne Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Thirteen high temperature alloys were immersion tested in a 60/40 binary nitrate salt. Samples were interval tested up to 3000 hours at 600%C2%B0C with air as the ullage gas. Chemical analysis of the molten salt indicated lower nitrite concentrations present in the salt, as predicted by the equilibrium equation. Corrosion rates were generally low for all alloys. Corrosion products were identified using x-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis. Fe-Cr based alloys tended to form mixtures of sodium and iron oxides, while Fe-Ni/Cr alloys had similar corrosion products plus oxides of nickel and chromium. Nickel based alloys primarily formed NiO, with chromium oxides near the oxide/base alloy interface. In625 exhibited similar corrosion performance in relation to previous tests, lending confidence in comparisons between past and present experiments. HA230 exhibited internal oxidation that consisted of a nickel/chromium oxide. Alloys with significant aluminum alloying tended to exhibit superior performance, due formation of a thin alumina layer. Soluble corrosion products of chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten were also formed and are thought to be a significant factor in alloy performance.

  13. Solidification of Acidic, High Nitrate Nuclear Wastes by Grouting or Absorption on Silica Gel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. K. Herbst; S. V. Raman; R. J. Kirkham

    2004-01-01

    The use of grout and silica gel were explored for the solidification of four types of acidic, high nitrate radioactive wastes. Two methods of grouting were tested: direct grouting and pre-neutralization. Two methods of absorption on silica gel were also tested: direct absorption and rotary spray drying. The waste simulant acidity varied between 1 N and 12 N. The waste simulant was neutralized by pre-blending calcium hydroxide with Portland cement and blast furnace slag powders prior to mixing with the simulant for grout solidification. Liquid sodium hydroxide was used to partially neutralize the simulant to a pH above 2 and then it was absorbed for silica gel solidification. Formulations for each of these methods are presented along with waste form characteristics and properties. Compositional variation maps for grout formulations are presented which help determine the optimum "recipe" for a particular waste stream. These maps provide a method to determine the proportions of waste, calcium hydroxide, Portland cement, and blast furnace slag that provide a waste form that meets the disposal acceptance criteria. The maps guide researchers in selecting areas to study and provide an operational envelop that produces acceptable waste forms. The grouts both solidify and stabilize the wastes, while absorption on silica gel produces a solid waste that will not pass standard leaching procedures (TCLP) if required. Silica gel wastes can be made to pass most leach tests if heated to 600C.

  14. Polyethylene encapsulatin of nitrate salt wastes: Waste form stability, process scale-up, and economics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1991-07-01

    A polyethylene encapsulation system for treatment of low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes has been developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polyethylene has several advantages compared with conventional solidification/stabilization materials such as hydraulic cements. Waste can be encapsulated with greater efficiency and with better waste form performance than is possible with hydraulic cement. The properties of polyethylene relevant to its long-term durability in storage and disposal environments are reviewed. Response to specific potential failure mechanisms including biodegradation, radiation, chemical attack, flammability, environmental stress cracking, and photodegradation are examined. These data are supported by results from extensive waste form performance testing including compressive yield strength, water immersion, thermal cycling, leachability of radioactive and hazardous species, irradiation, biodegradation, and flammability. The bench-scale process has been successfully tested for application with a number of specific problem'' waste streams. Quality assurance and performance testing of the resulting waste form confirmed scale-up feasibility. Use of this system at Rocky Flats Plant can result in over 70% fewer drums processed and shipped for disposal, compared with optimal cement formulations. Based on the current Rocky Flats production of nitrate salt per year, polyethylene encapsulation can yield an estimated annual savings between $1.5 million and $2.7 million, compared with conventional hydraulic cement systems. 72 refs., 23 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Combined uranous nitrate production consisting of undivided electrolytic cell and divided electrolytic cell (Electrolysis ? Electrolytic cell)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Zhongwei; Yan, Taihong; Zheng, Weifang; Li, Xiaodong; Yang, Hui; Xian, Liang

    2013-07-01

    The electrochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate is a green, mild way to make uranous ions. Undivided electrolyzers whose maintenance is less but their conversion ratio and current efficiency are low, have been chosen. However, at the beginning of undivided electrolysis, high current efficiency can also be maintained. Divided electrolyzers' conversion ratio and current efficiency is much higher because the re-oxidation of uranous on anode is avoided, but their maintenance costs are more, because in radioactive environment the membrane has to be changed after several operations. In this paper, a combined method of uranous production is proposed which consists of 2 stages: undivided electrolysis (early stage) and divided electrolysis (late stage) to benefit from the advantages of both electrolysis modes. The performance of the combined method was tested. The results show that in combined mode, after 200 min long electrolysis (80 min undivided electrolysis and 120 min divided electrolysis), U(IV) yield can achieve 92.3% (500 ml feed, U 199 g/l, 72 cm{sup 2} cathode, 120 mA/cm{sup 2}). Compared with divided mode, about 1/3 working time in divided electrolyzer is reduced to achieve the same U(IV) yield. If 120 min long undivided electrolysis was taken, more than 1/2 working time can be reduced in divided electrolyzer, which means that about half of the maintenance cost can also be reduced. (authors)

  16. Correlation between speciated hydrocarbon emissions and flame ionization detector response for gasoline/alcohol blends .

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallner, T.

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. renewable fuel standard has made it a requirement to increase the production of ethanol and advanced biofuels to 36 billion by 2022. Ethanol will be capped at 15 billion, which leaves 21 billion to come from other sources such as butanol. Butanol has a higher energy density and lower affinity for water than ethanol. Moreover, alcohol fueled engines in general have been shown to positively affect engine-out emissions of oxides of nitrogen and carbon monoxide compared with their gasoline fueled counterparts. In light of these developments, the variety and blend levels of oxygenated constituents is likely to increase in the foreseeable future. The effect on engine-out emissions for total hydrocarbons is less clear due to the relative insensitivity of the flame ionization detector (FID) toward alcohols and aldehydes. It is well documented that hydrocarbon (HC) measurement using a conventional FID in the presence of oxygenates in the engine exhaust stream can lead to a misinterpretation of HC emissions trends for alcohol fuel blends. Characterization of the exhaust stream for all expected hydrocarbon constituents is required to accurately determine the actual concentration of unburned fuel components in the exhaust. In addition to a conventional exhaust emissions bench, this characterization requires supplementary instrumentation capable of hydrocarbon speciation and response factor independent quantification. Although required for certification testing, this sort of instrumentation is not yet widely available in engine development facilities. Therefore, an attempt is made to empirically determine FID correction factors for oxygenate fuels. Exhaust emissions of an engine fueled with several blends of gasoline and ethanol, n-butanol and iso-Butanol were characterized using both a conventional FID and a Fourier transform infrared. Based on these results, a response factor predicting the actual hydrocarbon emissions based solely on FID results as a function of alcohol type and content is presented. Finally, the correlation derived from data presented in this study is compared with equations and results found in the literature.

  17. Conversion of Mixed Oxygenates Generated from Synthesis Gas to Fuel Range Hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Gerber, Mark A.; Lilga, Michael A.; Flake, Matthew D.

    2012-08-19

    The growing dependence in the U.S. on foreign crude oil supplies and increased concerns regarding greenhouse gas emission has generated considerable interest in research to develop renewable and environmentally friendly liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels. One of the strategies for achieving this is to produce intermediate compounds such as alcohols and other simple oxygenates from biomass generated synthesis gas (mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and further convert them into liquid hydrocarbons. The focus of this research is to investigate the effects of mixed oxygenates intermediate product compositions on the conversion step to produce hydrocarbon liquids. A typical mixed oxygenate stream is expected to contain water (around 50%), alcohols, such as methanol and ethanol (around 35%), and smaller quantities of oxygenates such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and ethyl acetate. However the ratio and the composition of the mixed oxygenate stream generated from synthesis gas vary significantly depending on the catalyst used and the process conditions. Zeolite catalyzed deoxygenation of methanol accompanied by chain growth is well understood under Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) like reaction conditions using an H-ZSM-5 zeolite as the catalyst6-8. Research has also been conducted to a limited extent in the past with higher alcohols, but not with other oxygenates present9-11. Also there has been little experimental investigation into mixtures containing substantial amounts of water. The latter is of particular interest because water separation from the hydrocarbon product would be less energy intensive than first removing it from the oxygenate intermediate stream prior to hydrocarbon synthesis, potentially reducing overall processing costs.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE DETECTION METHODS ON THE FORT PECK RESERVATION, NORTHEAST MONTANA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence M. Monson

    2003-06-30

    Surface exploration techniques have been employed in separate study areas on the Fort Peck Reservation in northeastern Montana. Anomalies associated with hydrocarbon seepage are documented in all three areas and a variety of surface exploration techniques can be compared. In a small area with established production, Head Gas and Thermal Desorption methods best match production; other methods also map depletion. In a moderate-size area that has prospects defined by 3D seismic data, Head Gas along with Microbial, Iodine, and Eh soil anomalies are all associated with the best hydrocarbon prospect. In a large area that contains many curvilinear patterns observed on Landsat images, that could represent micro-seepage chimneys, results are inconclusive. Reconnaissance mapping using Magnetic Susceptibility has identified a potential prospect; subsequent Soil Gas and Head Gas surveys suggest hydrocarbon potential. In the final year of this project the principle contractor, the Fort Peck Tribes, completed a second survey in the Wicape 3D Seismic Prospect Area (also known as Area 6 in Phase I of the project) and sampled several Landsat image features contained in the Smoke Creek Aeromag Anomaly Area (also known as Area 1 in Phase II of the project). Methods determined to be most useful in Phases I and II, were employed in this final Phase III of the study. The Southwest Wicape seismic anomaly was only partially confirmed. The abundant curvilinears proposed to be possible hydrocarbon micro-seepage chimneys in the Smoke Creek Area were not conclusively verified as such. Insufficient sampling of background data precludes affirmative identification of these mostly topographic Landsat features as gas induced soil and vegetation anomalies. However relatively higher light gas concentrations were found associated with some of the curvilinears. Based on the findings of this work the Assiniboine & Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Reservation intend to utilize surface hydrocarbon exploration techniques for future identification and confirmation of oil and gas prospects.

  19. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  20. EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EP-AREAG-PLAN-1248, R.0 TA-54 Area G Nitrate-Salt Waste Container Response Instructions Effective Date: 5/28/2014 The Responsible Manager has determined that the following organizations' review/concurrence is required for the initial document and for major revisions a same type and level review is required. Review documentation is contained in the Document History File: EWMO Engineering LANL TRU Programs - Shipping and Safe Storage Disposition LANL TRU Programs - Drum Disposition Project LANL

  1. Methods of making transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Mo, Weijian (Sugar Land, TX); Muylle, Michel Serge Marie (Houston, TX); Mandema, Remco Hugo (Houston, TX); Nair, Vijay (Katy, TX)

    2012-04-10

    A method for producing alkylated hydrocarbons is disclosed. Formation fluid is produced from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes olefins. The liquid stream is fractionated to produce at least a second gas stream including hydrocarbons having a carbon number of at least 3. The first gas stream and the second gas stream are introduced into an alkylation unit to produce alkylated hydrocarbons. At least a portion of the olefins in the first gas stream enhance alkylation. The alkylated hydrocarbons may be blended with one or more components to produce transportation fuel.

  2. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  3. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

    1993-01-19

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  4. Hydrocarbon gases (free and sorbed) in waters and sediments of the mid-Atlantic ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudarikov, S.M.; Levshunova, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    Waters and sediments were sampled during the 10-th cruise of the R/V {open_quotes}Geolog Fersman{close_quotes} at several sites of the Mid-Atlantic rift zone. Extensive geochemical analyses including degasing of waters and sediments, luminescence-bituminological analyses, organic-carbon (OC) and C{sub 1}-C{sub 9} fraction content determining have been carried out. According to the microbiological investigations the 65% of the methane are thermogenic and 35% - bacterial. Correlation between bitumen and metals observed in waters may be explained by the formation of metal-organic complexes. Sediments from the Snake Pit field show high contents of bitumen (0.005%) and of C{sub 1}-C{sub 9} hydrocarbons. The process of hydrocarbons generation in ocean rift zones is treated as a result of the interaction between the OC and inorganic fluids containing hydrogen. We thank the Russian Fundamental Science Foundation for financial support.

  5. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (7 Rocky Brook Rd., Dover, MA 02030); Mitchell, William L. (111 Oakley Rd., Belmont, MA 02178); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (20 Landmark Rd., Westford, MA 01886); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (1 Richdale Ave.#2, Cambridge, MA 02140)

    2002-01-01

    Hydrocarbon fuel reformer 100 suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first tube 108 has a first tube inlet 110 and a first tube outlet 112. The first tube inlet 110 is adapted for receiving a first mixture including an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel. A partially oxidized first reaction reformate is directed out of the first tube 108 into a mixing zone 114. A second tube 116 is annularly disposed about the first tube 108 and has a second tube inlet 118 and a second tube outlet 120. The second tube inlet 118 is adapted for receiving a second mixture including steam and a second fuel. A steam reformed second reaction reformate is directed out of the second tube 116 and into the mixing zone 114. From the mixing zone 114, the first and second reaction reformates may be directed into a catalytic reforming zone 144 containing a reforming catalyst 147.

  6. Method And Apparatus For Converting Hydrocarbon Fuel Into Hydrogen Gas And Carbon Dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-03-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reforming method is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. A first mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a first fuel is directed into a first tube 108 to produce a first reaction reformate. A second mixture of steam and a second fuel is directed into a second tube 116 annularly disposed about the first tube 108 to produce a second reaction reformate. The first and second reaction reformates are then directed into a reforming zone 144 and subject to a catalytic reforming reaction. In another aspect of the method, a first fuel is combusted with an oxygen-containing gas in a first zone 108 to produce a reformate stream, while a second fuel under steam reforming in a second zone 116. Heat energy from the first zone 108 is transferred to the second zone 116.

  7. Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

  8. Apparatus and methods for direct conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons to liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2006-04-25

    A chemical reactor for direct conversion of hydrocarbons includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell and a solid oxide electrochemical cell in fluid communication therewith. The discharge plasma cell comprises a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. The electrochemical cell comprises a mixed-conducting solid oxide electrolyte membrane tube positioned between a porous cathode and a porous anode, and a gas inlet tube for feeding oxygen containing gas to the porous cathode. An inlet is provided for feeding hydrocarbons to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a light source for directing ultraviolet light into the discharge plasma cell and the electrochemical cell.

  9. Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

    1982-02-16

    A process is claimed for the production of substantial amounts of ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene from coal. Coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds, and preferably at a temperature of approximately 850/sup 0/C, and a partial pressure of 50 psig for a period of approximately 2 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

  10. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sircar, Shivaji (Wescosville, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  11. Method for estimating processability of a hydrocarbon-containing feedstock for hydroprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

    2014-01-14

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitates asphaltenes. Determined parameters and processabilities for a plurality of feedstocks can be used to generate a mathematical relationship between parameter and processability; this relationship can be used to estimate the processability for hydroprocessing for a feedstock of unknown processability.

  12. Method for forming a potential hydrocarbon sensor with low sensitivity to methane and CO

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mukundan, Rangachary (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM); Garzon, Fernando (Santa Fe, NM)

    2003-12-02

    A hydrocarbon sensor is formed with an electrolyte body having a first electrolyte surface with a reference electrode depending therefrom and a metal oxide electrode body contained within the electrolyte body and having a first electrode surface coplanar with the first electrolyte surface. The sensor was formed by forming a sintered metal-oxide electrode body and placing the metal-oxide electrode body within an electrolyte powder. The electrolyte powder with the metal-oxide electrode body was pressed to form a pressed electrolyte body containing the metal-oxide electrode body. The electrolyte was removed from an electrolyte surface above the metal-oxide electrode body to expose a metal-oxide electrode surface that is coplanar with the electrolyte surface. The electrolyte body and the metal-oxide electrode body were then sintered to form the hydrocarbon sensor.

  13. Exhaust after-treatment system with in-cylinder addition of unburnt hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coleman, Gerald N. (Corby, GB); Kesse, Mary L. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-10-30

    Certain exhaust after-treatment devices, at least periodically, require the addition of unburnt hydrocarbons in order to create reductant-rich exhaust conditions. The present disclosure adds unburnt hydrocarbons to exhaust from at least one combustion chamber by positioning, at least partially within a combustion chamber, a mixed-mode fuel injector operable to inject fuel into the combustion chamber in a first spray pattern with a small average angle relative to a centerline of the combustion chamber and a second spray pattern with a large average angle relative to the centerline of the combustion chamber. An amount of fuel is injected in the first spray pattern into a non-combustible environment within the at least one combustion chamber during at least one of an expansion stroke and exhaust stroke. The exhaust with the unburnt amount of fuel is moved into an exhaust passage via an exhaust valve.

  14. Apparatus for converting hydrocarbon fuel into hydrogen gas and carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clawson, Lawrence G. (Dover, MA); Mitchell, William L. (Belmont, MA); Bentley, Jeffrey M. (Westford, MA); Thijssen, Johannes H. J. (Cambridge, MA)

    2001-01-01

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer (200) is disclosed suitable for producing synthesis hydrogen gas from reactions with hydrocarbons fuels, oxygen, and steam. The reformer (200) comprises first and second tubes (208,218). The first tube (208) includes a first catalyst (214) and receives a first mixture of steam and a first fuel. The second tube (218) is annularly disposed about the first tube (208) and receives a second mixture of an oxygen-containing gas and a second fuel. In one embodiment, a third tube (224) is annularly disposed about the second tube (218) and receives a first reaction reformate from the first tube (208) and a second reaction reformate from the second tube (218). A catalyst reforming zone (260) annularly disposed about the third tube (224) may be provided to subject reformate constituents to a shift reaction. In another embodiment, a fractionator is provided to distill first and second fuels from a fuel supply source.

  15. Pyrolysis process for producing condensed stabilized hydrocarbons utilizing a beneficially reactive gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy (Culver City, CA)

    1982-01-01

    In a process for recovery of values contained in solid carbonaceous material, the solid carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to pyrolysis, in the presence of a carbon containing solid particulate source of heat and a beneficially reactive transport gas in a transport flash pyrolysis reactor, to form a pyrolysis product stream. The pyrolysis product stream contains a gaseous mixture and particulate solids. The solids are separated from the gaseous mixture to form a substantially solids-free gaseous stream which comprises volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals newly formed by pyrolysis. Preferably the solid particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing part of the separated particulate solids. The beneficially reactive transport gas inhibits the reactivity of the char product and the carbon-containing solid particulate source of heat. Condensed stabilized hydrocarbons are obtained by quenching the gaseous mixture stream with a quench fluid which contains a capping agent for stabilizing and terminating newly formed volatilized hydrocarbon free radicals. The capping agent is partially depleted of hydrogen by the stabilization and termination reaction. Hydrocarbons of four or more carbon atoms in the gaseous mixture stream are condensed. A liquid stream containing the stabilized liquid product is then treated or separated into various fractions. A liquid containing the hydrogen depleted capping agent is hydrogenated to form a regenerated capping agent. At least a portion of the regenerated capping agent is recycled to the quench zone as the quench fluid. In another embodiment capping agent is produced by the process, separated from the liquid product mixture, and recycled.

  16. Method of Generating Hydrocarbon Reagents from Diesel, Natural Gas and Other Logistical Fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herling, Darrell R (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Aardahl, Chris L. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Rozmiarek, Robert T. (Middleton, WI) [Middleton, WI; Rappe, Kenneth G. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D. (Kennewick, WA) [Kennewick, WA

    2008-10-14

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  17. Method of generating hydrocarbon reagents from diesel, natural gas and other logistical fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herling, Darrell R. (Richland, WA); Aardahl, Chris L. (Richland, WA); Rozmiarek, Robert T. (Middleton, WI); Rappe, Kenneth G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Holladay, Jamelyn D. (Kennewick, WA)

    2010-06-29

    The present invention provides a process for producing reagents for a chemical reaction by introducing a fuel containing hydrocarbons into a flash distillation process wherein the fuel is separated into a first component having a lower average molecular weight and a second component having a higher average molecular weight. The first component is then reformed to produce synthesis gas wherein the synthesis gas is reacted catalytically to produce the desire reagent.

  18. Electrode design for low temperature direct-hydrocarbon solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Fanglin; Zhao, Fei; Liu, Qiang

    2015-10-06

    In certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The solid oxide fuel cell includes a hierarchically porous cathode support having an impregnated cobaltite cathode deposited thereon, an electrolyte, and an anode support. The anode support includes hydrocarbon oxidation catalyst deposited thereon, wherein the cathode support, electrolyte, and anode support are joined together and wherein the solid oxide fuel cell operates a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less.

  19. Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen from water and from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Willms, R. Scott (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Method for simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes from water and from hydrocarbons. A palladium membrane, when utilized in cooperation with a nickel catalyst in a reactor, has been found to drive reactions such as water gas shift, steam reforming and methane cracking to substantial completion by removing the product hydrogen from the reacting mixture. In addition, ultrapure hydrogen is produced, thereby eliminating the need for an additional processing step.

  20. Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emission Control | Department of Energy Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_rappe.pdf More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based

  1. Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HD Diesel Engines | Department of Energy Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines Investigating the dynamics between various aftertreatment devices for overall optimal performance to simultaneously reduce NOx and PM. Ex: HC poisoning/inhibition on zeolites1, catalyst aging, etc. PDF icon deer09_devarakonda.pdf More Documents & Publications The Effects of

  2. Solution mining dawsonite from hydrocarbon containing formations with a chelating agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2009-07-07

    A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising dawsonite includes providing heat from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation. At least some dawsonite in the formation is decomposed with the provided heat. A chelating agent is provided to the formation to dissolve at least some dawsonite decomposition products. The dissolved dawsonite decomposition products are produced from the formation.

  3. Regional analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons and meteorology of the rural southeast United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagerman, L.M.

    1996-11-01

    Measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons, as well as ozone, meteorological and trace gas data, were made at four rural sites located within the southeastern United States as a part of the Southern Oxidants Study. Fifty-six C2-C10 hydrocarbons were collected from 1200-1300 local time, once every six days from September 1992 through October 1993. The measurements were made in an effort to enhance the understanding of the behavior and trends of ozone and other photochemical oxidants in this region. The light molecular weight alkanes (ethane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane), ethene and acetylene display a seasonal variation with a winter maximum and summer minimum. Isoprene was virtually non-existent during the winter at all sites, and averaged from 9.8 ppbC (Yorkville, GA) to 21.15 ppbC (Centreville, AL) during the summer. The terpene concentration was greatest in the summer with averages ranging between 3.19 ppbC (Centreville, AL) to 6.38 ppbC (Oak Grove, MS), but was also emitted during the winter months, with a range of 1.25 to 1.9 ppbC for all sites. Propylene-equivalent concentrations were calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the hydroxyl radical and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contribution to ozone, especially in regards to the highly reactive biogenic compounds such as isoprene. It was calculated that biogenics represent at least 65% of the total non-methane hydrocarbon sum at these four sites during the summer season when considering propylene-equivalent concentrations. An ozone episode which occurred from July 20 to July 24 1993 was used as an example to show ozone profiles at each of the sites, and to show the effect of synoptic meteorology on high ozone by examining NOAA daily weather maps and climatic data.

  4. On the radiolysis of ethylene ices by energetic electrons and implications to the extraterrestrial hydrocarbon chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Li; Maity, Surajit; Abplanalp, Matt; Turner, Andrew; Kaiser, Ralf I.

    2014-07-20

    The chemical processing of ethylene ices (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) by energetic electrons was investigated at 11 K to simulate the energy transfer processes and synthesis of new molecules induced by secondary electrons generated in the track of galactic cosmic ray particles. A combination of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (solid state) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (gas phase) resulted in the identification of six hydrocarbon molecules: methane (CH{sub 4}), the C2 species acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), ethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 6}), the ethyl radical (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}), andfor the very first time in ethylene irradiation experimentsthe C4 hydrocarbons 1-butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}) and n-butane (C{sub 4}H{sub 10}). By tracing the temporal evolution of the newly formed molecules spectroscopically online and in situ, we were also able to fit the kinetic profiles with a system of coupled differential equations, eventually providing mechanistic information, reaction pathways, and rate constants on the radiolysis of ethylene ices and the inherent formation of smaller (C1) and more complex (C2, C4) hydrocarbons involving carbon-hydrogen bond ruptures, atomic hydrogen addition processes, and radical-radical recombination pathways. We also discuss the implications of these results on the hydrocarbon chemistry on Titan's surface and on ice-coated, methane-bearing interstellar grains as present in cold molecular clouds such as TMC-1.

  5. Catalytic Upgrading of Thermochemical Intermediates to Hydrocarbons Presentation for BETO 2015 Project Peer Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International RTI International RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle Institute. www.rti.org 2015 DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) Project Peer Review WBS 2.5.4.405 - Catalytic Upgrading of Thermochemical Intermediates to Hydrocarbons March 24, 2015 Bio-Oil Technology Area Review David C. Dayton, PI RTI International This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information RTI International Goals and Objectives Objective:

  6. Catalytic multi-stage process for hydroconversion and refining hydrocarbon feeds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); Lee, Lap-Keung (Cranbury, NJ)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-stage catalytic hydrogenation and hydroconversion process for heavy hydrocarbon feed materials such as coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and plastic waste materials. In the process, the feedstock is reacted in a first-stage, back-mixed catalytic reactor with a highly dispersed iron-based catalyst having a powder, gel or liquid form. The reactor effluent is pressure-reduced, vapors and light distillate fractions are removed overhead, and the heavier liquid fraction is fed to a second stage back-mixed catalytic reactor. The first and second stage catalytic reactors are operated at 700-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure and 20-80 lb./hr per ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The vapor and light distillates liquid fractions removed from both the first and second stage reactor effluent streams are combined and passed to an in-line, fixed-bed catalytic hydrotreater for heteroatom removal and for producing high quality naphtha and mid-distillate or a full-range distillate product. The remaining separator bottoms liquid fractions are distilled at successive atmospheric and vacuum pressures, low and intermediate-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products are withdrawn, and heavier distillate fractions are recycled and further upgraded to provide additional low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products. This catalytic multistage hydrogenation process provides improved flexibility for hydroprocessing the various carbonaceous feedstocks and adjusting to desired product structures and for improved economy of operations.

  7. Analyses of mixed-hydrocarbon binary thermodynamic cycles for moderate-temperature geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demuth, O.J.

    1981-02-01

    A number of binary geothermal cycles utilizing mixed hydrocarbon working fluids were analyzed with the overall objective of finding a working fluid which can produce low-cost electrical energy using a moderately-low temperature geothermal resource. Both boiling and supercritical shell-and-tube cycles were considered. The performance of a dual-boiling isobutane cycle supplied by a 280/sup 0/F hydrothermal resource (corresponding to the 5 MW pilot plant at the Raft River site in Idaho) was selected as a reference. To investigate the effect of resource temperature on the choice of working fluid, several analyses were conducted for a 360/sup 0/F hydrothermal resource, which is representative of the Heber resource in California. The hydrocarbon working fluids analyzed included methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, isopentane, hexane, heptane, and mixtures of those pure hydrocarbons. For comparison, two fluorocarbon refrigerants were also analyzed. These fluorocarbons, R-115 and R-22, were suggested as resulting in high values of net plant geofluid effectiveness (watt-hr/lbm geofluid) at the two resource temperatures chosen for the study. Preliminary estimates of relative heat exchanger size (product of overall heat transfer coefficient times heater surface area) were made for a number of the better performing cycles.

  8. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  9. Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1996-02-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

  10. Design and Testing of a Labview- Controlled Catalytic Packed- Bed Reactor System For Production of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Street, J.; Yu, F.; Warnock, J.; Wooten, J.; Columbus, E.; White, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Gasified woody biomass (producer gas) was converted over a Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst to produce gasolinerange hydrocarbons. The effect of contaminants in the producer gas showed that key retardants in the system included ammonia and oxygen. The production of gasoline-range hydrocarbons derived from producer gas was studied and compared with gasoline-range hydrocarbon production from two control syngas mixes. Certain mole ratios of syngas mixes were introduced into the system to evaluate whether or not the heat created from the exothermic reaction could be properly controlled. Contaminant-free syngas was used to determine hydrocarbon production with similar mole values of the producer gas from the gasifier. Contaminant-free syngas was also used to test an ideal contaminant-free synthesis gas situation to mimic our particular downdraft gasifier. Producer gas was used in this study to determine the feasibility of using producer gas to create gasoline-range hydrocarbons on an industrial scale using a specific Mo/H+ZSM-5 catalyst. It was determined that after removing the ammonia, other contaminants poisoned the catalyst and retarded the hydrocarbon production process as well.

  11. Isotopic identification of soil and permafrost nitrate sources in an Arctic tundra ecosystem

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Throckmorton, Heather M.; Newman, Brent D.; Perkins, George B.; Iversen, Colleen M.; Chowdhury, Taniya Roy; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Graham, David E.; Norby, Richard J.; Wilson, Cathy J.; et al

    2015-06-08

    The nitrate (NO₃⁻) dual isotope approach was applied to snowmelt, tundra active layer pore waters, and underlying permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, USA, to distinguish between NO₃⁻ derived from at NO₃⁻ signal with δ¹⁵N averaging –4.8 ± 1.0‰ (standard error of the mean) and δ¹⁸O averaging 70.2 ±1.7‰. In active layer pore waters, NO₃⁻ primarily occurred at concentrations suitable for isotopic analysis in the relatively dry and oxic centers of high-centered polygons. The average δ¹⁵N and δ¹⁸O of NO₃⁻ from high-centered polygons were 0.5 ± 1.1‰ and –4.1 ± 0.6‰, respectively. When compared to the δ¹⁵N of reduced nitrogen (N) sources,more » and the δ¹⁸O of soil pore waters, it was evident that NO₃⁻ in high-centered polygons was primarily from microbial nitrification. Permafrost NO₃⁻ had δ¹⁵N ranging from approximately –6‰ to 10‰, similar to atmospheric and microbial NO₃⁻, and highly variable δ¹⁸O ranging from approximately –2‰ to 38‰. Permafrost ice wedges contained a significant atmospheric component of NO₃⁻, while permafrost textural ice contained a greater proportion of microbially derived NO₃⁻. Large-scale permafrost thaw in this environment would release NO₃⁻ with a δ¹⁸O signature intermediate to that of atmospheric and microbial NO₃. Consequently, while atmospheric and microbial sources can be readily distinguished by the NO₃⁻ dual isotope technique in tundra environments, attribution of NO₃⁻ from thawing permafrost will not be straightforward. The NO₃⁻ isotopic signature, however, appears useful in identifying NO₃⁻ sources in extant permafrost ice.« less

  12. Criticality experiments with planar arrays of three-liter bottles containing plutonium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durst, B.M.; Clayton, E.D.; Smith, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of these experiments was to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in critically safety assessments of plant configurations. Arrays containing up to as many as sixteen three-liter bottles filled with plutonium nitrate were used in the experiments. A split-table device was used in the final assembly of the arrays. Ths planar arrays were reflected with close fitting plexiglas on each side and on the bottom but not the top surface. The experiments addressed a number of factors effecting criticality: the critical air gap between bottles in an array of fixed number of bottles, the number of bottles required for criticality if the bottles were touching, and the effect on critical array spacing and critical bottle number due to the insertion of an hydrogeneous substance into the air gap between bottles. Each bottle contained about 2.4l of Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solution at a Pu concentration of 105g Pu/l, with the {sup 240}Pu content being 2.9 wt% at a free acid molarity H{sup +} of 5.1. After the initial series of experiments were performed with bottles separated by air gaps, plexiglas shells of varying thicknesses were placed around each bottle to investigate how moderation between bottles affects both the number of bottles required for criticality and the critical spacing between each bottle. The minimum of bottles required for criticality was found to be 10.9 bottles, occurring for a square array with bottles in contact. As the bottles were spaced apart, the critical number increased. For sixteen bottles in a square array, the critical separation between surfaces in both x and y direction was 0.96 cm. The addition of plexiglas around each bottle decreased the critical bottle number, compared to those separated in air, but the critical bottle number, even with interstitial plastic in place was always greater than 10.9 bottles. The most reactive configuration was a tightly packed array of bottles with no intervening material.

  13. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Mineralization for High Organic and Nitrate Waste Streams for the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Williams, M.R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NOx in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 deg. C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 deg. C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {>=}1000 deg. C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NOx. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O. (authors)

  14. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  15. Highly Enriched Uranyl Nitrate in Annular Tanks with Concrete Reflection: 1 x 3 Line Array of Nested Pairs of Tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Cleaver; John D. Bess; Nathan Devine; Fitz Trumble

    2009-09-01

    A series of seven experiments were performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory beginning in August, 1980 (References 1 and 2). Highly enriched uranyl nitrate solution was introduced into a 1-3 linear array of nested stainless steel annular tanks. The tanks were inside a concrete enclosure, with various moderator and absorber materials placed inside and/or between the tanks. These moderators and absorbers included boron-free concrete, borated concrete, borated plaster, and cadmium. Two configurations included placing bottles of highly enriched uranyl nitrate between tanks externally. Another experiment involved nested hemispheres of highly enriched uranium placed between tanks externally. These three configurations are not evaluated in this report. The experiments evaluated here are part of a series of experiments, one set of which is evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-033. The experiments in this and HEU-SOL-THERM-033 were performed similarly. They took place in the same room and used the same tanks, some of the same moderators and absorbers, some of the same reflector panels, and uranyl nitrate solution from the same location. There are probably additional similarities that existed that are not identified here. Thus, many of the descriptions in this report are either the same or similar to those in the HEU-SOL-THERM-033 report. Seventeen configurations (sixteen of which were critical) were performed during seven experiments; six of those experiments are evaluated here with thirteen configurations. Two configurations were identical, except for solution height, and were conducted to test repeatability. The solution heights were averaged and the two were evaluated as one configuration, which gives a total of twelve evaluated configurations. One of the seventeen configurations was subcritical. Of the twelve critical configurations evaluated, nine were judged as acceptable as benchmarks.

  16. Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.N. |

    1994-07-01

    Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place before the occurrence of exothermic reactions that being about 300{degrees}C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction that produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release. Comparisons of this estimated heat release rate with heat transfer rates from a hypothetical ``hot spot`` show that, even in a worst-case scenario, the heat transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions.

  17. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D. ); Cady, H.H. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  18. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Cady, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  19. MOLECULAR APPROACHES FOR IN SITU IDENTIFCIATION OF NITRATE UTILIZATION BY MARINE BACTERIA AND PHYTOPLANKTON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frischer, Marc E.; Verity, Peter G.; Gilligan, Mathew R.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Booth, Melissa G.

    2013-09-12

    Traditionally, the importance of inorganic nitrogen (N) for the nutrition and growth of marine phytoplankton has been recognized, while inorganic N utilization by bacteria has received less attention. Likewise, organic N has been thought to be important for heterotrophic organisms but not for phytoplankton. However, accumulating evidence suggests that bacteria compete with phytoplankton for nitrate (NO3-) and other N species. The consequences of this competition may have a profound effect on the flux of N, and therefore carbon (C), in ocean margins. Because it has been difficult to differentiate between N uptake by heterotrophic bacterioplankton versus autotrophic phytoplankton, the processes that control N utilization, and the consequences of these competitive interactions, have traditionally been difficult to study. Significant bacterial utilization of DIN may have a profound effect on the flux of N and C in the water column because sinks for dissolved N that do not incorporate inorganic C represent mechanisms that reduce the atmospheric CO2 drawdown via the ?biological pump? and limit the flux of POC from the euphotic zone. This project was active over the period of 1998-2007 with support from the DOE Biotechnology Investigations ? Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). Over this period we developed a tool kit of molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Q-PCR, QRT-PCR, and TRFLP) and combined isotope mass spectrometry and flow-cytometric approaches that allow selective isolation, characterization, and study of the diversity and genetic expression (mRNA) of the structural gene responsible for the assimilation of NO3- by heterotrophic bacteria (nasA). As a result of these studies we discovered that bacteria capable of assimilating NO3- are ubiquitous in marine waters, that the nasA gene is expressed in these environments, that heterotrophic bacteria can account for a significant fraction of total DIN uptake in different ocean margin systems, that the expression of nasA is differentially regulated in genetically distinct NO3- assimilating bacteria, and that the best predictors of nasA gene expression are either NO3- concentration or NO3- uptake rates. These studies provide convincing evidence of the importance of bacterial utilization of NO3-, insight into controlling processes, and provide a rich dataset that are being used to develop linked C and N modeling components necessary to evaluate the significance of bacterial DIN utilization to global C cycling. Furthermore, as a result of BI-OMP funding we made exciting strides towards institutionalizing a research and education based collaboration between the Skidaway Institute of Oceanography (SkIO) and Savannah State University (SSU), an historically black university within the University System of Georgia with undergraduate and now graduate programs in marine science. The BI-OMP program, in addition to supporting undergraduate (24) graduate (10) and postdoctoral (2) students, contributed to the development of a new graduate program in Marine Sciences at SSU that remains an important legacy of this project. The long-term goals of these collaborations are to increase the capacity for marine biotechnology research and to increase representation of minorities in marine, environmental and biotechnological sciences.

  20. Fundamental and semi-global kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon combustion. Final report, March 1977-October 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dryer, F L; Glassman, I; Brezinsky, K

    1981-03-01

    Over the past three and one half years, substantial research efforts of the Princeton Fuels Research Group have been directed towards the development of simplified mechanisms which would accurately describe the oxidation of hydrocarbons fuels. The objectives of this combustion research included the study of semi-empirical modeling (that is an overall description) of the chemical kinetic mechanisms of simple hydrocarbon fuels. Such fuels include the alkanes: ethane, propane, butane, hexane and octane as well as the critically important alkenes: ethene, propene and butene. As an extension to this work, the study of the detailed radical species characteristics of combustion systems was initiated as another major aspect of the program, with emphasis on the role of the OH and HO/sub 2/ radicals. Finally, the studies of important alternative fuel problems linked the program to longer range approaches to the energy supply question. Studies of alternative fuels composed the major elements of this area of the program. The efforts on methanol research were completed, and while the aromatics aspects of the DOE work have been a direct extension of efforts supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, they represented a significant part of the overall research effort. The emphasis in the proposed program is to provide further fundamental understanding of the oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels which will be useful in guiding engineering approaches. Although the scope of program ranges from the fundamentals of chemical kinetics to that of alternative fuel combustion, the objective in mind is to provide insight and guidance to the understanding of practical combustion environments. The key to our approach has been our understanding of the fundamental combustion chemistry and its relation to the important practical combustion problems which exist in implementing energy efficient, alternate fuels technologies.