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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compounds as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

2

Method of upgrading oils containing hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a multi-stepped method of converting an oil which is produced by various biomass and coal conversion processes and contains primarily single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds to highly aromatic gasoline. The single and multiple ring hydroxyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds in a raw oil material are first deoxygenated to produce a deoxygenated oil material containing single and multiple ring aromatic compounds. Then, water is removed from the deoxygenated oil material. The next step is distillation to remove the single ring aromatic compouns as gasoline. In the third step, the multiple ring aromatics remaining in the deoxygenated oil material are cracked in the presence of hydrogen to produce a cracked oil material containing single ring aromatic compounds. Finally, the cracked oil material is then distilled to remove the single ring aromatics as gasoline.

Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Elliott, Douglas C. (Richland, WA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon compounds Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack Summary: Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... and detected all of the...

4

Method for removing chlorine compounds from hydrocarbon mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing halide ions from a hydrocarbon feedstream containing halogenated hydrocarbons wherein the contaminated feedstock is contacted with a solution of a suitable oxidizing acid containing a lanthanide oxide, the acid being present in a concentration of at least about 50 weight percent for a time sufficient to remove substantially all of the halide ion from the hydrocarbon feedstock.

Janoski, E.J.; Hollstein, E.J.

1984-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

5

Removal of basic nitrogen compounds from hydrocarbon liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for reducing the concentration of basic nitrogen compounds in hydrocarbonaceous feedstock fluids used in the refining industry by providing a solid particulate carbonaceous adsorbent/fuel material such as coal having active basic nitrogen complexing sites on the surface thereof and the coal with a hydrocarbonaceous feedstock containing basic nitrogen compounds to facilitate attraction of the basic nitrogen compounds to the complexing sites and the formation of complexes thereof on the surface of the coal. The adsorbent coal material and the complexes formed thereon are from the feedstock fluid to provide a hydrocarbonaceous fluid of reduced basic nitrogen compound concentration. The coal can then be used as fuel for boilers and the like.

Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Hoover, David S. (New Tripoli, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and BTEX Compounds in Produced Water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Petroleum Environmental Technologies, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research and Development agreement with the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center to an in-situ pit treatment demonstration and produced water treatment demonstration. The purpose of the test is to demonstrate the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in soil and aqueous matrices where ECOSAFE is applied to enhance the degradation of these contaminants.

Jackson, Lorri

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

INTRODUCTION Asphalt is a mixture of a wide variety of chemical compounds that include aliphatic hydrocarbons and highly fused  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbons and highly fused aromatic ring systems.They are classified as asphaltenes (medium molecular weight

Harms, Kyle E.

8

Observations of nonmethane hydrocarbons and oxygenated volatile organic compounds at a rural site in the southeastern United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurements of an extensive range of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) including alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) including alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes were conducted for several weeks during the summer of 1995 as part of the Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) at a rural experimental site (Youth, Inc.) 32 km southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. These measurements were conducted to (1) determine the absolute magnitude and variability of oxygenated compounds found in a contemporary rural region; (2) assess the importance of the measured ambient levels of OVOCs on a photochemical reactivity basis relative to the more commonly determined NMHCs; and (3) to evaluate our ability to accurately measure oxygenates by the current techniques employed under a field study scenario. Several other physical (temperature, insolation, etc.), meteorological (wind velocity, wind direction, atmospheric structure, and boundary layer height), and chemical (criterion pollutants, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 3}, etc.) parameters were measured concurrently with the NMHC and OVOC measurements. During the study period, OVOCs were consistently the dominant compounds present, and methanol and acetone had the highest mixing ratios. Although OVOCs made up the majority of the volatile organic compound component on a mass basis, a substantial sink for OH was isoprene and its immediate oxidation products, methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone. In combination with CO and formaldehyde, these compounds comprised about 85{percent} of the observed OH reactivity at the site. Acetaldehyde and methanol were responsible for an additional 10{percent}, with the NMHCs and remaining OVOCs making up the final 5{percent} of the measured OH reactivity at the site. These observed patterns reinforce recent studies which find OVOCs to be an important component of the rural troposphere. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

Riemer, Daniel; Pos, Willer; Milne, Peter; Farmer, Charlesk; Zika, Rod [Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States)] [Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (United States)] [Atmospheric Sciences, Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama (United States)] Apel, Eric [Atmospheric Chemistry Group, Mantech Environmental Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)] Olszyna, Ken [National Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (United States)] Kliendienst, Tad [Department of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan (United States)] Lonneman, William [Departments of Chemistry, and Earth and Atmospheric Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana (United States); Shepson, Paul; Starn, Tim

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons based Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aromatic Hydrocarbons Volatile Organic... Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... Rana Novini ATOC 3500 Burn...

10

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons assessment Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aromatic Hydrocarbons Volatile Organic... Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... of airborne soot. The air...

11

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons investigated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

12

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon investigation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

13

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons evaluated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon diol-epoxide Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

15

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon residues Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

16

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons analyses Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons... Prediction of hydrocarbon molecular structure using infrared, Raman,...

17

CULTURAL RATCHETING RESULTS PRIMARILY FROM SEMANTIC COMPRESSION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CULTURAL RATCHETING RESULTS PRIMARILY FROM SEMANTIC COMPRESSION JOANNA J. BRYSON Artificial Models that cultural ratcheting requires the communication of beliefs about #12;hypotheses. Clearly, cultural

Bryson, Joanna J.

18

IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Inorganic Substances, Chlorinated Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Amines, N-Nitroso Compounds,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and Acrolein 1979; 513 pages ISBN 92 832 1219 3 (out of print) Volume 20 Some Halogenated Hydrocarbons 1979

Barthelat, Francois

19

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture over a polymeric membrane which comprises a polymer capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds at temperature ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psi. The membranes which possess pore sizes ranging from about 10 to about 500 Angstroms are cast from a solvent solution and recovered.

Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon receptor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

aromatic hydrocarbons... the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

Chang, Y. Alice (Des Plaines, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic compounds estudo Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

compounds with two multiple-ringed polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or naphthenic hydrocarbons Source: Shaw, John - Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering,...

23

Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

2013-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

24

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Chang, Y. Alice (Westmont, IL); Gatsis, John G. (Des Plaines, IL); Funk, Edward W. (Highland Park, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Membrane separation of hydrocarbons using cycloparaffinic solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heavy crude oils which contain metal contaminants such as nickel, vanadium and iron may be separated from light hydrocarbon oils by passing a solution of the crude oil dissolved in a cycloparaffinic hydrocarbon solvent containing from about 5 to about 8 carbon atoms by passing through a polymeric membrane which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds. The light hydrocarbon oils which possess relatively low molecular weights will be recovered as the permeate while the heavy oils which possess relatively high molecular weights as well as the metal contaminants will be recovered as the retentate.

Kulkarni, S.S.; Chang, Y.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Funk, E.W.

1988-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

26

Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

Reagen, William Kevin (Stillwater, MN); Janikowski, Stuart Kevin (Idaho Falls, ID)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Our planet is becoming increasingly polluted with inorganic and organic compounds, primarily as a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

produced or expected to be present in organ- isms). Many of them are toxic and/or carcinogenic. Sources cleanup in the US, and $25­50 billion per year worldwide (Glass 1999; Tsao 2003). Most remediation that use plants to remove, reduce, degrade, or immobilize environmental pollutants from soil and water

28

Naphthenic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An important type of naphthenic hydrocarbons is the monocyclic type, (k/sub 2/, 0, 0). In this instance the number of carbon atoms, n = k/sub 2/, and a formula, C/sub n/H/sub 2n/, can be written where H/C = 2. The value n can vary from 2 to infinity. In the case of n = 2, it is ethylene (I) (2-membered cyclic ring); n = 3, cyclopropane (II) (3-membered cyclic ring); n = 4, cyclobutane (III) (4-membered cyclic ring); etc. If the monocyclic naphthenic is planar, then the bond angle theta can be expressed as theta = (1 - 2/n)..pi.. where n is the number of carbon atoms. However, the tetrahedron angle of the carbon atom being phi = cos/sup -1/ (- 1/3).

Yen, T.F.; Kuo, J.F.; Chilingarian, G.V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Manmade organic compounds in the surface waters of the United States: A review of current understanding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of their aqueous solubilities, nonionic organic compounds partition themselves between water, dissolved organic matter, particulate organic matter, and the lipid reservoirs of aquatic organisms. Ionized organic compounds can be adsorbed to sediments, thereby reducing their aqueous concentrations. Transformation processes of photolysis, hydrolysis, biodegradation, and volatilization can attenuate organic compounds, and attenuation rates commonly follow a first-order kinetic process. Eight groups of manmade organic compounds are discussed: (1) polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides; (2) carbamate and organophosphorus; (3) herbicides; (4) phenols; (5) halogenated aliphatic and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; (6) phthalate esters; (7) polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and (8) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. For each compound group, data pertaining to use, production, and properties are presented and discussed. Process that influence the environmental fate of each group, as determined primarily through laboratory studies, are reviewed, and important fate process are identified. Environmental concentrations of compounds from each group in water, biota, and sediment are given to demonstrate representative values for comparison to concentrations determined during ongoing research. Finally, where sufficient data exist, regional and temporal contamination trends in the US are discussed. 699 refs., 26 figs., 47 tabs.

Smith, J.A.; Witkowski, P.J.; Fusillo, T.V.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

E-Print Network 3.0 - active aryl hydrocarbon Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

31

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dna Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

32

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon aryl Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

33

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon monooxygenase Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

34

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon nuclear Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

35

E-Print Network 3.0 - ahr aryl hydrocarbon Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

36

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

37

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Receptors in Fishes Summary: the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), through which dioxins and dioxin-like compounds cause altered gene... -methylcholanthrene AHH: aryl...

38

Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced.

Kansa, Edward J. (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Wijesinghe, Ananda M. (Tracy, CA); Viani, Brian E. (Oakland, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Separation of toxic metal ions, hydrophilic hydrocarbons, hydrophobic fuel and halogenated hydrocarbons and recovery of ethanol from a process stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides a process to tremendously reduce the bulk volume of contaminants obtained from an effluent stream produced subsurface remediation. The chemicals used for the subsurface remediation are reclaimed for recycling to the remediation process. Additional reductions in contaminant bulk volume are achieved by the ultra-violet light destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons, and the complete oxidation of hydrophobic fuel hydrocarbons and hydrophilic hydrocarbons. The contaminated bulk volume will arise primarily from the disposal of the toxic metal ions. The entire process is modular, so if there are any technological breakthroughs in one or more of the component process modules, such modules can be readily replaced. 3 figs.

Kansa, E.J.; Anderson, B.L.; Wijesinghe, A.M.; Viani, B.E.

1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

HYDROCARBON-DEGRADING BACTERIA AND SURFACTANT ACTIVITY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fate of benzene ethylbenzene toluene xylenes (BTEX) compounds through biodegradation was investigated using two different bacteria, Ralstonia picketti (BP-20) and Alcaligenes piechaudii (CZOR L-1B). These bacteria were isolated from extremely polluted petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils. PCR and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) were used to identify the isolates. Biodegradation was measured using each organism individually and in combination. Both bacteria were shown to degrade each of the BTEX compounds. Alcaligenes piechaudii biodegraded BTEXs more efficiently while mixed with BP-20 and individually. Biosurfactant production was observed by culture techniques. In addition 3-hydroxy fatty acids, important in biosurfactant production, was observed by FAME analysis. In the all experiments toluene and m+p- xylenes were better growth substrates for both bacteria than the other BTEX compounds. In addition, the test results indicate that the bacteria could contribute to bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) pollution increase biodegradation through the action by biosurfactants.

Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Grazyna A. Plaza, G; jacek Wypych, j

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

OXIDATION OF DRY HYDROCARBONS AT HIGH-POWER DENSITY ANODES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work builds upon discoveries by the University of Pennsylvania and others pertaining to the oxidation of dry hydrocarbon fuels in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. The work reported here was restricted primarily to dry methane and confirms that YSZ-based cells, having ceria in the anode as a catalyst and copper in the anode as a current collector, can operate on dry methane for extended periods. Thirty-three lab-scale cells of various designs were fabricated and operated under a variety of conditions. The longest-lived cell gave stable performance on dry methane at 800 C for over 305 hours. Only slight carbon deposition was noted at the completion of the test. A corresponding nickel/YSZ-based anode would have lasted for less than an hour under these test conditions (which included open circuit potential measurements) before carbon fouling essentially destroyed the cell. The best performing cell achieved 112 mW/cm{sub 2} on dry methane at 800 C. Several problems were encountered with carbon fouling and declining open circuit voltages in many of the test cells after switching from operation on hydrogen to dry methane. Although not rigorously confirmed by experimentation, the results suggested that air infiltration through less than perfect perimeter seals or pinholes in the electrolytes, or both gave rise to conditions that caused the carbon fouling and OCV decline. Small amounts of air reacting with methane in a partial oxidation reaction could produce carbon monoxide that, in turn, would deposit the carbon. If this mechanism is confirmed, it implies that near perfect hardware is required for extended operation. Some evidence was also found for the formation of electrical shorts, probably from carbon deposits bridging the electrolyte. Work with odorized methane and with methane containing 100-ppm hydrogen sulfide confirmed that copper is stable at 800 C in dry hydrocarbon fuels in the presence of sulfur. In a number of cases, but not exclusively, the performance life on dry methane with sulfur compounds was much longer than with dry methane alone. The effect of sulfur compounds in these cases appeared to correlate with inhibition of carbon deposition. Mixed results were obtained for the effect of the sulfur compounds on power density. Progress also was made in understanding the mechanisms involved in direct utilization of dry natural gas. Evidence was developed for three possible mechanisms for dry methane utilization in addition to the usually cited mechanism--direct oxidation of methane by oxygen anions. Further work is required at a fundamental level before the knowledge gained here can be translated into higher levels of performance.

K.Krist; O. Spaldon-Stewart; R. Remick

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

A generalized viscosity equation for pure heavy hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a method for the correlation and prediction of the viscosity of pure heavy hydrocarbons listed in API Research Project 42. The 273 heavy hydrocarbons in the database include branched/unbranched paraffins and olefins together with a variety of complex nonfused/fused aromatic and naphthenic compounds. A generalized one-parameter viscosity-temperature equation, log ({mu} + 0.8) = 100(0.01T){sup b}, is proposed (overall AAD {lt} 7-10%) for all heavy hydrocarbons in the database. For each hydrocarbon, an optimum value of parameter b is provided. It is shown that parameter b varies linearly with the logarithm of molar mass as well as the inverse of boiling temperature (at 10 mmHg). This important observation leads to the development of a predictive method for the liquid-phase viscosity of pure heavy hydrocarbons.

Mehrotra, A.K. (Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (CA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Boron-containing amino carboxylic acid compounds and uses thereof  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Novel compounds which are useful for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are disclosed. The compounds comprise a stable boron-containing group and an aminocycloalkane carboxylic acid group or a boronated acyclic hydrocarbon-linked amino carboxylic acid. Methods for synthesis of the compounds and for use of the compounds in BNCT are disclosed.

Kabalka, George W. (Knoxville, TN); Srivastava, Rajiv R. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

45

Preliminary Geospatial Analysis of Arctic Ocean Hydrocarbon Resources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ice coverage of the Arctic Ocean is predicted to become thinner and to cover less area with time. The combination of more ice-free waters for exploration and navigation, along with increasing demand for hydrocarbons and improvements in technologies for the discovery and exploitation of new hydrocarbon resources have focused attention on the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Basin and its margins. The purpose of this document is to 1) summarize results of a review of published hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic, including both conventional oil and gas and methane hydrates and 2) develop a set of digital maps of the hydrocarbon potential of the Arctic Ocean. These maps can be combined with predictions of ice-free areas to enable estimates of the likely regions and sequence of hydrocarbon production development in the Arctic. In this report, conventional oil and gas resources are explicitly linked with potential gas hydrate resources. This has not been attempted previously and is particularly powerful as the likelihood of gas production from marine gas hydrates increases. Available or planned infrastructure, such as pipelines, combined with the geospatial distribution of hydrocarbons is a very strong determinant of the temporal-spatial development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources. Significant unknowns decrease the certainty of predictions for development of hydrocarbon resources. These include: 1) Areas in the Russian Arctic that are poorly mapped, 2) Disputed ownership: primarily the Lomonosov Ridge, 3) Lack of detailed information on gas hydrate distribution, and 4) Technical risk associated with the ability to extract methane gas from gas hydrates. Logistics may control areas of exploration more than hydrocarbon potential. Accessibility, established ownership, and leasing of exploration blocks may trump quality of source rock, reservoir, and size of target. With this in mind, the main areas that are likely to be explored first are the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea, in spite of the fact that these areas do not have highest potential for future hydrocarbon reserves. Opportunities for improving the mapping and assessment of Arctic hydrocarbon resources include: 1) Refining hydrocarbon potential on a basin-by-basin basis, 2) Developing more realistic and detailed distribution of gas hydrate, and 3) Assessing the likely future scenarios for development of infrastructure and their interaction with hydrocarbon potential. It would also be useful to develop a more sophisticated approach to merging conventional and gas hydrate resource potential that considers the technical uncertainty associated with exploitation of gas hydrate resources. Taken together, additional work in these areas could significantly improve our understanding of the exploitation of Arctic hydrocarbons as ice-free areas increase in the future.

Long, Philip E.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Sullivan, E. C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Bradley, Donald J.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

NATURAL MARINE HYDROCARBON SEEPAGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

affects ocean chemistry (Dando and Hovland, 1992) and provides a natural source of petroleum pollution the water column above submarine vents, plumes of hydrocarbon gas bubbles act as acoustic scattering targets

Luyendyk, Bruce

47

Hydrocarbon desulfurization process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for converting a sour hydrocarbon feedstock having a relatively high sulfur content to a hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content comprising the steps of: (a) hydrodesulfurizing the feedstock having a relatively high sulfur contact with hydrogen to produce the hydrocarbon product having a relatively low sulfur content and hydrogen sulfide gas; (b) contacting the hydrogen sulfide gas with an anthraquinone dissolved in a polar organic solvent having a polarity greater than about 3 Debye units to produce sulfur and an anthrahydroquinone in the solvent; (c) regenerating the anthraquinone from the anthrahydroquinone upon contact with air to produce the anthraquinone and hydrogen peroxide; (d) recycling the anthraquinone to step (b); (e) reducing the hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water; (f) partially oxidizing a hydrocarbon fuel with the oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen; and (g) recycling the hydrogen to step (a).

Plummer, M.A.; Zimmerman, C.C. Jr.

1986-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

48

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic organic compounds Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack Summary: Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... and detected all of the...

49

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic chemical compounds Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bases in Iraq and Afghanistan that lack Summary: Compounds Toxic Organic Halogenated Dioxins Furans (dioxins) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons found... in burn pits include, but...

50

A study of the structure of the hydrocarbons of primary hard-coal tar  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrocarbons isolated from primary hard-coal (G/sub 6/ gas coal) tar have been investigated by a combination of physicochemical and chemical methods. It has been established that the hydrocarbons boiling up to 573 K are mainly aliphatic, hydroaromatic, and naphthenic and are aromatic only to a smaller degree. Molecular and presumable structural formulas of the oxygen compounds isolated from the 473-573 K hydrocarbon fraction have been derived.

Platonov, V.V.; Gerasimova, N.I.; Ivleva, L.N.; Klyavina, O.A.; Vishnyakov, S.N.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Process for conversion of lignin to reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for converting lignin into high-quality reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline compositions in high yields is disclosed. The process is a two-stage, catalytic reaction process that produces a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product with a controlled amount of aromatics. In the first stage, a lignin material is subjected to a base-catalyzed depolymerization reaction in the presence of a supercritical alcohol as a reaction medium, to thereby produce a depolymerized lignin product. In the second stage, the depolymerized lignin product is subjected to a sequential two-step hydroprocessing reaction to produce a reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product. In the first hydroprocessing step, the depolymerized lignin is contacted with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst to produce a hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product. In the second hydroprocessing step, the hydrodeoxygenated intermediate product is contacted with a hydrocracking/ring hydrogenation catalyst to produce the reformulated hydrocarbon gasoline product which includes various desirable naphthenic and paraffinic compounds.

Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Zmierczak, Wlodzimierz W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Chornet, Esteban (Golden, CO)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

52

Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Dispersant solutions for dispersing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dispersant solution includes a hydrocarbon dispersing solution derived from a bacterium from ATCC 75527, ATCC 75529, or ATCC 55638.

Tyndall, R.L.

1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

54

Hydrocarbon cracking catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a catalyst composition for cracking hydrocarbons to maximize gasoline comprising: rare earth exchanged ''Y'' crystalline faujasite dispersed in a clay containing matrix material; and which has been subsequently further ion exchanged to contain 0.20 to 3.0 wt% yttrium, calculated as the oxide, whereby the yttrium is chemically combined in the catalyst composition.

Lochow, C.F.; Kovacs, D.B.

1988-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

55

FROM INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND ICE TO ASTROBIOLOGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

photolysis of these ices produces a host of new compounds, some of which show intriguing prebiotic behavior1 FROM INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND ICE TO ASTROBIOLOGY LOUIS J. ALLAMANDOLA, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon

56

EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES Foundation FOUNDATION EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES are used primarily by Accounting Services for Foundation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES ­ Foundation 2-J page 1 FOUNDATION EXPENDITURE OBJECT CODES are used primarily by Accounting Services for Foundation transactions. 3080 Foundation Service Fee: Allocation of administrative costs to Foundation beneficiary departmental accounts. 3120 LSU Magazine Costs - Foundation

Harms, Kyle E.

57

Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

58

Hydrodesulfurization catalyst by Chevrel phase compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the hydrodesulfurization of sulfur-containing hydrocarbon fuel with reduced ternary molybdenum sulfides, known as Chevrel phase compounds. Chevrel phase compounds of the general composition M/sub x/Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with M being Ho, Pb, Sn, Ag, In, Cu, Fe, Ni, or Co, were found to have hydrodesulfurization activities comparable to model unpromoted and cobalt-promoted MoS/sub 2/ catalysts. The most active catalysts were the ''large'' cation compounds (Ho, Pb, Sn), and the least active catalysts were the ''small'' cation compounds (Cu, Fe, Ni, Co.).

McCarty, K.F.; Schrader, G.L.

1985-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

59

Process for separating an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for separating an ethylenically unsaturated hydrocarbon from a hydrocarbon mixture characterized by: (a) distilling a hydrocarbon mixture containing the unsaturated hydrocarbon with an N-(aminoalkyl) piperazine; and (b) separating the amine/hydrocarbon mixture into at least two factions, one of which contains the amine and the unsaturated hydrocarbon.

vanEijl, A.T.

1986-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

60

Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of economically significant amounts of ethyl and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene, from coal is disclosed wherein coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500.degree. C. to 1100.degree. C. at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

Steinberg, Meyer (Huntington Station, NY); Fallon, Peter (East Moriches, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Weather encapsulates the state of the atmosphere, primarily involving the component which affects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 #12;2 Weather encapsulates the state of the atmosphere, primarily involving the component which and Telegraph readers tend to use oF #12;5 The human body has an energy balance just like the Earth (solar range in larger on still, clear days, when solar heating is strong at the surface and is not offset

Allan, Richard P.

62

Hydrocarbon conversion catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.35A, a water absorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of at least 8% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; an alumina binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Hydrocarbon sensors and materials therefor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An electrochemical hydrocarbon sensor and materials for use in sensors. A suitable proton conducting electrolyte and catalytic materials have been found for specific application in the detection and measurement of non-methane hydrocarbons. The sensor comprises a proton conducting electrolyte sandwiched between two electrodes. At least one of the electrodes is covered with a hydrocarbon decomposition catalyst. Two different modes of operation for the hydrocarbon sensors can be used: equilibrium versus non-equilibrium measurements and differential catalytic. The sensor has particular application for on-board monitoring of automobile exhaust gases to evaluate the performance of catalytic converters. In addition, the sensor can be utilized in monitoring any process where hydrocarbons are exhausted, for instance, industrial power plants. The sensor is low cost, rugged, sensitive, simple to fabricate, miniature, and does not suffer cross sensitivities.

Pham, Ai Quoc (San Jose, CA); Glass, Robert S. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in marine sediments near Kitimat, British Columbia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), like many other hydrophobic organic contaminants, are rapidly sorbed to particles and incorporated within sediments in aquatic systems. The PAH composition within the sediments reflects the source(s) from which the PAHs were derived. However, the ``source signature`` may be altered by postdepositional weathering or biodegradation. In the present study, variation in PAH composition was investigated in size-fractionated sediments and depth-fractionated sediments collected from a Canadian fjord contaminated with aluminum smelter derived PAHs. Multivariate analyses of PAH compositional data consistently showed that different sampling sites could be discriminated on the basis of their PAH composition, but smaller versus larger size fractions within a site could not. The composition of unsubstituted and alkyl-substituted PAHs in a sediment core primarily showed changes with depth that were attributable to enhancement of anthropogenic inputs in the upper core segments. No trends with sediment depth, associated with compound-specific weathering or biotransformation, were noted in the composition of anthropogenically generated PAHs. This may indicate a limited chemical and biological availability of the aluminum smelter derived PAHs.

Simpson, C.D.; Harrington, C.F.; Cullen, W.R. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Chemistry Dept.] [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada). Chemistry Dept.; Bright, D.A.; Reimer, K.J. [Royal Roads Military College, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). Environmental Sciences Group] [Royal Roads Military College, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada). Environmental Sciences Group

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Process for recovering hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon-bearing formation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for transporting heavy crude oil through a pipeline which involves introducing into a pipeline or well-bore with the viscous hydrocarbons an aqueous solution containing (1) a sulfonate surfactant, (2) a rosin soap or a naphthenic acid soap and, optionally (3) coupling agent whereby there is spontaneously formed a low viscosity, salt tolerant, oil-in-water emulsion. Also disclosed is a method of recovery of hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon bearing formation employing an aqueous solution containing (1) a sulfonate surfactant, (2) a rosin soap or a naphthenic acid soap and, optionally (3) a coupling agent.

Alston, R.B.; Braden, W.B.; Flournoy, K.H.

1980-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

66

Polybenzimidazole compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Chubbuck, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Trowbridge, Tammy L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

67

Polybenzimidazole compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID); Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

68

Ethanol Conversion to Hydrocarbons on HZSM-5: Effect of Reaction Conditions and Si/Al Ratio on the Product Distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon over HZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios was investigated under various reaction conditions. The catalyst with a higher Si/Al ratio (low acid density) deactivated faster and generated more unsaturated compounds at a similar time-on-stream. Temperature affects the catalytic activity with respect to liquid hydrocarbon generation and the hydrocarbon product composition. At lower temperatures (~300°C), the catalyst deactivated faster with respect to the liquid hydrocarbon formation. Higher temperatures (~400°C) reduced the formation of liquid range hydrocarbons and formed more gaseous fractions. Weight hourly space velocity was also found to affect product selectivity with higher weight hourly space velocity leading to a higher extent of ethylene formation. The experimental results were analyzed in terms of the product composition and the coke content with respect to catalyst time-on-stream and compared with the catalyst lifetime with respect to the variables tested on the conversion of ethanol to hydrocarbon.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

69

Method and apparatus for converting and removing organosulfur and other oxidizable compounds from distillate fuels, and compositions obtained thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure is directed to a multi-stage system and a process utilizing said system with the design of reducing the sulfur-content in a liquid comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds. The process comprising at least one of the following states: (1) an oxidation stage; (2) an extraction state; (3) a raffinate washing stage; (4) a raffinate polishing stage; (5) a solvent recovery stage; (6) a solvent purification stage; and (7) a hydrocarbon recovery stage. The process for removing sulfur-containing hydrocarbons from gas oil, which comprises oxidizing gas oil comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds to obtain a product gas oil.

D'Alessandro, Robert N. (Spanish Fort, AL); Tarabocchia, John (Parsippany, NJ); Jones, Jerald Andrew (Frankfurt am Main, DE); Bonde, Steven E. (West Richard, WA); Leininger, Stefan (Langenselbold, DE)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

70

Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

Yang; Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

2010-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

71

Enrichment of light hydrocarbon mixture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Light hydrocarbon enrichment is accomplished using a vertically oriented distillation column having a plurality of vertically oriented, nonselective micro/mesoporous hollow fibers. Vapor having, for example, both propylene and propane is sent upward through the distillation column in between the hollow fibers. Vapor exits neat the top of the column and is condensed to form a liquid phase that is directed back downward through the lumen of the hollow fibers. As vapor continues to ascend and liquid continues to countercurrently descend, the liquid at the bottom of the column becomes enriched in a higher boiling point, light hydrocarbon (propane, for example) and the vapor at the top becomes enriched in a lower boiling point light hydrocarbon (propylene, for example). The hollow fiber becomes wetted with liquid during the process.

Yang, Dali (Los Alamos, NM); Devlin, David (Santa Fe, NM); Barbero, Robert S. (Santa Cruz, NM); Carrera, Martin E. (Naperville, IL); Colling, Craig W. (Warrenville, IL)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

72

Chlorinated hydrocarbons in peat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrations (ng/g), accumulation rates (ug/m/sup 2/=yr) and burdens were determined for DDT (1,1,1-trichlorophenyl2-2'bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and a,b,g-hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in peat cores taken across the mid-latitudes of North America. Because peat bogs are ombrotrophic, thereby receiving all contaminant inputs from the atmosphere and because peat cores were dated, atmospheric input functions were constructed for all of the compounds listed above excepting the HCHs. Compound inventories (burdens) in peat cores of PCBs, HCB, HCHs, Toxaphene, DDT, Pb and Zn were compared, indicating a strong influence from areas proximate to industrial sources and the atmospheric transport from source regions. Untransformed parent DDT (p,p' and o,p'-DDT) in surface peat and in precipitation provides evidence for the long range transport of DDT from neighboring countries where use has increased over the past 10-15 years. Present accumulation rates of DDT in peat are about 10-20% of maximum levels associated with peak use in the US around 1960. The DDT input function that was developed can be used to date peat cores. Transformations of DDT and PCBs were also examined in peat cores. First order transformation rates of DDT (p,p' and o,p') to DDD in anaerobic peat core environments ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 yr/sup -1/ with differences related to temperature. Aerobic transformation of PCB congeners in peat cores and microcosms was rapid for 2,3 and several 4 chlorinated congeners (T/sub 1/2 less than or equal to 0.2 to 3 years) and declined with increasing chlorine number.

Rapaport, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Biological enhancement of hydrocarbon extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of microbial enhanced oil recovery for recovering oil from an oil-bearing rock formation is provided. The methodology uses a consortium of bacteria including a mixture of surfactant producing bacteria and non-surfactant enzyme producing bacteria which may release hydrocarbons from bitumen containing sands. The described bioprocess can work with existing petroleum recovery protocols. The consortium microorganisms are also useful for treatment of above oil sands, ground waste tailings, subsurface oil recovery, and similar materials to enhance remediation and/or recovery of additional hydrocarbons from the materials.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

74

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many different degradation reactions of chlorinated hydrocarbons are possible in natural ground waters. In order to identify which degradation reactions are important, a large number of possible reaction pathways must be sorted out. Recent advances in ab initio electronic structure methods have the potential to help identify relevant environmental degradation reactions by characterizing the thermodynamic properties of all relevant contaminant species and intermediates for which experimental data is usually not available, as well as provide activation energies for relevant pathways. In this paper, strategies based on ab initio electronic structure methods for estimating thermochemical and kinetic properties of reactions with chlorinated hydrocarbons are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on strategies that are computationally fast and can be used for large organochlorine compounds such as 4,4?-DDT.

Bylaska, Eric J.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, Wei (Cambridge, MA); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria (Winchester, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

1996-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

77

Identification of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is primarily expressed in Brain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

CoA and its derivatives Acetyl-CoA and Acyl-CoA are important players in cellular metabolism and signal transduction. CoA synthase is a bifunctional enzyme which mediates the final stages of CoA biosynthesis. In previous studies, we have reported molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and subcellular localization of CoA synthase (CoASy). Here, we describe the existence of a novel CoA synthase isoform, which is the product of alternative splicing and possesses a 29aa extension at the N-terminus. We termed it CoASy {beta} and originally identified CoA synthase, CoASy {alpha}. The transcript specific for CoASy {beta} was identified by electronic screening and by RT-PCR analysis of various rat tissues. The existence of this novel isoform was further confirmed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies directed to the N-terminal peptide of CoASy {beta}. In contrast to CoASy {alpha}, which shows ubiquitous expression, CoASy {beta} is primarily expressed in Brain. Using confocal microscopy, we demonstrated that both isoforms are localized on mitochondria. The N-terminal extension does not affect the activity of CoA synthase, but possesses a proline-rich sequence which can bring the enzyme into complexes with signalling proteins containing SH3 or WW domains. The role of this novel isoform in CoA biosynthesis, especially in Brain, requires further elucidation.

Nemazanyy, Ivan [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine)]. E-mail: nemazanyy@imbg.org.ua; Panasyuk, Ganna [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Breus, Oksana [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Zhyvoloup, Alexander [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Filonenko, Valeriy [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Gout, Ivan T. [Department of Structure and Function of Nucleic Acids, Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 150 Zabolotnogo St, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine) and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: i.gout@ucl.ac.uk

2006-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

78

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Estimating The Thermodynamics And Kinetics Of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation. Abstract: Many...

79

aromatic hydrocarbon components: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS 2005 April 19 ABSTRACT Interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) infrared emission features 26 Dehydrogenation of polycyclic aromatic...

80

Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons William Hanshaw, Marjorie Nutt, and James S. Chickos* Department of Chemistry enthalpies, they can provide sublimation enthalpies of compounds that are too nonvolatile to be measured of a sublimation enthalpy measurement. Despite their usefulness, there is only a limited amount of such data

Chickos, James S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the upgrading of woody biomass derived synthesis gas (syngas) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and lowest risk conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas-to-hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel- and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Talmadge, M.; Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

83

Occurrence of chlorinated polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic compounds in tap waters were extracted by a modified continuous liquid-liquid extractor and analyzed by computerized gas chromatography/mass spectrometry using a fused silica capillary column. The results indicate the presence of monochlorinated derivatives of naphthalene, dibenzofuran, fluorene, fluorenone, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene and dichlorinated derivatives of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. The parent polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their oxygenated derivatives such as fluorenone and anthraquinone were also found. It was demonstrated that chlorinated PAHs (Cl-PAHs) were really present in tap waters at 10/sup -1/-10/sup -2/ ng/L levels.

Shiraishi, H.; Pilkington, N.H.; Otsuki, A.; Fuwa, K.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

Shah, Yatish T. [Norfolk State University; Gardner, Todd H. [U.S. DOE

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Underground caverns for hydrocarbon storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Large, international gas processing projects and growing LPG imports in developing countries are driving the need to store large quantities of hydrocarbon liquids. Even though underground storage is common in the US, many people outside the domestic industry are not familiar with the technology and the benefits underground storage can offer. The latter include lower construction and operating costs than surface storage, added safety, security and greater environmental acceptance.

Barron, T.F. [Exeter Energy Services, Houston, TX (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

86

Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

Song, Chunshan (State College, PA); Ma, Xiaoliang (State College, PA); Sprague, Michael J. (Calgary, CA); Subramani, Velu (State College, PA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

87

Process for the production of ethylene and other hydrocarbons from coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is claimed for the production of substantial amounts of ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds, such as benzene from coal. Coal is reacted with methane at a temperature in the approximate range of 500/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C at a partial pressure less than about 200 psig for a period of less than 10 seconds, and preferably at a temperature of approximately 850/sup 0/C, and a partial pressure of 50 psig for a period of approximately 2 seconds. Ethylene and other hydrocarbon compounds may be separated from the product stream so produced, and the methane recycled for further production of ethylene. In another embodiment, other compounds produced, such as by-product tars, may be burned to heat the recycled methane.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.

1982-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

88

Tailoring hydrocarbon streams for asphaltene removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oilfield production is often hindered by asphaltene precipitation which tends to fill the pores of the reservoir rocks and plug the wellbore tubing as well as the other auxiliary equipment used during crude oil recovery. Several remedies to remove these deposits have been proposed and patented but the injection of aromatic solvents such as toluene and light petroleum distillates is normally preferred. Previous studies with a number of pure aromatic hydrocarbons have shown that the solvent capacity of these molecules may be very different and that the degree of condensation plays an important role. In this regard, tetralins and naphthalenes are superior to alkylbenzenes. However, because the use of pure compounds is not economically feasible, the authors examined various industrial streams and the authors correlated their chemical composition to the solvent capacity. This work allowed the identification of the pseudo-components whose relative concentration is crucial for evaluating the solvent performances. Based on these data, the authors were able to find new products with ideal characteristics. The efficiency of one of these products was confirmed by the analysis of the data obtained when using this new solvent to remove asphaltene in damaged wells of an Italian field.

Del Bianco, A.; Stroppa, F.; Bertero, L.

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Application of advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

advanced hydrocarbon characterization and its consequences on future fuel properties and advanced combustion research Rafal Gieleciak, Craig Fairbridge and Darcy Hager Poster...

90

Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. The process includes providing a film of a fuel source including at least one organic compound on a wall of a reactor, contacting the fuel source with a source of oxygen, forming a vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen, and contacting the vaporized mixture of fuel and oxygen with a catalyst under conditions effective to produce a reaction product including a carbon containing compound. Preferred products include .alpha.-olefins and synthesis gas. A preferred catalyst is a supported metal catalyst, preferably including rhodium, platinum, and mixtures thereof.

Schmidt, Lanny D.; Krummenacher, Jakob J.; West, Kevin N.

2007-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

92

Distribution and elimination routes of a naphthenic hydrocarbon (Dodecylcyclohexane) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contamination of fish by hydrocarbons, whether it occurred directly via the water or indirectly via the food chain has been the object of many studies during the last decade. The interest of laboratories have been focused on the most toxic components of crude oils, i.e., aromatic hydrocarbons but there is a lack of information on the fate of cyclic alkanes in fish. Naphthenic hydrocarbons are the least biologically active of the more mobile fractions of petroleum; nevertheless the fate of these compounds are worth considering, because they constitute respectively 41% and 19.2% of light and heavy crude oils. This paper reports the results of our experiment in which /sup 3/H-dodecylcyclohexane has been given per os to rainbow trout in order to evaluate the distribution and elimination routes of this cycloparaffin.

Cravedi, J.P.; Tulliez, J.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons for fullerene synthesis in flames  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention provides improved methods for combustion synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, employing multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels selected for high carbon conversion to extractable fullerenes. The multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels include those that contain polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. More specifically, multiple-ring aromatic hydrocarbon fuels contain a substantial amount of indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof. Coal tar and petroleum distillate fractions provide low cost hydrocarbon fuels containing polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including without limitation, indene, methylnapthalenes or mixtures thereof.

Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.

2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

94

Hydrocarbon conversion process and catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils into products of lower average molecular weight and lower average boiling point. It comprises contacting hydrocarbon oil at a temperature between 250{sup 0}C and 500{sup 0}C and a pressure up to 300 bar in the presence of hydrogen with a catalyst consisting essentially of a Y zeolite modified to have a unit cell size below 24.40 A, a water adsorption capacity (at 25{sup 0}C and a rho/rho/sub o/ value of 0.2) of between 10% and 15% by weight of the zeolite and a pore volume of at least 0.25 ml/g wherein between 10% and 60% of the total pore volume is made up of pores having a diameter of at least 8 nm; am amorphous cracking component, a binder and at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of a Group VI metal, a Group VIII metal and mixtures thereof.

Hoek, A.; Huizinga, T.; Maxwell, I.E.

1989-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Natural attenuation: Chlorinated and recalcitrant compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural, or intrinsic, attenuation is an increasingly important component of site closure strategy. At first maligned as a do-nothing alternative, natural attenuation is now being recognized as a legitimate approach that can supplement and sometimes even supplant more costly approaches. Having gained more widespread acceptance as an option at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, natural attenuation is now beginning to emerge as an option for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and other recalcitrant compounds such as MTBE. This book brings together the latest research and field applications, with chapters covering field characterization and monitoring, transformation processes, natural attenuation of MTBE, and a number of natural attenuation case studies.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

96

Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tensile Effective Stresses in Hydrocarbon Storage Caverns Hippolyte Djizanne and Pierre Bérest LMS, Germany,1-2 October 2012 TENSILE EFFECTIVE STRESSES IN HYDROCARBON STORAGE CAVERNS Hippolyte Djizanne1 that effective tensile stresses can be generated at a cavern wall after a rapid increase or decrease in pressure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

Greenbaum, E.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

99

Low-Temperature Hydrocarbon/CO Oxidation Catalysis in Support...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

& Publications Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI Emission Control Low-Temperature HydrocarbonCO Oxidation Catalysis in Support of HCCI...

100

Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Commercialization of IH2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster presented at the 16th Directions...

102

Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

Heller, John P. (Socorro, NM); Dandge, Dileep K. (Socorro, NM)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in {>=}50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Roossink, Frank; Graeff, Pauline de [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Pras, Elisabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Schuuring, Ed [Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Wisman, G. Bea A. [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Bock, Geertruida H. de [Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zee, Ate G.J. van der, E-mail: a.g.j.van.der.zee@og.umcg.n [Department of Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Chlorinated hydrocarbons in flatfishes from the Southern California, USA, Bight  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although inputs of chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds to the Southern California Bight (SCB) are presently low, historical deposits represent a source of bioaccumulation potential to sediment-associated fauna. To assess this bioaccumulation potential, 14 chlorinated hydrocarbon classes were measured in livers of three species of flatfish collected from 63 randomly selected sites on the coastal shelf between Point Conception and the United States-Mexico international border. Tissue contamination was widespread throughout the SCB, but was limited to just two chlorinated hydrocarbon classes. Virtually 100% of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) and longfin sanddab (Citharichthys xanthostigma) populations were estimated to be contaminated with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (total DDT = sum of o.p{prime} and p,p{prime} isomers of DDT + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE] + dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]) and/or polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs). Total DDT also contaminated the majority (64%) of the Dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) population in the SCB. Total PCB measurements in tissues of SCB flatfish were dominated by 12 congeners (52, 66, 87, 101, 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 170, 180, and 187), which averaged 95% of the combined mass of the 27 congeners analyzed. Sediment concentrations accounted for most of the variability observed in tissue concentrations for 8 of these 12 congeners and total PCBs. Normalized sediment concentrations were also significantly correlated to normalized tissue concentrations for total DDT and p,p{prime}-DDE. Tissue concentrations measured in this study from reference areas of the SCB were compared to tissue concentrations measured form reference areas in studies conducted in 1977 and 1985. Total DDT and total PCB liver concentrations were found to have decreased one to two orders of magnitude in pacific and longfin sanddabs between 1985 and 1994. Total DDT and total PCB liver concentrations decreased 5- to 35-fold in Dover sole between 1977 and 1994.

Schiff, K.; Allen, M.J.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Selective photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A selective photooxidation process for the conversion of hydrocarbon molecules to partially oxygenated derivatives, which comprises the steps of adsorbing a hydrocarbon and oxygen onto a dehydrated zeolite support matrix to form a hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair, and subsequently exposing the hydrocarbon-oxygen contact pair to visible light, thereby forming a partially oxygenated derivative.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Berkeley, CA); Sun, Hai (Berkeley, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Water solubility data for 151 hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solubility of a hydrocarbon in water is important from both an environmental and a safety perspective. This information is required by engineers who design or operate stripping processes that remove hydrocarbons from air or water, or who must determine the amount of a hydrocarbon that has dissolved in water following a chemical spill. In particular, the water solubilities of paraffins are increasingly important because of more-stringent government regulations. Paraffins, along with naphthenes and aromatics, are the three major components of unrefined fuels. The water solubilities of 151 paraffins are listed in tables. The data are valid between 25 and 121 C, typical temperature in air- and steam-stripping operations. Also included is a correlation equation that allows users to estimate hydrocarbon solubilities above the given temperature range.

Yaws, C.L.; Pan, Xiang; Lin, Xiaoyin (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons using biosurfactants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that bioavailability of the crude oil to the microorganisms limited the degradation rates (Mills, 1994). Preliminary experiments at our laboratories have also indicated enhanced solubilities of petroleum hydrocarbons due to the effects of biosurfactants (Kanga et al...

Kanga, Shahrukh

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Removal of trace olefins from aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for treating a hydrocarbon process stream by converting trace quantities of olefinic impurities to nonolefinic hydrocarbons. The process comprises contacting the process stream, which contains trace olefins in an amount of from about 50 to about 2000 as measured by Bromine Index and at least 80% by weight of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons having from 6 to 20 carbon atoms per molecule, at reaction conditions which ensure liquid phase operation with a solid catalyst composite comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite and a refractory inorganic oxide. A catalytic olefin-consuming alkylation reaction then produces an essentially olefinfree product stream with approximately the same quantity and distribution of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons as contained in the process stream.

Sachtler, J.W.A.; Barger, P.T.

1989-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

109

Elements & Compounds Atoms (Elements)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;Elements & Compounds #12;Atoms (Elements) Molecules (Compounds) Cells Elements & Compounds #12 #12;First shell Second shell Third shell Hydrogen 1H Lithium 3Li Sodium 11Na Beryllium 4Be Magnesium energy Higher energy (a) A ball bouncing down a flight of stairs provides an analogy for energy levels

Frey, Terry

110

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons estimated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geosciences 26 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: estimated for many hydrocarbons 26, 27. The MIR of a hydrocarbon is the...

111

Corrosion inhibitors in hydrocarbon systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An attempt has been made to provide directions to select the various corrosion inhibitors for different areas of petroleum industry based on their available structure-activity relationship. The present review highlights the utility of most of the inhibitors (used in production, handling, and distillation of crude oils) which are either N-containing compounds or their derivatives. The action of specific corrosion inhibitors used in oil well acidizing, refining units handling naphthenic acid crudes, and amine gas absorbers has been explained. Emphasis has been laid on the dependence of the inhibitor performance on the type of the test method used for its evaluation. 54 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Jayaraman, A.; Saxena, R.C. [Indian Inst. of Petroleum, Dehra Dun (India)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This pathway case investigates the upgrading of biomass derived synthesis gas (‘syngas’) to hydrocarbon biofuels. While this specific discussion focuses on the conversion of syngas via a methanol intermediate to hydrocarbon blendstocks, there are a number of alternative conversion routes for production of hydrocarbons through a wide array of intermediates from syngas. Future work will also consider the variations to this pathway to determine the most economically viable and risk adverse conversion route. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the syngas to hydrocarbon pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range blendstocks.

Talmadge, M.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne B.; Meyer, Pimphan A.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

Electric Turbo Compounding Technology Update  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Turbo Compounding Technology Update Electric Turbo Compounding Technology Update 15 August, 2007 Carl Vuk 15 August, 2007 Carl Vuk Electric Turbo Compounding Highlights Electric...

114

Role of minerals in formation of hydrocarbons during pyrolysis of organic matter - a material balance approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Monterey Formation and Green River Formation kerogens (types II and I, respectively) were isolated, mixed with common sedimentary minerals, and pyrolyzed under dry and hydrous conditions for various times and temperatures. Analysis of all the pyrolyses products were conducted to perform a material balance and to infer reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Material balance of the pyrolyses products, in the presence and absence of minerals, reveals that the kerogen degradation results in the formation of bitumen rich in high molecular weight compounds in the initial stages, followed by additional cracking of kerogen and bitumen. However, amount and type of hydrocarbons in the pyrolyses products of kerogen in the presence of montmorillonite are markedly different from those produced by heating kerogen alone or with other minerals. The initial amounts of products in the presence of montmorillonite, and in particular the quantities of low molecular weight hydrocarbons, are higher than those in the presence of illite, calcite, and kerogen alone. The composition of these low molecular weight compounds is dominated by branched hydrocarbons, indicating catalytic cracking via carbonium ion mechanism, which is initiated on acidic sites of the clay. Composition differences are evident also in the distribution of n-alkanes and in the pristane/phytane ratio. The catalytic effect of montmorillonite, however, disappears in the presence of excess water. These differences may have important implications for the composition and quantities of petroleum generated from source rocks with different mineralogies.

Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

Yarbro, Stephen Lee

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

116

Catalysts for synthesizing various short chain hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus (10), including novel photocatalysts, are disclosed for the synthesis of various short chain hydrocarbons. Light-transparent SiO.sub.2 aerogels doped with photochemically active uranyl ions (18) are fluidized in a fluidized-bed reactor (12) having a transparent window (16), by hydrogen and CO, C.sub.2 H.sub.4 or C.sub.2 H.sub.6 gas mixtures (20), and exposed to radiation (34) from a light source (32) external to the reactor (12), to produce the short chain hydrocarbons (36).

Colmenares, Carlos (Alamo, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

XAFS Model Compound Library  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

Newville, Matthew

118

Selective Sorbents For Purification Of Hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal ion that is adapted to form p-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by p-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T. (Ann Arbor, MI); Yang, Frances H. (Ann Arbor, MI); Takahashi, Akira (Yoko-Machi, JP); Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

119

Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.

2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Selective sorbents for purification of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for removing thiophene and thiophene compounds from liquid fuel includes contacting the liquid fuel with an adsorbent which preferentially adsorbs the thiophene and thiophene compounds. The adsorption takes place at a selected temperature and pressure, thereby producing a non-adsorbed component and a thiophene/thiophene compound-rich adsorbed component. The adsorbent includes either a metal or a metal cation that is adapted to form .pi.-complexation bonds with the thiophene and/or thiophene compounds, and the preferential adsorption occurs by .pi.-complexation. A further method includes selective removal of aromatic compounds from a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic compounds.

Yang, Ralph T.; Hernandez-Maldonado, Arturo J.; Yang, Frances H.; Takahashi, Akira

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion of methane and acetylene to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5) was studied The reaction between methane and acetylene successfully produced high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, benzene...

Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Seismic Analysis Using Wavelet Transform for Hydrocarbon Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

result in successful hydrocarbon finds because abnormal seismic amplitude variations can sometimes be caused by other factors, such as alternative lithology and residual hydrocarbons in certain depositional environments. Furthermore, not all gas fields...

Cai, Rui

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

123

Chemical nature of high-molecular hydrocarbons of gaseous condensates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mass spectrometry was used to study the group-structure composition of high-boiling 50 deg (200/degrees/-250/degrees/, 250/degrees/-300/degrees/, and 300/degrees/-350/degrees/C) fractions of East Turkmenistan condensates: the hydrocarbons composition is characterized by a high content of paraffinic hydrocarbons, and that of others by aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons. For all the condensates under investigation, as the boiling temperature of fractions increases, the content of paraffinic hydrocarbons in them is increased, while that of naphthenic hydrocarbons is reduced. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons according to the number of rings is identical. In high-paraffin condensates, monoaromatic hydrocarbons consist mainly structures with alkyl substituents, but in condensates with a high content of aromatic and naphthenic hydrocarbons they consist mainly of structures with naphthenic substituents. 4 references, 1 figures, 2 tables.

Kul'dzhayev, B.A.; Makarov, V.V.; Sergiyenko, S.R.; Khramova, E.V.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Sustainable treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated industrial land   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Land contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is a widespread and global environmental pollution issue from recovery and refining of crude oil and the ubiquitous use of hydrocarbons in industrial processes and applications. ...

Cunningham, Colin John

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

125

A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the Product Distribution from a Non-Thermal Plasma Reactor A Parametric Study of the Effect of Temperature and Hydrocarbon Species on the...

126

Preparation of uranium compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

127

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons methyl Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Renewable Energy 2 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

128

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons progress Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collection: Chemistry 3 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

129

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons fluorene Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

130

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)...

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

132

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons pah5 Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants Summary: 1461 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous,...

133

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons inenvironmental Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

134

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon o-quinones Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Hydrocarbons... Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous organic pollutants in urban environments... in the urbanized and rapidly urbanizing areas. Keywords...

135

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Partially fluorinated ionic compounds are prepared. They are useful in the preparation of partially fluorinated dienes, in which the repeat units are cycloaliphatic.

Han, legal representative, Amy Qi (Hockessin, DE); Yang, Zhen-Yu (Hockessin, DE)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

136

aromatic hydrocarbons coated: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: ??Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, known human lung carcinogens, and potent mammary carcinogens in animal models....

137

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Enzymes Acid + Caustic Wastewater Treatment Process Heat and Power Integration Biogas + Sludge Fuel Finishing (hydroprocessing, as needed) Electricity Hydrogen Hydrocarbon...

138

Production of hydrocarbons from hydrates. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An economical and safe method of producing hydrocarbons (or natural gas) from in situ hydrocarbon-containing hydrates is given. Once started, the method will be self-driven and will continue producing hydrocarbons over an extended period of time (i.e., many days).

McGuire, P.L.

1981-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

139

Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus, and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

Elliott, G.R.B.; Barraclough, B.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.

1981-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

140

Substantially self-powered method and apparatus for recovering hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Apparatus for recovering gaseous hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing solid hydrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are provided for producing gaseous hydrocarbons from formations comprising solid hydrocarbon hydrates located under either a body of land or a body of water. The vast natural resources of such hydrocarbon hydrates can thus now be economically mined. Relatively warm brine or water is brought down from an elevation above that of the hydrates through a portion of the apparatus and passes in contact with the hydrates, thus melting them. The liquid then continues up another portion of the apparatus, carrying entrained hydrocarbon vapors in the form of bubbles, which can easily be separated from the liquid. After a short startup procedure, the process and apparatus are substantially self-powered.

Elliott, Guy R. B. (Los Alamos, NM); Barraclough, Bruce L. (Santa Fe, NM); Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Method of dispersing a hydrocarbon using bacteria  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Mass Transfer of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the individual components of four synthetic dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) mixtures into the aqueous hydrocarbons (PAHs), were designed to serve as models for coal tars and creosotes. The reactor employed (PAHs) are often present in the environment as components of such dense non- aqueous phase liquids

Peters, Catherine A.

144

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oils near the Caspian depression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The structural-group composition of hydrocarbons of Mesozoic crude oils near the Caspian depression was investigated by mass-spectrometry, followed by the analysis of the mass-spectra using a computer. The distribution of naphthenic hydrocarbons, according to the number of rings and of aromatic hydrocarbons, according to the degree of hydrogen unsaturation is similar for all the crude oils examined. The hydrocarbon composition of Mesozoic crude oils is characterized by a reduction in the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkyl benzenes.

Botneva, T.A.; Khramova, E.V.; Nekhamkina, L.G.; Polyakova, A.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Composition of paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons in petroleum asphalts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uses a combination of chromatographic, chemical, and spectroscopic methods to determine the composition of the paraffinic and naphthenic hydrocarbons recovered from asphalts. Monitors the completeness of separation of the hydrocarbons from the aromatics on the basis of UV spectra. Finds that in the mixture of adduct-forming hydrocarbons, along with the n-paraffins there were admixtures of isoparaffins and longchain alkylnaphthenes. Concludes that a comparison of the structural-group composition of the asphalt fractions from the different crudes shows that there are only slight differences in the structure of the paraffinic/naphthenic hydrocarbons present in these asphalts, particularly with regard to those hydrocarbons that do not react with urea.

Botvin'eva, A.M.; Dubkova, R.V.; Shkredova, N.A.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Liquefaction of cellulosic wastes. 6: Oxygen compounds in pyrolytic oil and water fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid hydrocarbon oil and water have been produced from the liquefaction of cellulosic matter present in municipal solid wastes. The produced pyrolytic oil and water fraction seemed to be contaminated with considerable amounts of oxygen compounds as compared with fuels derived from a petroleum origin. The oxygen compounds included organic acids (fatty and naphthenic acids), phenols, and carbonyl compounds. These classes of oxygen compounds were extracted selectively from the pyrolytic oils and water using chemical extraction methods. Methyl esters of fatty acids and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds were identified by gas chromatography and thin layer chromatography, respectively. It was suggested that the identified oxygen compounds could be produced from the pyrolysis of volatiles (e.g., levoglucosane, which is the primary product of cellulose depolymerization) via different mechanistic pathways.

Gharieb, H.K.; Faramawy, S.; El-Amrousi, F.A.; El-Sabagh, S.M. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst., Cairo (Egypt)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Plasma-assisted conversion of solid hydrocarbon to diamond  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of preparing diamond, e.g., diamond fiber, by subjecting a hydrocarbon material, e.g., a hydrocarbon fiber, to a plasma treatment in a gaseous feedstream for a sufficient period of time to form diamond, e.g., a diamond fiber is disclosed. The method generally further involves pretreating the hydrocarbon material prior to treatment with the plasma by heating within an oxygen-containing atmosphere at temperatures sufficient to increase crosslinking within said hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to melt or decompose said hydrocarbon material, followed by heating at temperatures sufficient to promote outgassing of said crosslinked hydrocarbon material, but at temperatures insufficient to convert said hydrocarbon material to carbon.

Valone, Steven M. (Santa Fe, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Trkula, Mitchell (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Shah, S. Ismat (Wilmington, DE)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Chemical oxidation of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in soil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Subsurface contamination with fuel hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons is prevalent throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in many sites managed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program. The most commonly reported chlorinated hydrocarbons (occurring > 50% of DOE contaminated sites) were trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1, 1,-trichloroethane (TCA), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) with concentrations in the range of 0.2 {mu}g/kg to 12,000 mg/kg. The fuel hydrocarbons most frequently reported as being present at DOE sites include aromatic compounds and polyaromatic compounds such as phenanthrene, pyrene, and naphthalene. The primary sources of these semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are coal waste from coal fired electric power plants used at many of these facilities in the past and gasoline spills and leaks. Dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) can migrate within the subsurface for long periods of time along a variety of pathways including fractures, macropores, and micropores. Diffusion of contaminants in the non-aqueous, aqueous, and vapor phase can occur from the fractures and macropores into the matrix of fine-textured media. As a result of these contamination processes, removal of contaminants from the subsurface and the delivery of treatment agents into and throughout contaminated regions are often hindered, making rapid and extensive remediation difficult.

Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.; Cline, S.R.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA); Copenhaver, Sally C. (Livermore, CA); Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Heart testing compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Heart testing compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

1983-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Improved resolution of hydrocarbon structures and constitutional isomers in complex mixtures using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet-Mass Spectrometry (GC-VUV-MS)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the composition of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important for environmental studies in a variety of fields, but many prevalent compounds cannot be confidently identified using traditional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This work uses vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) ionization to elucidate the structures of a traditionally"unresolved complex mixture" by separating components by GC retention time, tR, and mass-to-charge ratio, m/Q, which are used to determine carbon number, NC, and the number of rings and double bonds, NDBE. Constitutional isomers are resolved based on tR, enabling the most complete quantitative analysis to date of structural isomers in an environmentally-relevant hydrocarbon mixture. Unknown compounds are classified in this work by carbon number, degree of saturation, presence of rings, and degree of branching, providing structural constraints. The capabilities of this analysis are explored using diesel fuel, in which constitutional isomer distribution patterns are shown to be reproducible between carbon numbers and follow predictable rules. Nearly half of the aliphatic hydrocarbon mass is shown to be branched, suggesting branching is more important in diesel fuel than previously shown. The classification of unknown hydrocarbons and the resolution of constitutional isomers significantly improves resolution capabilities for any complex hydrocarbon mixture.

Aerosol Dynamics Inc; Aerodyne Research, Inc.,; Tofwerk AG, Thun; Isaacman, Gabriel; Wilson, Kevin R.; Chan, Arthur W. H.; Worton, David R.; Kimmel, Joel R.; Nah, Theodora; Hohaus, Thorsten; Gonin, Marc; Kroll, Jesse H.; Worsnop, Doug R.; Goldstein, Allen H.

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

153

Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

Parekh, M.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

154

Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of hydrocarbons having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further includes Na present as a substitutional cation in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 340 to 360/sup 0/C, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, CH/sub 3/OH is produced in an amount of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture, and comprised 1 mole % of the effluent gas.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1983-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

156

Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for production of synthetic hydrocarbon fuels from peat providing wide variation of the composite proportion of liquid-gas output while maintaining high overall carbon conversion to useful fuel. The process and apparatus utilizes three process stages in a single vessel providing functions of drying wet peat, provisions for addition of both wet and dry peat to a hydropyrolysis zone and gasification of the peat char.

Bodle, W.W.; Punwani, D.; Weil, S.A.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

158

Getter pump for hydrogen and hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gettering device for hydrogen isotopes and gaseous hydrocarbons based on the interaction of a plasma and graphite used as cathodic material. The plasma is maintained at a current density within the range of about 1 to about 1000 mA/cm/sup 2/. The graphite may be heated to a temperature greater than 1000/degree/C. The new device offers high capacity, low noise, and gas species selectivity. 2 figs.

Hsu, Wen Ling

1987-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

159

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes to unsaturated hydrocarbons is carried out over metal vanadate catalysts under oxidizing conditions. The vanadate catalysts are represented by the formulas M[sub 3](VO[sub 4])[sub 2] and MV[sub 2]O[sub 6], M representing Mg, Zn, Ca, Pb, or Cd. The reaction is carried out in the presence of oxygen, but the formation of oxygenate by-products is suppressed.

Kung, H.H.; Chaar, M.A.

1988-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

160

Comparisons of hydrocarbon and nitrogen distributions in geologically diverse tar sand bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The characteristics of bitumens from different tar sand deposits are generally significantly different and affect the utilization of the resource. The chemical and physical properties of bitumen are a result of maturation reactions on the varied organic sediments. For example, saturated hydrocarbon distributions have been related to the geochemical history of organic matter. Very paraffinic or sometimes paraffinic-naphthenic distributions in organic matter are derived from a nonmarine depositional environment. More aromatic and paraffinic-naphthenic hydrocarbon distributions are derived from organic matter deposited in a marine environment. The characteristics of the bitumen also influence the potential for recovery and subsequent processing of the material. For example, saturated hydrocarbons contribute to the high pour points of recovered oils. The origin and composition of an oil influence its viscosity, API gravity, and coke formation during processing, particularly under low-temperature oxidation conditions. The objective of this work is to determine the chemical and physical properties of several samples of bitumen from geologically diverse tar sand deposits. The compound-type distributions and LTD properties of these bitumens are discussed relative to the depositional environment and processing potential of the organic matter.

Holmes, S.A.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Modeling of structure H hydrate equilibria for methane, intermediate hydrocarbon molecules and water systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clathrate hydrates are inclusion compounds in which guest molecules are engaged by water molecules under favorable conditions of pressure and temperature. The well known structures 1 and 2 have been discovered since last century, while a new structure called H has been recently described in the literature. Since that time, structure H hydrate equilibrium data involving methane and different intermediate liquid hydrocarbon molecules have been published. The equilibrium calculations involving hydrates are based on the fact that the chemical potential of water in the aqueous liquid phase is equal to the one in the hydrate phase. The chemical potential of water in the liquid aqueous phase can be easily described by classical thermodynamic relations, while the chemical potential of water in the hydrates phase is described by the expressions proposed by Van der Walls and Platteeuw derived from an adsorption model based on statistical thermodynamics. The authors present in this paper a set of Kihara potential parameters which enable the calculation of Langmuir constants which characterize the adsorption of some naphthenic and iso-paraffinic intermediate hydrocarbons in the larger cage of structure H hydrates. This work thus allows the computation of structural H hydrate equilibrium conditions for systems made of methane, intermediate hydrocarbon molecules and water.

Thomas, M.; Behar, E. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

One-electron oxidation in the degradation of creosote polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysoporium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The abilities of whole cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and P. chrysosporium manganese peroxidase-mediated lipid peroxidation reactions to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in creosote were studied. The disappearance of 12 three- to six-ring PAHs occurred in both systems. Both in vivo and in vitro, the disappearance of all PAHs was found to be very strongly correlated with ionization potential. This was true even for compounds beyond the ionization potential thresholds of lignin peroxidase and Mn{sup 3+}. Deviations from this correlation were seen in the cases of PAHs which are susceptible to radical addition reactions. These results thus begin to clarify the mechanisms of non-lignin peroxidase-labile PAH degradation in the manganese peroxidase-lipid peroxidation system and provide further evidence for the ability of this system to explain the in vivo oxidation of these compounds. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Bogan, B.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)]|[USDA Forest Service Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States); Lamar, R.T. [USDA Forest Service Forest Products Lab., Madison, WI (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Committee) Dr. Pau B. Crawford (Member) r. William D. McCain Jr. r. A ber t T. Watson (Member) Dr. i l. iam D. on Gonten ead of Department) December 1984 ABSTRACT An Experimental and Mathematical Investigation of Hydrocarbon Steam Distillation... mechanism associated with steam flooding and in-situ combustion enhanced oil recovery projects. It also takes place in hydrocarbon recovery from deep volatile oil reservoirs. Nethods for predicting the recovery of hydrocarbons by steam distillation have...

Langhoff, John Allan

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Microoptical compound lens  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, David D. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

165

Commercialization of IH2® Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commercialization of IH 2 Biomass Direct-to-Hydrocarbon Fuel Technology Alan Del Paggio, Vice President CRI Catalyst Company 910 Louisiana, Houston, TX 77002 Disclaimer This...

166

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with...

167

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

168

Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Lewis Center, OH); LaPlante, Timothy J. (Columbus, OH); Rankin, Scott (Columbus, OH); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick (Columbus, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Mazanec, Terry (Solon, OH) Daymo, Eric (Dublin, OH)

2011-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

169

Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel IntermediatePolyhydroxybu...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster) Re-direct Destination: PHAs are...

170

Selective aerobic oxidation of hydrocarbons over supported gold catalysts.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The selective oxidation of hydrocarbons is of vital importance for the production of valuable chemicals from crude oil and natural gas resources. Unfortunately, when using… (more)

Hereijgers, B.P.C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal...

172

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium...

173

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Fractionation Hydrogen Acid, Caustic, Enzymes Wastewater Treatment Insoluble solids Biogas + Sludge Process Heat and Power Integration Corn Stover Hydrocarbon Biofuels (i.e....

174

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

176

aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Ecology Websites Summary: ), and there are oil refineries on the shore. In this environment, input of aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum and the Yarra River Estuary J. David...

177

Advanced Diesel Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Combustion with Low Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Poster Location P-19 Gregory K. Lilik, Andr L. Boehman Department of Energy & Mineral Engineering EMS Energy...

178

Aminopropyl thiophene compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Gulf Hydrocarbon Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to:Photon Place:Net Jump Agency/Company(Redirected fromHydrocarbon

180

Source profiles for nonmethane organic compounds in the atmosphere of Cairo, Egypt.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Profiles of the sources of nonmethane organic compounds (NMOCs) were developed for emissions from vehicles, petroleum fuels (gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and natural gas), a petroleum refinery, a smelter, and a cast iron factory in Cairo, Egypt. More than 100 hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons were tentatively identified and quantified. Gasoline-vapor and whole-gasoline profiles could be distinguished from the other profiles by high concentrations of the C{sub 5} and C{sub 6} saturated hydrocarbons. The vehicle emission profile was similar to the whole-gasoline profile, with the exception of the unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, which were present at higher concentrations in the vehicle emission profile. High levels of the C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} saturated hydrocarbons, particularly n-butane, were characteristic features of the petroleum refinery emissions. The smelter and cast iron factory emissions were similar to the refinery emissions; however, the levels of benzene and toluene were greater in the former two sources. The LPG and natural gas emissions contained high concentrations of n-butane and ethane, respectively. The NMOC source profiles for Cairo were distinctly different from profiles for U.S. sources, indicating that NMOC source profiles are sensitive to the particular composition of petroleum fuels that are used in a location.

Doskey, P. V.; Fukui, Y.; Sultan, M.; Maghraby, A. A.; Taher, A.; Environmental Research; Cairo Univ.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Your company may be looking to transition existing datacenter infrastructure (primarily physical and virtualized environments) to deliver a private cloud to your business. While  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Your company may be looking to transition existing datacenter infrastructure (primarily physical datacenter investments and skill sets to deliver a private cloud today. Pooling and dynamic allocation of datacenter resources. With Virtual Machine Manager, you can pool and virtualize your compute, network

Chaudhuri, Surajit

182

UCLA PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY MAJOR (B.S.), PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION: This concentration is designed primarily for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UCLA PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY MAJOR (B.S.), PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CONCENTRATION: This concentration is designed primarily for Chemistry majors who are interested in attending graduate school in Physical Chemistry/Physics or related areas. It may also satisfy some of the needs

Levine, Alex J.

183

UCLA CHEMISTRY MAJOR 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY MAJOR (B.S.): This major is designed primarily for students who are interested in attending  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UCLA CHEMISTRY MAJOR 2012-2013 CHEMISTRY MAJOR (B.S.): This major is designed primarily for students who are interested in attending graduate school in Chemistry or related areas. It also satisfies this major and others offered in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, consult the Undergraduate

Levine, Alex J.

184

For decades, traffic safety improvements have relied primarily upon engineering and enforcement solutions. If we are limited to those options, further  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Traffic Safety Culture For decades, traffic safety improvements have relied primarily upon about driving ­ changing our traffic safety culture. A survey by the Center for Transportation Safety on the roads than drivers nationwide, as measured in the 2010 Traffic Safety Culture Index published by the AAA

185

Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

186

Solubility of hydrocarbons in salt water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the design and operation of industrial processes, physical and thermodynamic property data are required. Increasingly stringent regulations are making water solubility of substances even more critical. Water solubility data of naphthenes, or cycloalkanes, is applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations, including water without salt to water saturated with salt. The results are intended for use in initial engineering and environmental applications. Solubility values from the correlation are useful in determining the distribution of a hydrocarbon spill on its contact with sea water. Solubility values at other salt concentrations also may be computed. Results are presented for water solubility of hydrocarbons (naphthenes) as a function of salt concentration (log(S) = A + BX + CX[sup 2]). The correlation constants, A, B and C, are displayed in an easy-to-use tabular format that is applicable for rapid engineering use with the personal computer or hand-held calculator. The results for solubility in salt water are applicable for the complete range of salt concentrations. This range covers water without salt, X = 0, to water saturated with salt, X = 358,700 ppM(wt). Correlation and experimental results are in favorable agreement.

Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE and to install heat pumps in unoccupied spaces. Nevertheless manufacturers keep working on components for hydrocarbons. In the frame of a research project on heat pumps for simultaneous heating and cooling, an R407C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

.. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nearshore marine sediments of Australia*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

143 . .. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in nearshore marine sediments of Australia* W.A. Maher and J. Aislabiet Water Research Centre, University of Canberra, PO Box /, Belconnen,ACT 26/6, Australia aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in nearshore marine sediments of Australia isdiscussed. Available information

Canberra, University of

190

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts. 19 figs.

Frei, H.; Blatter, F.; Sun, H.

1999-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

191

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for selective thermal oxidation or photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for selective thermal oxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly selective thermal oxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls is carried out in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Selective thermal and photooxidation of hydrocarbons in zeolites by oxygen  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for a combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of hydrocarbons adsorbed onto zeolite matrices. A highly combined selective thermal oxidation and photooxidation of unsubstituted or alkyl substituted alkanes, alkenes, aromatics and cycloalkyls in solvent free zeolites under dark thermal conditions or under irradiation with visible light. The process oxidizes hydrocarbons almost completely selectively without substantial production of byproducts.

Frei, Heinz (Berkeley, CA); Blatter, Fritz (Basel, CH); Sun, Hai (Saint Charles, MO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Identification and evaluation of volatile compounds associated with vacuum and modified atmosphere packaged fresh red meats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with Lacrobacillus planrarum or Leuconostoc mesenteroides and stored for 28 days at 3'C included acetone, toluene, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, a hydrocarbon and CHCls. The profile of volatiles in packaged sterile loin tissue stored for 28 days was very similar.... , 1979, 1983; Vanderzant et al. , 1986). ~Although many studies have reported these off-odors, very little published information exists relative to the nature of the volatile aroma compounds which result from microbial or enzymatic activity during...

Jackson, Timothy Court

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons on platinum and palladium catalysts in the presence of sulfur dioxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors report on a study of the effect of sulfur dioxide on the activity of platinum and palladium catalysts with respect to oxidation of the principal toxic components in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines: carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (propylene (C/sub 3/H/sub 6/) and propane (C/sub 3/H/sub 8/)). The experiments were carried out in a flow system equipped with Beckman infrared analyzers to monitor the concentrations of CO and hydrocarbons and of sulfur dioxide. A series of thermal desorption experiments was carried out in a low-pressure flow system with mass spectrometric analysis of the gas phase. The results indicate that the low-temperature adsorption of sulfur dioxide on platinum (and also palladium) catalysts inhibits the oxidation of carbon monoxide and propylene. The poisoning effect of O/sub 2/ is due to blockage of the platinum centers for adsorption of the oxidizable compounds and oxygen.

Panchishnyi, V.I.; Bondareva, N.K.; Sklyarov, A.V.; Rozanov, V.V.; Chadina, G.P.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

196

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon exposure Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aust. J. Mar. Freshw. Res., 1984, 35, 119-28 Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Waters of Port Phillip Bay... of aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal waters, using solvent extraction and...

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons influence Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

; Geosciences 93 Hydrocarbons Heterogeneous Pyrolysis: Experiments and Modeling for Scramjet Thermal Management Summary: of the decomposition of the heavy hydrocarbon fuel is the...

198

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon unresolved Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

40 On the Use, and Reuse, of Polymers for the Treatment of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Water Via a Solidliquid Partitioning Bioreactor Summary: hydrocarbons and more heavily...

199

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons affect Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 3 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

200

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons annual Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: releases about 5 billion kilograms of hydrocarbons...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons implications Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: -fueled automobiles, most cyclic hydrocarbons are...

202

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons alcohols Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mathematics 29 UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices Summary: UV Irradiation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ices: Production of Alcohols,...

203

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Port Phillip Bay... of aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal waters, using solvent extraction and fluorescence emission analysis, shows... of hydrocarbon inputs....

204

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons molecules Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 35 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: to number of carbon atoms per hydrocarbon molecule (Figure 2). For each...

205

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons resulting Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Geosciences 50 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: a retention library developed by performing runs with known hydrocarbon...

206

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons determined Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Mathematics 39 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: hydrocarbons is by their structure. Figure 10 shows conversion efficiency...

207

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons formed Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 31 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: of engine-out hydrocarbons that are partially reacted fuel. LATE FORMING...

208

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon content Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Technologies 23 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: hydrocarbons is by their structure. Figure 10 shows conversion efficiency...

209

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon molecules Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 35 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: to number of carbon atoms per hydrocarbon molecule (Figure 2). For each...

210

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon contamination Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs are...

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons extracted Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Toxic Contamination Summary: called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called... polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)....

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hydrocarbon is introduced into the ocean via oil spillage, offshore drilling leaks, industrial... hydrocarbons have been attributed to inhibition of ... Source: National...

213

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85" Engine Optimization...

214

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ydrocarbonDegradation It was hypothesized... aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. Hypothesis Test Result Groundwater stimulates Fe(lll) reduction Cell... Hydrocarbon Degradation At...

215

Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a line drive staged process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include providing heat to a first section of the formation with one or more first heaters in the first section. First hydrocarbons may be heated in the first section such that at least some of the first hydrocarbons are mobilized. At least some of the mobilized first hydrocarbons may be produced through a production well located in a second section of the formation. The second section may be located substantially adjacent to the first section. A portion of the second section may be provided some heat from the mobilized first hydrocarbons, but is not conductively heated by heat from the first heaters. Heat may be provided to the second section with one or more second heaters in the second section to further heat the second section.

Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

216

Cogeneration systems and processes for treating hydrocarbon containing formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one injection well is located in a first portion of the formation. The injection well provides steam from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility to the first portion of the formation. At least one production well is located in the first portion of the formation. The production well in the first portion produces first hydrocarbons. At least one electrical heater is located in a second portion of the formation. At least one of the electrical heaters is powered by electricity from the steam and electricity cogeneration facility. At least one production well is located in the second portion of the formation. The production well in the second portion produces second hydrocarbons. The steam and electricity cogeneration facility uses the first hydrocarbons and/or the second hydrocarbons to generate electricity.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Fowler, Thomas David (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

217

Liquid-liquid equilibria for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The separation of pure aromatic and aliphatic compounds from their mixtures is an important goal in chemical operations (e.g., Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) that produce both types of compounds. In this work the authors have used 1,4-dicyanobutane (DCB) as a potential solvent for this separation. Liquid-liquid equilibrium results for mixtures of an alkane + an aromatic hydrocarbon + 1,4-dicyanobutane at 298.15 K are reported, where the alkane is hexane or nonane or dodecane or hexadecane and the aromatic hydrocarbon is benzene or methylbenzene or 1,2-dimethylbenzene, or 1,3-dimethylbenzene, or 1,4-dimethylbenzene or 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene or ethylbenzene. The results show that there is a small increase in the two-phase region as the chain length of the alkane is increased. The type of aromatic hydrocarbon present in the mixture has a noticeable effect on the slopes of the tie lines. There is also an increase in the area of the two phase-region with increasing substitution of methyl groups on the benzene ring. NRTL and UNIQUAC models were correlated to the data. The results show that 1,4-dicyanobutane may be used as a solvent for the separation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons.

Letcher, T.M.; Naicker, P.K.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated exploratory work towards the development of new field screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of carbon-halogen bonds. Commercially available heated diode and corona discharge leak detectors were procured and evaluated for halogenated VOC response. The units were modified to provide a digital readout of signal related to VOC concentration. Sensor response was evaluated with carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE), which represent halogenated VOCs with and without double bonds. The response characteristics were determined for the VOCs directly in headspace in Tedlar bag containers. Quantitation limits in air were estimated. Potential interferences from volatile hydrocarbons, such as toluene and heptane, were evaluated. The effect of humidity was studied also. The performance of the new devices was evaluated in the laboratory by spiking soil samples and monitoring headspace for halogenated VOCs. A draft concept of the steps for a new analytical method was outlined. The results of the first year effort show that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work towards the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Pyrochlore catalysts for hydrocarbon fuel reforming  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A2B2-y-zB'yB"zO7-.DELTA., where y>0 and z.gtoreq.0. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

Berry, David A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Haynes, Daniel; Smith, Mark; Spivey, James J.

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

220

Microbial hydrocarbons: back to the future  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The defining challenge of energy research in the 21st century is the development and deployment of technologies for large-scale reconfiguration of global energy infrastructure. Modern society is built upon a concentrated yet finite reservoir of diverse hydrocarbons formed through the photosynthetic transformation of several hundred million years of solar energy. In human history, the fossil energy era will be short lived and never repeated. Although the timing of peak oil is extensively debated, it is an eventuality. It is, therefore, imperative that projections for both when it will occur and the degree to which supply will fall short of demand be taken into serious consideration, especially in the sectors of energy technology development, political and economic decision making, and societal energy usage. The requirement for renewable energy systems is no longer a point for discussion, and swift advances on many fronts are vital to counteract current and impending crises in both energy and the environment.

Work, Victoria H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Konopka, Allan; Posewitz, Matthew C.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Method and apparatus for synthesizing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for synthesizing a mixture of aliphatic alcohols having five carbons or less is disclosed. An equal molar ratio of CO and H/sub 2/ gases is caused to pass through a ThO/sub 2/ catalyst having a surface area of about 80 to 125 m/sup 2//g. The catalyst further optionally includes Na ions present as substitutional cations in an amount of about 5 to 10 atom %. At a temperature of about 570 to 630/sup 0/K, and at pressures of about 20 to 50 atm, methanol and isobutanol are the predominant products and are produced in amounts of about 90 wt % of the total hydrocarbon mixture. 6 figs.

Colmenares, C.A.; Somorjai, G.A.; Maj, J.J.

1985-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

222

Geology and hydrocarbon prospects of Latvia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil prospects in Latvia are associated with the Baltic syneclise. Latvia occupies about one fourth of that large tectonic depression; zones of oil accumulation continue there from adjacent areas: the Telshai rampart (Lithuania) and the Leba nose (Polish offshore). The oil prospects in separate areas are determined by their position regarding the sources of oil generation--the Gdansk-Kura and Liepaya depressions. The most prospective areas are the Liepaya-Saldus zone of highs and the Pape-Barta trough. The Liepaya-Saldus zone was situated so that the hydrocarbon migration path crossed it. It probably is an important oil accumulation zone. The paper describes the geology of Latvia and the one oil field in Latvia.

Freimanis, A. (Latvian Dept. of Geology, Riga (Latvia)); Margulis, L.; Brangulis, A.; Kanev, S.; Pomerantseva, R. (Inst. of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Riga (Latvia))

1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

223

CHARACTERISTICS Nitrated compounds constitute a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compounds. If there is a chance of an explosive reaction, conduct the operation behind a blast shield

Wilcock, William

224

Boronated porphyrin compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

Kahl, Stephen B. (Portola Valley, CA); Koo, Myoung-Seo (San Francisco, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Boronated porphyrin compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

1992-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

226

Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

Missallati, A.A. (Agip (N.A.M.E.)Ltd., Tripoli (Libya))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

228

Method for making hydrogen rich gas from hydrocarbon fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400 C for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide. 4 figs.

Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Doshi, R.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

229

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

Dennis, J A

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Hydrocarbon Production in the Green Microalga Botryococcus braunii  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algae biofuels ................................................................................ 1 Algae .............................................................................................. 2 Botryococcus braunii... ..................................................................... 4 General biology ........................................................................ 4 Biofuel potential ....................................................................... 9 Hydrocarbon synthesis...

Weiss, Taylor Leigh

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

231

Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A composite Pd/ZnO/Al2O3-HZSM-5 (Si/Al=40) catalytic system was evaluated for the synthesis of gasoline-range hydrocarbons directly from synthesis gas. Bifunctional catalyst comprising PdZn metal and acid sites present the required catalytically active sites necessary for the methanol synthesis, methanol dehydration, and methanol-to-gasoline reactions. This system provides a unique catalytic pathway for the production of liquid hydrocarbons directly from syngas. However, selectivity control is difficult and poses many challenges. The composite catalytic system was evaluated under various process conditions. Investigated were the effects of temperature (310-375oC), pressure (300-1000 psig), time-on-stream (50 hrs), and gas-hour space velocity (740-2970 hr-1), using a H2/CO molar syngas ratio of 2.0. By operating at the lower end of the temperature range investigated, liquid hydrocarbon formation was favored, as was decreased amounts of undesirable light hydrocarbons. However, lower operating temperatures also facilitated undesirable CO2 formation via the water-gas shift reaction. Higher operating pressures slightly favored liquid synthesis. Operating at relatively low pressures (e.g. 300 psig) was made possible, whereas for methanol synthesis alone higher pressure are usually required to achieve similar conversion levels (e.g. 1000 psig). Thermodynamic constraints on methanol synthesis are eased by pushing the equilibrium through hydrocarbon formation. Catalytic performance was also evaluated by altering Pd and Zn composition of the Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 catalyst. Of the catalysts and conditions tested, selectivity toward liquid hydrocarbon was highest when using a 5% Pd metal loading and Pd/Zn molar ratio of 0.25 and mixed with HZMS-5, operating at 310oC and 300 psig, CO conversion was 43 % and selectivity (carbon weight basis) to hydrocarbons was 49 wt. %. Of the hydrocarbon fraction, 44wt. % was in the C5-C12 liquid product range and consisted primarily of aromatic polymethylbenzenes. However, as syngas conversion increases with increasing temperature, selectivity to liquid product diminished. This is attributed, in large part, to increased saturation of the olefinic intermediates over PdZn metal sites. Under all the conditions and catalysts evaluated in this study, generating liquid product in high yield was challenging (<10 wt. % C5+ yield).

Dagle, Robert A.; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Gray, Michel J.; White, James F.; King, David L.; Palo, Daniel R.

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Mathematical modeling of solid oxide fuel cells using hydrocarbon fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency conversion devices that use hydrogen or light hydrocarbon (HC) fuels in stationary applications to produce quiet and clean power. While successful, HC-fueled SOFCs face ...

Lee, Won Yong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Faults as potential hydrocarbon barriers, Arroyo Grande, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Faulting in a sandstone introduces properties which are different from the country rock. Previous work has shown that these new properties can significantly impede the flow of hydrocarbons through the country rock. This thesis seeks to analyze...

Switek, Daniel Paul

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Effect of the Composition of Hydrocarbon Streams on HCCI Performance  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of hydrocarbon samples and can be treated as compositional variables which could describe bulk properties of the samples Sample fingerprint STEP 1: Data receiving Q(2d)RPR How...

235

Biodegradability of select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are environmentally significant because of their ubiquity and the toxicity of some. Their recalcitrance and persistence makes them problematic environmental contaminants. Microbial degradation is considered...

Desai, Anuradha M.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

236

aromatic hydrocarbon emissions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Detection of mid-infrared Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features from the Small Magellanic Cloud Astrophysics...

237

aromatic hydrocarbon emission: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Detection of mid-infrared Aromatic Hydrocarbon Emission Features from the Small Magellanic Cloud Astrophysics...

238

Process for converting light alkanes to higher hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for the production of aromatic-rich, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons from the lower alkanes, particularly from methane. The process is carried out in two stages. In the first, alkane is reacted with oxygen and hydrogen chloride over an oxyhydrochlorination catalyst such as copper chloride with minor proportions of potassium chloride and rare earth chloride. This produces an intermediate gaseous mixture containing water and chlorinated alkanes. The chlorinated alkanes are contacted with a crystalline aluminosilicate catalyst in the hydrogen or metal promoted form to produce gasoline range hydrocarbons with a high proportion of aromatics and a small percentage of light hydrocarbons (C.sub.2 -C.sub.4). The light hydrocarbons can be recycled for further processing over the oxyhydrochlorination catalyst.

Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA); Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines Hydrocarbon Inhibition and HC Storage Modeling in Fe-Zeolite Catalysts for HD Diesel Engines...

240

Determination of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) Using Total Carbon Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several methods have been proposed to replace the Freon(TM)-extraction method to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content. For reasons of cost, sensitivity, precision, or simplicity, none of the replacement methods are feasible for analysis of radioactive samples at our facility. We have developed a method to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon content in aqueous sample matrixes using total organic carbon (total carbon) determination. The total carbon content (TC1) of the sample is measured using a total organic carbon analyzer. The sample is then contacted with a small volume of non-pokar solvent to extract the total petroleum hydrocarbons. The total carbon content of the resultant aqueous phase of the extracted sample (TC2) is measured. Total petroleum hydrocarbon content is calculated (TPH = TC1-TC2). The resultant data are consistent with results obtained using Freon(TM) extraction followed by infrared absorbance.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

2002-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Cooling and solidification of heavy hydrocarbon liquid streams  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process and apparatus for cooling and solidifying a stream of heavy hydrocarbon material normally boiling above about 850.degree. F., such as vacuum bottoms material from a coal liquefaction process. The hydrocarbon stream is dropped into a liquid bath, preferably water, which contains a screw conveyor device and the stream is rapidly cooled, solidified and broken therein to form discrete elongated particles. The solid extrudates or prills are then dried separately to remove substantially all surface moisture, and passed to further usage.

Antieri, Salvatore J. (Trenton, NJ); Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons in east-central Texas groundwaters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

; Follett, 1974). The high transmissivity and sandy lithology of the Sparta are much like those of the Queen City, as is the quality of water. 40 LIGNITE STREAKS 30 Laminated and discontinuous lenticular. Trough cross bedded siltstones. 20 ROAD l... hydrocarbons simply reflects a difference in the 5 C of the substrate. Sparta lignite is about 7%%do enriched in ' C relative to Yegua lignite, comparable to the difference seen in the gaseous hydrocarbons. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Steven...

Coffman, Bryan Keith

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Formation of hydrocarbons from acid-Clay suspensions by gamma irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption of certain organic compounds by clays gives rise to the transformation of the adsorbate through the action of the clays. This phenomenon can be enhanced using ionizing radiation. In this context, these kinds of reactions play an important role in many natural and industrial processes. For example, in oil and gas exploration, the source and trap of petroleum hydrocarbons is frequently clay-rich rocks. Clay-water-based muds are also seen as environmentally friendly alternatives to toxic oil-based fluids. The principal processes that occur in sediments are usually held to be of bacterial action and thermal transformation, which may include thermally induced catalytic alteration of the organic debris. On the other hand, radioactive materials are widely distributed throughout Earth. They were more abundant in the past, but are present in petroleum reservoirs. Their presence induced radioactive bombardment, which may have altered these sediments. This important subject has not been extensively studied. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of fatty acids-like behenic acid-and dicarboxylic acids-like fumaric acid-as model compounds, which are adsorbed in a clay mineral (Na-montmorillonite) and exposed to gamma radiation. The results show that the radiation-induced decomposition of the clay-acid system goes along a definitive path (oxidation), rather than following several modes of simultaneous decomposition, as happens in radiolysis without clay or by heating the system. The main radiolytic products for fatty acids are their corresponding hydrocarbons, with one C-atom less than the original acid.

Cruz-Castaneda, J.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos-Bernal, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM. Cd. Universitaria, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico (Mexico)

2013-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

245

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase: induction and inhibition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and toxic potency of halogenated biphenyls. The usefulness of zerovalent nickel catalysis of aryl-aryl coupling in the synthesis of trifluoromethyl-substituted biphenyls was investigated. Although yields were low, this method proved to be effective... as probes for structure-activity studies. However, these compounds are difficult to synthesize by traditional methods. Their synthesis by zerovalent nickel catalytic coupling, as first described by Semmelhack et al. (1971) and modified by Kende et al...

Andres, Janet Lee

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Rock types, pore types, and hydrocarbon exploration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposed exploration-oriented method of classifying porosity in sedimentary rocks is based on microscopic examination cores or cuttings. Factors include geometry, size, abundance, and connectivity of the pores. The porosity classification is predictive of key petrophysical characteristics: porosity-permeability relationships, capillary pressures, and (less certainly) relative permeabilities. For instance, intercrystalline macroporosity typically is associated with high permeability for a given porosity, low capillarity, and favorable relative permeabilities. This is found to be true whether this porosity type occurs in a sucrosic dolomite or in a sandstone with pervasive quartz overgrowths. This predictive method was applied in three Rocky Mountain oil plays. Subtle pore throat traps could be recognized in the J sandstone (Cretaceous) in the Denver basin of Colorado by means of porosity permeability plotting. Variations in hydrocarbon productivity from a Teapot Formation (Cretaceous) field in the Powder River basin of Wyoming were related to porosity types and microfacies; the relationships were applied to exploration. Rock and porosity typing in the Red River Formation (Ordovician) reconciled apparent inconsistencies between drill-stem test, log, and mud-log data from a Williston basin wildcat. The well was reevaluated and completed successfully, resulting in a new field discovery. In each of these three examples, petrophysics was fundamental for proper evaluation of wildcat wells and exploration plays.

Coalson, E.B.; Hartmann, D.J.; Thomas, J.B.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Gas and Particulate Sampling of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The denuder surfaces of the gas and particle (GAP) sampler (developed at the Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada) have been modified by coating with XAD-4 resin, using techniques developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the lower capacity integrated organic vapor/particle sampler (IOVPS). The resulting high capacity integrated organic gas and particle sampler (IOGAPS) has been operated in ambient air at 16.7 L min{sup -1} for a 24-hour period in Berkeley, California, USA. Simultaneous measurements were made at the same collection rate with a conventional sampler that used a filter followed by two sorbent beds. Gas and particle partition measurements were determined for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ranging from 2-ring to 6-ring species. The IOGAPS indicated a higher particle fraction of these compounds than did the conventional sampler, suggesting that the conventional sampler suffered from 'blow-off' losses from the particles collected on the filter.

Lane, D.A.; Gundel, L.A.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

A model for correlating properties with molecular structure and its application to fuel/hydrocarbon processing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Structural indices such as n (carbon number), z (hydrogen deficiency C{sub n}H{sub 2n+z}) and i (isomeric deviation from the normal compound) are defined to characterize the molecular structure in an unambiguous manner. The parameters are defined in a manner that results in complete orthogonality, one with any of the others. Classification of hydrocarbon compounds into z series yields a systematic change of property with molecular weight in a mathematically definable fashion. For pure compounds, molecular weight as a function of n and z is correlated with properties using regression techniques. Boiling point, density, freezing point, gravimetric and volumetric heat of combustion, heat of vaporization, heat capacity and viscosity were correlated for the z series of paraffins (2), cycloparaffins (0), alkyldecalins(-2), alkylbenzenes(-6), alkyltetralins(-8), and alkylnaphthalenes(-12). The equation form: P{sub z} = (a{sub z}m + b{sub z})/(m + c{sub z}) was found to fit well for all n and z values correlated. Isomeric structural effects may be expressed through an i parameter that quantifies the effects of methyl substituents, adjacency of bonds and symmetry of the molecule. Properties such as boiling point can be related to this parameter. Equations have been derived for properties of mixtures from pure compound data. A computer program for optimizing the composition of various components of fuel has been developed. Consideration has been given to the historic problem of accurate molecular weight measurements of mixtures. A procedure for calculating true molecular weights based on quantification of the thermodynamics of the associated state has been devised. Results suggest that conventional methods based on VPO may be highly erroneous.

Devineni, A.V.P.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Kidney cancer and hydrocarbon exposures among petroleum refinery workers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To evaluate the hypothesis of increased kidney cancer risk after exposure to hydrocarbons, especially those present in gasoline, we conducted a case-control study in a cohort of approximately 100,000 male refinery workers from five petroleum companies. A review of 18,323 death certificates identified 102 kidney cancer cases, to each of whom four controls were matched by refinery location and decade of birth. Work histories, containing an average of 15.7 job assignments per subject, were found for 98% of the cases and 94% of the controls. Tb each job, industrial hygienists assigned semiquantitative ratings for the intensity and frequency of exposures to three hydrocarbon categories: nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, aromatic hydrocarbons, and the more volatile hydrocarbons. Ratings of {open_quotes}present{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}absent{close_quotes} were assigned for seven additional exposures: higher boiling hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, chlorinated solvents, ionizing radiation, and lead. Each exposure had either no association or a weak association with kidney cancer. For the hydrocarbon category of principal a priori interest, the nonaromatic liquid gasoline distillates, the estimated relative risk (RR) for any exposure above refinery background was 1.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-1.9). Analyses of cumulative exposures and of exposures in varying time periods before kidney cancer occurrence also produced null or near-null results. In an analysis of the longest job held by each subject (average duration 9.2 years or 40% of the refiner&y work history), three groups appeared to be at increased risk: laborers (RR = 1.9,95% CI 1.0-3.9); workers in receipt, storage, and movements (RR = 2.5,95% CI 0.9-6.6); and unit cleaners (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 0.5-9.9). 53 refs., 7 tabs.

Poole, C.; Dreyer, N.A.; Satterfield, M.H. [Epidemiology Resources Inc., Newton Lower Falls, MA (United States); Levin, L. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Devices for collecting chemical compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

2013-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

252

Preliminary assessment of hydrocarbon potential in southern Illinois  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon exploration has been sparse south of the Cottage Grove fault system in southern Illinois. Over 240,000 ac in this area are within the Shawnee National Forest (SNF). Upcoming review of mineral exploration policy on SNF land and a recent amendment to the Mineral Leasing Act (1987) will result in release of portions of the SNF for competitive and potentially noncompetitive bidding for mineral exploration tracts in the near future. Preliminary assessment of hydrocarbon potential has been carried out in southern Illinois. Numerous oil shows occur in Paleozoic strata south of the Cottage Grove fault system, which, at present, describes the southern boundary of most oil production in Illinois. Only Mitchellsville oil field in southern Saline County lies south of the Cottage Grove fault system. The Upper Devonian New Albany Shale, though to be the primary source rock for Illinois basin hydrocarbons, underlies most of the area. Older potential source rocks may be present. Depositional trends of prolific oil-productive Mississippian strata in Illinois continue southward through the area. Few drill holes have tested strata older than Mississippian in the area. Complex faulting in the Rough Creek-Shawneetown fault system may have improved the potential for hydrocarbon emplacement and entrapment in this region. Preliminary assessment of hydrocarbon potential indicates that this wildcat region deserves further tests.

Crockett, J.E.; Oltz, D.F. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign (USA))

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to hydrocarbon fuels to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the catalytic conversion of solubilized carbohydrate streams to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent efforts within the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC) in collaboration with Virent, Inc.. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for the catalytic conversion of sugars pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks have been identified.

Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Process for light-driven hydrocarbon oxidation at ambient temperatures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photochemical reaction for the oxidation of hydrocarbons uses molecular oxygen as the oxidant. A reductive photoredox cycle that uses a tin(IV)- or antimony(V)-porphyrin photosensitizer generates the reducing equivalents required to activate oxygen. This artificial photosynthesis system drives a catalytic cycle, which mimics the cytochrome P.sub.450 reaction, to oxidize hydrocarbons. An iron(III)- or manganese(III)-porphyrin is used as the hydrocarbon-oxidation catalyst. Methylviologen can be used as a redox relay molecule to provide for electron-transfer from the reduced photosensitizer to the Fe or Mn porphyrin. The system is long-lived and may be used in photo-initiated spectroscopic studies of the reaction to determine reaction rates and intermediates.

Shelnutt, John A. (Tijeras, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Combustion process for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials from liquid hydrocarbon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a combustion apparatus for the production of carbon nanomaterials including fullerenes and fullerenic soot. Most generally the combustion apparatus comprises one or more inlets for introducing an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon fuel gas in the combustion system such that a flame can be established from the mixed gases, a droplet delivery apparatus for introducing droplets of a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock into the flame, and a collector apparatus for collecting condensable products containing carbon nanomaterials that are generated in the combustion system. The combustion system optionally has a reaction zone downstream of the flame. If this reaction zone is present the hydrocarbon feedstock can be introduced into the flame, the reaction zone or both.

Diener, Michael D.; Alford, J. Michael; Nabity, James; Hitch, Bradley D.

2007-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

256

Polishing compound for plastic surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

Stowell, M.S.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Polishing compound for plastic surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

Stowell, M.S.

1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

258

Polishing compound for plastic surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

Stowell, Michael S. (New Ellenton, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Low temperature pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of calcium compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A coal pyrolysis technique or process is described in which particulate coal is pyrolyzed in the presence of about 5 to 21 wt. % of a calcium compound selected from calcium oxide, calcined (hydrate) dolomite, or calcined calcium hydrate to produce a high quality hydrocarbon liquid and a combustible product gas which are characterized by low sulfur content. The pyrolysis is achieved by heating the coal-calcium compound mixture at a relatively slow rate at a temperature of about 450.degree. to 700.degree. C. over a duration of about 10 to 60 minutes in a fixed or moving bed reactor. The gas exhibits an increased yield in hydrogen and C.sub.1 -C.sub.8 hydrocarbons and a reduction in H.sub.2 S over gas obtainable by pyrolyzing cola without the calcium compound. The liquid product obtained is of a sufficient quality to permit its use directly as a fuel and has a reduced sulfur and oxygen content which inhibits polymerization during storage.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Method for recovering light hydrocarbons from coal agglomerates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for removing light hydrocarbons, such as heptane, from coal agglomerates includes an enclosed chamber having a substantially horizontal perforate surface therein. The coal agglomerates are introduced into a water bath within the chamber. The agglomerates are advanced over the surface while steam is substantially continuously introduced through the surface into the water bath. Steam heats the water and causes volatilization of the light hydrocarbons, which may be collected from the overhead of the chamber. The resulting agglomerates may be collected at the opposite end from the surface and subjected to final draining processes prior to transportation or use.

Huettenhain, Horst (Benicia, CA); Benz, August D. (Hillsborough, CA); Getsoian, John (Ann Arbor, MI)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Upgrading of petroleum oil feedstocks using alkali metals and hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of upgrading an oil feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the oil feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase separable from the organic oil feedstock material. The upgradant hydrocarbon bonds to the oil feedstock material and increases the number of carbon atoms in the product. This increase in the number of carbon atoms of the product increases the energy value of the resulting oil feedstock.

Gordon, John Howard

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

262

Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

Kuester, J.L.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

263

Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

264

Low-Temperature Catalytic Process To Produce Hydrocarbons From Sugars  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a method of producing hydrogen from oxygenated hydrocarbon reactants, such as methanol, glycerol, sugars (e.g. glucose and xylose), or sugar alcohols (e.g. sorbitol). The method takes place in the condensed liquid phase. The method includes the steps of reacting water and a water-soluble oxygenated hydrocarbon in the presence of a metal-containing catalyst. The catalyst contains a metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIIIB transitional metals, alloys thereof, and mixtures thereof. The disclosed method can be run at lower temperatures than those used in the conventional steam reforming of alkanes.

Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration using hydrocarbon adsorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material selectively heats exhaust passing through the upstream end to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A hydrocarbon adsorbent coating applied to the PF releases hydrocarbons into the exhaust to increase a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Hydrocarbon composition of crude oil from Lam Bank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors discuss the crude oil from a new offshore field called the Lam Bank in the Caspian Sea. A segregated commercial crude was distilled and the distillation data is shown. In order to determine the content of n-paraffins, the naphthenic-paraffinic part of the narrow cuts was subjected to adsorptive separation on CaA zeolite. Owing to the high contents of naphthenic and isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and the low content of aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate part, this crude can be used to produce high-quality fuels and oils by the use of the dewaxing processes.

Samedova, F.I.; Agaeva, R.M.; Alieva, F.Z.; Valiev, M.A.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external flotation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the sea bed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the sea bed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration. 20 figures.

Blandford, J.W.

1995-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

268

Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for controlling, separating, processing and exporting well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations is disclosed. The subsea well tender system includes a surface buoy supporting one or more decks above the water surface for accommodating equipment to process oil, gas and water recovered from the subsea hydrocarbon formation. The surface buoy includes a surface-piercing central flotation column connected to one or more external floatation tanks located below the water surface. The surface buoy is secured to the seabed by one or more tendons which are anchored to a foundation with piles imbedded in the seabed. The system accommodates multiple versions on the surface buoy configuration.

Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

270

Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Polishing compound for plastic surfaces  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

Stowell, M.S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rasmussen, R.A. (1976). Combustion as a source of nitrousx control for stationary combustion sources. Prog. Energy,CA, March 3-4, 1977 COMBUSTION SOURCES OF NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

Brown, Nancy J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion Battery Cathode. LiMnPO4 Nanoplate Grown via Solid-State Reaction in Molten Hydrocarbon for Li-ion...

275

Oil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81-Hydrocarbon Pollution of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distribution offuel distillates is evident with only a small contribution from lubricating and heavier oilOil & Chemical Pollution 6 (19'X)} 81- pollution as all oils contain aromatic hydrocarbons while few, if any, biogenic aromatic hydrocarbons

Canberra, University of

276

Interpretation of side-scan sonar images from hydrocarbon seep areas of the Louisiana continental slope  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Side-scan sonar images from the Louisiana continental slope were examined to study hydrocarbon seepage and related surficial geologic seafloor features. Three study areas are located in the Green Canyon area and the Garden Bank area. Hydrocarbon...

Hou, Rusheng

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over Pd/ZnO...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over PdZnOAl2O3 and ZSM-5 Composite Catalyst System. Syngas Conversion to Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons over PdZnOAl2O3 and ZSM-5...

278

Evaluation of biological treatment for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a wastewater treatment plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

present. An evaluation of the performance of the biological treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon by the hydrocarbon degrading microbes at the Brayton Fire School??s 4 million gallon per day (MGD) wastewater treatment plant was the main research objective...

Basu, Pradipta Ranjan

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

279

Aza compounds as anion receptors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

280

Phototransformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on a Non-Semi Conductive Surface Such as Silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), by products of fossil fuel production and consumption, constitute a large class of environmental pollutants. These toxic and sometimes carcinogenic compounds are also found in coal tar and fly ash. When released into the air, they can be sorbed onto particulates present in the atmosphere where they find their way into soil and ground water upon being washed by rain. During their residence time in the environment, PAHs will be exposed to solar radiation and may undergo phototransformation to other products. Thus, light induced photodegradation of PM`s at the solid/air interfaces can play a significant role in their depletion. Light-induced processes have been claimed to enhance transformation of these PM`s in the environment. However, detailed studies on the nature and identities of photoproducts formed during the transformation of these compounds on solid surfaces is scarce. Since insulators such as silica, alumina,silicoaluminates and calcium carbonate are believed to constitute up 20-30% of inorganic particulates present in the atmosphere, they serve as environmentally relevant model surfaces to study the photophysical and photochemical behavior of PM`s. Although photochemistry of organic compounds adsorbed on solid surfaces has received much attention in recent years, the specific properties of the interface which influence photoprocesses and the exact mechanism of interaction between a surface and a substrate are often not well understood. We have investigated the photochemistry of many PAHs including eight that are on Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) sixteen priority pollutant PAH list shown in Table 1 at silica/air interface.

Dabestani, R., Sigman, M.E.

1997-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of aHydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources hasbecome a major environmental and human health concern in many parts ofthe world. Our objectives were to employ both culture andculture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbialcommunity structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate adiesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normaloperating conditions, 97 to 99 percent of total hydrocarbons were removedwith only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultureswere isolated from the treatment unit (96 percent which utilized dieselconstituents as sole carbon source). Approximately 20 percent of theisolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas.Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with mostbelonging to the infinity, beta and gamma subdivision of theProteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the geneticconstitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple timepoints with a Functional Gene Array (FGA) containing over 12,000 probesfor genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemicalcycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using anisothermal phi29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, andhybridized to the arrays in 50 percent formimide overnight at 50 degreesC. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course oftreatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbialcommunity. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation(including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane,biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene); and 333 genesinvolved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases[nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB],potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase[pmoA]) were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE,nitroaromatics and chlorinated compounds werealso present, indicating abroad catabolic potential of the treatment unit. FGA's demonstrated theearly establishment of a diverse community with concurrent aerobic andanaerobic processes contributing to the bioremediationprocess.

Rodriguez-Martinez, E.M.; Perez, Ernie X.; Schadt, ChristopherW.; Zhou, Jizhong; Massol-Deya, Arturo A.

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

282

A 4D Synchrotron X-Ray-Tomography Study of the Formation of Hydrocarbon-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low-permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models, University of Oslo, Idaho National Laboratory, and Institute for Energy Technology Summary Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes

Mazzini, Adriano

283

UPTAKE AND LOSS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS BY THE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UPTAKE AND LOSS OF PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS BY THE MUSSEL, MYTILUS EDULIS, IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS ROBERT C. CLARK, JR., AND JOHN S. FINLEY' ABSTRACT Petroleum paraffin hydrocarbons (n-CI4H30 to n-C37H76 system that simulated tides. The mussels were exposed to levels of petroleum hydrocarbons from a surface

284

192 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 7, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Monitoring by MIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

192 IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 7, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2007 Hydrocarbon and Fluorocarbon Monitoring of hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon molecules on a Ni coil (CE), the products detectable by metal­ insulator Terms--Fluorocarbons, hydrocarbons, metal­ insulator­semiconductor (MIS) and metal

Moritz, Werner

285

Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Hydrocarbons Heterogeneous Pyrolysis: Experiments and Modeling for Scramjet Thermal Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Hydrocarbons Heterogeneous Pyrolysis: Experiments and Modeling for Scramjet Thermal Management : United States (2008)" #12;2 I. Introduction One of the main issues of the development of scramjet, an air to the endothermicity of its thermal decomposition. Because of the large heat load found in a scramjet, engine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.

Moos, Daniel (Houston, TX)

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

288

Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Formation mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in methane flames K. Siegmanna) Swiss 96822 Received 24 August 1999; accepted 13 October 1999 A laminar diffusion flame of methane exhausts,7­17 coal-fired, electricity generating power plants,18,19 tobacco smoke,20 residential wood

Sattler, Klaus

289

THERMOCATALYTIC CO2-FREE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM HYDROCARBON FUELS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THERMOCATALYTIC CO2- FREE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM HYDROCARBON FUELS N. Muradov Florida Solar Energy Center 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, Florida 32922 tel. 321-638-1448, fax. 321-638-1010, muradov (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO2 byproducts

290

Chemical Kinetics of Hydrocarbon Ignition in Practical Combustion Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical kinetic factors of hydrocarbon oxidation are examined in a variety of ignition problems. Ignition is related to the presence of a dominant chain branching reaction mechanism that can drive a chemical system to completion in a very short period of time. Ignition in laboratory environments is studied for problems including shock tubes and rapid compression machines. Modeling of the laboratory systems are used to develop kinetic models that can be used to analyze ignition in practical systems. Two major chain branching regimes are identified, one consisting of high temperature ignition with a chain branching reaction mechanism based on the reaction between atomic hydrogen with molecular oxygen, and the second based on an intermediate temperature thermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic models are then used to describe ignition in practical combustion environments, including detonations and pulse combustors for high temperature ignition, and engine knock and diesel ignition for intermediate temperature ignition. The final example of ignition in a practical environment is homogeneous charge, compression ignition (HCCI) which is shown to be a problem dominated by the kinetics intermediate temperature hydrocarbon ignition. Model results show why high hydrocarbon and CO emissions are inevitable in HCCI combustion. The conclusion of this study is that the kinetics of hydrocarbon ignition are actually quite simple, since only one or two elementary reactions are dominant. However, there are many combustion factors that can influence these two major reactions, and these are the features that vary from one practical system to another.

Westbrook, C.K.

2000-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

291

Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Levels in Fishes and Shellfishes of the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the utilization by humans of the vast protein resources in the sea. Chlorinated hydrocarbons from both agricultural and industrial chemicals have been found repeatedly in marine organisms throughout the world also analyzed a few samples of fish eggs, liver. oil. and meal. Finfishes from the northeastern Pacific

292

Energy Conservation Opportunities in Hydrocarbon Resin Manufacturing Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"The results of a plant-wide assessment of the manufacturing facilities of Neville Chemical Company, a manufacturer of hydrocarbon resins will be presented in this paper. The project was co-funded by US Department of Energy under its Plant...

Ganji, A. R.; Hackett, B.; Chow, S.; Lonergan, R.; Wimer, J.

293

Theoretical studies of hydrocarbon combustion chemistry. Annual progress report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The author reports here the results of DZP CISD calculations for methylcarbene. Geometry, symmetry, and vibrational modes for the radical are reported for both the singlet and the triplet state. Future work will focus on the ethyl radical-oxygen interaction relevant to hydrocarbon combustion.

Schaefer, H.F. III

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART III: CYCLOPENTENE-length article SHORTENED RUNNING TITLE : METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY CYCLOPENTENE * E-mail : pierre with the studies presented in the parts I and II of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

295

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART I: ALLENE Full-length article SHORTENED RUNNING TITLE : METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY ALLENE OR PROPYNE * E investigated: a pure methane flame and two methane flames doped by allene and propyne, respectively. The gases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

296

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RICH METHANE PREMIXED LAMINAR FLAMES DOPED BY LIGHT UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS PART II: 1,3-BUTADIENE-length article SHORTENED RUNNING TITLE : METHANE FLAMES DOPED BY 1,3-BUTADIENE * E-mail : Pierre of this paper, the structure of a laminar rich premixed methane flame doped with 1,3-butadiene has been

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

The toxicity of certain new chlorinated hydrocarbons to cotton pests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS TO COTTON PESTS A Dissertation 5y MARVIN EUGENE MERKL Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of CouBlttee Head of Departnent May 19*3 THE TOXICITY OF CERTAIN NEW CHLORINATED... .....................................................78 CONCLUSIONS............................................... ..81 BIBLIOGRAPHI .............................................. ..82 Pag? FIGURES 1* Dosage-?ortality curve for the toxicity of endrin to aphids...

Merkl, Marvin Eugene

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning Aerosols Using High Resolution Mass Molecular Characterization of Nitrogen Containing Organic Compounds in Biomass Burning...

299

Process for production of a borohydride compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for production of a borohydride compound. The process comprises combining a compound comprising boron and oxygen with an adduct of alane.

Chin, Arthur Achhing; Jain, Puja; Linehan, Suzanne; Lipiecki, Francis Joseph; Maroldo, Stephen Gerard; November, Samuel J; Yamamoto, John Hiroshi

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

300

Calculation of the thermodynamic properties at elevated temperatures and pressures of saturated and aromatic high molecular weight solid and liquid hydrocarbons in kerogen, bitumen, petroleum, and other organic matter of biogeochemical interest  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To supplement the relatively sparse set of calorimetric data available for the multitude of high molecular weight organic compounds of biogeochemical interest, group additivity algorithms have been developed to estimate heat capacity power function coefficients and the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar of high molecular weight compounds in hydrocarbon source rocks and reservoirs, including crystalline and liquid isoprenoids, steroids, tricyclic diterpenoids, hopanoids, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. A total of ninety-six group contributions for each coefficient and property were generated from the thermodynamic properties of lower molecular weight reference species for which calorimetric data are available in the literature. These group contributions were then used to compute corresponding coefficients and properties for {approximately}360 representative solid and liquid high molecular weight compounds in kerogen, bitumen, and petroleum for which few or no experimental data are available. The coefficients and properties of these high molecular weight compounds are summarized in tables, together with those of the groups and reference species from which they were generated. The tabulated heat capacity power function coefficients and standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25 C and 1 bar include selected crystalline and liquid regular, irregular and highly branched isoprenoids, tricyclic diterpanes, 17{alpha}(H)- and 17{beta}(H)-hopanes, 5{alpha}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{beta}(H),14{alpha}(H)-, 5{alpha}(H),14{beta}(H)-, and 5{beta}(H),14{beta}(H)-steranes, double ether- and ester-bonded n-alkanes, and various polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, including methylated biphenyls, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, pyrenes, and chrysenes. However, corresponding coefficients and properties for many more saturated and unsaturated high molecular weight hydrocarbons can be estimated from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. Calculations of this kind permit comprehensive thermodynamic description of the chemical evolution of organic matter with increasing depth in sedimentary basins.

Richard, L.; Helgeson, H.C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

302

Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

303

Quantitative Changes in Hydrocarbons over Time in Fecal Pellets of Incisitermes minor May Predict Whether Colonies Are Alive or Dead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Food utilization and fecal pellet production by drywoodexploring seasonality in pellet production and hydrocarbon

Lewis, Vernard R.; Nelson, Lori J.; Haverty, Michael I.; Baldwin, James A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Volatilization of selected organic compounds from a creosote-waste land-treatment facility. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile compounds which are constituents of a complex creosote waste from laboratory simulations of a land treatment system to assess the potential human exposure to hazardous compounds from this source. In addition, the Thibodeaux-Hwang Air Emission Release Rate (AERR) model was evaluated for its use in predicting emission rates of hazardous constituents of creosote wood preservative waste from land treatment facilities. A group of hazardous volatile and semi-volatile constituents present in the creosote waste was selected for evaluation in this study and included a variety of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA's), phenol, and chlorinated and substituted phenols.

Scott, E.J.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ambient aromatic hydrocarbon measurements at Welgegund, South Africa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be attributed to patterns determining the origin of the air masses sampled. Aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were in general significantly higher in air masses that passed over anthropocentrically impacted regions. Interspecies correlations and ratios gave some indications of the possible sources for the different aromatic hydrocarbons in the source regions defined in the paper. The highest contribution of aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to ozone formation potential was also observed in plumes passing over anthropocentrically impacted regions.

Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.

2014-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

306

Laser photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated heterocyclic compounds. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Partial Contents: Laser Desorption-Laser Photoionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry; Basic Principles of TOFMS; Factors Affecting Flight Time; Source of Broadening; Laser Desorption; Theory of Multiphoton Ionization: Application to Mass Spectrometry; Quantum Theory of MPI; Time-Dependent Perturbation Theory; Time-Dependent Coefficients; Probability of a Two-Photon Process; and Attributes of R2PI.

Noyes, R.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

A study of insect resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides--the effect of these compounds on oxidative metabolism  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

per Gra m of We ev il per Ho ur 19 Figure 3 - Oxygen Uptake of Untreated and Toxaphene Treated Pupae* Cu bi c Mi ll im et er s of Ox yg en per Gra m of We ev il per Ho ur 20 Figure 4 - Oxygen Uptake... ... 19 4 - Oxygen Uptake of Boll Weevil Pupae - Triton X-100 and Toxaphene Treated Pupae ....................................... 20 5 - One Day Old Adult Boll Weevils Reared on a Synthetic Diet - Oxygen Uptake of Untreated and Triton X-100 Treated...

Boyd, Vaughan Frank

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH FOR PREDICTING VISCOSITIES OF HYDROCARBON SYSTEMS: DEFINED COMPOUNDS, DIRECT COAL LIQUID OILS AND LIGHT CRUDE OILS.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A single parameter empirical method, based on the Effective Carbon Number (ECN) concept proposed by Allan and Teja (1991), was modified and extended to predict… (more)

Krishnamoorthy, Vijayaragavan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

Sackinger, W.M.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

Sackinger, W.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Process for partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon-containing fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon-containing fuel comprising supplying an oxygen-containing gas and a hydrocarbon-containing fuel to a gasification zone through a concentric arrangement of three oxygen channels and one fuel channel, and oxidizing the fuel and producing auto-thermically a gaseous stream containing synthesis gas, the oxygen-containing gas being supplied through the central channel of the concentric arrangement at a velocity of 21-42 m/sec and through the first concentric channel encircling the central channel at a velocity of 60-120 m/sec, fuel being supplied through the second concentric channel encircling the first channel at a velocity of 3.0-3.8 m/sec, and oxygen-containing gas being supplied through the third concentric channel encircling the second channel at a velocity of 60-120 m/sec.

Martens, F.J.A.; Hasenack, H.J.A.

1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

316

Catalysts for conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Catalysts for converting methane to higher hydrocarbons such as ethane and ethylene in the presence of oxygen at temperatures in the range of about 700.degree. to 900.degree. C. are described. These catalysts comprise calcium oxide or gadolinium oxide respectively promoted with about 0.025-0.4 mole and about 0.1-0.7 mole sodium pyrophosphate. A preferred reaction temperature in a range of about 800.degree. to 850.degree. C. with a preferred oxygen-to-methane ratio of about 2:1 provides an essentially constant C.sub.2 hydrocarbon yield in the range of about 12 to 19 percent over a period of time greater than about 20 hours.

Siriwardane, Ranjani V. (Morgantown, WV)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

318

Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

1995-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

319

Preliminary investigation of the nature of hydrocarbon migration and entrapment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structures. The charge time for commercial hydrocarbon accumulation is much longer in oil-water systems than in oil-gas-water systems. Faults are classified into charging faults and ?back doors? ? faults other than charging faults in stacked fault...-bounded reservoirs. The lower the displacement pressure of a fault, the higher its updip oil transportation ability. The downdip oil transportation ability of a fault is usually low and cannot cause commercial downdip oil accumulation. Back doors affect both...

Bai, Jianyong

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

320

Direct production of fractionated and upgraded hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Multistage processing of biomass to produce at least two separate fungible fuel streams, one dominated by gasoline boiling-point range liquids and the other by diesel boiling-point range liquids. The processing involves hydrotreating the biomass to produce a hydrotreatment product including a deoxygenated hydrocarbon product of gasoline and diesel boiling materials, followed by separating each of the gasoline and diesel boiling materials from the hydrotreatment product and each other.

Felix, Larry G.; Linck, Martin B.; Marker, Terry L.; Roberts, Michael J.

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in Mississippi Fan sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/ / / / / / glg. 4. Diag~am showing the morphology and lithologic bed associations of a submarine fan (adapted from IIANER, 1971). 16 indicative of land-sourced organic matter even in the intraslope basins. Furthermore, KENNICUTT et ai, (1986a) concluded.... Sandberg, B. A. , University of Colorado Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. James M. Brooks Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions in Upper Pleistocene sediments of the Mississippi Fan and two intraslope basins in the Gulf of Mexico...

Sandberg, William Allan

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Irregular spacing of heat sources for treating hydrocarbon containing formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes providing heat input to a first section of the formation from one or more heat sources located in the first section. Fluids are produced from the first section through a production well located at or near the center of the first section. The heat sources are configured such that the average heat input per volume of formation in the first section increases with distance from the production well.

Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Uwechue, Uzo Philip (Houston, TX)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

323

THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

Ricca, Alessandra [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr. [Entry Systems and Technology Division, Mail Stop 230-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Allamandola, Louis J., E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov, E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov [Space Science Division, Mail Stop 245-6, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

324

The Formation of Nitriles in Hydrocarbon-Rich Atmospheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the hydrocarbons ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), ethyl- ene (C2H4), methylacetylene (CH3CCH), propane (C3H8), methylacetylene (CH3CCH), propane (C3H8), and diacetylene (C4H2).3 Even though the above molecules. Nitriles can be hydrolyzed and react via multistep synthesis ultimately to amino acids, thus pro

Kaiser, Ralf I.

325

Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and expert riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Method and apparatus for production of subsea hydrocarbon formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A well tender system for controlling, separating, storing and offloading well fluids produced from subsea hydrocarbon formations. The system comprises a vertically aligned series of tethered cylindrical tanks which are torsionally stabilized by flexible catenary production riser and export riser bundles, and serviced by separate catenary pipe bundles. Piles are secured to the seabed, each pile assembly being pivotally connected to a lower rigid tendon, which is in turn connected to tendons arranged about the periphery of the interconnected cylindrical tanks.

Blandford, Joseph W. (15 Mott La., Houston, TX 77024)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Aerobic microorganism for the degradation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon-degrading microorganism, having American Type Culture Collection accession numbers ATCC 53570 and 53571, in a biologically pure culture aseptically collected from a deep subsurface habitat and enhanced, mineralizes trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene to HCl, H.sub.2 O and Co.sub.2 under aerobic conditions stimulated by methane, acetate, methanol, tryptone-yeast extract, propane and propane-methane.

Fliermans, Carl B. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

University of Central Florida

2004-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

330

Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

332

Paleotopography and hydrocarbon accumulation: Williston, Powder River, and Denver basins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent geomorphic analyses of 1:24,000 scale topographic maps in the three major basins of the northern Great Plains have disclosed a persistent system of basement paleotopographic features that trend north-northeast throughout the region. Superimposed across this system and subtly influenced by it, are the northwesterly trending Laramide structural features. Paleozoic depositional patterns have been strongly influenced by the paleoridge and trough system formed by the north-northeast features. Mesozoic deposition has also been affected by the ancient subsurface system but in a more subtle manner. Many of the Paleozoic and Mezoxoic hydrocarbon locations in the three basins appear to be the results of paleotopographic control on hydrocarbon accumulation sites. This affect ranges from Paleozoic reef sites in the Williston basin through paleotrough localization of Pennsylvanian Minnelusa production in the Powder River basin to fractured Cretaceous Niobrara production at the Silo field in the Denver basin. Basement paleotopography is the underlying factor in all deposition and subsequent hydrocarbon migration in any basin. As such, it should be considered a major factor in the exploration for oil and gas.

Thomas, G.E. (Thomas and Associates, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

334

Measurement of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in the plume of Kuwait oil well fires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following their retreat from Kuwait during February and March of 1991, the Iraqi Army set fire to over 500 oil wells dispersed throughout the Kuwait oil fields. During the period of sampling from July to August 1991, it was estimated that between 3.29 {times} 10{sup 6} barrels per day of crude oil were combusted. The resulting fires produced several plumes of black and white smoke that coalesced to form a composite ``super`` plume. Because these fires were uncontrolled, significant quantities of organic materials were dispersed into the atmosphere and drifted throughout the Middle East. The organic particulants associated with the plume of the oil well fires had a potential to be rich in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Based on the extreme mutagenic and carcinogenic activities of PAHs found in laboratory testing, a serious health threat to the population of that region potentially existed. Furthermore, the Kuwait oil fire plumes represented a unique opportunity to study the atmospheric chemistry associated with PAHs in the plume. If samples were collected near the plume source and from the plume many kilometers downwind from the source, comparisons could be made to better understand atmospheric reactions associated with particle-bound and gas-phase PAHs. To help answer health-related concerns and to better understand the fate and transport of PAHs in an atmospheric environment, a sampling and analysis program was developed.

Olsen, K.B.; Wright, C.W.; Veverka, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Ball, J.C. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States). Scientific Research Lab.; Stevens, R. [US Environmental Protection Agency (United States). Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Lab.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Method and apparatus for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for monitoring a hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device of an exhaust aftertreatment system of an internal combustion engine operating lean of stoichiometry includes injecting a reductant into an exhaust gas feedstream upstream of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device at a predetermined mass flowrate of the reductant, and determining a space velocity associated with a predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device. When the space velocity exceeds a predetermined threshold space velocity, a temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is determined, and a threshold temperature as a function of the space velocity and the mass flowrate of the reductant is determined. If the temperature differential across the predetermined forward portion of the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device is below the threshold temperature, operation of the engine is controlled to regenerate the hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reactor device.

Schmieg, Steven J; Viola, Michael B; Cheng, Shi-Wai S; Mulawa, Patricia A; Hilden, David L; Sloane, Thompson M; Lee, Jong H

2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

336

Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

337

Feedback Capacity of the Compound Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work, we find the capacity of a compound finite-state channel (FSC) with time-invariant deterministic feedback. We consider the use of fixed length block codes over the compound channel. Our achievability result ...

Shrader, Brooke E.

338

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons part Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

By Abbas Firoozabadi Reservoir Engineering... Research Institute (RERI), Palo Alto Yale University, New Haven New phase formation is an integral part... of hydrocarbon...

339

E-Print Network 3.0 - adsorption equilibria hydrocarbons Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of water vapor and hydrocarbons by activated carbon beds: thermo- dynamic model for adsorption... of binary adsorption equilibria of solvent and water vapor on acti- Z .vated...

340

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons adducted Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hydrocarbon... to its high reactivity toward DNA and cellular proteins. The major acrolein-DNA adduct, -hydrox- ypropano... -hy- droxynonenal, and acrolein, that readily form...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

E-Print Network 3.0 - aliphatic hydrocarbons formed Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4.3. Lack of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons... might be interpreted as the results of contamination that introduced ... Source: Brocks, Jochen J. - Research School of Earth Sciences,...

342

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon neutrals Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

RANDHIR S. MAKKAR and KARL J. ROCKNE... --Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination of the environment represents a serious threat to the health... bioremediation...

343

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon pah-degrading Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

degradation Summary: Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation N... , terminate in the sludge, and can be released to the...

344

E-Print Network 3.0 - abundant accessible hydrocarbons Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Functionalization: An Energy Frontier Research... such as hydrocarbons, dioxygen, water, carbon dioxide and dihydrogen are central to new technologies for the use... of...

345

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon exhaust Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: : Acetylenes: Aromatics: 57 15 2 26 A breakdown of 17...

346

E-Print Network 3.0 - active natural hydrocarbon Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Biology and Medicine 2 Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable to Automobile Hydrocarbon Emissions Summary: Quantification of Local Ozone Production Attributable...

347

Nonthermal plasma systems and methods for natural gas and heavy hydrocarbon co-conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A reactor for reactive co-conversion of heavy hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon gases and includes a dielectric barrier discharge plasma cell having a pair of electrodes separated by a dielectric material and passageway therebetween. An inlet is provided for feeding heavy hydrocarbons and other reactive materials to the passageway of the discharge plasma cell, and an outlet is provided for discharging reaction products from the reactor. A packed bed catalyst may optionally be used in the reactor to increase efficiency of conversion. The reactor can be modified to allow use of a variety of light sources for providing ultraviolet light within the discharge plasma cell. Methods for upgrading heavy hydrocarbons are also disclosed.

Kong, Peter C.; Nelson, Lee O.; Detering, Brent A.

2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

348

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons pah Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 19 Deuterated PAHs in space To appear as Summary: fluorescence from UV pumped, large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs, Allamandola et al.,...

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons pahs Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 19 Deuterated PAHs in space To appear as Summary: fluorescence from UV pumped, large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs, Allamandola et al.,...

350

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon pah Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 19 Deuterated PAHs in space To appear as Summary: fluorescence from UV pumped, large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs, Allamandola et al.,...

351

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons distributed Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Engineering 23 2006-01-0201 Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Summary: the relative distribution among the bins, the data in Figure 2 are...

352

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

coal, oil, gas... called aromatic hydrocarbons. These include harmful pollutants like dioxins, PCBs and a group called Source: Rock, Chris - Department of Biological Sciences,...

353

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons modulate Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

S0045-6535(02)00145-5 Summary: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION...

354

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon tracers Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

S0045-6535(02)00145-5 Summary: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... absorption, pig INTRODUCTION...

355

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

classes of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). A grander objective is to provide... pollutants is a direct consequence of their interactions with the aryl ... Source: Bradfield,...

356

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-1 Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PARENTAL FACTORS ON GAMETE CONDITION AND VIABILITY Summary: . 15. 16. 17. 18-21. 22. Pollutants - petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons, aryl Pollutants - pesticides... high levels of...

357

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon water-soluble Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

S0045-6535(02)00145-5 Summary: Abstract Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins are lipophilic organic pollutants occurring... with their lipophilicity and water...

358

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbons phahs Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

WH, Caton JE. 1983. Extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for qualitative analysis. In... : Handbook of Polycyclic Aromatic ... Source: Rock, Chris - Department of...

359

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

PARENTAL FACTORS ON GAMETE CONDITION AND VIABILITY Summary: . 15. 16. 17. 18-21. 22. Pollutants - petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons, aryl Pollutants - pesticides... high levels of...

360

E-Print Network 3.0 - aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES 106(1), 8392 (2008) doi:10.1093toxscikfn149 Summary: ). Analysis of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated signaling during physiological hypoxia reveals...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

E-Print Network 3.0 - aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

soil... hydrocarbon degraders, and polycyclic aromatic ... Source: Ma, Lena - Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida Collection: Environmental Sciences and...

362

aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil Microcosms: A Review CiteSeer Summary: Copyright 2001 Kansas State University Key words: bioremediation, denitrification, PAHs, sulfidogenesis...

363

NOAA Data Report ERL PMEL-2 LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS (C1 -c4),  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or imply that the NOAA Environ- mental Research Laboratories approves, recommends, or endorses any pro) variations in the dissolved gaseous hydrocarbon fraction composed of methane, ethane, ethene, propane

364

The Impact of Low Octane Hydrocarbon Blending Streams on "E85...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

IMPACT OF LOW OCTANE HYDROCARBON BLENDING STREAMS ON "E85" ENGINE OPTIMIZATION Jim Szybist and Brian West Oak Ridge National Laboratory October 19, 2012 Acknowledgement This...

365

Naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons of residual lube stock from West Siberian crudes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lube stocks from West Siberian crudes are characterized by high contents of aromatic hydrocarbons and by high viscosity indexes of the naphthenic/paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that isoparaffins account for one-third of the total naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons. The study showed that the naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons of the residual lube stock from West Siberia crudes, even with a variation of molecular weight over broad limits, are relatively uniform in composition. They consist mainly of isoparaffinic and monocyclic and noncondensed naphthenic structures.

Detusheva, E.P.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Khramtsova, L.P.; Nekrasova, A.V.; Shkol'nikov, V.M.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

E-Print Network 3.0 - aggravates hydrocarbon oil-induced Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems. For iron-based superconductors... "Can simple hydrocarbon molecular solids superconduct?" Unlike many well established high temperature... of superconductivity in...

367

E-Print Network 3.0 - anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for: anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 0099-22409704.00 0 Summary: . Rabus, R., and F. Widdel. 1995....

368

Thin films of mixed metal compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Volatile organic compound sensor system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

A study of the solubility of mercury in liquid hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mercury by precipitating HgS out of solution and measuring the metcury activity on a Gieger counter. A second but similar method used by Moser and Voigt used metallic Hg&cs which was obtained by reduction of mercumus nitrate with hypophosphorus acid...A STUDY OF THE SOLUBILITY OF MERCURY IN LIQUID HYDROCARBONS A Thesis by DAVID LARIhKR MCFARLANE Submitted to the Oflice of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

McFarlane, David Larimer

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Hydrocarbon analysis of shrimp from oil polluted waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is unaccounted for (Anon. , 1980b). This oil, plus oil from other sources, could become a potential threat to the Gulf shrimp industry. One problem concerning shrimp is that all Gulf shrimp are harvested using a bottom trawl. Tar, or weathered oil, collects...HYDROCARBON ANALYSIS OF SHRIMP FROM OIL POLLUTED WATERS A Thesis by BERNARD JOHN DEWITT III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982...

DeWitt, Bernard John

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

INSENSITIVE HIGH-NITROGEN COMPOUNDS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conventional approach to developing energetic molecules is to chemically place one or more nitro groups onto a carbon skeleton, which is why the term ''nitration'' is synonymous to explosives preparation. The nitro group carries the oxygen that reacts with the skeletal carbon and hydrogen fuels, which in turn produces the heat and gaseous reaction products necessary for driving an explosive shock. These nitro-containing energetic molecules typically have heats of formation near zero and therefore most of the released energy is derived from the combustion process. Our investigation of the tetrazine, furazan and tetrazole ring systems has offered a different approach to explosives development, where a significant amount of the chemical potential energy is derived from their large positive heats of formation. Because these compounds often contain a large percentage of nitrogen atoms, they are usually regarded as high-nitrogen fuels or explosives. A general artifact of these high-nitrogen compounds is that they are less sensitive to initiation (e.g. by impact) when compared to traditional nitro-containing explosives of similar performances. Using the precursor, 3,6-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-s-tetrazine, several useful energetic compounds based on the s-tetrazine system have been synthesized and studied. Some of the first compounds are 3,6-diamino-s-tetrazine-1,4-dioxide (LAX-112) and 3,6-dihydrazino-s-tetrazine (DHT). LAX-112 was once extensively studied as an insensitive explosive by Los Alamos; DHT is an example of a high-nitrogen explosive that relies entirely on its heat of formation for sustaining a detonation. Recent synthesis efforts have yielded an azo-s-tetrazine, 3,3'-azobis(6-amino-s-tetrazine) or DAAT, which has a very high positive heat of formation. The compounds, 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 4,4'-diamino-3,3'-azofurazan (DAAzF), may have important future roles in insensitive explosive applications. Neither DAAF nor DAAzF can be initiated by laboratory impact drop tests, yet both have in some aspects better explosive performances than 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene TATB--the standard of insensitive high explosives. The thermal stability of DAAzF is equal to that of hexanitrostilbene (HNS), yet it too is a better explosive performer. The recently discovered tetrazol derivative, 3,6-bis-(1H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-ylamino)-s-tetrazine (BTATz) was measured to have exceptional positive heats of formation and to be insensitive to explosive initiation. Because of its high burn rate with low sensitivity to pressure, this material is of great interest to the propellant community.

D. CHAVEZ; ET AL

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Size-extensivity-corrected multireference configuration interaction schemes to accurately predict bond dissociation energies of oxygenated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oxygenated hydrocarbons play important roles in combustion science as renewable fuels and additives, but many details about their combustion chemistry remain poorly understood. Although many methods exist for computing accurate electronic energies of molecules at equilibrium geometries, a consistent description of entire combustion reaction potential energy surfaces (PESs) requires multireference correlated wavefunction theories. Here we use bond dissociation energies (BDEs) as a foundational metric to benchmark methods based on multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) for several classes of oxygenated compounds (alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and methyl esters). We compare results from multireference singles and doubles configuration interaction to those utilizing a posteriori and a priori size-extensivity corrections, benchmarked against experiment and coupled cluster theory. We demonstrate that size-extensivity corrections are necessary for chemically accurate BDE predictions even in relatively small molecules and furnish examples of unphysical BDE predictions resulting from using too-small orbital active spaces. We also outline the specific challenges in using MRCI methods for carbonyl-containing compounds. The resulting complete basis set extrapolated, size-extensivity-corrected MRCI scheme produces BDEs generally accurate to within 1 kcal/mol, laying the foundation for this scheme's use on larger molecules and for more complex regions of combustion PESs.

Oyeyemi, Victor B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Krisiloff, David B. [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Keith, John A.; Libisch, Florian [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Pavone, Michele [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli 80120 (Italy)] [Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Napoli Federico II, Napoli 80120 (Italy); Carter, Emily A., E-mail: eac@princeton.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Andlinger Center for Energy and the Environment, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

374

Thin films of mixed metal compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

375

Mach 2 combustion characteristics of hydrogen/hydrocarbon fuel mixtures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The combustion of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2//C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ mixtures containing 10 to 70 vol pct hydrocarbon at combustor inlet Mach number 2 and temperatures 2000 to 4000 R is investigated experimentally, applying direct-connect test hardware and techniques similar to those described by Diskin and Northam (1987) in the facilities of the NASA Langley Hypersonic Propulsion Branch. The experimental setup, procedures, and data-reduction methods are described; and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Fuel type and mixture are found to have little effect on the wall heating rate measured near the combustor exit, but H/sub 2//C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ is shown to burn much more efficiently than H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/, with no pilot-off blowout equivalence ratios greater than 0.5. It is suggested that H/sub 2//hydrocarbon mixtures are feasible fuels (at least in terms of combustion efficiency) for scramjet SSTO vehicles operating at freestream Mach numbers above 4.

Diskin, G.S.; Jachimowski, C.J.; Northam, G.B.; Bell, R.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor measures O.sub.2 content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system.

Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Libyan Paleozoic: A review of the factors limiting hydrocarbon potential  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Of the three main Paleozoic basins - Ghadames, Murquz, and Kufra - only the Ghadames and its continuation into Algeria, the Illizi (or Fort Polignac) basin, has yielded hydrocarbons in significant quantity. The Paleozoic on the Cyrenaica platform and basement of the Sirte basin has a potential not fully considered. The paleogeography of the Paleozoic system is reviewed to illustrate the extent to which inherited and reactivated basement-controlled structures have influenced later Paleozoic sedimentation and hence the distribution of source rocks, reservoirs, and seals. In all instances, the source rocks are restricted to shales of the Tanezufft Formation or occur in the Upper Devonian Aouinet Oeunine Formation. Multiple fine-grained sequences serve as seals in all the fields. The reservoirs range from the well-cemented but highly fractured Cambrian-Ordovician Gargaf sandstones to the Acacus-Tadrart clastics to the fine-grained Lower Carboniferous Tahara Sandstone. The principal plays are associated with minor structures, and stratigraphic trapping mechanisms play a minor role. The average field size (excluding the Sirte basin) is approximately 80 million bbl of recoverable oil. Paleozoic structural plays in the Sirte basin and the Cyrenaica platform include reactivated infra-Cambrian faults. The lower Paleozoic accumulations of the Murzuq basin are tied to large structures. With the exception of local areas in the Ghadames basin, the Paleozoic succession remains a stratigraphic frontier province - still incompletely explored but with several interesting possibilities for large amounts of stratigraphically trapped hydrocarbons.

Kanes, W.H.; Mairn, A.E.M.; Aburawi, R.M.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Preliminary Economics for Hydrocarbon Fuel Production from Cellulosic Sugars  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biorefinery process and economic models built in CHEMCAD and a preliminary, genome-scale metabolic model for the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi were used to simulate the bioconversion of corn stover to lipids, and the upgrading of these hydrocarbon precursors to diesel and jet fuel. The metabolic model was based on the recently released genome sequence for L. starkeyi and on metabolic pathway information from the literature. The process model was based on bioconversion, lipid extraction, and lipid oil upgrading data found in literature, on new laboratory experimental data, and on yield predictions from the preliminary L. starkeyi metabolic model. The current plant gate production cost for a distillate-range hydrocarbon fuel was estimated by the process model Base Case to be $9.5/gallon ($9.0 /gallon of gasoline equivalent) with assumptions of 2011$, 10% internal return on investment, and 2205 ton/day dry feed rate. Opportunities for reducing the cost to below $5.0/gallon, such as improving bioconversion lipid yield and hydrogenation catalyst selectivity, are presented in a Target Case. The process and economic models developed for this work will be updated in 2014 with new experimental data and predictions from a refined metabolic network model for L. starkeyi. Attaining a production cost of $3.0/gallon will require finding higher value uses for lignin other than power generation, such as conversion to additional fuel or to a co-product.

Collett, James R.; Meyer, Pimphan A.; Jones, Susanne B.

2014-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

379

Hydrous metal oxide catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes work performed at Sandia under a CRADA with Shell Development of Houston, Texas aimed at developing hydrous metal oxide (HMO) catalysts for oxidation of hydrocarbons. Autoxidation as well as selective oxidation of 1-octene was studied in the presence of HMO catalysts based on known oxidation catalysts. The desired reactions were the conversion of olefin to epoxides, alcohols, and ketones, HMOs seem to inhibit autoxidation reactions, perhaps by reacting with peroxides or radicals. Attempts to use HMOs and metal loaded HMOs as epoxidation catalysts were unsuccessful, although their utility for this reaction was not entirely ruled out. Likewise, alcohol formation from olefins in the presence of HMO catalysts was not achieved. However, this work led to the discovery that acidified HMOs can lead to carbocation reactions of hydrocarbons such as cracking. An HMO catalyst containing Rh and Cu that promotes the reaction of {alpha}-olefins with oxygen to form methyl ketones was identified. Although the activity of the catalyst is relatively low and isomerization reactions of the olefin simultaneously occur, results indicate that these problems may be addressed by eliminating mass transfer limitations. Other suggestions for improving the catalyst are also made. 57 refs.

Miller, J.E.; Dosch, R.G.; McLaughlin, L.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Process Research Dept.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Oxygen sensor for monitoring gas mixtures containing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas sensor measures O{sub 2} content of a reformable monitored gas containing hydrocarbons, H{sub 2}O and/or CO{sub 2}, preferably in association with an electrochemical power generation system. The gas sensor has a housing communicating with the monitored gas environment and carries the monitored gas through an integral catalytic hydrocarbon reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst, and over a solid electrolyte electrochemical cell used for sensing purposes. The electrochemical cell includes a solid electrolyte between a sensor electrode that is exposed to the monitored gas, and a reference electrode that is isolated in the housing from the monitored gas and is exposed to a reference gas environment. A heating element is also provided in heat transfer communication with the gas sensor. A circuit that can include controls operable to adjust operations via valves or the like is connected between the sensor electrode and the reference electrode to process the electrical signal developed by the electrochemical cell. The electrical signal varies as a measure of the equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of the monitored gas. Signal noise is effectively reduced by maintaining a constant temperature in the area of the electrochemical cell and providing a monitored gas at chemical equilibria when contacting the electrochemical cell. The output gas from the electrochemical cell of the sensor is fed back into the conduits of the power generating system. 4 figs.

Ruka, R.J.; Basel, R.A.

1996-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

382

Catalytic autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fuel cell development has seen remarkable progress in the past decade because of an increasing need to improve energy efficiency as well as to address concerns about the environmental consequences of using fossil fuel for producing electricity and for propulsion of vehicles [1]. The lack of an infrastructure for producing and distributing H{sub 2} has led to a research effort to develop on-board fuel processing technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2} [2]. The primary focus is on reforming gasoline, because a production and distribution infrastructure for gasoline already exists to supply internal combustion engines [3]. Existing reforming technology for the production of H{sub 2} from hydrocarbon feedstocks used in large-scale manufacturing processes, such as ammonia synthesis, is cost prohibitive when scaled down to the size of the fuel processor required for transportation applications (50-80 kWe) nor is it designed to meet the varying power demands and frequent shutoffs and restarts that will be experienced during normal drive cycles. To meet the performance targets required of a fuel processor for transportation applications will require new reforming reactor technology developed to meet the volume, weight, cost, and operational characteristics for transportation applications and the development of new reforming catalysts that exhibit a higher activity and better thermal and mechanical stability than reforming catalysts currently used in the production of H{sub 2} for large-scale manufacturing processes.

Krumpelt, M.; Krause, T.; Kopasz, J.; Carter, D.; Ahmed, S.

2002-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

383

Tectonics and hydrocarbon potential of the Barents Megatrough  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interpretation of geophysical data shows that the geological structure of the Eastern Barents Shelf, named Barents Megatrough (BM), extends sublongitudinally almost from the Baltic shield to the Franz Josef Land archipelago. The earth crust within the axis part of the BM is attenuated up to 28-30 km, whereas in adjacent areas its thickness exceeds 35 km. The depression is filled with of more than 15 km of Upper Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic sediments overlying a folded basement of probable Caledonian age. Paleozoic sediments, with exception of the Upper Permian, are composed mainly of carbonates and evaporites. Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments are mostly terrigenous. The major force in the development of the BM was due to extensional tectonics. Three rifting phases are recognizable: Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous, Early Triassic, and Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The principal features of the geologic structure and evolution of the BM during the late Paleozoic-Mesozoic correlate well with those of the Sverdup basin, Canadian Arctic. Significant quantity of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous basaltic dikes and sills were intruded within Triassic sequence during the third rifting phase. This was probably the main reason for trap disruption and hydrocarbon loss from Triassic structures. Lower Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous reservoir sandstones are most probably the main future objects for oil and gas discoveries within the BM. Upper Jurassic black shales are probably the main source rocks of the BM basin, as well as excellent structural traps for hydrocarbon fluids from the underlying sediments.

Baturin, D.; Vinogradov, A.; Yunov, A. (LARGE International, Moscow (USSR))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Geochemical Prospecting of Hydrocarbons in Frontier Basins of India* By  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

India has 26 sedimentary basins with a basinal area of approximately 1.8x 10 6 km 2 (excluding deep waters), out of which seven are producing basins and two have proven potential. Exploration efforts in other basins, called “frontier basins ” are in progress. These basins are characterized by varied geology, age, tectonics, and depositional environments. Hydrocarbon shows in many of these basins are known, and in few basins oil and gas have flowed in commercial /non-commercial quantities. Within the framework of India Hydrocarbon Vision – 2025 and New Exploration Licensing Policy, there is a continuous increase in area under active exploration. The asset management concept with multi-disciplinary teams has created a demand for synergic application of risk-reduction technologies, including surface geochemical surveys. National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad, India has initiated/planned surface geochemical surveys composed of gas chromatographic and carbon isotopic analyses in few of the frontier basins of India. The adsorbed soil gas data in one of the basins (Saurashtra basin, Gujarat) has shown varied concentrations of CH4 to C4H10. The C1 concentration varies between 3 to 766 ppb and ??C2+, 1 to 543 ppb. This basin has thin soil cover and the Mesozoic sediments (probable source rocks) are overlain by thick cover of Deccan Traps. The scope and perspective of geochemical surveys in frontier basins of India are presented here.

B. Kumar; D. J. Patil; G. Kalpana; C. Vishnu Vardhan

385

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

area) are not well established, either globally or within strong source areas such as near Coal OilThe spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil hydrocarbon seepage from marine environments is an important source of methane and other gases

Washburn, Libe

386

Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the worldORIGINAL Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir

Luyendyk, Bruce

387

Fracturing controlled primary migration of hydrocarbon fluids during1 heating of organic-rich shales2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

understand primary migration of16 hydrocarbon fluids in very low permeability source rock. Cracks nucleate.e. the transport of hydrocarbon fluids from extremely low39 permeability source rocks in which they are generated the source rock is42 formed is buried, the organic material is transformed into complex high molecular weight

388

Desiccant bed on hydrocarbon charged to and removed from underground (salt) cavern  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A hydrocarbon fluid storage system is described which consists of in operable conjunction: a cavern formed within an underground salt strata below a ground surface, the cavern comprises a lower liquid volume of saturated sodium chloride storage brine and an upper fluid volume of wet hydrocarbon storage fluid, surface fluid handling means; conduit connecting the lower storage brine and upper storage hydrocarbon fluid with the surface fluid handling means, of fluid transfer means enabling transfer of brine and hydrocarbon fluid from the surface to the cavern and from the cavern to the surface, such that brine can be added to or withdrawn from the lower brine volume and hydrocarbon fluids can be added to or withdrawn from the upper hydrocarbon fluid volume, and at least one desiccant drier means positioned at the surface in operable association with the surface fluid handling means whereby the wet hydrocarbon fluid upon withdrawal from the cavern passes through the desiccant drier means and thereby becomes dry, and dry hydrocarbon fluid intended for storage passes through the desiccant drier prior to entering the storage cavern and thereby becomes wet.

Washer, S.P.

1986-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

389

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor polymorphisms and dioxin resistance in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor polymorphisms and dioxin resistance in Atlantic killifish (Fundulus aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as well as polynuclear and that the frequencies of the major allele types differ between dioxin- sensitive and dioxin-resistant populations

Hahn, Mark E.

390

Assessment of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs using PAHs as tracers.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to produce liquid hydrocarbons and water. -- Coal-to-liquids (CTLs) are derived either by pyrolysis of coal authors accept that conventional oil resources are at an advanced stage of depletion and that liquid fuels is a heterogeneous mix of hydrocarbons that remain in liquid phase when extracted to the surface. -- Condensate

391

Interactive physically-based structural modeling of hydrocarbon systems Mael Bosson a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

using scripts and/or modeling tools. For many systems, however, these building methods may models of hydrocarbon systems. As the user edits the geometry of the system, atomic positions are alsoInteractive physically-based structural modeling of hydrocarbon systems Mael Bosson a, , Sergei

Redon, Stephane - NRIA Grenoble

392

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs. 15 figs.

Lancaster, G.D.; Moore, G.A.; Stone, M.L.; Reagen, W.K.

1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

393

Volatile organic compound sensing devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus employing vapochromic materials in the form of inorganic double complex salts which change color reversibly when exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors is adapted for VOC vapor detection, VOC aqueous matrix detection, and selective VOC vapor detection. The basic VOC vapochromic sensor is incorporated in various devices such as a ground probe sensor, a wristband sensor, a periodic sampling monitor, a soil/water penetrometer, an evaporative purge sensor, and various vacuum-based sensors which are particularly adapted for reversible/reusable detection, remote detection, continuous monitoring, or rapid screening of environmental remediation and waste management sites. The vapochromic sensor is used in combination with various fiber optic arrangements to provide a calibrated qualitative and/or quantitative indication of the presence of VOCs.

Lancaster, Gregory D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moore, Glenn A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stone, Mark L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Reagen, William K. (Stillwater, MN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Seabrook, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Alkylation of organic aromatic compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Aromatic compounds are alkylated in a combination reactor/distillation column comprising a vessel suitable for operating between 70 C and 500 C and from 0.5 to 20 atmospheres pressure; an inert distillation packing in the lower one-third of said vessel; solid acidic catalytic material such as zeolites or an acidic cation exchange resin supported in the middle one-third of said vessel; and inert distillation packing in the upper one-third of said vessel. A benzene inlet is located near the upper end of the vessel; an olefin inlet is juxtaposed with said solid acidic catalytic material; a bottoms outlet is positioned near the bottom of said vessel for removing said cumene and ethyl benzene; and an overhead outlet is placed at the top of said vessel for removing any unreacted benzene and olefin.

Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

396

Biofuel from Bacteria and Sunlight: Shewanella as an Ideal Platform for Producing Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: The University of Minnesota is developing clean-burning, liquid hydrocarbon fuels from bacteria. The University is finding ways to continuously harvest hydrocarbons from a type of bacteria called Shewanella by using a photosynthetic organism to constantly feed Shewanella the sugar it needs for energy and hydrocarbon production. The two organisms live and work together as a system. Using Shewanella to produce hydrocarbon fuels offers several advantages over traditional biofuel production methods. First, it eliminates many of the time-consuming and costly steps involved in growing plants and harvesting biomass. Second, hydrocarbon biofuels resemble current petroleum-based fuels and would therefore require few changes to the existing fuel refining and distribution infrastructure in the U.S.

None

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Time sequenced heating of multiple layers in a hydrocarbon containing formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation may include providing heat to a first hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a first heater located in an opening in the formation. The opening and the first heater may have a horizontal or inclined portion located in the first hydrocarbon layer and at least one connecting portion extending between the horizontal or inclined portion and the surface. Isolation material is placed in the opening such that the isolation material partially isolates the layer in which the horizontal or inclined portion of the first heater is located. An additional horizontal or inclined opening portion that extends from at least one of the connecting portions of the opening is formed in a second hydrocarbon layer. A second heater to provide heat the second hydrocarbon formation is placed in the additional substantially horizontal opening portion.

Goldberg, Bernard (Houston, TX); Hale, Arthur Herman (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2009-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

398

Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap there between. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition. 6 figs.

Kong, P.C.

1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

399

Method for cracking hydrocarbon compositions using a submerged reactive plasma system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for cracking a liquid hydrocarbon composition (e.g. crude oil) to produce a cracked hydrocarbon product. A liquid hydrocarbon composition is initially provided. An electrical arc is generated directly within the hydrocarbon composition so that the arc is entirely submerged in the composition. Arc generation is preferably accomplished using a primary and secondary electrode each having a first end submerged in the composition. The first ends of the electrodes are separated from each other to form a gap therebetween. An electrical potential is then applied to the electrodes to generate the arc within the gap. A reactive gas is thereafter delivered to the arc which forms a bubble around the arc. Gas delivery may be accomplished by providing a passageway through each electrode and delivering the gas through the passageways. The arc and gas cooperate to produce a plasma which efficiently cracks the hydrocarbon composition.

Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Evidence of a Pathway to Hydrocarbon Nanoparticle Formation in Fusion Plasmas and its Impact on Tritium Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evidence of a Pathway to Hydrocarbon Nanoparticle Formation in Fusion Plasmas and its Impact on Tritium Inventory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Development of a Fundamental Understanding of Chemical Bonding and Electronic Structure in Spinel Compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos national Laboratory (LANL). Hundreds of ceramic compounds possess the spinel crystal structure and exhibit a remarkable variety of properties, ranging from compounds that are electrical insulators to compounds that are superconducting, or from compounds with ferri- and antiferromagnetic behavior to materials with colossal magnetoresistive characteristics. The unique crystal structure of spinel compounds is in many ways responsible for the widely varying physical properties of spinels. The objective of this project is to investigate the nature of chemical bonding, point defects, and electronic structure in compounds with the spinel crystal structure. Our goal is to understand and predict the stability of the spinel structure as a function of chemical composition, stoichiometry, and cation disorder. The consequences of cation disorder in spinel materials can be profound . The ferromagnetic characteristics of magnesioferrite, for instance, are entirely attributable to disorder on the cation sublattices. Our studies provide insight into the mechanisms of point defect formation and cation disorder and their effects on the electronic band structure and crystal structure of spinel-structure materials. our ultimate objective is to develop a more substantive knowledge of the spinel crystal structure and to promote new and novel uses for spinel compounds. The technical approach to achieve our goals is to combine first-principles calculations with experimental measurements. The structural and electronic properties of spinel samples were experimentally determined primarily with X-ray and neutron scattering, optical and X-ray absorption, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Total energy electronic structure calculations were performed to determine structural stability, band structure, density of states, and electron distribution. We also used shell-model total -energy calculations to assess point-defect formation and migration energies in magnesio-aluminate spinel.

Sickafus, K.E.; Wills, J.M.; Chen, S.-P.; Terry, J.H., Jr.; Hartmann, T.; Sheldon, R.I.

1999-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

402

Activated carbon and biochar amendments decrease pore-water concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge Patryk Oleszczuk a,b, , Sarah E. Hale a , Johannes Lehmann c , Gerard Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Bioavailability Sewage sludge a b s t r a c t The aim of the research of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge. Two different biochars (MSB and PMW) and two ACs

Lehmann, Johannes

403

Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

404

Organic electronic devices using phthalimide compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Organic electronic devices comprising a phthalimide compound. The phthalimide compounds disclosed herein are electron transporters with large HOMO-LUMO gaps, high triplet energies, large reduction potentials, and/or thermal and chemical stability. As such, these phthalimide compounds are suitable for use in any of various organic electronic devices, such as OLEDs and solar cells. In an OLED, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as a host in the emissive layer, as a hole blocking material, or as an electron transport material. In a solar cell, the phthalimide compounds may serve various functions, such as an exciton blocking material. Various examples of phthalimide compounds which may be suitable for use in the present invention are disclosed.

Hassan, Azad M.; Thompson, Mark E.

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Origins of volatile organic compounds emerging from tank 241-C-106 during sluicing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unexpectedly high concentrations of inorganic gases and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were released from the ventilation stack of tank 241-C-106 during sluicing operations on November 18, 1998. Workers experienced serious discomfort. They reported an obnoxious acrid odor and the 450 ppm VOC in ventilation stack 296-C-006 exceeded the level approved in the air discharge permit. Consequently, the operation was terminated. Subsequent analyses of samples collected opportunistically from the stack indicated many organic compounds including heptenes, heptanones, and normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) and their remnants were present. Subsequently, a process test designed to avoid unnecessary worker exposure and enable collection of analytical samples from the stack, the breathing area, and the receiver tank was conducted on December 16, 1998. The samples obtained during that operation, in which the maximum VOC content of the stack was approximately 35 ppm, have been analyzed by teams at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Special Analytic Services (SAS). This report examines the results of these investigations. Future revisions of the report will examine the analytical results obtained for samples collected during sluicing operations in March. This report contains the available evidence about the source term for these emissions. Chapter 2 covers characterization work, including historical information about the layers of waste in the tank, the location of organic compounds in these layers, the total organic carbon (TOC) content and the speciation of organic compounds. Chapter 3 covers the data for the samples from the ventilation stack, which has the highest concentrations of organic compounds. Chapter 4 contains an interpretation of the information connecting the composition of the organic emissions with the composition of the original source term. Chapter 5 summarizes the characterization work, the sample data, and the interpretation of the results.

STAUFFER, L.A.

1999-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

406

Laboratory testing and modeling to evaluate perfluorocarbon compounds as tracers in geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal stability and adsorption characteristics of three perfluorinated hydrocarbon compounds were evaluated under geothermal conditions to determine the potential to use these compounds as conservative or thermally-degrading tracers in Engineered (or Enhanced) Geothermal Systems (EGS). The three compounds tested were perfluorodimethyl-cyclobutane (PDCB), perfluoromethylcyclohexane (PMCH), and perfluorotrimethylcyclohexane (PTCH), which are collectively referred to as perfluorinated tracers, or PFTs. Two sets of duplicate tests were conducted in batch mode in gold-bag reactors, with one pair of reactors charged with a synthetic geothermal brine containing the PFTs and a second pair was charged with the brine-PFT mixture plus a mineral assemblage chosen to be representative of activated fractures in an EGS reservoir. A fifth reactor was charged with deionized water containing the three PFTs. The experiments were conducted at {approx}100 bar, with temperatures ranging from 230 C to 300 C. Semi-analytical and numerical modeling was also conducted to show how the PFTs could be used in conjunction with other tracers to interrogate surface area to volume ratios and temperature profiles in EGS reservoirs. Both single-well and cross-hole tracer tests are simulated to illustrate how different suites of tracers could be used to accomplish these objectives. The single-well tests are especially attractive for EGS applications because they allow the effectiveness of a stimulation to be evaluated without drilling a second well.

Reimus, Paul W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

407

Biogeochemical processes governing exposure and uptake of organic pollutant compounds in aquatic organisms. Environmental Health Perspectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper reviews current knowledge of biogeochemical cycles of pollutant organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems with a focus on coastal ecosystems. There is a bias toward discussng chemkal and geochemical aspects ofbiogeochemical cycles and an emphasis on hydrophobic organic compounds such as polynuckar aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated organic compounds used as pesticides. The complexity of mixtures of pollutant organic compounds, their various modes of entering ecosystems, and their physical chemical forms are discussed. Important factors that influence bioavailability and disposition (e.g., organism-water partitioning, uptake via food, food meb transfer) are reviewed. These factors include solubilities of chemicals; partitioning of chemicals between solid surfaces, colloids, and soluble phases; variables rates of sorption, desorption; and physiological status of organism. It appears that more emphasis on considering food as a source of uptake and bioaccumulation is important in benthic and epibenthic ecosystems when sediment-associated pollutants are a nt source of input to an aquatic ecosystem. Progress with mathematical models for exposure and uptake of contaminant chemicals is discussed briefly.

John W. Farrington

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

410

Thermal performance of direct contact heat exchangers for mixed hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes a physical and a mathematical model for evaluating the tray efficiencies for a direct contact heat exchanger (DCHX). The model is then used to determine the efficiencies for tests conducted on a 60kW sieve tray DCHX as heat is transferred from a geofluid (brine) to a working fluid (mixed hydrocarbons). It is assumed that there are three distinct regions in the column based on the state of the working fluid, as follows: Region I - Preheating with no vaporization; Region II - Preheating with moderate vaporization; and Region III - Major vaporization. The boundaries of these regions can be determined from the experimental data. In the model, mass balance and energy balance is written for a tray ''N'' in each of these regions. Finally, the ''tray efficiency'' or ''heat transfer'' effectiveness of the tray is calculated based on the definition that it is the ratio of the actual heat transfer to the maximum possible, thermodynamically.

Sharpe, L. Jr.; Coswami, D.Y.; Demuth, O.J.; Mines, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Hydrocarbon cracking with yttrium exchanged zeolite y catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process is described for cracking a gas oil boiling range hydrocarbon feedstock comprising the step of contacting the feedstock in a catalytic cracking zone under catalytic cracking conditions to produce convulsion products comprising gasoline with a catalyst composition. The process comprises: a Y crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite, having the structure of faujasite and having uniform pore diameters and a silica to alumina mole ratio of at least about 5; an inorganic oxide matrix; and the zeolite having been ion exchanged with a mixture of rare earths prior to compositing with the matrix; and the zeolite having been subsequently further ion exchanged with yttrium following compositing with the matrix, whereby the catalyst composition contains 0.30 to 3.0 wt% yttrium.

Lochow, C.F.; Kovacs, D.B.

1987-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

412

Heating hydrocarbon containing formations in a spiral startup staged sequence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation are described herein. Methods may include treating a first zone of the formation. Treatment of a plurality of zones of the formation may be begun at selected times after the treatment of the first zone begins. The treatment of at least two successively treated zones may begin at a selected time after treatment of the previous zone begins. At least two of the successively treated zones may be adjacent to the zone treated previously. The successive treatment of the zones proceeds in an outward, substantially spiral sequence from the first zone so that the treatment of the zones may move substantially spirally outwards towards a boundary of the treatment area.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Pyrochlore-type catalysts for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of catalytically reforming a reactant gas mixture using a pyrochlore catalyst material comprised of one or more pyrochlores having the composition A.sub.2-w-xA'.sub.wA''.sub.xB.sub.2-y-zB'.sub.yB''.sub.zO.sub.7-.DELTA.. Distribution of catalytically active metals throughout the structure at the B site creates an active and well dispersed metal locked into place in the crystal structure. This greatly reduces the metal sintering that typically occurs on supported catalysts used in reforming reactions, and reduces deactivation by sulfur and carbon. Further, oxygen mobility may also be enhanced by elemental exchange of promoters at sites in the pyrochlore. The pyrochlore catalyst material may be utilized in catalytic reforming reactions for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into synthesis gas (H.sub.2+CO) for fuel cells, among other uses.

Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV); Haynes, Daniel (Morgantown, WV); Smith, Mark (Morgantown, WV); Spivey, James J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

414

Solution mining systems and methods for treating hydrocarbon containing formations  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating an oil shale formation comprising nahcolite is disclosed. The method includes providing a first fluid to a portion of the formation through at least two injection wells. A second fluid is produced from the portion through at least one injection well until at least two injection wells are interconnected such that fluid can flow between the two injection wells. The second fluid includes at least some nahcolite dissolved in the first fluid. The first fluid is injected through one of the interconnected injection wells. The second fluid is produced from at least one of the interconnected injection wells. Heat is provided from one or more heaters to the formation to heat the formation. Hydrocarbon fluids are produced from the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); de Rouffignac, Eric Pierre (Rijswijk, NL); Schoeling, Lanny Gene (Katy, TX)

2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

415

Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon liquids at high pressures and temperatures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Understanding the organic/inorganic interface in the Earth's crust requires values of the thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon species in crude oil, coal, and natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. Values of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation and the standard partial molal entropies and heat capacities of these organic species can be computed as a function of temperature at 1 bar using the equations of state adopted by Helgeson et al (1991). The pressure dependence of the thermodynamic properties can be calculated from a modified version of the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state. To improve the accuracy of these predictions, critical evaluation of high-pressure density experiments reported in the literature was used in the present study to characterize b[sub j] as a function of pressure and temperature. The revised PFGC equation of state permits accurate calculation of the standard partial molal volumes of the major hydrocarbon species in the aliphatic, aromatic, and naphthenic fractions of crude oil, as well as fatty acids, phenols, and naphthenic acids at temperatures and pressures to 500 C and 5 kbar. Combining the revised PFGC equation of state and parameters with the standard partial molal properties of these species at one bar and those of aqueous species and minerals permits calculation of the apparent standard partial molal Gibbs Free energies of reaction, and thus equilibrium constants for a wide variety of chemical equilibria among organic liquids, solids, and gases, aqueous species, and minerals at temperatures and pressures characteristic of both diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic processes in the Earth's crust.

Aagaard, P. (Univ. of Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Geology); Oelkers, E.H. (Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France). Lab. de Geochimie); Helgeson, H.C. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Soil Iodine Determination in Deccan Syneclise, India: Implications for Near Surface Geochemical Hydrocarbon Prospecting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The association of iodine with organic matter in sedimentary basins is well documented. High iodine concentration in soils overlying oil and gas fields and areas with hydrocarbon microseepage has been observed and used as a geochemical exploratory tool for hydrocarbons in a few studies. In this study, we measure iodine concentration in soil samples collected from parts of Deccan Syneclise in the west central India to investigate its potential application as a geochemical indicator for hydrocarbons. The Deccan Syneclise consists of rifted depositional sites with Gondwana-Mesozoic sediments up to 3.5 km concealed under the Deccan Traps and is considered prospective for hydrocarbons. The concentration of iodine in soil samples is determined using ICP-MS and the values range between 1.1 and 19.3 ppm. High iodine values are characteristic of the northern part of the sampled region. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soil samples range between 0.1 and 1.3%. The TOC correlates poorly with the soil iodine (r{sup 2} < 1), indicating a lack of association of iodine with the surficial organic matter and the possibility of interaction between the seeping hydrocarbons and soil iodine. Further, the distribution pattern of iodine compares well with two surface geochemical indicators: the adsorbed light gaseous hydrocarbons (methane through butane) and the propane-oxidizing bacterial populations in the soil. The integration of geochemical observations show the occurrence of elevated values in the northern part of the study area, which is also coincident with the presence of exposed dyke swarms that probably serve as conduits for hydrocarbon microseepage. The corroboration of iodine with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data suggests its efficacy as one of the potential tool in surface geochemical exploration of hydrocarbons. Our study supports Deccan Syneclise to be promising in terms of its hydrocarbon prospects.

Mani, Devleena, E-mail: devleenatiwari@ngri.res.in [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India); Kumar, T. Satish [Oil India Limited (India); Rasheed, M. A.; Patil, D. J.; Dayal, A. M.; Rao, T. Gnaneshwar; Balaram, V. [National Geophysical Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research) (India)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

417

Research Article Decomposition of Epoxy Model Compounds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-critical water (NCW) or subcritical water, i.e., water at 250­300 °C [20], turn out to be alternative candidatesResearch Article Decomposition of Epoxy Model Compounds in Near-Critical Water Two tpyes of epoxy water (NCW). In the case of model compound I, at low temperatures the water molecules behave

Guo, John Zhanhu

418

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

419

Method for silicon carbide production by reacting silica with hydrocarbon gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for producing silicon carbide particles using a silicon source material and a hydrocarbon. The method is efficient and is characterized by high yield. Finely divided silicon source material is contacted with hydrocarbon at a temperature of 400.degree. C. to 1000.degree. C. where the hydrocarbon pyrolyzes and coats the particles with carbon. The particles are then heated to 1100.degree. C. to 1600.degree. C. to cause a reaction between the ingredients to form silicon carbide of very small particle size. No grinding of silicon carbide is required to obtain small particles. The method may be carried out as a batch process or as a continuous process.

Glatzmaier, Gregory C. (Boulder, CO)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Fuel-flexible partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbons for automotive applications.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Micro-reactor tests indicate that our partial oxidation catalyst is fuel-flexible and can reform conventional (gasoline and diesel) and alternative (ethanol, methanol, natural gas) fuels to hydrogen rich product gases with high hydrogen selectivity. Alcohols are reformed at lower temperatures (< 600 C) while alkanes and unsaturated hydrocarbons require slightly higher temperatures. Cyclic hydrocarbons and aromatics have also been reformed at relatively low temperatures, however, a different mechanism appears to be responsible for their reforming. Complex fuels like gasoline and diesel, which are mixtures of a broad range of hydrocarbons, require temperatures of > 700 C for maximum hydrogen production.

Ahmed, S.; Carter, J. D.; Kopasz, J. P.; Krumpelt, M.; Wilkenhoener, R.

1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Method of treating emissions of a hybrid vehicle with a hydrocarbon absorber and a catalyst bypass system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of treating emissions from an internal combustion engine of a hybrid vehicle includes directing a flow of air created by the internal combustion engine when the internal combustion engine is spinning but not being fueled through a hydrocarbon absorber to collect hydrocarbons within the flow of air. When the hydrocarbon absorber is full and unable to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through an electrically heated catalyst to treat the flow of air and remove the hydrocarbons. When the hydrocarbon absorber is not full and able to collect additional hydrocarbons, the flow of air is directed through a bypass path that bypasses the electrically heated catalyst to conserve the thermal energy stored within the electrically heated catalyst.

Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Gonze, Eugene V; Santoso, Halim G; Spohn, Brian L

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

422

Application of Metagenomics for Identification of Novel Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Enzymes in Natural Asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2010. Biodegradation of MTBE by Achromobacter xylosoxidansaromatic hydrocarbons and MTBE (Eixarch and Constanti, 2010,

Baquiran, Jean-Paul Mendoza

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Effect of modifier Pd metal on hydrocracking of polyaromatic compounds over Ni-loaded Y-type zeolite and its application as hydrodesulfurization catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal tar obtained from coal carbonization is a treasure of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, where more than 400 kinds of aromatic compounds are found to be contained. The development of new catalysts being able to convert these aromatics into mono or diaromatic compounds is one of objectives for utilization of polyaromatics. Hydrocracking of polyaromatic compounds is believed to proceed via formation of terminal-naphthenic ring of starting aromatic compounds, followed by cleavage of the naphthenic ring to produce alkylated aromatic compounds which has less numbers of ring than starting aromatics. Accordingly, hydrogenation of aromatic rings and cracking of resulting naphthenic rings are key steps of hydrocracking reaction, so that dual functional catalysts such as metal-supported acid catalysts are considered to be one of the best catalysts. Zeolite has controlled pore structures and strong acidity enough to crack naphthenic rings, being characteristics in exchanging metal species with ease. We have been studying the hydrocracking of polyaromatic compounds over Ni-loaded zeolite catalysts (ZSM-5, mordenite, and Y-type) and found the fact that pore size of zeolite exerts an interesting effect on product distribution. We also conducted computer-simulation for diffusion phenomena of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pore of these zeolites and found that diffusion ability of the substrate affects strongly the product distributions Recently we found that modifying of Ni-loaded Y-type zeolite by Pd-loading enhanced hydrocracking ability of the catalyst. In this report, we would like to refer to the results of both hydrocracking reaction of pyrene and hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene using Pd-modified Ni-loaded Y-type zeolite.

Wada, Takema; Murata, Satoru; Nomura, Masakatsu [Osaka Univ. (Japan)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

424

Two-stage Catalytic Reduction of NOx with Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-stage system for the catalytic reduction of NO from lean-burn natural gas reciprocating engine exhaust is investigated. Each of the two stages uses a distinct catalyst. The first stage is oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2} and the second stage is reduction of NO{sub 2} to N{sub 2} with a hydrocarbon. The central idea is that since NO{sub 2} is a more easily reduced species than NO, it should be better able to compete with oxygen for the combustion reaction of hydrocarbon, which is a challenge in lean conditions. Early work focused on demonstrating that the N{sub 2} yield obtained when NO{sub 2} was reduced was greater than when NO was reduced. NO{sub 2} reduction catalysts were designed and silver supported on alumina (Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was found to be quite active, able to achieve 95% N{sub 2} yield in 10% O{sub 2} using propane as the reducing agent. The design of a catalyst for NO oxidation was also investigated, and a Co/TiO{sub 2} catalyst prepared by sol-gel was shown to have high activity for the reaction, able to reach equilibrium conversion of 80% at 300 C at GHSV of 50,000h{sup -1}. After it was shown that NO{sub 2} could be more easily reduced to N{sub 2} than NO, the focus shifted on developing a catalyst that could use methane as the reducing agent. The Ag/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was tested and found to be inactive for NOx reduction with methane. Through iterative catalyst design, a palladium-based catalyst on a sulfated-zirconia support (Pd/SZ) was synthesized and shown to be able to selectively reduce NO{sub 2} in lean conditions using methane. Development of catalysts for the oxidation reaction also continued and higher activity, as well as stability in 10% water, was observed on a Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, which reached equilibrium conversion of 94% at 250 C at the same GHSV. The Co/ZrO{sub 2} catalyst was also found to be extremely active for oxidation of CO, ethane, and propane, which could potential eliminate the need for any separate oxidation catalyst. At every stage, catalyst synthesis was guided by the insights gained through detailed characterization of the catalysts using many surface and bulk analysis techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Temperature-programmed Reduction, Temperature programmed Desorption, and Diffuse Reflectance InfraRed Fourier Transform Spectroscopy as well as steady state reaction experiments. Once active catalysts for each stage had been developed, a physical mixture of the two catalysts was tested for the reduction of NO with methane in lean conditions. These experiments using a mixture of the catalysts produced N2 yields as high as 90%. In the presence of 10% water, the catalyst mixture produced 75% N{sub 2} yield, without any optimization. The dual catalyst system developed has the potential to be implemented in lean-burn natural gas engines for reducing NOx in lean exhaust as well as eliminating CO and unburned hydrocarbons without any fuel penalty or any system modifications. If funding continues, future work will focus on improving the hydrothermal stability of the system to bring the technology closer to application.

Umit S. Ozkan; Erik M. Holmgreen; Matthew M. Yung; Jonathan Halter; Joel Hiltner

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

425

Complex conductivity tensor of anisotropic hydrocarbon-1 bearing shales and mudrocks2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to describe seismic and electromagnetic (EM) measurements in these anisotropic54 materials.55 Oil-shale to release their hydrocarbons. Hence, oil shales and58 mudrocks are typically water-wet, single- or dual

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

426

Hydrocarbon trapping mechanisms in the Miller Creek area of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

'' 1975 43'W'79 ABSTRACT Hydrocarbon Trapoing Mechanisms in the Miller Creek Area of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. (May 1975) Jennifer Ann Armstrong, B. S. , University of Texas at Austin Chairman of Advisory Committee: 17r. Robert. R. Berg...

Armstrong, Jennifer Ann

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Ten years of marine CSEM for hydrocarbon exploration Steven Constable1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ten years of marine CSEM for hydrocarbon exploration Steven Constable1 ABSTRACT Marine controlled, several more surveys were carried out in the same region Constable and Srnka, 2007 , and within two years

Constable, Steve

428

Impact of retarded spark timing on engine combustion, hydrocarbon emissions, and fast catalyst light-off  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An experimental study was performed to determine the effects of substantial spark retard on engine combustion, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, feed gas enthalpy, and catalyst light-off. Engine experiments were conducted at ...

Hallgren, Brian E. (Brian Eric), 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Method for determining asphaltene stability of a hydrocarbon-containing material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for determining asphaltene stability in a hydrocarbon-containing material having solvated asphaltenes therein is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, it involves the steps of: (a) precipitating an amount of the asphaltenes from a liquid sample of the hydrocarbon-containing material with an alkane mobile phase solvent in a column; (b) dissolving a first amount and a second amount of the precipitated asphaltenes by changing the alkane mobile phase solvent to a final mobile phase solvent having a solubility parameter that is higher than the alkane mobile phase solvent; (c) monitoring the concentration of eluted fractions from the column; (d) creating a solubility profile of the dissolved asphaltenes in the hydrocarbon-containing material; and (e) determining one or more asphaltene stability parameters of the hydrocarbon-containing material.

Schabron, John F; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

430

From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Underground storage of natural gas, liquid hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality regulates the underground storage of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Prior to the use of any underground reservoir for the...

432

Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants contained in firefighting water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Fouling of reverse osmosis membranes by hydrocarbonated and fluorinated surfactants osmosis efficiently treated the water from fire extinguishment. In this work we focused on the reverse surfactants [1]. Experimental results indicated that electrocoagulation and filtration followed by reverse

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

433

The methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction : Influence of acid strength on the mechanism of olefin formation.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The methanol-to-hydrocarbons (MTH) reaction is a flexible alternative step in the upgrading of natural gas, coal or biomass. By tuning the catalyst and process conditions,… (more)

Erichsen, Marius Westgård

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Hydrocarbon emissions in a homogeneous direct-injection spark engine : gasoline and gasohol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to better understand the effects on hydrocarbon emissions of loading, engine temperature, fuel type, and injection timing, a series of experiments was performed. The effect of loading was observed by running the ...

Tharp, Ronald S

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Black carbon in marine sediments : quantification and implications for the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorption is a key factor in determining the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment. Here, PAH sorption is proposed as the sum of two mechanisms: absorption into a biogenic, organic carbon (OC) ...

Accardi-Dey, AmyMarie, 1976-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Assessing the hydrocarbon emissions in a homogeneous direct injection spark ignited engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For the purpose of researching hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in a direct-injection spark ignited (DISI) engine, five experiments were performed. These experiments clarified the role of coolant temperature, injection pressure, ...

Radovanovic, Michael S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Effect of Sulfur and Hydrocarbon Fuels on Titanate/Ceria SOFC Anodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to develop low-cost, high-performance anodes that offer low polarization resistance as well as improved tolerance for nonidealities in anode environment such as redox cycles, sulfur and other poisons, and hydrocarbons.

Marina, O.A.; Pedersen, L.R.; Stevenson, J.W.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

438

Analysis of a direct methane conversion to high molecular weight hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane conversion to heavier hydrocarbons was studied using electrical furnaces and a plasma apparatus. The experiments were performed with pure methane for the electrical furnace experiments while pure methane and additions such as hydrogen...

Al-Ghafran, Moh'd. J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

A porous covalent porphyrin framework with exceptional uptake capacity of saturated hydrocarbons oil spill cleanup  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Yamamoto homo-coupling reaction of tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin afforded a porous covalent porphyrin framework, PCPF-1, which features strong hydrophobicity and oleophilicity and demonstrates exceptional adsorptive capacities for saturated hydrocarbons and gasoline.

Wang, Xi-Sen; Liu, Jian; Bonefont, Jean M.; Yuan, Da-Qiang; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Ma, Shengqian

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

440

Characteristics of naphthenic and paraffinic hydrocarbons of residual oil from West Siberian crudes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article examines the naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons segregated by liquid chromatography from a residual oil after removal of the resins and solid hydrocarbons. The studied hydrocarbons were fractionated on the basis of molecular weight (by molecular distillation) and on the basis of the content of rings (by thermal diffusion separation in a laboratory column). The results of mass-spectrometric analysis indicate that the first fraction consists mainly of isoparaffins and naphthenes with few rings. The polycyclic condensed naphthenes are concentrated in the last fraction. The content of isoparaffins drops off and the content of condensed polycyclic naphthenic structures increases from the second fraction to the next to the last. It is concluded that the naphthenic/paraffinic hydrocarbons of the residual oil from mixed West Siberian crudes have a relatively narrow composition and therefore have similar physicochemical properties.

Detusheva, E.P.; Khramtsova, L.P.; Muchinskii, T.D.; Shkol'nikov, V.M.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

OPERATION OF SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ANODES WITH PRACTICAL HYDROCARBON FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work was carried out to achieve a better understanding of how SOFC anodes work with real fuels. The motivation was to improve the fuel flexibility of SOFC anodes, thereby allowing simplification and cost reduction of SOFC power plants. The work was based on prior results indicating that Ni-YSZ anode-supported SOFCs can be operated directly on methane and natural gas, while SOFCs with novel anode compositions can work with higher hydrocarbons. While these results were promising, more work was clearly needed to establish the feasibility of these direct-hydrocarbon SOFCs. Basic information on hydrocarbon-anode reactions should be broadly useful because reformate fuel gas can contain residual hydrocarbons, especially methane. In the Phase I project, we have studied the reaction mechanisms of various hydrocarbons--including methane, natural gas, and higher hydrocarbons--on two kinds of Ni-containing anodes: conventional Ni-YSZ anodes and a novel ceramic-based anode composition that avoid problems with coking. The effect of sulfur impurities was also studied. The program was aimed both at achieving an understanding of the interactions between real fuels and SOFC anodes, and providing enough information to establish the feasibility of operating SOFC stacks directly on hydrocarbon fuels. A combination of techniques was used to provide insight into the hydrocarbon reactions at these anodes during SOFC operation. Differentially-pumped mass spectrometry was be used for product-gas analysis both with and without cell operation. Impedance spectroscopy was used in order to understand electrochemical rate-limiting steps. Open-circuit voltages measurements under a range of conditions was used to help determine anode electrochemical reactions. Life tests over a wide range of conditions were used to establish the conditions for stable operation of anode-supported SOFC stacks directly on methane. Redox cycling was carried out on ceramic-based anodes. Tests on sulfur tolerance of Ni-YSZ anodes were carried out.

Scott A. Barnett; Jiang Liu; Yuanbo Lin

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

442

Polyethylene composites containing a phase change material having a C14 straight chain hydrocarbon  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyethylene matrix having a straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyethylene being crosslinked to such a degree that said polyethylene matrix is form stable and said polyethylene matrix is capable of absorbing at least 10% by weight of said straight chain alkyl hydrocarbon; the composite is useful in forming pellets or sheets having thermal energy storage characteristics.

Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Effect of support on catalytic behavior of dispersed rhodium for hydrocarbon hydrogenolyses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFFCT OF SUPPORT ON CATALYTIC BEHAVIOR OF DISPERSED RHODIUM POR HYDROCARBON HYDROGENOLYSES A Thesis AMINA ARMED KHAL'lFA Submi I ted to the Graduate College of Texas AKM University in partial full illment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Chemistry EFFECT OF SUPPORT ON CATALYTIC BEHAVIOR OF DISPERSED RHODIUM FOR HYDROCARBON HYDROGENOLYSES A Thesis by AMINA AHMED KHALIFA Approved as to style and content by: M. P. osynek (Chairman...

Khalifa, Amina Ahmed

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

444

The particulate and vapor phase components of airborne polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coal gasification pilot plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE PARTICULATE AND VAPOR PHASE COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS(PAHs) IN COAL GASIFICATION PILOT PLANTS A Thesis by ERIC JON BRINK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene THE PARTICULATE AND VAPOR PHASE COMPONENTS OF AIRBORNE POLYAROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHs) IN COAL GASIFICATION PILOT PLANTS A Thesis by ERIC JON BRINK...

Brink, Eric Jon

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Correlations of fuel economy, exhaust hydro-carbon concentrations, and vehicle performance efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Civil Engineering CORRELATIONS OF FUEL ECONOMY, EXHAUST HYDROCARBON CONCENTRATIONS, AND VEHICLE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY A Thesis by PHILIP DOUGLAS BAUMANN Approved as to style and content by...

Baumann, Philip Douglas

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Potential of producing various hydrocarbons from canola oil by catalytic treatment over Pt-ZSM-5  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Canola oil conversion was studied at atmospheric pressure over Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst (0.5 wt% Pt) in a fixed bed micro-reactor. The operating conditions were: temperature range of 400--500 C, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 1.8 and 3.6 h{sup {minus}1} and steam/oil ratio of 4:1. The products were coke, gas, an organic liquid product (OLP) and residue. The gas and OLP consisted mainly of hydrocarbons. The objective of this study was to maximize the amount of gasoline range hydrocarbons in the OLP and the selectivity to isohydrocarbons in the gas. The gas yields varied between 22--65 wt% and were higher in the presence of steam compared to the operation without steam. Also, the gas fraction decreased with increase in space velocity. The olefin/paraffin ratio of C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} hydrocarbon gases varied between 0.31--0.79. The amount of isohydrocarbons relative to n-hydrocarbons were higher with Pt-ZSM-5 (1.6--4.8) compared to pure HZSM-5 catalyst (0.2--0.3). The OLP yields with Pt-ZSM-5 (20--55wt% of canola oil) were slightly lower compared to HZSM-5 (40--63wt% of canola oil) under similar conditions. The major components of OLP were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The main aromatic hydrocarbons were benzene, toluene, xylenes and trimethylbenzenes. Alkylated pentane and hexane were the main aliphatic hydrocarbons. In the presence of steam, Pt-ZSM-5 gave higher yields of liquid hydrocarbons within the gasoline boiling range than HZSM-5.

Katikaneni, S.P.R.; Adjaye, J.D.; Bakhshi, N.N. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether, benzene, and total hydrocarbons at the Singapore-Malaysia causeway immigration checkpoint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary aim of this study was to determine the extent and levels of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from automobile emissions in a group of immigration officers at a busy cross-border checkpoint. A majority (80%) of the workers monitored were exposed to benzene at levels between 0.01 and 0.5 ppm, with only 1.2% exceeding the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration occupational exposure limit of 1 ppm. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 8-hr time-weighted average exposure were 0.03 ppm, 0.9 ppm, and 2.46 ppm for methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), benzene, and total hydrocarbons (THC), respectively. The highest time-weighted average concentrations measured were 1.05 ppm for MTBE, 2.01 ppm for benzene, and 34 ppm for THC. It was found that motorbikes emitted a more significant amount of pollutants compared with motor cars. On average, officers at the motorcycle booths were exposed to four to five times higher levels of VOCs (GMs of 0.07 ppm, 0.23 ppm, and 4.7 ppm for MTBE, benzene, and THC) than their counterparts at the motor car booths (GMs of 0.01 ppm, 0.05 ppm, and 1.5 ppm). The airborne concentrations of all three pollutants correlated with the flow of vehicle traffic. Close correlations were also noted for the concentrations in ambient air for the three pollutants measured. Benzene and MTBE had a correlation coefficient of 0.97. The overall findings showed that the concentrations of various VOCs were closely related to the traffic density, suggesting that they were from a common source, such as exhaust emissions from the vehicles. The results also indicated that although benzene, MTBE, and THC are known to be volatile, a significant amount could still be detected in the ambient environment, thus contributing to our exposure to these compounds. 4 refs., 6 figs.

Tan, C.; Ong, H.Y.; Kok, P.W. [and others

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

448

Comparative potency approach based on H2AX assay for estimating the genotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a family of over one hundred compounds and can generally be found in complex mixtures. PAHs metabolites cause DNA damage which can lead to the development of carcinogenesis. Toxicity assessment of PAH complex mixtures is currently expressed in terms of toxic equivalents, based on Toxicity Equivalent Factors (TEFs). However, the definition of new TEFs for a large number of PAH could overcome some limitations of the current method and improve cancer risk assessment. The current investigation aimed at deriving the relative potency factors of PAHs, based on their genotoxic effect measured in vitro and analyzed with mathematical models. For this purpose, we used a new genotoxic assay (?H2AX) with two human cell lines (HepG2 and LS-174T) to analyze the genotoxic properties of 13 selected PAHs at low doses after 24 h treatment. The dose–response for genotoxic effects was modeled with a Hill model; equivalency between PAHs at low dose was assessed by applying constraints to the model parameters. In the two cell lines tested, we observed a clear dose–response for genotoxic effects for 11 tested compounds. LS-174T was on average ten times more sensitive than HepG2 towards PAHs regarding genotoxicity. We developed new TEFs, which we named Genotoxic Equivalent Factor (GEF). Calculated GEF for the tested PAHs were generally higher than the TEF usually used. Our study proposed a new in vitro based method for the establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment. -- Highlights: ? Examination of the genotoxic properties of 13 PAHs on two human cell lines. ? Modelization with a Hill model of the genotoxic dose–response. ? First investigation of the genotoxicity of benzo[c]fluorene on human cell lines. ? Establishment of relevant TEFs for PAHs to improve cancer risk assessment.

Audebert, M., E-mail: marc.audebert@toulouse.inra.fr [INRA UMR1331, TOXALIM (Research Center in Food Toxicology), 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, EIP, UPS, UMR1331, Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France); Zeman, F.; Beaudoin, R.; Péry, A. [Unité “Modèles pour l'écotoxicologie et la toxicologie” (METO), INERIS, BP2, F-60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)] [Unité “Modèles pour l'écotoxicologie et la toxicologie” (METO), INERIS, BP2, F-60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Cravedi, J.-P. [INRA UMR1331, TOXALIM (Research Center in Food Toxicology), 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse (France) [INRA UMR1331, TOXALIM (Research Center in Food Toxicology), 180 chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse (France); Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, EIP, UPS, UMR1331, Toxalim, F-31076 Toulouse (France)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Fluorescent growth bands in irradiated-bitumen nodules: Evidence of episodic hydrocarbon migration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Minute rims of solid bitumen ({approximately}40-50 {mu}m thick) surround detrital radioactive grains in the Permian-Triassic sandstones and Arranoo Member of the Kockatea Shale from the northern Perth basin, Australia. The bitumen formed as Th- and U-bearing minerals (monazite, xenotime, zircon, thorite) irradiated and immobilized fluid hydrocarbons coming within range of alpha-particle emissions. using transmitted light and scanning electron microscopy and rims appear compositionally homogeneous, but under blue/violet epifluorescent illumination the bitumen displays complex concentric and contorted banding. These fluorescent textures indicate that multiple influxes of hydrocarbons passed through the reservoir sandstones. Following radiation-induced immobilization of hydrocarbons from the first oil influx, the bitumen nodules grew through a process of swelling and expansion outward form the mineral core during subsequent oil influxes, producing graded fluorescent growth bands. Oil droplets and lamellae also were adsorbed onto the outer portion of the nodules. Such bitumen nodules are a new and potentially important source of data for understanding the movement of hydrocarbons in sedimentary basins, specifically for identifying hydrocarbon pathways, the number of discrete hydrocarbon pulses, and the relative timing of oil migration.

Rasmussen, B. [Univ. of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatal ischemic heart disease  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have produced evidence that occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, a clear exposure-response relation has not been demonstrated. We studied a relation between exposure to PAH and mortality from IHD (418 cases) in a cohort of 12,367 male asphalt workers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, The Netherlands and Norway. Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene were assessed quantitatively using measurement-driven exposure models. Exposure to coal tar was assessed in a semiquantitative manner on the basis of information supplied by company representatives. We carried out sensitivity analyses to assess potential confounding by tobacco smoking. Both cumulative and average exposure indices for benzo(a)pyrene were positively associated with mortality from IHD. The highest relative risk for fatal IHD was observed for average benzo(a)pyrene exposures of 273 ng/m{sup 3} or higher, for which the relative risk was 1.64(95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.38). Similar results were obtained for coal tar exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even in a realistic scenario of confounding by smoking, we would observe approximately 20% to 40% excess risk in IHD in the highest PAH-exposure categories. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that occupational PAH exposure causes fatal IHD and demonstrate a consistent exposure-response relation for this association.

Burstyn, I.; Kromhout, H.; Partanen, T.; Svane, O.; Langard, S.; Ahrens, W.; Kauppinen, T.; Stucker, I.; Shaham, J.; Heederik, D.; Ferro, G.; Heikkila, P.; Hooiveld, M.; Johansen, C.; Randem, B.G.; Boffetta, P. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Methods of reforming hydrocarbon fuels using hexaaluminate catalysts  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A metal substituted hexaaluminate catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas of the general formula AB.sub.yAl.sub.12-yO.sub.19-.delta., A being selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and lanthanide metals or mixtures thereof. A dopant or surface modifier selected from a transitions metal, a spinel of an oxygen-ion conductor is incorporated. The dopant may be Ca, Cs, K, La, Sr, Ba, Li, Mg, Ce, Co, Fe, Ir, Rh, Ni, Ru, Cu, Pe, Os, Pd, Cr, Mn, W, Re, Sn, Gd, V, Ti, Ag, Au, and mixtures thereof. The oxygen-ion conductor may be a perovskite selected from M'RhO.sub.3, M'PtO.sub.3, M'PdO.sub.3, M'IrO.sub.3, M'RuO.sub.3 wherein M'=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca; a spinel selected from MRh.sub.2O.sub.4, MPt.sub.2O.sub.4, MPd.sub.2O.sub.4, MIr.sub.2O.sub.4, MRu.sub.2O.sub.4 wherein M=Mg, Sr, Ba, La, Ca and mixtures thereof; a florite is selected from M''O.sub.2.

Gardner, Todd H. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV); Shekhawat, Dushyant (Morgantown, WV)

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

452

North African geology: exploration matrix for potential major hydrocarbon discoveries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on results and models presented previously, it is possible to consider an exploration matrix that examines the 5 basic exploration parameters: source, reservoir, timing, structure, and seal. This matrix indicates that even those basins that have had marginal exploration successes, including the Paleozoic megabasin and downfaulted Triassic grabens of Morocco, the Cyrenaican platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf, have untested plays. The exploration matrix also suggests these high-risk areas could change significantly, if one of the 5 basic matrix parameters is upgraded or if adjustments in political or financial risk are made. The Sirte basin and the Gulf of Suez, 2 of the more intensely explored areas, also present attractive matrix prospects, particularly with deeper Nubian beds or with the very shallow Tertiary sections. The Ghadames basin of Libya and Tunisia shows some potential, but its evaluation responds strongly to stratigraphic and external nongeologic matrix variations based on degree of risk exposure to be assumed. Of greatest risk in the matrix are the very deep Moroccan Paleozoic clastic plays and the Jurassic of Sinai. However, recent discoveries may upgrade these untested frontier areas. Based on the matrix generated by the data presented at a North African Petroleum Geology symposium, significant hydrocarbon accumulations are yet to be found. The remaining questions are: where in the matrix does each individual company wish to place its exploration capital and how much should be the risk exposure.

Kanes, W.H.; O'Connor, T.E.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Persistence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination in a California marine ecosystem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Despite major reductions in the dominant DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) input off Los Angeles (California, U.S.A.) in the early 1970s, the levels of these pollutants decreased only slightly from 1972 to 1975 both in surficial bottom sediments and in a flatfish bioindicator (Dover sole, Microstomus pacificus) collected near the submarine outfall. Concentrations of these pollutants in the soft tissues of the mussel Mytilus californianus, collected intertidally well inshore of the highly contaminated bottom sediments, followed much more closely the decreases in the outfall discharges. These observations suggest that contaminated sediments on the seafloor were the principal (although not necessarily direct) cause of the relatively high and persistent concentrations of DDT and PCB residues in tissues. The study indicated that residues of the higher-molecular-weight chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as DDT and PCB, can be highly persistent once released to coastal marine ecosystems and that their accumulation in surficial bottom sediments is the most likely cause of this persistence observed in the biota of the discharge zone.

Young, D.R.; Gossett, R.W.; Heesen, T.C.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

455

Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrocarbons on Hierarchical HZSM-5 Zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study reports synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of the nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolite with high mesoporosity produced via a solvent evaporation procedure. Further, this study compares hierarchical zeolites with conventional HZSM-5 zeolite with similar Si/Al ratios for the ethanol-to-hydrocarbon conversion process. The catalytic performance of the hierarchical and conventional zeolites was evaluated using a fixed-bed reactor at 360 °C, 300 psig, and a weight hourly space velocity of 7.9 h-1. For the low Si/Al ratio zeolite (~40), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical HZSM-5 was approximately 2 times greater than the conventional HZSM-5 despite its coking amount deposited 1.6 times higher than conventional HZSM-5. For the high Si/Al ratio zeolite (~140), the catalytic life-time for the hierarchical zeolite was approximately 5 times greater than the conventional zeolite and the amount of coking deposited was 2.1 times higher. Correlation was observed between catalyst life time, porosity, and the crystal size of the zeolite. The nano-size hierarchical HZSM-5 zeolites containing mesoporosity demonstrated improved catalyst life-time compared to the conventional catalyst due to faster removal of products, shorter diffusion path length, and the migration of the coke deposits to the external surface from the pore structure.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Emergency action -- Hydrocarbon spill MCB Camp Pendleton, California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On 10 April 1991, the Camp Pendleton Natural Resources Management Office received notice that a diesel fuel pipeline located at the Naval Regional Medical Center near Lake O`Neill had leaked on 5 April 1991. The leakage occurred from an exposed, ruptured fuel line that was used to transfer fuel between 12 underground storage tanks at a fuel farm and two large underground day tanks next to the hospital boiler building. The loss consisted of approximately 8,000 gallons of diesel {number_sign}2 fuel oil. The spill saturated the soil around the pipeline as well as overflowing into downslope utility conduits and vaults with termination upon a river terrace approximately 0.5 miles downslope of the spill area, and within 500 feet of the Santa Margarita River Channel, an aquifer recharge area. Because local groundwater is the primary freshwater resource for Camp Pendleton, the concern that this spill could immediately contaminate the local groundwater supply initiated an on-site emergency task order that consisted of emergency containment, neutralization, assessment, remediation and restoration of the hydrocarbon spill. The emergency action included containment and removal of free product in electrical conduits and vaults, neutralization of existing utility containment sources, removal and assessment of contaminated soils using excavation equipment, hollow-stem auger/dual percussion/and air rotary drilling rigs, and the creation of a bioremediation treatment cell adjacent to the spill site.

O`Connor, D. [IT Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

458

Mid-continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mid-continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Mid-Continent rift system: a frontier hydrocarbon province  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Mid-Continent rift system can be traced by the Mid-Continent geophysical anomaly (MGA) from the surface exposure of the Keweenawan Supergroup in the Lake Superior basin southwest in the subsurface through Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kansas. Outcrop and well penetrations of the late rift Keweenawan sedimentary rocks reveal sediments reflecting a characteristic early continental rift clastic sequence, including alluvial fans, deep organic-rich basins, and prograding fluvial plains. Sedimentary basins where these early rift sediments are preserved can be located by upward continuation of the aeromagnetic profiles across the rift trend and by gravity models. Studies of analog continental rifts and aulacogens show that these gravity models should incorporate (1) a deep mafic rift pillow body to create the narrow gravity high of the MGA, and (2) anomalously thick crust to account for the more regional gravity low. Preserved accumulations of rift clastics in central rift positions can then be modeled to explain the small scale notches which are found within the narrow gravity high. Indigenous oil in Keweenawan sediments in the outcrop area and coaly partings in the subsurface penetrations of the Keweenawan clastics support the analogy between these rift sediments and the exceptionally organic-rich sediments of the East African rift. COCORP data across the rift trend in Kansas show layered deep reflectors and large structures. There is demonstrable source, reservoir, and trap potential within the Keweenawan trend, making the Mid-Continent rift system a frontier hydrocarbon province.

Lee, C.K.; Kerr, S.D. Jr.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban and a suburban area of Korea from 2002 to 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atmospheric bulk samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly during 2002 to 2004 from an urban and a suburban area in Korea for assessment of depositional flux and seasonal variations in the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH depositional flux ranged from 64.1 to 610 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the urban area and from 65 to 460 {mu} g/m{sup 2}/y for the suburban area. The fluxes of PAHs measured in this study were comparable with those reported for urban and suburban areas in other countries. The fluxes of particulates and PAHs were higher in winter than in summer, consistent with the greater per capita consumption of fossil fuel in winter than in summer. Ambient temperature played a major role in the seasonal variability in PAH fluxes. Photochemical degradation of PAHs appears to occur during the summer months. The relationship of PAH depositional fluxes with major air pollutants, such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and presence of particulate matter up to 10 {mu} m in size (PM10), was also investigated. Dominant PAH compounds in both the urban and the suburban locations were benzo(g,h,i)perylene, pyrene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Based on the PAH diagnostic ratios and a factor analysis, the major sources of PAHs in the urban and the suburban regions were found to be similar. Diesel exhaust, coal combustion, and gasoline emissions contributed predominantly to atmospheric PAH contamination.

Moon, H.B.; Kannan, K.; Lee, S.J.; Ok, G. [National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Pusan (Republic of Korea)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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461

Production method for making rare earth compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

McCallum, R. William (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA); Dennis, Kevin W. (Ames, IA); Hofer, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Branagan, Daniel J. (Ames, IA)

1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

462

Towards Heavy Fermions in Europium Intermetallic Compounds  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

al. have taken just this tack in their study of a europium (the rare earth)-nickel-phosphorous intermetallic compound. Thirty years ago, the discovery of superconductivity in the...

463

Digital Construction Platform: A Compound Arm Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We introduce a novel large-scale Digital Construction Platform (DCP) for on-site sensing, analysis, and fabrication. The DCP is an in-progress research project consisting of a compound robotic arm system comprised of a ...

Spielberg, Nathan A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Production method for making rare earth compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

465

Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

466

Excitonic effects in oxyhalide scintillating host compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to study the electronic, optical, mechanical, and vibrational properties of scintillator host compounds YOX (X?=?F, Cl, Br, and I). Semiempirical dispersion correction schemes are used to find the effect of van der Waals forces on these layered compounds and we found this effect to be negligible except for YOBr. Calculations of phonons and elastic constants showed that all the compounds studied here are both dynamically and mechanically stable. YOF and YOI are found to be indirect band gap insulators while YOCl and YOBr are direct band gap insulators. The band gap is found to decrease as we move from fluorine to iodine, while the calculated refractive index shows the opposite trend. As the band gap decreases on going down the periodic table from YOF to YOI, the luminescence increases. The excitonic binding energy calculated, within the effective mass approximation, is found to be more for YOF than the remaining compounds, suggesting that the excitonic effect to be more in YOF than the other compounds. The optical properties are calculated within the Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) and compared with results obtained within the random phase approximation. The TDDFT calculations, using the newly developed bootstrap exchange-correlation kernel, showed significant excitonic effects in all the compounds studied here.

Shwetha, G.; Kanchana, V., E-mail: kanchana@iith.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram 502 205, Telangana (India); Valsakumar, M. C. [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology (SEST), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, Telangana (India)

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

467

Capillary electrophoresis separation of neutral organic compounds, pharmaceutical drugs, proteins and peptides, enantiomers, and anions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Addition of a novel anionic surfactant, namely lauryl polyoxyethylene sulfate, to an aqueous-acetonitrile electrolyte makes it possible to separate nonionic organic compounds by capillary electrophoresis. Separation is based on differences in the association between analytes and the surfactant. Highly hydrophobic compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons are well separated by this new surfactant. Migration times of analytes can be readily changed over an unusually large range by varying the additive concentration and the proportion of acetonitrile in the electrolyte. Several examples are given, including the separation of four methylbenz[a]anthracene isomers and the separation of normal and deuterated acetophenone. The effect of adding this new surfactant to the acidic electrolyte was also investigated. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the electrolyte is shown to dynamically coat the capillary and reverse electroosmotic flow. Chiral recognition mechanism is studied using novel synthetic surfactants as chiral selectors, which are made from amino acids reacting with alkyl chloroformates. A satisfactory separation of both inorganic and organic anions is obtained using electrolyte solutions as high as 5 M sodium chloride using direct photometric detection. The effect of various salts on electrophoretic and electroosmotic mobility is further discussed. Several examples are given under high-salt conditions.

Ding, W.L.

1999-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

468

Polymers containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polymers comprising residues of cage compound monomers having at least one polyalkoxy silyl substituent are provided. The cage compound monomers are selected from borane cage compound monomers comprising at least 7 cage atoms and/or carborane cage compound monomers comprising 7 to 11 cage compound monomers. Such polymers can further comprise one or more reactive matrices and/or co-monomers covalently bound with the cage compound monomer residues. Articles of manufacture comprising such polymers are also disclosed.

Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

469

Final Report, "Molecular Design of Hydrocarbon Oxidation Catalytic Processes"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main goal of this project had been to use model systems to correlate selectivities in partial oxidation catalysis with the presence of specific sites on the surface of the catalyst. Extensive work was performed this year on characterizing oxygen-treated nickel surfaces by chemical means. Specifically, the surface chemistry of ammonia coadsorbed with atomic oxygen on Ni(110) single-crystal surfaces was studied by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was determined that at intermediate oxygen coverages direct ammonia adsorption on nickel sites is suppressed, but a new high-temperature reaction regime is generated at 400 K where NHx surface fragments are rehydrogenated concurrently with the production of water and molecular hydrogen. The extensive isotope scrambling and hydrogen transfer seen from nitrogen- to oxygen-containing surface intermediates, and the optimum yields seen for this 400 K state at intermediate oxygen coverages, strongly suggest the direct interaction of the adsorbed ammonia with oxygen atoms at the end of the –Ni–O- rows that form upon reconstruction of the surface. Hydrogen transfer between ammonia and oxygen appears to take place directly via hydrogen bonding, and to be reversible but biased towards water formation. An equilibrium is reached between the produced water and the reacting surface oxygen and hydrogen. The strong influence of the OH surface groups on the thermal chemistry of the adsorbed ammonia was interpreted in terms of the adsorbing geometry of the OH groups on the surface, and of hydrogen bonding between adsorbed OH and NH3 species. In terms of alcohol reactivity, the adsorption of 2-iodoethanol, a precursor for the preparation of 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle surface species, was found to lead to two configurations involving either just the iodine atom or both iodine and hydroxyl ends of the molecule. A complex chemical behavior starts around 140 K with the production of small amounts of ethylene and water, most likely via the concerted decomposition or disproportionation of the adsorbed molecular species. The bulk of the 2-iodoethanol decomposes at about 150 K via an initial carbon-iodine scission to form –O(H)CH2CH2– (~80%) and 2-hydroxyethyl (~20%) intermediates. Two competing reactions are involved with the subsequent conversion of the 2-hydroxyethyl species around 160 K, a reductive elimination with surface hydrogen to yield ethanol, and a ?-H elimination to surface vinyl alcohol. The –O(H)CH2CH2–, on the other hand, dehydrogenates to a –OCH2CH2– oxametallacycle species about the same temperature. Both 2-hydroxyethyl and oxametallacycle species tautomerize to acetaldehyde, around 210 K and above 250 K, respectively, and some of that acetaldehyde desorbs while the rest decomposes to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. We contend that a better understanding of the surface chemistry of oxygen-containing surfaces can lead to better selectivities in catalysis. This is arguably the most important issue in the field of catalysis in the near future, and one that impacts several technologies of interest to DOE such as the manufacturing of speciality chemicals and the control and removal of pollutants. Additional work was performed on the characterization of the chemistry of methyl and methylene adsorbed species on oxygen-treated nickel surfaces. Complex chemistry was observed involving not only hydrogenation and dehydrogenation steps, but also C-C couplings and methylene insertions to produce heavier hydrocarbons, and oxygen insertion reactions that yield oxygenates. Finally, a dual titration technique employing xenon and a chemically sensitive probe was developed to identify minority catalytic sites on oxide surfaces. In the case of oxygen-treated Ni(110) single crystals, it was found that both hydrogen transfer with adsorbed water or ammonia and certain hydrocarbon hydrogenation reactions take place at the end of the –Ni–O rows that form in this system. Carbon and nitrogen oxides, on the other hand, display no pre

Professor Francisco Zaera

2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

470

A three-phase K-value study for pure hydrocarbons/water and crude oil/water systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam distillation, or vaporization of crude oil in porous media is on of the major mechanisms responsible for high oil recovery by steamflooding from heavy oil as well as light oil reservoir systems. Several authors have reported steam dsitillation...-phase equilibrium data for hydrocarbon/water systems ranging from light to heavy crude oil fractions. ! Experimental data describing the phase behavior and the hydrocarbon/water separation process for multi-component hydrocarbon/water and crude oil...

Lanclos, Ritchie Paul

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Kinetics and intermediate products in the interaction of straight-chain and cyclic hydrocarbon radicals with 9,10-Anthraquinone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors use a pulse radiolysis technique with optical registration of the destruction of hydrocarbon radicals R in determining the rate constants for the interaction of cyclododecyl radicals and n-dodecyl radicals with 9,10-anthraquinone in the corresponding liquid hydrocarbons, at various temperatures. It is shown that in the presence of oxygen, hydrocarbon radicals with the quinone form oxygen-containing species that are capable of propagating the oxidation chain and regenerating the original quinone.

Ladygin, B.V.; Revina, A.A.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Sorption characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aluminum smelter residues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High temperature carbon oxidation in primary aluminum smelters results in the release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) into the environment. The main source of PAH are the anodes, which are composed of petroleum coke (black carbon, BC) and coal tar pitch. To elucidate the dominant carbonaceous phase controlling the environmental fate of PAH in aluminum smelter residues (coke BC and/or coal tar), the sorptive behavior of PAHs has been determined, using passive samplers and infinite-sink desorption methods. Samples directly from the wet scrubber were studied as well as ones from an adjacent 20-year old storage lagoon and roof dust from the smelter. Carbon-normalized distribution coefficients of native PAHs were 2 orders of magnitude higher than expected based on amorphous organic carbon (AOC)/water partitioning, which is in the same order of magnitude as reported literature values for soots and charcoals. Sorption isotherms of laboratory-spiked deuterated phenanthrene showed strong (about 100 times stronger than AOC) but nonetheless linear sorption in both fresh and aged aluminum smelter residues. The absence of nonlinear behavior typical for adsorption to BC indicates that PAH sorption in aluminum smelter residues is dominated by absorption into the semi-solid coal tar pitch matrix. Desorption experiments using Tenax showed that fresh smelter residues had a relatively large rapidly desorbing fraction of PAH (35-50%), whereas this fraction was strongly reduced (11-16%) in the lagoon and roof dust material. Weathering of the coal tar residue and/or redistribution of PAH between coal tar and BC phases could explain the reduced availability in aged samples. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Gijs D. Breedveld; Emilien Pelletier; Richard St. Louis; Gerard Cornelissen [Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Oslo (Norway)

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells Novel Compounds for Enhancing Electrolyte Stability and Safety of Lithium-ion Cells 2010 DOE Vehicle...

474

Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Organic Compound Removal for Characterization of Spark Ignited Direct Injection Engine Particulate Matter Sampling and Volatile Organic Compound Removal for Characterization...

475

Carbon and oxygen stable isotopes in the Toa Baja Well, Puerto Rico: implications for burial diagenesis and hydrocarbon generation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the bulk of the sediment pile has not been exposed to temperatures above the oil window and possibly hydrocarbons have been generated deeper in the basin....

Gonzalez, Luis A.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Applications of contaminant fate and bioaccumulation models in assessing ecological risks of chemicals: A case study for gasoline hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the composition of the gasoline inventory, and can beand exposure assessment for gasoline; Trent University:of Chemicals: A Case Study for Gasoline Hydrocarbons Matthew

MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Foster, Karen L.; Maddalena, Randy L.; Parkerton, Thomas F.; Mackay, Don

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Process for production of a borohydride compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for production of a borohydride compound M(BH.sub.4).sub.y. The process has three steps. The first step combines a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.yM with aluminum, hydrogen and a metallic catalyst containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y, wherein R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group; M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg; and y is one or two; wherein the catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum. The second step combines the compound of formula M(AlH.sub.3OR.sup.1).sub.y with a borate, boroxine or borazine compound to produce M(BH.sub.4).sub.y and a byproduct mixture containing alkali metal and aluminum aryloxides. The third step separates M(BH.sub.4).sub.y from the byproduct mixture.

Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

478

Pentan isomers compound flame front structure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fuels (hexane, pentane, diethyl ether) and conditions investigated in this study are relevant to engine knock in spark- ignition engines. A review is provided of the field of low temperature hydrocarbon oxidation. Studies were made of radical and stable intermediate distribution in the front of cool flames: Maximum concentrations of H atoms and peroxy radicals were observed in the luminous zone of the cool flame front. Peroxy radicals appear before the luminous zone at 430 K due to diffusion. H atoms were found in cool flames of butane and hexane. H atoms diffuses from the luminous zone to the side of the fresh mixture, and they penetrate into the fresh mixture to a small depth. Extension of action sphear of peroxy radicals in the fresh mixture is much greater than that of H atoms due to their small activity and high concentrations.

Mansurov, Z.A.; Mironenko, A.W.; Bodikov, D.U.; Rachmetkaliev, K.N. [Kazakh Al-Farabi State National Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

1995-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

479

Recent advances in hydrotreating of pyrolysis bio-oil and its oxygen-containing model compounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There is considerable world-wide interest in discovering renewable sources of energy that can substitute for fossil fuels. Lignocellulosic biomass, which is the most abundant and inexpensive renewable feedstock on the planet, has a great potential for sustainable production of fuels, chemicals, and carbon-based materials. Fast pyrolysis integrated with hydrotreating is one of the simplest, most cost-effective and most efficient processes to convert lignocellulosic biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels for transportation, which has attracted significant attention in recent decades. However, effective hydrotreating of pyrolysis bio-oil presents a daunting challenge to the commercialization of biomass conversion via pyrolysis-hydrotreating. Specifically, development of active, selective, and stable hydrotreating catalysts is the bottleneck due to the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil feedstock (high oxygen content, molecular complexity, coking propensity, and corrosiveness). Significant research has been conducted to address the practical issues and provide the fundamental understanding of the hydrotreating/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of bio-oils and their oxygen-containing model compounds, including phenolics, furans, and carboxylic acids. A wide range of catalysts have been studied, including conventional Mo-based sulfide catalysts and noble metal catalysts, with the latter being the primary focus of the recent research because of their excellent catalytic performances and no requirement of environmentally unfriendly sulfur. The reaction mechanisms of HDO of model compounds on noble metal catalysts as well as their efficacy for hydrotreating or stabilization of bio-oil have been recently reported. This review provides a survey of the relevant literatures of recent 10 years about the advances in the understanding of the HDO chemistry of bio-oils and their model compounds mainly on noble metal catalysts.

Wang, Huamin; Male, Jonathan L.; Wang, Yong

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Aquatic Pathways Model to predict the fate of phenolic compounds. Appendixes A through D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Organic materials released from energy-related activities could affect human health and the environment. We have developed a model to predict the fate of spills or discharges of pollutants into flowing or static bodies of fresh water. A computer code, Aquatic Pathways Model (APM), was written to implement the model. The APM estimates the concentrations of chemicals in fish tissue, water and sediment, and is therefore useful for assessing exposure to humans through aquatic pathways. The major pathways considered are biodegradation, fish and sediment uptake, photolysis, and evaporation. The model has been implemented with parameters for the distribution of phenols, an important class of compounds found in the water-soluble fractions of coal liquids. The model was developed to estimate the fate of liquids derived from coal. Current modeling efforts show that, in comparison with many pesticides and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the lighter phenolics (the cresols) are not persistent in the environment. For the twelve phenolics studied, biodegradation appears to be the major pathway for elimination from aquatic environments. A pond system simulation of a spill of solvent-refined coal (SRC-II) materials indicates that phenol, cresols, and other single cyclic phenolics are degraded to 16 to 25 percent of their original concentrations within 30 hours. Adsorption of these compounds into sediments and accumulation by fish was minor. Results of a simulated spill of a coal liquid (SRC-II) into a pond show that APM predicted the allocation of 12 phenolic components among six compartments at 30 hours after a small spill. The simulation indicated that most of the introduced phenolic compounds were biodegraded. The phenolics remaining in the aquatic system partitioned according to their molecular weight and structure. A substantial amount was predicted to remain in the water, with less than 0.01% distributed in sediment or fish.

Aaberg, R.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Strenge, D.L.; Mellinger, P.L.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydrocarbon compounds primarily" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Evolutionary sequences and hydrocarbon potential of Kenya sedimentary basins  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kenya basins have evolved primarily through extension related to episodic continental rifting. In eastern Kenya, thick accumulations of sediments formed within grabens during the prerift phase (Precambrian to Carboniferous) of the Gondwana breakup. Synrift sedimentation (Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic) occurred within a north-south rift system, which included the Mandera basin, South Anza basin, and Lamu embayment. During the Early Jurassic, a marine transgression invaded the margins of the eastern Kenya rift basins, resulting in the deposition of platform carbonates and shales. A Callovian-aged salt basin formed in the offshore regions of the Lamu embayment. Intermittent tectonic activity and eustatic sea-level changes controlled sedimentation, which produced marine shales, carbonates or evaporites, and fluvio-deltaic to lacustrine sandstones. From the Early Cretaceous to recent, continental sediments were deposited within the North Anza and Turkana basins. These fluvial-lacustrine sediments are similar to the Lower Cretaceous sequences that have produced oil in the Mesozoic Sudanese Abu Gabra rift. Although exploration activities began in the early 1950s, significant occurrences of potential reservoir, source, and seal lithologies as well as trapping configurations remain in many areas. Favorable structures and sequences of reservoir sandstones and carbonates overlain by potentially sealing lacustrine or marine shales, evaporites, or volcanics have been noted. Potential source beds are believed to be present within shales of the lacustrine or marine depositional environments.

Cregg, A.K. (Western Atlas International, Inc., Carrollton, TX (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

Agblevor, F.A.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

483

Organic photosensitive devices using subphthalocyanine compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An organic photosensitive optoelectronic device, having a donor-acceptor heterojunction of a donor-like material and an acceptor-like material and methods of making such devices is provided. At least one of the donor-like material and the acceptor-like material includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound; and/or the device optionally has at least one of a blocking layer or a charge transport layer, where the blocking layer and/or the charge transport layer includes a subphthalocyanine, a subporphyrin, and/or a subporphyrazine compound.

Rand, Barry (Princeton, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI); Mutolo, Kristin L. (Hollywood, CA); Mayo, Elizabeth (Alhambra, CA); Thompson, Mark E. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

484

Beta cell device using icosahedral boride compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A beta cell for converting beta-particle energies into electrical energy having a semiconductor junction that incorporates an icosahedral boride compound selected from B.sub.12 As.sub.2, B.sub.12 P.sub.2, elemental boron having an .alpha.-rhombohedral structure, elemental boron having a .beta.-rhombohedral structure, and boron carbides of the chemical formula B.sub.12-x C.sub.3-x, where 0.15compound self-heals, resisting degradation from radiation damage.

Aselage, Terrence L. (62 Avenida Del Sol, Cedar Crest, NM 87008); Emin, David (1502 Harvard Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87106-3712)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Dry etching method for compound semiconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dry etching method. According to the present invention, a gaseous plasma comprising, at least in part, boron trichloride, methane, and hydrogen may be used for dry etching of a compound semiconductor material containing layers including aluminum, or indium, or both. Material layers of a compound semiconductor alloy such as AlGaInP or the like may be anisotropically etched for forming electronic devices including field-effect transistors and heterojunction bipolar transistors and for forming photonic devices including vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, edge-emitting lasers, and reflectance modulators.

Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantine, Christopher (Safety Harbor, FL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Calorimetric study of adsorption of aliphatic hydrocarbons on reduced cobalt catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study has been made of the heats of adsorption and the adsorption isotherms of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons on Co at 298/sup 0/K; the content of organic matter in the catalyst has been determined after use in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. It is concluded that the Fischer-Tropsch process includes stages of diffusion of the original reactants and the products through a liquid film of hydrocarbons coating the catalyst; the hydrocarbon molecules are adsorbed on the surface in the ''lying down'' position; the adsorption of paraffins is reversible and is described by the BET theory; olefins form an irreversibly chemisorbed monolayer, above which reversible adsorption takes place; the ease of desorption of the paraffins explains their preferential formation in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

Ostrovskii, V.E.; Medvedkova, E.A.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting low H.sub.2 /CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200.degree. to 350.degree. C. in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinium, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n+1).gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n.gtoreq.x.gtoreq.O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

Sapienza, Richard S. (Shoreham, NY); Slegeir, William A. (Hampton Bays, NY); Goldberg, Robert I. (Selden, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Catalysts for the production of hydrocarbons from carbon monoxide and water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of converting low H/sub 2//CO ratio syngas to carbonaceous products comprising reacting the syngas with water or steam at 200 to 350/sup 0/C in the presence of a metal catalyst supported on zinc oxide. Hydrocarbons are produced with a catalyst selected from cobalt, nickel or ruthenium and alcohols are produced with a catalyst selected from palladium, platinum, ruthenium or copper on the zinc oxide support. The ratio of the reactants are such that for alcohols and saturated hydrocarbons: (2n + 1) greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O and for olefinic hydrocarbons: 2n greater than or equal to x greater than or equal to O where n is the number of carbon atoms in the product and x is the molar amount of water in the reaction mixture.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Goldberg, R.I.

1985-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

489

Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediment cores from the southern basin of Lake Michigan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments of the southern basin of Lake Michigan have planktonic, terrigenous, and petroleum residue origins. Surficial sediments collected near the eastern shore in 60-80 m of water contained more petroleum residue and planktonic hydrocarbons and exhibited less terrigenous character than sediments collected from the deepest location in the basin. Petroleum residue inputs have increased since 1900 as evidenced by a change in the flux of an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of hydrocarbons from 6 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr to a flux of approximately 100 ng/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}yr in 1980. Sediment profiles of the UCM exhibited subsurface concentration maxima that may be due to reduced inputs of combustion products or feeding by oligochaetes. Profiles of n-C{sub l7} and pristane indicated that planktonic n-alkanes undergo degradation in the aerobic, mixed zone of the sediments.

Doskey, P.V. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Division; Andren, A.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Water Chemistry Program

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Pb-Pb dating of hydrocarbon migration into a bitumen-bearing ore deposit, North Wales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous attempts at U-Pb dating of uraniferous bitumens have had limited significance because of radioelement migration. Pb-Pb dating which can be undertaken regardless of recent lead migration, has been successfully applied to uraniferous solidified bitumen from the Ty Gwyn copper deposit, North Wales. Analyses of five bitumen samples with variable mixtures of radiogenic and common lead yield a {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb age of 248 {plus minus} 21 Ma (Early Triassic). This age is interpreted as the date of hydrocarbon migration into the deposit and is reasonably consistent with the timing of hydrocarbon generation calculated from the regional burial history. The Pb-Pb dating method could be applied to date uraniferous bitumens representing hydrocarbon migration in diverse geologic environments.

Parnell, J. (Queens's Univ., Belfast (Ireland)); Swainbank, I. (NERC Isotope Geology Centre, Nottingham (England))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

492

Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

Rolllins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

493

Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

Rollins, Harry W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Petkovic, Lucia M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Study of net soot formation in hydrocarbon reforming for hydrogen fuel cells. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The hydrogen fuel cell is expected to be a valuable addition to the electric utility industry; however, the current fuel supply availability requires that conventional heavier hydrocarbon fuels also be considered as primary fuels. Typical heavier fuels would be No. 2 fuel oil with its accompanying sulfur impurities, compared with the currently used light hydrocarbon gases. The potential future use of alternate fuels which are rich in aromatics would exacerbate the problems associated with hydrogen production. Among the more severe of these problems, is the greater tendency of heavier hydrocarbons to form soot. The development of a quasi-global kinetics model to represent the homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions which control the autothermal hydrogen reforming process and the accompanying soot formation and gasification was the objective of this study.

Edelman, R. B.; Farmer, R. C.; Wang, T. S.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

2014-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

496

Process for preparing a deuterated or tritiated compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for labeling organic compounds with deuterium and tritium is described using specific catalysts.

Klei, Steven R.; Bergman, Robert C.

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

497

Process for preparing a deuterated or tritiated compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for labeling organic compounds with deuterium and tritium is described using specific catalysts.

Bergman, Robert C.; Klei, Steven R.

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

498

Process for preparing a deuterated or tritiated compound  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for labeling organic compounds with deuterium and tritium is described using specific catalysts.

Bergman, Robert C.; Klei, Steven R.

2004-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

499

Compositions containing borane or carborane cage compounds and related applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Compositions comprising a polymer-containing matrix and a filler comprising a cage compound selected from borane cage compounds, carborane cage compounds, metal complexes thereof, residues thereof, mixtures thereof, and/or agglomerations thereof, where the cage compound is not covalently bound to the matrix polymer. Methods of making and applications for using such compositions are also disclosed.

Bowen, III, Daniel E; Eastwood, Eric A

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

500

Engineered Antibodies for Monitoring of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to fill needs in ODE's human and ecosystem health effects research, site remediation, rapid emergency response, and regulatory compliance monitoring programs. Doe has greatly stimulated development and validation of antibody-based, rapid, field-portable detection systems for small hazardous compounds. These range from simple dipsticks, microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and hand-held colorimeters, to ultrasensitive microfluidic reactors, fiber-optic sensors and microarrays that can identify multiple analytes from patterns of cross-reactivity. Unfortunately, the technology to produce antibodies with the most desirable properties did not keep pace. Lack of antibodies remains a limiting factor in production and practical use of such devices. The goals of our project were to determine the chemical and structural bases for the antibody-analyte binding interactions using advanced computational chemistry, and to use this information to create useful new binding properties through in vitro genetic engineering and combinatorial library methods.

Alexander E. Karu Ph.D; Victoria A. Roberts Ph.D.; Qing X. Li, Ph.D.

2002-01-17T23:59:59.000Z