National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydride vapor phase

  1. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} to (25)??10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ?5??10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?3} versus 2.9??10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.

  2. Ar{sup +}-irradiation-induced damage in hydride vapor-phase epitaxy GaN films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakano, Yoshitaka Ogawa, Daisuke; Nakamura, Keiji; Kawakami, Retsuo; Niibe, Masahito

    2015-07-15

    The authors have investigated the electrical characteristics of hydride vapor-phase epitaxy GaN films exposed to Ar{sup +} irradiation, employing Schottky barrier diodes. The Ar{sup +} irradiation tends to largely increase the effective carrier concentration in the near surface region of GaN up to ∼25 nm, due to the generation of donor-type N vacancy defects, compared to the original value before the irradiation. More interestingly, acceptor-type deep-level defects are found to be formed at ∼2.1, ∼2.9, and ∼3.2 eV below the conduction band in the subsequently deeper region, in which Ga vacancies introduced by the Ar{sup +} irradiation are considered to be in-diffused and immediately combined with hydrogen. These N vacancies and hydrogenated Ga vacancies formed are dominantly responsible for changing the depth profiles of the effective carrier concentration via the carrier generation, the carrier trapping, and/or carrier compensation.

  3. First Principles Contributions to the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

  4. A new phase in palladium hydride technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.

    1991-12-31

    Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  5. A new phase in palladium hydride technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, K. A.; Schmidt, F. A.; Frerichs, A. E.; Ament, K. A.

    2013-08-20

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La1-xRx)(Ni1-yMy)(Siz), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  7. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K.

    1991-01-01

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  8. Hydriding process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, J.W.; Taketani, H.

    1973-12-01

    BS>A method is described for hydriding a body of a Group IV-B metal, preferably zirconium, to produce a crack-free metal-hydride bedy of high hydrogen content by cooling the body at the beta to beta + delta boundary, without further addition of hydrogen, to precipitate a fine-grained delta-phase metal hydride in the beta + delta phase region and then resuming the hydriding, preferably preceded by a reheating step. (Official Gazette)

  9. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  10. Electronic structure and crystal phase stability of palladium hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houari, Abdesalem; Matar, Samir F.; Eyert, Volker

    2014-11-07

    The results of electronic structure calculations for a variety of palladium hydrides are presented. The calculations are based on density functional theory and used different local and semilocal approximations. The thermodynamic stability of all structures as well as the electronic and chemical bonding properties are addressed. For the monohydride, taking into account the zero-point energy is important to identify the octahedral Pd-H arrangement with its larger voids and, hence, softer hydrogen vibrational modes as favorable over the tetrahedral arrangement as found in the zincblende and wurtzite structures. Stabilization of the rocksalt structure is due to strong bonding of the 4d and 1s orbitals, which form a characteristic split-off band separated from the main d-band group. Increased filling of the formerly pure d states of the metal causes strong reduction of the density of states at the Fermi energy, which undermines possible long-range ferromagnetic order otherwise favored by strong magnetovolume effects. For the dihydride, octahedral Pd-H arrangement as realized, e.g., in the pyrite structure turns out to be unstable against tetrahedral arrangement as found in the fluorite structure. Yet, from both heat of formation and chemical bonding considerations, the dihydride turns out to be less favorable than the monohydride. Finally, the vacancy ordered defect phase Pd{sub 3}H{sub 4} follows the general trend of favoring the octahedral arrangement of the rocksalt structure for Pd:H ratios less or equal to one.

  11. Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanistic aspects of vapor phase lubrication of silicon. No abstract ...

  12. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, W. Jr. ); Cochran, H.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  14. Verification and Validation Strategy for Implementation of Hybrid Potts-Phase Field Hydride Modeling Capability in MBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason D. Hales; Veena Tikare

    2014-04-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) program has initiated a project to develop a hydride formation modeling tool using a hybrid Potts­phase field approach. The Potts model is incorporated in the SPPARKS code from Sandia National Laboratories. The phase field model is provided through MARMOT from Idaho National Laboratory.

  15. Metal hydride/chemical heat-pump development project. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argabright, T.A.

    1982-02-01

    The metal hydride/chemical heat pump (MHHP) is a chemical heat pump containing two hydrides for the storage and/or recovery of thermal energy. It utilizes the heat of reaction of hydrogen with specific metal alloys. The MHHP design can be tailored to provide heating and/or cooling or temperature upgrading over a wide range of input and ambient temperatures. The system can thus be used with a variety of heat sources including waste heat, solar energy or a fossil fuel. The conceptual design of the MHHP was developed. A national market survey including a study of applications and market sectors was conducted. The technical tasks including conceptual development, thermal and mechanical design, laboratory verification of design and material performance, cost analysis and the detailed design of the Engineering Development Test Unit (EDTU) were performed. As a result of the market study, the temperature upgrade cycle of the MHHP was chosen for development. Operating temperature ranges for the upgrader were selected to be from 70 to 110/sup 0/C (160 to 230/sup 0/F) for the source heat and 140 to 190/sup 0/C (280 to 375/sup 0/F) for the product heat. These ranges are applicable to many processes in industries such as food, textile, paper and pulp, and chemical. The hydride pair well suited for these temperatures is LaNi/sub 5//LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Al/sub 0/ /sub 5/. The EDTU was designed for the upgrade cycle. It is a compact finned tube arrangement enclosed in a pressure vessel. This design incorporates high heat transfer and low thermal mass in a system which maximizes the coefficient of performance (COP). It will be constructed in Phase II. Continuation of this effort is recommended.

  16. Avalanching strain dynamics during the hydriding phase transformation in individual palladium nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulvestad, A.; Welland, M. J.; Collins, S. S. E.; Harder, R.; Maxey, E.; Wingert, J.; Singer, A.; Hy, S.; Mulvaney, P.; Zapol, P.; Shpyrko, O. G.

    2015-12-11

    Phase transitions in reactive environments are crucially important in energy and information storage, catalysis and sensors. Nanostructuring active particles can yield faster charging/ discharging kinetics, increased lifespan and record catalytic activities. However, establishing the causal link between structure and function is challenging for nanoparticles, as ensemble measurements convolve intrinsic single-particle properties with sample diversity. Here we study the hydriding phase transformation in individual palladium nanocubes in situ using coherent X-ray diffractive imaging. The phase transformation dynamics, which involve the nucleation and propagation of a hydrogen-rich region, are dependent on absolute time (aging) and involve intermittent dynamics (avalanching). A hydrogen-rich surface layer dominates the crystal strain in the hydrogen-poor phase, while strain inversion occurs at the cube corners in the hydrogen-rich phase. A three-dimensional phase-field model is used to interpret the experimental results. In conclusion, our experimental and theoretical approach provides a general framework for designing and optimizing phase transformations for single nanocrystals in reactive environments.

  17. Avalanching strain dynamics during the hydriding phase transformation in individual palladium nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ulvestad, A.; Welland, M. J.; Collins, S. S. E.; Harder, R.; Maxey, E.; Wingert, J.; Singer, A.; Hy, S.; Mulvaney, P.; Zapol, P.; et al

    2015-12-11

    Phase transitions in reactive environments are crucially important in energy and information storage, catalysis and sensors. Nanostructuring active particles can yield faster charging/ discharging kinetics, increased lifespan and record catalytic activities. However, establishing the causal link between structure and function is challenging for nanoparticles, as ensemble measurements convolve intrinsic single-particle properties with sample diversity. Here we study the hydriding phase transformation in individual palladium nanocubes in situ using coherent X-ray diffractive imaging. The phase transformation dynamics, which involve the nucleation and propagation of a hydrogen-rich region, are dependent on absolute time (aging) and involve intermittent dynamics (avalanching). A hydrogen-rich surfacemore » layer dominates the crystal strain in the hydrogen-poor phase, while strain inversion occurs at the cube corners in the hydrogen-rich phase. A three-dimensional phase-field model is used to interpret the experimental results. In conclusion, our experimental and theoretical approach provides a general framework for designing and optimizing phase transformations for single nanocrystals in reactive environments.« less

  18. CRADA (AL-C-2009-02) Final Report: Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl; Schmidt, Frederick; Frerichs, A. E.; Ament, Katherine A.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La{sub 1-x}R{sub x})(Ni{sub 1-y}M{sub y})(Si{sub z}), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  19. A review of porous media enhanced vapor-phase diffusion mechanisms...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    data: Does enhanced vapor-phase diffusion exist? Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A review of porous media enhanced vapor-phase diffusion mechanisms, models, and data: ...

  20. First Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Mei-Yin

    2014-09-29

    Complex metal hydrides are believed to be one of the most promising materials for developing hydrogen storage systems that can operate under desirable conditions. At the same time, these are also a class of materials that exhibit intriguing properties. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to study the fundamental properties of these materials.

  1. Metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnes, J.R.; Kherani, N.P.

    1987-11-01

    Metal hydride information is not available for most hydrides in a consolidated quick-reference source. This report's objective is to fill the need for such a document providing basic thermodynamic data for as many metal hydrides as possible. We conduced a computerized library search to access as many sources as possible and screened each source for such thermodynamic data as pressure-temperature graphs, van't Hoff curves, and impurity effects. We included any other relevant information and commented on it. A primary concern to be investigated in the future is the behavior of metal tritides. This would be important in the area of emergency tritium cleanup systems. The hydride graphs are useful, however, as tritides may be expected in most cases to behave similarly and at least follow trends of their respective hydrides. 42 refs., 40 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Hydrogenation using hydrides and acid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bullock, R. Morris

    1990-10-30

    A process for the non-catalytic hydrogenation of organic compounds, which contain at least one reducible functional group, which comprises reacting the organic compound, a hydride complex, preferably a transition metal hydride complex or an organosilane, and a strong acid in a liquid phase.

  3. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  4. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Hydrides Theodore Motyka Savannah River National Laboratory Metal Hydride System Architect Jose-Miguel Pasini, & Bart van Hassel UTRC Claudio Corgnale & Bruce Hardy SRNL Kevin Simmons and Mark Weimar PNNL Darsh Kumar GM, Matthew Thornton NREL, Kevin Drost OSU DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit Defining Pathways for Onboard Automotive Applications 2 Outline * Background and MH History * MH HSECoE Results * Material Operating Requirements * Modeling and Analyses * BOP and

  5. Hydride compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung W.

    1995-01-01

    A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  6. Hydride compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung, W.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  7. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  8. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. ... The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that ...

  9. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  10. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  11. AlGaAsSb/GaSb Distributed Bragg Reflectors Grown by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Wang; C.J. Vineis; D.R. Calawa

    2002-02-13

    The first AlGaAsSb/GaSb quarter-wave distributed Bragg reflectors grown by metallic vapor phase epitaxy are reported. The peak reflectance is 96% for a 10-period structure.

  12. Kinetics of hydride front in Zircaloy-2 and H release from a fractional hydrided surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, M.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, A.; Moya, J. S.; Remartinez, B.; Perez, S.; Sacedon, J. L.

    2009-07-15

    The authors study the hydriding process on commercial nuclear fuel claddings from their inner surface using an ultrahigh vacuum method. The method allows determining the incubation and failure times of the fuel claddings, as well as the dissipated energy and the partial pressure of the desorbed H{sub 2} from the outer surface of fuel claddings during the hydriding process. The correlation between the hydriding dissipated energy and the amount of zirconium hydride (formed at different stages of the hydriding process) leads to a near t{sup 1/2} potential law corresponding to the time scaling of the reaction for the majority of the tested samples. The calibrated relation between energy and hydride thickness allows one to calculate the enthalpy of the {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} phase. The measured H{sub 2} desorption from the external surface is in agreement with a proposed kinetic desorption model from the hydrides precipitated at the surface.

  13. Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's research on complex metal hydrides targets the development of advanced metal hydride materials including light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides,...

  14. Engineering work plan for tank 241-C-103 vapor phase characterization (ECN 613188). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conrad, R.B.

    1994-10-05

    The tasks described by this work plan have been completed. The purpose of this revision it to document what actually occurred during the performance of this work plan. The scope was and is limited to phases 1 and 2 as described in the program plan, revision 1. Phases 1 and 2 include the tank 241-C-103 (C-103) vapor. For economic and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) reasons, we will limit our scope to characterize the C-103 vapor phase for the categories that could be expected to impact facility worker safety from a toxicological and flammability standpoint. In anticipation that a vapor treatment system may be required, categories necessary for design will also be included. It will be the intent of the C-103 vapor characterization program to: (1) identify the substances from the above list of categories that are applicable to the issues involving C-103, and (2) implement a phased plan which will develop the organic vapor phase characterization method and then characterize the organics and the other selected substances to the required quantitative certainty.

  15. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  16. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Puretzky, Alex A. (Knoxville, TN); Fan, Xudong (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-10-19

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  17. Hydride compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James R.; Salzano, Francis J.

    1978-01-01

    Method of producing high energy pressurized gas working fluid power from a low energy, low temperature heat source, wherein the compression energy is gained by using the low energy heat source to desorb hydrogen gas from a metal hydride bed and the desorbed hydrogen for producing power is recycled to the bed, where it is re-adsorbed, with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source. In one embodiment, the adsorption-desorption cycle provides a chemical compressor that is powered by the low energy heat source, and the compressor is connected to a regenerative gas turbine having a high energy, high temperature heat source with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source.

  18. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Ly, Jennifer; Aldajani, Tiem; Baker, Richard W.

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  19. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  20. On the existence of vapor-liquid phase transition in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kundu, M.; Sen, A.; Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Avinash, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-10-15

    The phenomenon of phase transition in a dusty-plasma system (DPS) has attracted some attention in the past. Earlier Farouki and Hamaguchi [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9876 (1994)] have demonstrated the existence of a liquid to solid transition in DPS where the dust particles interact through a Yukawa potential. However, the question of the existence of a vapor-liquid (VL) transition in such a system remains unanswered and relatively unexplored so far. We have investigated this problem by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations which show that the VL transition does not have a critical curve in the pressure versus volume diagram for a large range of the Yukawa screening parameter ? and the Coulomb coupling parameter ?. Thus, the VL phase transition is found to be super-critical, meaning that this transition is continuous in the dusty plasma model given by Farouki and Hamaguchi. We provide an approximate analytic explanation of this finding by means of a simple model calculation.

  1. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  2. Growth of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.; Crawford, M.H.; Lear, K.L.; Choquette, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    We present growth and characterization of visible and near-infrared vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Discussions on the growth issue of VCSEL materials include growth rate and composition control using an {ital in}{ital situ} normal-incidence reflectometer, comprehensive p- and n-type doping study in AlGaAs by CCl{sub 4} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} over the entire composition range, and optimization of ultra-high material uniformity. We also demonstrate our recent achievements of all-AlGaAs VCSELs which include the first room-temperature continuous- wave demonstration of 700-nm red VCSELs and high-efficiency and low- threshold voltage 850-nm VCSELs.

  3. Hydride heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  4. Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kunnmann, Walter; Larese, John Z.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

  5. Chemical Species in the Vapor Phase of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks: Potential Impacts on Waste Tank Corrosion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arey, Bruce W.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2010-09-22

    The presence of corrosive and inhibiting chemicals on the tank walls in the vapor space, arising from the waste supernatant, dictate the type and degree of corrosion that occurs there. An understanding of how waste chemicals are transported to the walls and the affect on vapor species from changing supernatant chemistry (e.g., pH, etc.), are basic to the evaluation of risks and impacts of waste changes on vapor space corrosion (VSC). In order to address these issues the expert panel workshop on double-shell tank (DST) vapor space corrosion testing (RPP-RPT-31129) participants made several recommendations on the future data and modeling needs in the area of DST corrosion. In particular, the drying of vapor phase condensates or supernatants can form salt or other deposits at the carbon steel interface resulting in a chemical composition at the near surface substantially different from that observed directly in the condensates or the supernatants. As a result, over the past three years chemical modeling and experimental studies have been performed on DST supernatants and condensates to predict the changes in chemical composition that might occur as condensates or supernatants equilibrate with the vapor space species and dry at the carbon steel surface. The experimental studies included research on both the chemical changes that occurred as the supernatants dried as well as research on how these chemical changes impact the corrosion of tank steels. The chemical modeling and associated experimental studies were performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the research on tank steel corrosion at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This report presents a summary of the research conducted at PNNL with special emphasis on the most recent studies conducted in FY10. An overall summary of the project results as well as their broader implications for vapor space corrosion of the DSTs is given at the end of this report.

  6. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Zhang, He; Kovarik, Libor; Li, Xiaohong S.; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA) at atmospheric pressure. Phenol was the major intermediate on all catalysts. Over the noble metal catalysts saturation of the aromatic ring was the major pathway observed at low temperature (250 C), forming predominantly cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Substantial ring opening reaction was observed on Pt/C and Ru/C at higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 350 C). Base metal catalysts, especially Fe/C, were found to exhibit high HDO activity without ring-saturation or ring-opening with the main products being benzene, phenol along with small amounts of cresol, toluene and trimethylbenzene (TMB). A substantial enhancement in HDO activity was observed on the PdFe/C catalysts. Compared with Fe/C, the yield to oxygen-free aromatic products (i.e., benzene/toluene/TMB) on PdFe/C increased by a factor of four at 350 C, and by approximately a factor of two (83.2% versus 43.3%) at 450 C. The enhanced activity of PdFe/C is attributed to the formation of PdFe alloy as evidenced by STEM, EDS and TPR.

  7. Radiation-induced defects in GaN bulk grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duc, Tran Thien; Pozina, Galia; Son, Nguyen Tien; Janzn, Erik; Hemmingsson, Carl; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2014-09-08

    Defects induced by electron irradiation in thick free-standing GaN layers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. In as-grown materials, six electron traps, labeled D2 (E{sub C}0.24?eV), D3 (E{sub C}0.60?eV), D4 (E{sub C}0.69?eV), D5 (E{sub C}0.96?eV), D7 (E{sub C}1.19?eV), and D8, were observed. After 2?MeV electron irradiation at a fluence of 1??10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?2}, three deep electron traps, labeled D1 (E{sub C}0.12?eV), D5I (E{sub C}0.89?eV), and D6 (E{sub C}1.14?eV), were detected. The trap D1 has previously been reported and considered as being related to the nitrogen vacancy. From the annealing behavior and a high introduction rate, the D5I and D6 centers are suggested to be related to primary intrinsic defects.

  8. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 °C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 °C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 °C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 °C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 °C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  9. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Metal Hydride Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Hydride Laboratories Working with SRNL Our Facilities - Metal Hydride Laboratories The Metal Hydride Laboratories are used for research and development on metal hydride absorption and desorption performance

  10. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth

    2014-09-01

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing

  11. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Bystroff, Roman I.; Miller, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  12. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  13. Method of varying a characteristic of an optical vertical cavity structure formed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hou, Hong Q.; Coltrin, Michael E.; Choquette, Kent D.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an array of vertical cavity optical resonant structures wherein the structures in the array have different detection or emission wavelengths. The process uses selective area growth (SAG) in conjunction with annular masks of differing dimensions to control the thickness and chemical composition of the materials in the optical cavities in conjunction with a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) process to build these arrays.

  14. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dirk, Shawn M.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2010-10-01

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. With a sufficient concentration of pentanol vapor present, sliding of a silica ball on an oxidized silicon wafer can proceed with no measurable wear. The initial results of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of wear surfaces revealed a reaction product having thickness on the order of a monolayer, and with an ion spectrum that included fragments having molecular weights of 200 or more that occurred only inside the wear tracks. The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that reactions of adsorbed alcohols on the wearing surfaces allowed polymerization of the alcohols to form higher molecular weight species. In addition to pin-on-disk studies, lubrication of silicon surfaces with pentanol vapors has also been demonstrated using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices. Recent investigations of the reaction mechanisms of the alcohol molecules with the oxidized silicon surfaces have shown that wearless sliding requires a concentration of the alcohol vapor that is dependent upon the contact stress during sliding, with higher stress requiring a greater concentration of alcohol. Different vapor precursors including those with acid functionality, olefins, and methyl termination also produce polymeric reaction products, and can lubricate the silica surfaces. Doping the operating environment with oxygen was found to quench the formation of the polymeric reaction product, and demonstrates that polymer formation is not necessary for wearless sliding.

  15. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-03-11

    second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

  16. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

    2003-10-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and

  17. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

    2006-01-31

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during

  18. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, Moshe; Gruen, Dieter M.; Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Sheft, Irving

    1981-01-01

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  19. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  20. Characterization of single-crystal diamond grown from the vapor phase on substrates of natural diamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Altukhov, A. A.; Vikharev, A. L.; Gorbachev, A. M.; Dukhnovsky, M. P.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Ziablyuk, K. N.; Mitenkin, A. V.; Muchnikov, A. B. Radishev, D. B.; Ratnikova, A. K.; Fedorov, Yu. Yu.

    2011-03-15

    The results of studies of single-crystal diamond layers with orientation (100) grown on substrates of IIa-type natural diamond by chemical-vapor deposition and of semiconductor diamond obtained subsequently by doping by implantation of boron ions are reported. Optimal conditions of postimplantation annealing of diamond that provide the hole mobility of 1150 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} (the highest mobility obtained so far for semiconductor diamond after ion implantation) are given.

  1. Vapor phase tri-methyl-indium seeding system suitable for high temperature spectroscopy and thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whiddon, R.; Zhou, B.; Borggren, J.; Aldén, M.; Li, Z. S.

    2015-09-15

    Tri-methyl-indium (TMI) is used as an indium transport molecule to introduce indium atoms to reactive hot gas flows/combustion environments for spectroscopic diagnostics. A seeding system was constructed to allow the addition of an inert TMI laden carrier gas into an air/fuel mixture burning consequently on a burner. The amount of the seeded TMI in the carrier gas can be readily varied by controlling the vapor pressure through the temperature of the container. The seeding process was calibrated using the fluorescent emission intensity from the indium 6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → 5{sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} → 5{sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions as a function of the calculated TMI seeding concentration over a range of 2–45 ppm. The response was found to be linear over the range 3–22.5 ppm; at concentrations above 25 ppm there is a loss of linearity attributable to self-absorption or loss of saturation of TMI vapor pressure in the carrier gas flow. When TMI was introduced into a post-combustion environment via an inert carrier gas, molecular transition from InH and InOH radicals were observed in the flame emission spectrum. Combined laser-induced fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy were applied to detect indium atoms in the TMI seeded flame and the measured atomic indium concentration was found to be at the ppm level. This method of seeding organometallic vapor like TMI to a reactive gas flow demonstrates the feasibility for quantitative spectroscopic investigations that may be applicable in various fields, e.g., chemical vapor deposition applications or temperature measurement in flames with two-line atomic fluorescence.

  2. Suppression of metastable-phase inclusion in N-polar (0001{sup }) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shojiki, Kanako Iwabuchi, Takuya; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Choi, Jung-Hun; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Hanada, Takashi; Katayama, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Takashi; Usami, Noritaka

    2015-06-01

    The metastable zincblende (ZB) phase in N-polar (0001{sup }) (?c-plane) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is elucidated by the electron backscatter diffraction measurements. From the comparison between the ?c-plane and Ga-polar (0001) (+c-plane), the ?c-plane MQWs were found to be suffered from the severe ZB-phase inclusion, while ZB-inclusion is negligible in the +c-plane MQWs grown under the same growth conditions. The ZB-phase inclusion is a hurdle for fabricating the ?c-plane light-emitting diodes because the islands with a triangular shape appeared on a surface in the ZB-phase domains. To improve the purity of stable wurtzite (WZ)-phase, the optimum conditions were investigated. The ZB-phase is dramatically eliminated with decreasing the V/III ratio and increasing the growth temperature. To obtain much-higher-quality MQWs, the thinner InGaN wells and the hydrogen introduction during GaN barriers growth were tried. Consequently, MQWs with almost pure WZ phase and with atomically smooth surface have been demonstrated.

  3. Dimensionally stable metallic hydride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    A stable, metallic hydride composition and a process for making such a composition. The composition comprises a uniformly blended mixture of a metal hydride, kieselguhr, and a ballast metal, all in the form of particles. The composition is made by subjecting a metal hydride to one or more hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles to disintegrate the hydride particles to less than approximately 100 microns in size. The particles are partly oxidized, then blended with the ballast metal and the kieselguhr to form a uniform mixture. The mixture is compressed into pellets and calcined. Preferably, the mixture includes approximately 10 vol. % or more kieselguhr and approximately 50 vol. % or more ballast. Metal hydrides that can be used in the composition include Zr, Ti, V, Nb, Pd, as well as binary, tertiary, and more complex alloys of La, Al, Cu, Ti, Co, Ni, Fe, Zr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and mixtures and other combinations thereof. Ballast metals include Al, Cu and Ni.

  4. METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman Jr, Robert C; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V; Pollet, Dr. B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

  5. A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    François, B.; Boudot, R.; Calosso, C. E.; Danet, J. M.

    2014-09-15

    We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192 GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192 GHz output signal are measured to be −42, −100, −117 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz and −129 dB rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 × 10{sup −14} at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.

  6. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  7. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2.

  8. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L.; Barry, Patrick E.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  9. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Noufi, Rommel; Albin, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu.sub.w (In,Ga.sub.y)Se.sub.z for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu.sub.x Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu.sub.x Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300.degree.-600.degree. C., where the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 remains solid, while the excess Cu.sub.x Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu.sub.w (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500.degree.-600.degree. C., result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2, whereas lower temperatures, such as 300.degree.-400.degree. C., result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu.sub.z (In,Ga).sub.4 Se.sub.7 phase.

  10. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J.R.; Contreras, M.A.; Noufi, R.; Albin, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu[sub w](In,Ga[sub y])Se[sub z] for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu[sub x]Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu[sub x]Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z]. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300--600 C, where the Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] remains solid, while the excess Cu[sub x]Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu[sub w](In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z] can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500--600 C, result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2], whereas lower temperatures, such as 300--400 C, result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu[sub z](In,Ga)[sub 4]Se[sub 7] phase. 7 figs.

  11. Comment on "Tunable generation and adsorption of energetic compounds in the vapor phase at trace levels: A tool for testing and developing sensitive and selective substrates for explosive detection"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-02-13

    The evaluation of developed technologies and research on new detection approaches require the ability to generate explosive vapors in the gas phase. In this correspondence, the authors comment on a technical note describing a vaopr generator, discuss safety issues associated with explosives for vapor generators, and provide a concise review of vapor generators for explosive compounds. Approaches to measuring or monitoring the output of a vapor generators are also discussed.

  12. The gas phase emitter effect of lanthanum within ceramic metal halide lamps and its dependence on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.; Groeger, S.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J.; Denissen, C.; Suijker, J.

    2015-08-07

    The gas phase emitter effect increases the lamp lifetime by lowering the work function and, with it, the temperature of the tungsten electrodes of metal halide lamps especially for lamps in ceramic vessels due to their high rare earth pressures. It is generated by a monolayer on the electrode surface of electropositive atoms of certain emitter elements, which are inserted into the lamp bulb by metal iodide salts. They are vaporized, dissociated, ionized, and deposited by an emitter ion current onto the electrode surface within the cathodic phase of lamp operation with a switched-dc or ac-current. The gas phase emitter effect of La and the influence of Na on the emitter effect of La are studied by spatially and phase-resolved pyrometric measurements of the electrode tip temperature, La atom, and ion densities by optical emission spectroscopy as well as optical broadband absorption spectroscopy and arc attachment images by short time photography. An addition of Na to the lamp filling increases the La vapor pressure within the lamp considerably, resulting in an improved gas phase emitter effect of La. Furthermore, the La vapor pressure is raised by a heating of the cold spot. In this way, conditions depending on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency are identified, at which the temperature of the electrodes becomes a minimum.

  13. NOVEL PROCESS FOR REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF VAPOR-PHASE MERCURY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig S. Turchi

    2000-09-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of a regenerable sorbent for removing and recovering mercury from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The process is based on the sorption of mercury by noble metals and the thermal regeneration of the sorbent, recovering the desorbed mercury in a small volume for recycling or disposal. The project was carried out in two phases, covering five years. Phase I ran from September 1995 through September 1997 and involved development and testing of sorbent materials and field tests at a pilot coal-combustor. Phase II began in January 1998 and ended September 2000. Phase II culminated with pilot-scale testing at a coal-fired power plant. The use of regenerable sorbents holds the promise of capturing mercury in a small volume, suitable for either stable disposal or recycling. Unlike single-use injected sorbents such as activated carbon, there is no impact on the quality of the fly ash. During Phase II, tests were run with a 20-acfm pilot unit on coal-combustion flue gas at a 100 lb/hr pilot combustor and a utility boiler for four months and six months respectively. These studies, and subsequent laboratory comparisons, indicated that the sorbent capacity and life were detrimentally affected by the flue gas constituents. Sorbent capacity dropped by a factor of 20 to 35 during operations in flue gas versus air. Thus, a sorbent designed to last 24 hours between recycling lasted less than one hour. The effect resulted from an interaction between SO{sub 2} and either NO{sub 2} or HCl. When SO{sub 2} was combined with either of these two gases, total breakthrough was seen within one hour in flue gas. This behavior is similar to that reported by others with carbon adsorbents (Miller et al., 1998).

  14. Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zircaloy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this work is to develop the means of pre-hydriding unirradiated Zircaloy cladding such that a high concentration, or rim, of hydrides is formed at the cladding outside diameter.

  15. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  16. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  17. Method of producing a chemical hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-11-13

    A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

  18. Impact of thermal annealing on bulk InGaAsSbN materials grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T. W.; Mawst, L. J.; Kim, K.; Lee, J. J.; Kuech, T. F.; Wells, N. P.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Sin, Y.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Moss, S. C.

    2014-02-03

    Two different thermal annealing techniques (rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and in-situ post-growth annealing in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) chamber) were employed to investigate their impact on the optical characteristics of double-heterostructures (DH) of InGaAsSbN/GaAs and on the performance of single-junction solar cell structures, all grown by MOVPE. We find that an optimized RTA procedure leads to a similar improvement in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity compared with material employing a multi-step optimized anneal within the MOVPE reactor. Time-resolved photoluminescence techniques at low temperature (LT) and room temperature (RT) were performed to characterize the carrier dynamics in bulk InGaAsSbN layers. Room temperature carrier lifetimes were found to be similar for both annealing methods, although the LT-PL (16?K) measurements of the MOVPE-annealed sample found longer lifetimes than the RTA-annealed sample (680?ps vs. 260?ps) for the PL measurement energy of 1.24?eV. InGaAsSbN-based single junction solar cells processed with the optimized RTA procedure exhibited an enhancement of the electrical performance, such as improvements in open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, and efficiency over solar cells subjected to the in-situ MOVPE annealing technique.

  19. Homogeneous hydride formation path in α-Zr: Molecular dynamics simulations with the charge-optimized many-body potential

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Bai, Xian-Ming; Yu, Jianguo; Tonks, Michael R.; Noordhoek, Mark J.; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2016-06-01

    A formation path for homogeneous γ hydride formation in hcp α-Zr, from solid solution to the ζ and then the γ hydride, was demonstrated using molecular static calculations and molecular dynamic simulations with the charge-optimized many-body (COMB) potential. Hydrogen has limited solubility in α-Zr. Once the solubility limit is exceeded, the stability of solid solution gives way to that of coherent hydride phases such as the ζ hydride by planar precipitation of hydrogen. At finite temperatures, the ζ hydride goes through a partial hcp-fcc transformation via 1/3 <1¯100> slip on the basal plane, and transforms into a mixture of γmore » hydride and α-Zr. In the ζ hydride, slip on the basal plane is favored thermodynamically with negligible barrier, and is therefore feasible at finite temperatures without mechanical loading. The transformation process involves slips of three equivalent shear partials, in contrast to that proposed in the literature where only a single shear partial was involved. The adoption of multiple slip partials minimizes the macroscopic shape change of embedded hydride clusters and the shear strain accumulation in the matrix, and thus reduces the overall barrier needed for homogeneous γ hydride formation. In conclusion, this formation path requires finite temperatures for hydrogen diffusion without mechanical loading. Therefore, it should be effective at the cladding operating conditions.« less

  20. Development of high-bandgap AlGaInP solar cells grown by organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perl, Emmett E.; Simon, John; Geisz, John F.; Olavarria, Waldo; Young, Michelle; Duda, Anna; Friedman, Daniel J.; Steiner, Myles A.

    2016-03-29

    AlGaInP solar cells with bandgaps between 1.9 and 2.2 eV are investigated for use in next-generation multijunction photovoltaic devices. This quaternary alloy is of great importance to the development of III-V solar cells with five or more junctions and for cells optimized for operation at elevated temperatures because of the high bandgaps required in these designs. In this work, we explore the conditions for the organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy growth of AlGaInP and study their effects on cell performance. Initial efforts focused on developing ~2.0-eV AlGaInP solar cells with a nominal aluminum composition of 12%. Under the direct spectrum at 1000more » W/m2 (AM1.5D), the best of these samples had an open-circuit voltage of 1.59 V, a bandgap-voltage offset of 440 mV, a fill factor of 88.0%, and an efficiency of 14.8%. We then varied the aluminum composition of the alloy from 0% to 24% and were able to tune the bandgap of the AlGaInP layers from ~1.9 to ~2.2 eV. Furthermore, while the samples with a higher aluminum composition exhibited a reduced quantum efficiency and increased bandgap-voltage offset, the bandgap-voltage offset remained at 500 mV or less, up to a bandgap of ~2.1 eV.« less

  1. Metal hydride composition and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Congdon, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A dimensionally stable hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made by forming particles of a metal hydride into porous granules, mixing the granules with a matrix material, forming the mixture into pellets, and sintering the pellets in the absence of oxygen. The ratio of matrix material to hydride is preferably between approximately 2:1 and 4:1 by volume. The porous structure of the granules accommodates the expansion that occurs when the metal hydride particles absorb hydrogen. The porous matrix allows the flow of hydrogen therethrough to contact the hydride particles, yet supports the granules and contains the hydride fines that result from repeated absorption/desorption cycles.

  2. Use of hydrides in motor vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toepler, J.; Bernauer, O.; Buchner, H.

    1980-09-01

    Results of research on hydrogen driven vehicles and hydride storage tanks are presented, along with a detailed discussion of the operational possibilities of low temperature hydrides, such as TiFe-H2, and of high temperature hydrides, such as Mg2Ni-H4. Attention is given to their cyclization stability and thermal conductivity. Heat storage and heat recovery with the aid of hydrides are discussed, and a theoretical hydride storage capacity of a Mg-Ni-alloy is presented. It was concluded that all hydride tanks will be 10 to 20 times heavier than the conventional gasoline tank. The problems of tank weight and gasoline shortage can be solved by a combination hydrogen/gasoline fuel. Existing energy infrastructures must be utilized, as the setting up of a hydrogen infrastructure is, at the present time, both technically and economically unfeasible.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Aided Analysis of a Hydride Vapor...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar ...

  4. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  5. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  6. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal ... Return to Search Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof ...

  7. Igniter containing titanium hydride and potassium perchlorate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietzel, Russel W.; Leslie, William B.

    1976-01-01

    An explosive device is described which employs a particular titanium hydride-potassium perchlorate composition directly ignitible by an electrical bridgewire.

  8. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  9. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovation PNNL CSP TESFigure.jpg The titanium hydride-based system is expected to provide higher exergetic efficiency than lower temperature systems such as magnesium hydride or ...

  10. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation ...

  11. Direct synthesis of catalyzed hydride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Karl J.; Majzoub, Eric

    2004-09-21

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing alkali metal aluminum hydrides such as NaAlH.sub.4 and Na.sub.3 AlH.sub.6 from either the alkali metal or its hydride, and aluminum. The hydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a transition metal catalyst compound, such as TiCl.sub.3, TiF.sub.3, or a mixture of these materials, in order to render them reversibly hydridable. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen while heating the mixture to about 125.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

  12. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  13. Draft of M2 Report on Integration of the Hybrid Hydride Model into INL's MBM Framework for Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikare, Veena; Weck, Philippe F.; Schultz, Peter A.; Clark, Blythe; Glazoff, Michael; Homer, Eric

    2014-07-01

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding. While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. This document demonstrates a basic hydride precipitation model that is built on a recently developed hybrid Potts-phase field model that combines elements of Potts-Monte Carlo and the phase-field models. The model capabilities are demonstrated along with the incorporation of the starting microstructure, thermodynamics of the Zr-H system and the hydride formation mechanism.

  14. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  15. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Niemann, Michael U.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  16. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  17. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-12-31

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R&D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  18. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Regeneration of Lithium Aluminum Hydride (919 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Alane is one of the most promising solutions to storing hydrogen for use in hydrogen fuel cells. This technology provides exceptional improvement in solving the difficult problem of economically preparing the material. Description Describes methods and materials required for the

  19. Metastable Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graetz, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using hydrogen as a reliable energy carrier for both stationary and mobile applications has gained renewed interest in recent years due to improvements in high temperature fuel cells and a reduction in hydrogen production costs. However, a number of challenges remain and new media are needed that are capable of safely storing hydrogen with high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal hydrides and complex metal hydrides offer some hope of overcoming these challenges; however, many of the high capacity “reversible” hydrides exhibit a large endothermic decomposition enthalpy making it difficult to release the hydrogen at low temperatures. Onmore » the other hand, the metastable hydrides are characterized by a low reaction enthalpy and a decomposition reaction that is thermodynamically favorable under ambient conditions. The rapid, low temperature hydrogen evolution rates that can be achieved with these materials offer much promise for mobile PEM fuel cell applications. However, a critical challenge exists to develop new methods to regenerate these hydrides directly from the reactants and hydrogen gas. This spotlight paper presents an overview of some of the metastable metal hydrides for hydrogen storage and a few new approaches being investigated to address the key challenges associated with these materials.« less

  20. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels, Phase 2: Evaluations of Field Samples and Laboratory Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; LaViolette, M.

    2010-04-01

    Study to measure the flammability of gasoline/ethanol fuel vapors at low ambient temperatures and develop a mathematical model to predict temperatures at which flammable vapors were likely to form.

  1. Vaporization of zinc from scrap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozturk, B.; Fruehan, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The rate of zinc vaporization from galvanized scrap was measured using a thermogravimetric apparatus along with chemical analysis. It is found that the rate of zinc vaporization is very fast in nitrogen and carbon monoxide atmospheres at temperatures higher than 950 C. At lower temperature rate decreases with decreasing temperature and is controlled by the gas phase mass transport. The simultaneous oxidation and vaporization of zinc occurs when the samples were heated in carbon dioxide and air. The current experimental results indicate that almost all of the zinc from scrap vaporizes during the heating process in a very short period of time after the temperature reaches above 850 C.

  2. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, B K

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  3. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Yu, Conrad

    2006-10-17

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  4. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Yu, Conrad [Antioch, CA

    2009-05-05

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  5. Ductility Evaluation of As-Hydrided and Hydride Reoriented Zircaloy-4 Cladding under Simulated Dry-Storage Condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong; Plummer, Lee K; Ray, Holly B; Cook, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z

    2014-01-01

    Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage expose cladding to higher temperatures and much higher pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to normal operation in-reactor and pool storage under these conditions. Radial hydrides could precipitate during slow cooling and provide an additional embrittlement mechanism as the cladding temperature decreases below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. As a means of simulating this behavior, unirradiated hydrided Zircaloy-4 samples were fabricated by a gas charging method to levels that encompass the range of hydrogen concentrations observed in current used fuel. Mechanical testing was carried out by the ring compression test (RCT) method at various temperatures to evaluate the sample s ductility for both as-hydrided and post-hydride reorientation treated specimens. As-hydrided samples with higher hydrogen concentration (>800 ppm) resulted in lower strain before fracture and reduced maximum load. Increasing RCT temperatures resulted in increased ductility of the as-hydrided cladding. A systematic radial hydride treatment was conducted at various pressures and temperatures for the hydrided samples with H content around 200 ppm. Following the radial hydride treatment, RCTs on the hydride reoriented samples were conducted and exhibited lower ductility compared to as-hydrided samples.

  6. METHOD OF FABRICATING A URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE REACTOR CORE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weeks, I.F.; Goeddel, W.V.

    1960-03-22

    A method is described of evenly dispersing uranlum metal in a zirconium hydride moderator to produce a fuel element for nuclear reactors. According to the invention enriched uranium hydride and zirconium hydride powders of 200 mesh particle size are thoroughly admixed to form a mixture containing 0.1 to 3% by weight of U/sup 235/ hydride. The mixed powders are placed in a die and pressed at 100 tons per square inch at room temperature. The resultant compacts are heated in a vacuum to 300 deg C, whereby the uranium hydride deoomposes into uranium metal and hydrogen gas. The escaping hydrogen gas forms a porous matrix of zirconium hydride, with uramum metal evenly dispersed therethrough. The advantage of the invention is that the porosity and uranium distribution of the final fuel element can be more closely determined and controlled than was possible using prior methods of producing such fuel ele- ments.

  7. Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Alane for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery - Accelerating Innovation Webinar Presentation - June 2012 (7,079 KB) <p> Schematic representation of &nbsp;mechanical alloying reaction during ball

  8. Regeneration of aluminum hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    268,288 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search Regeneration of aluminum hydride United

  9. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries October 17, 2011 - 10:42am Addthis Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries Matthew Loveless Matthew Loveless Data Integration Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Through licensing and collaborative work, Energy Department-sponsored research can yield great economic benefits and help bring important new products to market. The

  10. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy This report documents the ...

  11. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING URANIUM-HYDRIDE COMPACTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wellborn, W.; Armstrong, J.R.

    1959-03-10

    A method and apparatus are presented for making compacts of pyrophoric hydrides in a continuous operation out of contact with air. It is particularly useful for the preparation of a canned compact of uranium hydride possessing high density and purity. The metallic uranium is enclosed in a container, positioned in a die body evacuated and nvert the uranium to the hydride is admitted and the container sealed. Heat is applied to bring about the formation of the hydride, following which compression is used to form the compact sealed in a container ready for use.

  12. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. PDF icon Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR...

  13. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Moisture Control Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor Barriers or Vapor ... can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy ...

  14. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY ...

  15. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  16. Long Term Field Development of a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System for Treatment of Produced Waters for Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn Katz; Kerry Kinney; Robert Bowman; Enid Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig Altare

    2007-12-31

    The main goal of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using a combined physicochemical/biological treatment system to remove the organic constituents present in saline produced water. In order to meet this objective, a physical/chemical adsorption process was developed and two separate biological treatment techniques were investigated. Two previous research projects focused on the development of the surfactant modified zeolite adsorption process (DE-AC26-99BC15221) and development of a vapor phase biofilter (VPB) to treat the regeneration off-gas from the surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorption system (DE-FC26-02NT15461). In this research, the SMZ/VPB was modified to more effectively attenuate peak loads and to maintain stable biodegradation of the BTEX constituents from the produced water. Specifically, a load equalization system was incorporated into the regeneration flow stream. In addition, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was tested for its ability to simultaneously remove the aromatic hydrocarbon and carboxylate components from produced water. The specific objectives related to these efforts included the following: (1) Optimize the performance VPBs treating the transient loading expected during SMZ regeneration: (a) Evaluate the impact of biofilter operating parameters on process performance under stable operating conditions. (b) Investigate how transient loads affect biofilter performance, and identify an appropriate technology to improve biological treatment performance during the transient regeneration period of an SMZ adsorption system. (c) Examine the merits of a load equalization technology to attenuate peak VOC loads prior to a VPB system. (d) Evaluate the capability of an SMZ/VPB to remove BTEX from produced water in a field trial. (2) Investigate the feasibility of MBR treatment of produced water: (a) Evaluate the biodegradation of carboxylates and BTEX constituents from synthetic produced water in a laboratory-scale MBR. (b

  17. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNLs metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800C). A high-temperature tank in PNNLs storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNLs thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  18. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, or during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.

  19. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  20. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Richard W.

    1980-01-01

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  1. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, ormore » during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.« less

  2. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermochemical Storage | Department of Energy Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical Storage Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical Storage PNNL Logo Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL), through the Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage (CSP: ELEMENTS) funding program, is developing a concept for high energy density

  3. Water Vapor Experiment Concludes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Water Vapor Experiment Concludes The AIRS (atmospheric infrared sounder) Water Vapor Experiment - Ground (AWEX-G) intensive operations period (IOP) at the SGP central facility ...

  4. Recent advances in metal hydrides for clean energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2013-06-01

    Metal hydrides are a fascinating class of materials that can be utilized for a surprising variety of clean energy applications, including smart solar collectors, smart windows, sensors, thermal energy storage, and batteries, in addition to their traditional application for hydrogen storage. Over the past decade, research on metal hydrides for hydrogen storage increased due to global governmental incentives and an increased focus on hydrogen storage research for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operation. Tremendous progress has been made in so-called complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications with the discovery of many new hydrides containing covalently bound complex anions. Many of these materials have applications beyond hydrogen storage and are being investigated for lithium-ion battery separator and anode materials. In this issue of MRS Bulletin , we present the state of the art of key evolving metal-hydride-based clean energy technologies with an outlook toward future needs.

  5. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, William A.; Olsen, Clayton E.

    1982-01-01

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  6. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, W.A.; Olsen, C.E.

    1980-03-12

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  7. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Yu, Conrad

    2010-08-10

    An apparatus having a first substrate having (1) a cavity, (2) one or more resistive heaters, and (3) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen; a second substrate having (1) an outlet valve comprising a pressure relief structure and (2) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen, wherein said second substrate is coupled to said first substrate forming a sealed volume in said cavity; a metal hydride material contained within said cavity; and a gas distribution system formed by coupling a microfluidic interconnect to said pressure relief structure. Additional apparatuses and methods are also disclosed.

  8. Highly Concentrated Palladium Hydrides/Deuterides; Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios

    2013-11-26

    Accomplishments are reported in these areas: tight-binding molecular dynamics study of palladium; First-principles calculations and tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations of the palladium-hydrogen system; tight-binding studies of bulk properties and hydrogen vacancies in KBH{sub 4}; tight-binding study of boron structures; development of angular dependent potentials for Pd-H; and density functional and tight-binding calculations for the light-hydrides NaAlH4 and NaBH4

  9. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  10. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  11. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  12. Develop improved metal hydride technology for the storage of hydrogen. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sapru, K.

    1998-12-04

    The overall objective was to develop commercially viable metal hydrides capable of reversibly storing at least 3 wt.% hydrogen for use with PEM fuel cells and hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (HICE) applications. Such alloys are expected to result in system capacities of greater than 2 wt.%, making metal hydride storage systems (MHSS`s) a practical means of supplying hydrogen for many consumer applications. ECD`s (Energy Conversion Devices, Inc.) past work on sputtered thin films of transition metal-based alloys led to the commercialization of it`s nickel/metal hydride batteries, and similar work on thin film Mg-based alloys demonstrated potential to achieve very high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities approaching 2,500 Wh/Kg and 2,500 Wh/M{sup 3} respectively. Under this 2-year cost shared project with the DOE, the authors have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of scaling up the Mg-based hydrides from thin film to bulk production without substantial loss of storage capacity. ECD made progress in alloy development by means of compositional and process modification. Processes used include Mechanical Alloying, Melt spinning and novel Gas Phase Condensation. It was showed that the same composition when prepared by melt-spinning resulted in a more homogeneous material having a higher PCT plateau pressure as compared to mechanical alloying. It was also shown that mechanically alloyed Mg-Al-Zn results in much higher plateau pressures, which is an important step towards reducing the desorption temperature. While significant progress has been made during the past two years in alloy development and understanding the relationship between composition, structure, morphology, and processing parameters, additional R and D needs to be performed to achieve the goals of this work.

  13. The Hydriding Kinetics of Organic Hydrogen Getters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G. L.

    2002-02-11

    The aging of hermetically sealed systems is often accompanied by the gradual production of hydrogen gas that is a result of the decay of environmental gases and the degradation of organic materials. In particular, the oxygen, water, hydrogen ''equilibrium'' is affected by the removal of oxygen due the oxidation of metals and organic materials. This shift of the above ''equilibrium'' towards the formation of hydrogen gas, particularly in crevices, may eventually reach an explosive level of hydrogen gas or degrade metals by hydriding them. The latter process is generally delayed until the oxidizing species are significantly reduced. Organic hydrogen getters introduced by Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division have proven to be a very effective means of preventing hydrogen gas accumulation in sealed containers. These getters are relatively unaffected by air and environmental gases. They can be packaged in a variety of ways to fit particular needs such as porous pellets, fine or coarse [gravel] powder, or loaded into silicone rubber. The hydrogen gettering reactions are extremely irreversible since the hydrogen gas is converted into an organic hydrocarbon. These getters are based on the palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to double and then single bonds in aromatic aryl compounds. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) typically mixed with 25% by weight carbon with palladium (1% by weight of carbon) is one of the newest and best of these organic hydrogen getters. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reaction with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates, including mixed alkyl and aryl hydrocarbons with the possibilities of many isomers. The reaction kinetics mechanisms are also strongly influenced by the form in which they are packaged. For example, the hydriding rates for pellets and gravel have a strong dependence on reaction extent (i.e., DEB reduction) and a kinetic order in pressure of 0

  14. THE HYDROLYSIS AND OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDE AND MAGNESIUM HYDRIDE DETERMINED BY CALORIMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, K; Donald Anton, D; Joshua Gray, J; Bruce Hardy, B

    2008-03-13

    Lithium borohydride, magnesium hydride and the 2:1 'destabilized' ball milled mixtures (2LiBH{sub 4}:MgH{sub 2}) underwent liquid phase hydrolysis, gas phase hydrolysis and air oxidation reactions monitored by isothermal calorimetry. The experimentally determined heats of reaction and resulting products were compared with those theoretically predicted using thermodynamic databases. Results showed a discrepancy between the predicted and observed hydrolysis and oxidation products due to both kinetic limitations and to the significant amorphous character of observed reaction products. Gas phase and liquid phase hydrolysis were the dominant reactions in 2LiBH{sub 4}:MgH{sub 2} with approximately the same total energy release and reaction products; liquid phase hydrolysis displayed the maximum heat flow for likely environmental exposure with a peak energy release of 6 (mW/mg).

  15. Process for production of a metal hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  16. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  17. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  18. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  19. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper-(1.83 wt. %)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600 C-1 h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported....

  20. High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

    2014-11-11

    Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

  1. Method of selective reduction of halodisilanes with alkyltin hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Errico, John J.; Sharp, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to the selective and sequential reduction of halodisilanes by reacting these compounds at room temperature or below with trialkyltin hydrides or dialkyltin dihydrides without the use of free radical intermediates. The alkyltin hydrides selectively and sequentially reduce the Si-Cl, Si-Br or Si-I bonds while leaving intact the Si-Si and Si-F bonds present.

  2. Method of selective reduction of polyhalosilanes with alkyltin hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Kenneth G.; D'Errico, John J.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to the selective and stepwise reduction of polyhalosilanes by reacting at room temperature or below with alkyltin hydrides without the use of free radical intermediates. Alkyltin hydrides selectively and stepwise reduce the Si--Br, Si--Cl, or Si--I bonds while leaving intact any Si--F bonds. When two or more different halogens are present on the polyhalosilane, the halogen with the highest atomic weight is preferentially reduced.

  3. Optimization of Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zr 4 Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Hanson, Brady D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of this work is to build on the results reported in the M2 milestone M2FT 13PN0805051, document number FCRD-USED-2013-000151 (Hanson, 2013). In that work, it was demonstrated that unirradiated samples of zircaloy-4 cladding could be pre-hydrided at temperatures below 400°C in pure hydrogen gas and that the growth of hydrides on the surface could be controlled by changing the surface condition of the samples and form a desired hydride rim on the outside diameter of the cladding. The work performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since the issuing of the M2 milestone has focused its efforts to optimize the formation of a hydride rim on available zircaloy-4 cladding samples by controlling temperature variation and gas flow control during pre-hydriding treatments. Surface conditioning of the outside surface was also examined as a variable. The results of test indicate that much of the variability in the hydride thickness is due to temperature variation occurring in the furnaces as well as how hydrogen gas flows across the sample surface. Efforts to examine other alloys, gas concentrations, and different surface conditioning plan to be pursed in the next FY as more cladding samples become available

  4. AIR PASSIVATION OF METAL HYDRIDE BEDS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J; R. H. Hsu, R

    2007-07-02

    Metal hydride beds offer compact, safe storage of tritium. After metal hydride beds have reached the end of their useful life, the beds will replaced with new beds and the old beds prepared for disposal. One acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the material inside the bed not be pyrophoric. To determine the pyrophoric nature of spent metal hydride beds, controlled air ingress tests were performed. A simple gas handling manifold fitted with pressure transducers and a calibrated volume were used to introduce controlled quantities of air into a metal hydride bed and the bed temperature rise monitored for reactivity with the air. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 scc air was consumed by the bed (0.08 scc per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12th cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water.

  5. ARM Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Water Vapor IOP The SGP CART site will host the third ARM water vapor IOP on September 18-October 8, 2000. The CART site is home to a powerful array of instruments capable of ...

  6. G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) Value-Added Product Citation Details In-Document Search Title: G-Band Vapor Radiometer Precipitable Water Vapor (GVRPWV) ...

  7. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS You are ...

  8. Vapor Pressure and Molecular Composition of Vapors of the RbF...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the vapor phase of the respective systems. Farther work on the NaF-ZrFsub 4 system points to the existence of the gaseous complex NaZrsub 2Fsub 9 rather than NaZrFsub ...

  9. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  10. Unexpected bismuth concentration profiles in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy-grown Ga(As{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x})/GaAs superlattices revealed by Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, A. W.; Babcock, S. E.; Guan, Y.; Forghani, K.; Anand, A.; Kuech, T. F.

    2015-03-01

    A set of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x}/GaAs multilayer quantum-well structures was deposited by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy at 390 °C and 420 °C. The precursor fluxes were introduced with the intent of growing discrete and compositionally uniform GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} well and GaAs barrier layers in the epitaxial films. High-resolution high-angle annular-dark-field (or “Z-contrast”) scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging revealed concentration profiles that were periodic in the growth direction, but far more complicated in shape than the intended square wave. The observed composition profiles could explain various reports of physical properties measurements that suggest compositional inhomogeneity in GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} alloys as they currently are grown.

  11. Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors based on metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown epilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niraula, M.; Yasuda, K.; Wajima, Y.; Yamashita, H.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Takai, N.; Tsukamoto, Y.; Agata, Y.

    2013-10-28

    Charge transport properties of p-CdTe/n-CdTe/n{sup +}-Si diode-type nuclear radiation detectors, fabricated by growing p-and n-type CdTe epilayers on (211) n{sup +}-Si substrates using metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE), were studied by analyzing current-voltage characteristics measured at various temperatures. The diode fabricated shows good rectification properties, however, both forward and reverse biased currents deviate from their ideal behavior. The forward current exhibits typical feature of multi-step tunneling at lower biases; however, becomes space charge limited type when the bias is increased. On the other hand, the reverse current exhibits thermally activated tunneling-type current. It was found that trapping centers at the p-CdTe/n-CdTe junction, which were formed due to the growth induced defects, determine the currents of this diode, and hence limit the performance of the nuclear radiation detectors developed.

  12. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  13. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.

    1999-06-01

    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  14. Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Weatherize » Moisture Control » Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor Barriers or Vapor Diffusion Retarders Vapor diffusion retarders installed in a crawlspace can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. Vapor diffusion retarders installed in a crawlspace can be part of an overall moisture control strategy for your home. | Photo courtesy of Dennis Schroeder, NREL. In most U.S. climates, vapor barriers, or -- more

  15. Metal hydride hydrogen compression: Recent advances and future prospects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bowman, Jr., Robert C.; Yartys, Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Linkov, Vladimir; Grant, David; Stuart, Alastair; Eriksen, Jon; Denys, Roman

    2016-03-17

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is one of the more important applications of the metal hydrides. The present paper reviews recent advances in the field based on the analysis of the fundamental principles of this technology. The performances when boosting hydrogen pressure, along with two- and three-step compression units are analyzed. The paper includes also a theoretical modeling of a two-stage compressor aimed at both describing the performance of the experimentally studied systems, but, also, on their optimization and design of more advanced MH compressors. Business developments in the field are reviewed for the Norwegian company HYSTORSYS AS andmore » the South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry. Finally, future prospects are outlined presenting the role of the metal hydride compression in the overall development of the hydrogen driven energy systems. Lastly, the work is based on the analysis of the development of the technology in Europe, USA and South Africa.« less

  16. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  17. System for exchange of hydrogen between liquid and solid phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Johnson, J.R.; Winsche, W.E.

    1985-02-22

    The reversible reaction M + x/2 H/sub 2/ reversible MH/sub x/, wherein M is a reversible metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under an inert liquid, thereby reducing contamination, providing better temperature control, providing in situ mobility of the reactants, and increasing flexibility in process design. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to a temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen and to release previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the actual H/sub 2/ pressure is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the actual pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  18. System for exchange of hydrogen between liquid and solid phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, James J.; Grohse, Edward W.; Johnson, John R.; Winsche, deceased, Warren E.

    1988-01-01

    The reversible reaction M+x/2 H.sub.2 .rarw..fwdarw.MH.sub.x, wherein M is a reversible metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH.sub.x in the presence of H.sub.2, generally used to store and recall H.sub.2, is found to proceed under an inert liquid, thereby reducing contamination, providing better temperature control, providing in situ mobility of the reactants, and increasing flexibility in process design. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to a temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H.sub.2, to store hydrogen and to release previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H.sub.2 through the liquid is dependent upon the H.sub.2 pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the actual H.sub.2 pressure is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particles. When the actual pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  19. ARM - Water Vapor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Vapor Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, ... FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Water ...

  20. A coupled transport and solid mechanics formulation with improved reaction kinetics parameters for modeling oxidation and decomposition in a uranium hydride bed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salloum, Maher N.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Kanouff, Michael P.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

    2013-03-01

    Modeling of reacting flows in porous media has become particularly important with the increased interest in hydrogen solid-storage beds. An advanced type of storage bed has been proposed that utilizes oxidation of uranium hydride to heat and decompose the hydride, releasing the hydrogen. To reduce the cost and time required to develop these systems experimentally, a valid computational model is required that simulates the reaction of uranium hydride and oxygen gas in a hydrogen storage bed using multiphysics finite element modeling. This SAND report discusses the advancements made in FY12 (since our last SAND report SAND2011-6939) to the model developed as a part of an ASC-P&EM project to address the shortcomings of the previous model. The model considers chemical reactions, heat transport, and mass transport within a hydride bed. Previously, the time-varying permeability and porosity were considered uniform. This led to discrepancies between the simulated results and experimental measurements. In this work, the effects of non-uniform changes in permeability and porosity due to phase and thermal expansion are accounted for. These expansions result in mechanical stresses that lead to bed deformation. To describe this, a simplified solid mechanics model for the local variation of permeability and porosity as a function of the local bed deformation is developed. By using this solid mechanics model, the agreement between our reacting bed model and the experimental data is improved. Additionally, more accurate uranium hydride oxidation kinetics parameters are obtained by fitting the experimental results from a pure uranium hydride oxidation measurement to the ones obtained from the coupled transport-solid mechanics model. Finally, the coupled transport-solid mechanics model governing equations and boundary conditions are summarized and recommendations are made for further development of ARIA and other Sandia codes in order for them to sufficiently implement the model.

  1. Mechanism of the [alpha]-to-[beta] phase transformation in the LaNi[subscript 5]?H[subscript 2] system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, E. MacA.; Blach, T.P.; Pitt, M.P.; Cookson, D.J. (Griffith U); (ASRP)

    2014-09-24

    High-energy synchrotron in situ X-ray powder diffraction has been used to elucidate the mechanism of the hydriding phase transformation in a LaNi5 model hydrogen storage intermetallic in real time. The transformation proceeds at 10 C via the transient growth of an interfacial phase, the {gamma} phase, with lattice parameters intermediate between those of the {alpha} (dilute solid solution) and {beta} (concentrated hydride) phases. The {gamma} phase forms to partially accommodate the 24% change in unit cell volume between the {alpha} and {beta} phases during hydriding and dehydriding. The {alpha}, {gamma} and {beta} phases coexist at the nanoscopic level.

  2. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-05-18

    A method for preparing reactive metal surfaces, particularly uranium surfaces is disclosed, whereby the metal is immediately reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The metal surfaces are first pretreated by exposure to an acid which forms an adherent hydride-bearing composition on the metal surface. Subsequent heating of the pretreated metal at a temperature sufficient to decompose the hydride coating in vacuum or inert gas renders the metal surface instantaneously reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure.

  3. Ab-initio study of transition metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Shukla, Seema Dwivedi, Shalini Sharma, Yamini

    2014-04-24

    We have performed ab initio self consistent calculations based on Full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method to investigate the optical and thermal properties of yttrium hydrides. From the band structure and density of states, the optical absorption spectra and specific heats have been calculated. The band structure of Yttrium metal changes dramatically due to hybridization of Y sp orbitals with H s orbitals and there is a net charge transfer from metal to hydrogen site. The electrical resistivity and specific heats of yttrium hydrides are lowered but the thermal conductivity is slightly enhanced due to increase in scattering from hydrogen sites.

  4. METHOD OF PREPARING SINTERED ZIRCONIUM METAL FROM ITS HYDRIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angier, R.P.

    1958-02-11

    The invention relates to the preparation of metal shapes from zirconium hydride by powder metallurgical techniques. The zirconium hydride powder which is to be used for this purpose can be prepared by rendering massive pieces of crystal bar zirconium friable by heat treatment in purified hydrogen. This any then be ground into powder and powder can be handled in the air without danger of it igniting. It may then be compacted in the normal manner by being piaced in a die. The compact is sintered under vacuum conditions preferably at a temperature ranging from 1200 to 1300 deg C and for periods of one to three hours.

  5. The use of DRIFTS-MS and kinetic studies to determine the role of acetic acid in the palladium-catalyzed vapor-phase synthesis of vinyl acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Augustine, S.M.; Blitz, J.P. (Quantum Chemical Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

    1993-07-01

    Supported palladium catalyzes the synthesis of vinyl acetate (VA) by oxyacetylation of ethylene. Alkali promoters increase activity and selectivity. The role of acetic acid (HOAc) in these processes is not well understood. Activation energy studies show that HOAc alters the catalyst site and lowers the reaction barrier to VA formation. After correction for this effect, the kinetics reveal that as a reagent HOAc is zero order. This is probably due to a strong adsorption of HOAc and Pd which forms the catalyst active phase. Detailed spectroscopic studies support this conclusion. The surface processes on a supported vinyl acetate catalyst were studied using a method which couples diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) with mass spectrometry (MS). The DRIFTS-MS technique combines the capability of selectively analyzing IR-active surface species with sensitive detection of transient reaction products. By comparing the catalyst with mixtures of palladium acetate powder physically dispersed in potassium chloride, it is determined that the active phase on the catalyst is a form of palladium acetate. Compound formation is consistent with the strong chemisorption of HOAc on Pd. Kinetic analysis of temperature-programmed reaction(TPRxn) data suggests that Pd metal or metal oxide adjacent to the active site is important in the reaction mechanism. 25 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL REACTIVITY OF SOLID STATE HYDRIDE MATERIALS: MODELING AND TESTING FOR AIR AND WATER EXPOSURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anton, D.; James, C.; Cortes-Concepcion, J.; Tamburello, D.; Brinkman, K.; Gray, J.

    2010-05-18

    To make commercially acceptable condensed phase hydrogen storage systems, it is important to understand quantitatively the risks involved in using these materials. A rigorous set of environmental reactivity tests have been developed based on modified testing procedures codified by the United Nations for the transportation of dangerous goods. Potential hydrogen storage material, 2LiBH4{center_dot}MgH2 and NH3BH3, have been tested using these modified procedures to evaluate the relative risks of these materials coming in contact with the environment in hypothetical accident scenarios. It is apparent that an ignition event will only occur if both a flammable concentration of hydrogen and sufficient thermal energy were available to ignite the hydrogen gas mixture. In order to predict hydride behavior for hypothesized accident scenarios, an idealized finite element model was developed for dispersed hydride from a breached system. Empirical thermodynamic calculations based on precise calorimetric experiments were performed in order to quantify the energy and hydrogen release rates and to quantify the reaction products resulting from water and air exposure. Both thermal and compositional predictions were made with identification of potential ignition event scenarios.

  7. A Novel Zr-1Nb Alloy and a New Look at Hydriding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert D. Mariani; James I. Cole; Assel Aitkaliyeva

    2013-09-01

    A novel Zr-1Nb has begun development based on a working model that takes into account the hydrogen permeabilities for zirconium and niobium metals. The beta-Nb secondary phase particles (SPPs) in Zr-1Nb are believed to promote more rapid hydrogen dynamics in the alloy in comparison to other zirconium alloys. Furthermore, some hydrogen release is expected at the lower temperatures corresponding to outages when the partial pressure of H2 in the coolant is less. These characteristics lessen the negative synergism between corrosion and hydriding that is otherwise observed in cladding alloys without niobium. In accord with the working model, development of nanoscale precursors was initiated to enhance the performance of existing Zr-1Nb alloys. Their characteristics and properties can be compared to oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, and material additions have been proposed to zirconium-based LWR cladding to guard further against hydriding and to fix the size of the SPPs for microstructure stability enhancements. A preparative route is being investigated that does not require mechanical alloying, and 10 nanometer molybdenum particles have been prepared which are part of the nanoscale precursors. If successful, the approach has implications for long term dry storage of used fuel and for new routes to nanoferritic and ODS alloys.

  8. Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Therefore, future research could be directed at measuring the vapor pressures for the ... The results from the current work show that measuring the vapor pressures of complicated ...

  9. Cascades for hydrogen isotope separation using metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, F.B.; Grzetic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Designs are presented for continuous countercurrent hydrogen isotope separation cascades based on the use of metal hydrides. The cascades are made up of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or temperature swing adsorption (TSA) stages. The designs were evolved from consideration of previously conducted studies of the separation performance of four types of PSA and TSA processes.

  10. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Congdon, James W.

    2009-03-17

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  11. Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor, and Clouds" Project ID: 0011106 ... measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well ...

  12. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested

  13. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1986-08-15

    The atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process for the enrichment of uranium is evaluated. (AIP)

  14. Studies of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foltz, G.W.; Melius, C.F.

    1987-12-01

    A gas flow apparatus has been constructed and used to study the isotopic exchange reaction occurring between the solid and gas phases in hydrogen (deuterium) gas flows directed through packed-powder beds of ..beta..-phase palladium deuteride (hydride). Spontaneous Raman light scattering is employed to obtain a real-time analysis of the isotopic composition of the gas (H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, HD) exiting from the bed. A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time-dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes occurring on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas-phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with the experimental measurements and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, good agreement is obtained for p approx. = 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of a values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

  15. Modeling of temporal behavior of isotopic exchange between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melius, C F; Foltz, G W

    1987-01-01

    A parametric rate-equation model is described which depicts the time dependent behavior of the isotopic exchange process occurring between the solid and gas phases in gaseous hydrogen (deuterium) flows through packed-powder palladium deuteride (hydride) beds. The exchange mechanism is assumed to be rate-limited by processes taking place on the surface of the powder. The fundamental kinetic parameter of the model is the isotopic exchange probability, p, which is the probability that an isotopic exchange event occurs during a collision of a gas phase atom with the surface. Isotope effects between the gas and solid phases are explicitly included in terms of the isotope separation factor, ..cap alpha... Results of the model are compared with recent experimental measurements of isotope exchange in the ..beta..-phase hydrogen/palladium system and, using a literature value of ..cap alpha.. = 2.4, a good description of the experimental data is obtained for p approx. 10/sup -7/. In view of the importance of the isotope effects in the hydrogen/palladium system and the range of ..cap alpha.. values reported for the ..beta..-phase in the literature, the sensitivity of the model results to a variation in the value of ..cap alpha.. is examined.

  16. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  17. METHOD OF MAKING DELTA ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE MONOLITHIC MODERATOR PIECES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vetrano, J.B.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing large, sound bodies of delta zirconium hydride. The method includes the steps of heating a zirconium body to a temperature of not less than l000 deg C, providing a hydrogen atmosphere for the zirconium body at a pressure not greater than one atmosphere, reducing the temperature slowly to 800 deg C at such a rate that cracks do not form while maintaining the hydrogen pressure substantially constant, and cooling in an atmosphere of hydrogen. (AEC)

  18. The Role of Impurities in the Complex Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impurities in the Complex Hydrides Eric H. Majzoub Center for Nanoscience Department of Physics University of Missouri - St. Louis Acknowledgements UMSL Xianfeng Liu, David Peaslee, Tim Mason, Dongxue Zhao, Gang Wang, Chris Carr, Waruni Jayawardana, Alyssa McFarlane, Henry Hamper, Hua Ning SNL Vitalie Stavila, Mark Allendorf, Lennie Klebanoff * Department of Energy EERE * Boeing * NASA Space grant Consortium 2 Objectives and Overview I. Fundamental Limitations - density of hydrogen and

  19. Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} luminescence whisker based on vapor-phase deposition: Facile synthesis, uniform morphology and enhanced luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Jian; Hassan, Dhia A.; Zeng, Renjie; Peng, Dongliang

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • For the first time, it is possible to obtain Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} whisker. • The whiskers are smooth and uniform with L/D ratio over 50. • Durability and thermal stability of the whisker are enhanced. - Abstract: A high performance strontium silicate phosphor has been successfully synthesized though a facile vapor-phase deposition method. The product consists of single crystal whiskers which are smooth and uniform, and with a sectional equivalent diameter of around 5 μm; the aspect ratio is over 50 and no agglomeration can be observed. X-ray diffraction result confirmed that the crystal structure of the whisker was α’-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. The exact chemical composition was Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} which was analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The whisker shows broad green emission with peak at 523 nm ranging from 470 to 600 nm (excited at 370 nm). Compared with traditional Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Eu phosphor, durability (at 85% humidity and 85 °C) and thermal stability of the whisker are obviously improved. Moreover, growth mechanism of the Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} whiskers is Vapor–Liquid–Solid. On a macro-scale, the product is still powder which makes it suitable for the current packaging process of WLEDs.

  20. Parking heater and method using hydrides in motor vehicles powered by hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchner, H.; Saufferer, H.

    1980-07-29

    A method for parking heating of at least the passenger compartment of motor vehicles operated at least partially on hydrogen and having a hydride reservoir, wherein the hydride reservoir is a Lt/Ht hydride combination, comprising supplying the heat capacity of the Ht reservoir, present after the engine is shut off or produced by charging with hydrogen, at least partially to the passenger compartment.

  1. Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System Savannah River National Laboratory logo -- This project is inactive -- The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, is collaborating with Curtin University (CU) to evaluate new metal hydride materials for thermal energy storage (TES) that meet the SunShot cost and performance targets for

  2. Uranium metal reactions with hydrogen and water vapour and the reactivity of the uranium hydride produced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfrey, H.; Broan, C.; Goddard, D.; Hodge, N.; Woodhouse, G.; Diggle, A.; Orr, R.

    2013-07-01

    Within the nuclear industry, metallic uranium has been used as a fuel. If this metal is stored in a hydrogen rich environment then the uranium metal can react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride which can be pyrophoric when exposed to air. The UK National Nuclear Laboratory has been carrying out a programme of research for Sellafield Limited to investigate the conditions required for the formation and persistence of uranium hydride and the reactivity of the material formed. The experimental results presented here have described new results characterising uranium hydride formed from bulk uranium at 50 and 160 C. degrees and measurements of the hydrolysis kinetics of these materials in liquid water. It has been shown that there is an increase in the proportion of alpha-uranium hydride in material formed at lower temperatures and that there is an increase in the rate of reaction with water of uranium hydride formed at lower temperatures. This may at least in part be attributable to a difference in the reaction rate between alpha and beta-uranium hydride. A striking observation is the strong dependence of the hydrolysis reaction rate on the temperature of preparation of the uranium hydride. For example, the reaction rate of uranium hydride prepared at 50 C. degrees was over ten times higher than that prepared at 160 C. degrees at 20% extent of reaction. The decrease in reaction rate with the extent of reaction also depended on the temperature of uranium hydride preparation.

  3. Experimental and Modeling Study of the Flammability of Fuel Tank Headspace Vapors from Ethanol/Gasoline Fuels; Phase 3: Effects of Winter Gasoline Volatility and Ethanol Content on Blend Flammability; Flammability Limits of Denatured Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardiner, D. P.; Bardon, M. F.; Clark, W.

    2011-07-01

    This study assessed differences in headspace flammability for summertime gasolines and new high-ethanol content fuel blends. The results apply to vehicle fuel tanks and underground storage tanks. Ambient temperature and fuel formulation effects on headspace vapor flammability of ethanol/gasoline blends were evaluated. Depending on the degree of tank filling, fuel type, and ambient temperature, fuel vapors in a tank can be flammable or non-flammable. Pure gasoline vapors in tanks generally are too rich to be flammable unless ambient temperatures are extremely low. High percentages of ethanol blended with gasoline can be less volatile than pure gasoline and can produce flammable headspace vapors at common ambient temperatures. The study supports refinements of fuel ethanol volatility specifications and shows potential consequences of using noncompliant fuels. E85 is flammable at low temperatures; denatured ethanol is flammable at warmer temperatures. If both are stored at the same location, one or both of the tanks' headspace vapors will be flammable over a wide range of ambient temperatures. This is relevant to allowing consumers to splash -blend ethanol and gasoline at fueling stations. Fuels compliant with ASTM volatility specifications are relatively safe, but the E85 samples tested indicate that some ethanol fuels may produce flammable vapors.

  4. Vapor concentration monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  5. Electrolyte vapor condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sederquist, R.A.; Szydlowski, D.F.; Sawyer, R.D.

    1983-02-08

    A system is disclosed for removing electrolyte from a fuel cell gas stream. The gas stream containing electrolyte vapor is supercooled utilizing conventional heat exchangers and the thus supercooled gas stream is passed over high surface area passive condensers. The condensed electrolyte is then drained from the condenser and the remainder of the gas stream passed on. The system is particularly useful for electrolytes such as phosphoric acid and molten carbonate, but can be used for other electrolyte cells and simple vapor separation as well. 3 figs.

  6. Solvent vapor collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  7. Category:Mercury Vapor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mercury Vapor Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Mercury Vapor page? For detailed information on Mercury Vapor as...

  8. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  9. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R

    2012-10-23

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  10. Organic vapor jet printing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen R.

    2016-05-03

    An organic vapor jet printing system includes a pump for increasing the pressure of an organic flux.

  11. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  12. Hydrogen storage as a hydride. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the storage of hydrogen in various metal hydrides. Binary and intermetallic hydrides are considered. Specific alloys discussed are iron-titanium, lanthanum-nickel, magnesium-copper, and magnesium-nickel among others. (Contains a minimum of 220 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Gas atomization processing of tin and silicon modified LaNi{sub 5} for nickel-metal hydride battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ting, J.

    1999-02-12

    Numerous researchers have studied the relevant material properties of so-called AB{sub 5} alloys for battery applications. These studies involved LaNi{sub 5} substituted alloys which were prepared using conventional cast and crush alloying techniques. While valuable to the understanding of metal hydride effects, the previous work nearly ignored the potential for alternative direct powder production methods, like high pressure gas atomization (HPGA). Thus, there is a need to understand the relationship between gas atomization processes, powder particle solidification phases, and hydrogen absorption properties of ultra fine (< 25 {micro}m) atomized powders with high surface area for enhanced battery performance. Concurrently, development of a gas atomization nozzle that is more efficient than all current designs is needed to increase the yield of ultrafine AB{sub 5} alloy powder for further processing advantage. Gas atomization processing of the AB{sub 5} alloys was demonstrated to be effective in producing ultrafine spherical powders that were resilient to hydrogen cycling for the benefit of improving corrosion resistance in battery application. These ultrafine powders benefited from the rapid solidification process by having refined solute segregation in the microstructure of the gas atomized powders which enabled a rapid anneal treatment of the powders. The author has demonstrated the ability to produce high yields of ultrafine powder efficiently and cost effectively, using the new HPGA-III technology. Thus, the potential benefits of processing AB{sub 5} alloys using the new HPGA technology could reduce manufacturing cost of nickel-metal hydride powder. In the near future, the manufacture of AB{sub 5} alloy powders could become a continuous and rapid production process. The economic benefit of an improved AB{sub 5} production process may thereby encourage the use of nickel-metal hydride rechargeable batteries in electrical vehicle applications in the foreseeable

  14. Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2012-04-16

    Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

  15. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  16. Stratified vapor generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Hassani, Vahab

    2008-05-20

    A stratified vapor generator (110) comprises a first heating section (H.sub.1) and a second heating section (H.sub.2). The first and second heating sections (H.sub.1, H.sub.2) are arranged so that the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2) is operatively associated with the outlet of the first heating section (H.sub.1). A moisture separator (126) having a vapor outlet (164) and a liquid outlet (144) is operatively associated with the outlet (124) of the second heating section (H.sub.2). A cooling section (C.sub.1) is operatively associated with the liquid outlet (144) of the moisture separator (126) and includes an outlet that is operatively associated with the inlet of the second heating section (H.sub.2).

  17. Filter vapor trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guon, Jerold

    1976-04-13

    A sintered filter trap is adapted for insertion in a gas stream of sodium vapor to condense and deposit sodium thereon. The filter is heated and operated above the melting temperature of sodium, resulting in a more efficient means to remove sodium particulates from the effluent inert gas emanating from the surface of a liquid sodium pool. Preferably the filter leaves are precoated with a natrophobic coating such as tetracosane.

  18. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-03-13

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable.

  19. The vapor pressures of explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 C.

  20. Method of generating hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S; Niemann, Michael U; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K

    2013-05-14

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  1. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  2. Discovery of Novel Complex Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage through Molecular Modeling and Combinatorial Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesch, David A; Adriaan Sachtler, J.W. J.; Low, John J; Jensen, Craig M; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Siegel, Don

    2011-02-14

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, Ford Motor Company, and Striatus, Inc., collaborated with Professor Craig Jensen of the University of Hawaii and Professor Vidvuds Ozolins of University of California, Los Angeles on a multi-year cost-shared program to discover novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. This innovative program combined sophisticated molecular modeling with high throughput combinatorial experiments to maximize the probability of identifying commercially relevant, economical hydrogen storage materials with broad application. A set of tools was developed to pursue the medium throughput (MT) and high throughput (HT) combinatorial exploratory investigation of novel complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage. The assay programs consisted of monitoring hydrogen evolution as a function of temperature. This project also incorporated theoretical methods to help select candidate materials families for testing. The Virtual High Throughput Screening served as a virtual laboratory, calculating structures and their properties. First Principles calculations were applied to various systems to examine hydrogen storage reaction pathways and the associated thermodynamics. The experimental program began with the validation of the MT assay tool with NaAlH4/0.02 mole Ti, the state of the art hydrogen storage system given by decomposition of sodium alanate to sodium hydride, aluminum metal, and hydrogen. Once certified, a combinatorial 21-point study of the NaAlH4 – LiAlH4 –Mg(AlH4)2 phase diagram was investigated with the MT assay. Stability proved to be a problem as many of the materials decomposed during synthesis, altering the expected assay results. This resulted in repeating the entire experiment with a mild milling approach, which only temporarily increased capacity. NaAlH4 was the best performer in both studies and no new mixed alanates were observed, a result consistent with the VHTS. Powder XRD suggested that the reverse reaction, the regeneration

  3. Microstructure and hydriding studies of AB/sub 5/ hydrogen storage compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodell, P.D.; Sandrock, G.D.; Huston, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    New data on the microstructure, pressure-composition-temperature, and absorption/desorption kinetics of AB/sub 5/ metal hydrides are presented. The most significant result to emerge from the investigation is that many of the AB/sub 5/ metal hydrides, especially the LaNi/sub 5/ related materials, show instantaneous absorption and desorption response in proportion to the amount of cooling or heating which is provided. Eight categories of materials were studied: reference alloys (LaNi/sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/Al/sub 0/ /sub 1/, LaNi/sub 3/Co/sub 2/); Ni second phase particles (LaNi/sub 5/ /sub 67/, LaNi/sub 7/, LaNi/sub 11/ /sub 3/); eutectoid microstructure (SmCo/sub 5/); other second phases (LaNi/sub 3/ /sub 8/Fe/sub 1/ /sub 2/, LaNi/sub 3/ /sub 5/Cr/sub 1/ /sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/Cr, LaNi/sub 4/Si; LaNi/sub 4/Sn, MNi/sub 4/Sn, MNi/sub 4/ /sub 3/Al/sub 0/ /sub 7/); substitutional elements (LaNi/sub 4/Cu, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 5/Pd/sub 0/ /sub 5/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 7/Sn/sub 0/ /sub 3/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 8/C/sub 0/ /sub 2/, MNi/sub 4/ /sub 3/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 7/); surface active elements (LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 8/B/sub 0/ /sub 2/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/S/sub 0/ /sub 1/, LaNi/sub 4/ /sub 9/Se/sub 0/ /sub 1/); large diameter atom substitutions (Mg/sub 0/ /sub 1/La/sub 0/ /sub 9/Ni/sub 5/, Ca/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Sr/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/, Ba/sub 0/ /sub 2/La/sub 0/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 5/); other compositions (LaNi/sub 3/); and Pd plating (electroless plated samples and mechanically alloyed specimens).

  4. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  5. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  6. Final report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the R&D activities within the U.S. Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) from March 2005 to June 2010. The purpose of the MHCoE has been to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE 2010 and 2015 system goals for hydrogen storage materials. The MHCoE combines three broad areas: mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials), materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized) and system design and engineering (which allow these new materials to be realized as practical automotive hydrogen storage systems). This Final Report summarizes the organization and execution of the 5-year research program to develop practical hydrogen storage materials for light duty vehicles. Major results from the MHCoE are summarized, along with suggestions for future research areas.

  7. Nickel-metal hydride battery development. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-06-01

    Rechargeable batteries are used as the power source for a broad range of portable equipment. Key battery selection criteria typically are weight, volume, first cost, life cycle cost, and environmental impact. Rechargeable batteries are favored from a life cycle cost and environmental impact standpoint over primary batteries. The nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery system has emerged as the battery of choice for many applications based on its superior characteristics when judged on the above criteria against other battery types. In most cases commercial Ni-MH batteries are constructed with coiled electrodes in cylindrical metal containers. Electro Energy, Inc. (EEI) has been developing a novel flat bipolar configuration of the Ni-MH system that offers weight, volume, and cost advantages when compared to cylindrical cells. The unique bipolar approach consists of fabricating individual flat wafer cells in conductive, carbon-filled, plastic face plates. The individual cells contain a nonconductive plastic border which is heat sealed around the perimeter to make a totally sealed unit cell. Multi-cell batteries are fabricated by stacking the individual wafer cells in such a way that the positive face of one cell contacts the negative face of the adjacent cell. The stack is then contained in an outer housing with end contacts. The purpose of this program was to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate the capabilities of the EEI Ni-MH battery system for consumer applications. The work was directed at the development and evaluation of the compact bipolar construction for its potential advantages of high power and energy density. Experimental investigations were performed on various nickel electrode types, hydride electrode formulations, and alternate separator materials. Studies were also directed at evaluating various oxygen recombination techniques for low pressure operation during charge and overcharge.

  8. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding).  This...

  9. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride d-ZrH1.5 precipitation in the cladding of...

  10. Liquid-phase exfoliation of chemical vapor deposition-grown single layer graphene and its application in solution-processed transparent electrodes for flexible organic light-emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chaoxing; Li, Fushan E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com; Wu, Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Tailiang E-mail: gtl-fzu@hotmail.com

    2014-12-15

    Efficient and low-cost methods for obtaining high performance flexible transparent electrodes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene are highly desirable. In this work, the graphene grown on copper foil was exfoliated into micron-size sheets through controllable ultrasonication. We developed a clean technique by blending the exfoliated single layer graphene sheets with conducting polymer to form graphene-based composite solution, which can be spin-coated on flexible substrate, forming flexible transparent conducting film with high conductivity (?8 ?/?), high transmittance (?81% at 550?nm), and excellent mechanical robustness. In addition, CVD-grown-graphene-based polymer light emitting diodes with excellent bendable performances were demonstrated.

  11. THERMALLY OPERATED VAPOR VALVE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorward, J.G. Jr.

    1959-02-10

    A valve is presented for use in a calutron to supply and control the vapor to be ionized. The invention provides a means readily operable from the exterior of the vacuum tank of the apparatuss without mechanical transmission of forces for the quick and accurate control of the ionizing arc by a corresponding control of gas flow theretos thereby producing an effective way of carefully regulating the operation of the calutron. The invention consists essentially of a tube member extending into the charge bottle of a calutron devices having a poppet type valve closing the lower end of the tube. An electrical heating means is provided in the valve stem to thermally vary the length of the stem to regulate the valve opening to control the flow of material from the charge bottle.

  12. Atomic-Scale Chemical, Physical and Electronic Properties of the Subsurface Hydride of Palladium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Paul

    2014-01-20

    We employed low-temperature, extreme-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to investigate the roles of subsurface hydride (H) and deuteride (D) in the surface reconstruction and surface reactivity of Pd{110}. Specifically, we gained the ability to tailor the surface structure of Pd{110} both by preparation method and by deposition of deuterium from the gas phase. We observed thiophene at low coverage on Pd{110} to determine its adsorption orientation and electronic structure through scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) namely, conductance spectroscopy and differential conductance imaging. We developed the methods necessary to coadsorb D adatoms with thiophene molecules, and to induce the reaction of individual molecules with predefined subsurface H or D features. In the case of Pd{110}, we found a much more pronounced effect from subsurface D, as it is influenced by the surface directionality. These experiments facilitate an understanding of the role of surface and subsurface H and D in heterogeneous catalytic processes, specifically in the hydrodesulfuization (HDS) of thiophene, an important and ubiquitous component found to be detrimental to petroleum refining.

  13. Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence This technical report describes the activities carried out, key accomplishments, and recommendations from the DOE's Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence, led by Los Alamos National Laboratory with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory from 2005 through 2010. The center's focus was the development of advanced chemical hydrogen storage materials that had the potential to

  14. Photogeneration of Hydride Donors and Their Use Toward CO2 Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita,E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Polyansky, D.E.

    2009-06-07

    Despite substantial effort, no one has succeeded in efficiently producing methanol from CO2 using homogeneous photocatalytic systems. We are pursuing reaction schemes based on a sequence of hydride-ion transfers to carry out stepwise reduction of CO2 to methanol. We are using hydride-ion transfer from photoproduced C-H bonds in metal complexes with bio-inspired ligands (i.e., NADH-like ligands) that are known to store one proton and two electrons.

  15. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  16. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weck, Philippe F; Tikare, Veena; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Clark, B; Mitchell, J; Glazoff, Michael V.; Homer, Eric R.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride δ-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. In this work, a model to numerically simulate hydride precipitation at the microstructural scale, in a wide variety of Zr-based claddings, under dry-storage conditions is being developed. It will be used to aid in the evaluation of the mechanical integrity of used fuel rods during dry storage and transportation by providing the structural conditions from the microstructural scale to the continuum scale to engineering component scale models to predict if the used fuel rods will perform without failure under normal and off-normal conditions. The microstructure, especially, the hydride structure is thought to be a primary determinant of cladding failure, thus this component of UFD’s storage and transportation analysis program is critical. The model

  17. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, Richard W.; Paisner, Jeffrey A.; Story, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of metal hydride electrodes. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Reilly, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this project is to elucidate the compositional and structural parameters that affect the thermodynamics, kinetics and stability of alloy hydride electrodes and to use this information in the development of new high capacity long life hydride electrodes for rechargeable batteries. The work focuses on the development of AB{sub 5} alloys and the application of in situ methods, at NSLS, such as x-ray absorption (XAS), to elucidate the role of the alloying elements in hydrogen storage and corrosion inhibition. The most significant results to date are: The decay of electrode capacity on cycling was directly related to alloy corrosion. The rate of corrosion depended in part on both the alloy composition and the partial molar volume of hydrogen, V{sub H}. The corrosion rate depended on the composition of the A component in AB{sub 5} (LaNi{sub 5} type) alloys. Partial substitution of La with Ce in AB{sub 5} alloys substantially inhibits electrode corrosion on cycling. Recent results indicate that Co also greatly inhibits electrode corrosion, possibly by minimizing V{sub H}. The AB{sub 5} alloys investigated included LaNi{sub 5}, ternary alloys (e.g. LaN{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2} and La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 5}), alloys with various substitutions for both La and Ni (e.g. La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2}) and mischmetal (Mm) alloys of the type normally used in batteries, such as MmB{sub 5} (B = Ni{sub 3.55}Mn{sub 0.4}A1{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.75}). A major effort was devoted to the effects of La substitution in the A component. Both in situ and ex situ XAS measurements are used to study the electronic effects that occur on the addition of various metal substitutions and on the ingress of hydrogen.

  19. Vapor deposition of hardened niobium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blocher, Jr., John M.; Veigel, Neil D.; Landrigan, Richard B.

    1983-04-19

    A method of coating ceramic nuclear fuel particles containing a major amount of an actinide ceramic in which the particles are placed in a fluidized bed maintained at ca. 800.degree. to ca. 900.degree. C., and niobium pentachloride vapor and carbon tetrachloride vapor are led into the bed, whereby niobium metal is deposited on the particles and carbon is deposited interstitially within the niobium. Coating apparatus used in the method is also disclosed.

  20. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phasehydrodeoxy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts ...

  1. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  2. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2007-09-01

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  3. Effect of Gaseous Impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and Aging Properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Lamb, Joshua; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; and Pal, Narendra.

    2011-03-28

    This program was dedicated to understanding the effect of impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and aging properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage. At the start of the program we found reversibility between Li2NH+LiH  LiH+LiNH2 (yielding ~5.8 wt.%H capacity). Then we tested the effect of impurity in H2 gas by pressure cycling at 255oC; first with industrial gas containing ppm levels of O2 and H2O as major impurities. Both these impurities had a significant impact on the reversibility and decreased the capacity by 2.65 wt.%H. Further increase in number of cycles from 500 to 1100 showed only a 0.2 wt%H more weight loss, showing some capacity is still maintained after a significant number of cycles. The loss of capacity is attributed to the formation of ~55 wt% LiH and ~30% Li2O, as major contaminant phases, along with the hydride Li2NH phase; suggesting loss of nitrogen during cycling. The effect of 100 ppm H2O in H2 also showed a decrease of ~2.5 wt.%H (after 560 cycles), and 100ppm O2 in H2; a loss of ~4.1 wt.%. Methane impurity (100 ppm, 100cycles), showed a very small capacity loss of 0.9 wt.%H under similar conditions. However, when Li3N was pressure cycled with 100ppmN2-H2 there were beneficial effects were observed (255oC); the reversible capacity increased to 8.4wt.%H after 853 cycles. Furthermore, with 20 mol.%N2-H2 capacity increased to ~10 wt.%H after 516 cycles. We attribute this enhancement to the reaction of nitrogen with liquid lithium during cycling as the Gibbs free energy of formation of Li3N (Go = -98.7 kJ/mol) is more negative than that of LiH (Go = -50.3 kJ/mol). We propose that the mitigation of hydrogen capacity losses is due to the destabilization of the LiH phase that tends to accumulate during cycling. Also more Li2NH phase was found in the cycled product. Mixed Alanates (3LiNH2:Li3AlH6) showed that 7 wt% hydrogen desorbed under dynamic vacuum. Equilibrium experiments (maximum 12 bar H2) showed up to 4wt% hydrogen

  4. The role of destabilization of palladium hydride on the hydrogen uptake of Pd-containing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhat, Vinay V; Contescu, Cristian I; Gallego, Nidia C

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on differences in stability of Pd hydride phases in palladium particles with various degrees of contact with microporous carbon supports. A sample containing Pd embedded in activated carbon fiber (Pd-ACF; 2 wt% Pd) was compared with commercial Pd nanoparticles deposited on microporous activated carbon (Pd-catalyst, 3 wt% Pd) and with support-free nanocrystalline palladium (Pd-black). The morphology of materials was characterized by electron microscopy, and the phase transformations were analyzed over a large range of hydrogen partial pressures (0.003 - 10 bar) and at several temperatures using in-situ X-ray diffraction. The results were verified with volumetric hydrogen uptake measurements. Results indicate that higher degree of Pd-carbon contacts for Pd particles embedded in a microporous carbon matrix induce efficient pumping of hydrogen out of -PdHx. It was also found that thermal cleaning of carbon surface groups prior to exposure to hydrogen further enhances the hydrogen pumping power of the microporous carbon support. In brief, this study highlights that the stability of -PdHx phase supported on carbon depends on the degree of contact between Pd-carbon and the nature of the carbon surface.

  5. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom

    2012-01-01

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  6. Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from aluminum-based hydride materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Balema, Viktor P.

    2004-08-10

    The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is mechanically processed in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pure gaseous hydrogen. Unlike previous methods, hydrogen may be obtained from the solid material without heating, and without the addition of a solvent during processing. The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous hydrogen as a fuel.

  7. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to

  8. Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1999-01-01

    A silica embedded metal hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made via the following process: A quantity of fumed silica is blended with water to make a paste. After adding metal hydride particles, the paste is dried to form a solid. According to one embodiment of the invention, the solid is ground into granules for use of the product in hydrogen storage. Alternatively, the paste can be molded into plates or cylinders and then dried for use of the product as a hydrogen filter. Where mechanical strength is required, the paste can be impregnated in a porous substrate or wire network.

  9. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  10. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  11. LABORATORY TESTING TO SIMULATE VAPOR SPACE CORROSION IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, B.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Gray, J.

    2013-08-30

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 70 years at the Hanford nuclear facility. Vapor space corrosion of the tank walls has emerged as an ongoing challenge to overcome in maintaining the structural integrity of these tanks. The interaction between corrosive and inhibitor species in condensates/supernates on the tank wall above the liquid level, and their interaction with vapor phase constituents as the liquid evaporates from the tank wall influences the formation of corrosion products and the corrosion of the carbon steel. An effort is underway to gain an understanding of the mechanism of vapor space corrosion. Localized corrosion, in the form of pitting, is of particular interest in the vapor space. CPP testing was utilized to determine the susceptibility of the steel in a simulated vapor space environment. The tests also investigated the impact of ammonia gas in the vapor space area on the corrosion of the steel. Vapor space coupon tests were also performed to investigate the evolution of the corrosion products during longer term exposures. These tests were also conducted at vapor space ammonia levels of 50 and 550 ppm NH{sub 3} (0.005, and 0.055 vol.%) in air. Ammonia was shown to mitigate vapor space corrosion.

  12. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  13. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  14. An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An optical water vapor sensor for unmanned aerial vehicles The water vapor ...

  15. Chemistry, phase formation, and catalytic activity of thinpalladium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Chemistry, phase formation, and catalytic activity of thin palladium-containing oxide films synthesized by plasma-assisted physical vapor deposition The chemistry, ...

  16. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Jian -Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean -Yves; Liu, C. W.

    2014-10-07

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(OiPr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5}3- ion in the center with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The eleven hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: Six μ3-hydrides in pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected on a small crystal of the size 0.20 mm x 0.50 mm x 0.65 mm for seven days using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the final R-factor is 8.64% for 16014 reflections.

  17. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liao, Jian -Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean -Yves; Liu, C. W.

    2014-10-07

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(OiPr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5}3- ion in the center with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The eleven hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: Six μ3-hydrides in pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected on a small crystal of the size 0.20 mm x 0.50 mm x 0.65 mm for seven daysmore » using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the final R-factor is 8.64% for 16014 reflections.« less

  18. Internal hydriding in irradiated defected Zircaloy fuel rods: A review (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, J C

    1987-10-01

    Although not a problem in recent commercial power reactors, including the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor, internal hydriding of Zircaloy cladding was a persistent cause of gross cladding failures during the 1960s. It occurred in the fuel rods of water-cooled nuclear power reactors that had a small cladding defect. This report summarizes the experimental findings, causes, mechanisms, and methods of minimizing internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods. Irradiation test data on the different types of defected fuel rods, intentionally fabricated defected and in-pile operationally defected rods, are compared. Significant factors affecting internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods (defect hole size, internal and external sources of hydrogen, Zircaloy cladding surface properties, nickel alloy contamination of Zircaloy, the effect of heat flux and fluence) are discussed. Pertinent in-pile and out-of-pile test results from Bettis and other laboratories are used as a data base in constructing a qualitative model which explains hydrogen generation and distribution in Zircaloy cladding of defected water-cooled reactor fuel rods. Techniques for minimizing internal hydride failures in Zircaloy-clad fuel rods are evaluated.

  19. Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-03-01

    A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

  20. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyeth, R.W.; Paisner, J.A.; Story, T.

    1990-08-21

    A laser spectroscopy system is utilized in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation process. The system determines spectral components of an atomic vapor utilizing a laser heterodyne technique. 23 figs.

  1. ARM - Field Campaign - Water Vapor IOP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Water Vapor IOP ... Responses to Site Operations Questionnaires for Water Vapor IOP Instrument Name Instrument ...

  2. Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation Vapor Retarder Classification - Building America Top Innovation Photo of a vapor retarder classification. Air-tight and well-insulated homes have little or no tolerance for drying if they get wet; moisture control is critical. This Top Innovation profile describes Building America research that established vapor retarder classifications and appropriate applications that has been instrumental in the market

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition are described. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200/sup 0/C; and impinging a gas containing N/sub 2/, SiCl/sub 4/, and AlCl/sub 3/ on the surface.

  4. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid--starting as "feedwater" heating where no vapors are present, progressing to "nucleate" heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with "film" heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10-30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  5. Means and method for vapor generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, L.W.

    A liquid, in heat transfer contact with a surface heated to a temperature well above the vaporization temperature of the liquid, will undergo a multiphase (liquid-vapor) transformation from 0% vapor to 100% vapor. During this transition, the temperature driving force or heat flux and the coefficients of heat transfer across the fluid-solid interface, and the vapor percentage influence the type of heating of the fluid - starting as feedwater heating where no vapors are present, progressing to nucleate heating where vaporization begins and some vapors are present, and concluding with film heating where only vapors are present. Unstable heating between nucleate and film heating can occur, accompanied by possibly large and rapid temperature shifts in the structures. This invention provides for injecting into the region of potential unstable heating and proximate the heated surface superheated vapors in sufficient quantities operable to rapidly increase the vapor percentage of the multiphase mixture by perhaps 10 to 30% and thereby effectively shift the multiphase mixture beyond the unstable heating region and up to the stable film heating region.

  6. Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage.

  7. Effect of delivery condition on desorption rate of ZrCo metal hydride bed for fusion fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.G.; Yun, S.H.; Chung, D.; Oh, Y.H.; Chang, M.H.; Cho, S.; Chung, H.; Song, K.M.

    2015-03-15

    For the safety of fusion fuel cycle, hydrogen isotope gases including tritium are stored as metal hydride form. To satisfy fueling requirement of fusion machine, rapid delivery from metal hydride bed is one of major factors for the development of tritium storage and delivery system. Desorption from metal hydride depends on the operation scenario by pressure and temperature control of the bed. The effect of operation scenario and pump performance on desorption rate of metal hydride bed was experimentally investigated using ZrCo bed. The results showed that the condition of pre-heating scenario before actual delivery of gas affected the delivery performance. Different pumps were connected to desorption line from bed and the effect of pump capacity on desorption rate were also found to be significant. (authors)

  8. Fast, quantitative, and nondestructive evaluation of hydrided LWR fuel cladding by small angle incoherent neutron scattering of hydrogen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Y.; Qian, S.; Littrell, K.; Parish, C. M.; Plummer, L. K.

    2015-02-13

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distributionmore » of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor will be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.« less

  9. Fast, quantitative, and nondestructive evaluation of hydrided LWR fuel cladding by small angle incoherent neutron scattering of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Y.; Qian, S.; Littrell, K.; Parish, C. M.; Plummer, L. K.

    2015-02-13

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor will be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.

  10. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong; Qian, Shuo; Littrell, Ken; Parish, Chad M; Plummer, Lee K

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.