National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydride lithium polymer

  1. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  2. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, Richard K.; Bystroff, Roman I.; Miller, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  3. Boron hydride polymer coated substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pearson, R.K.; Bystroff, R.I.; Miller, D.E.

    1986-08-27

    A method is disclosed for coating a substrate with a uniformly smooth layer of a boron hydride polymer. The method comprises providing a reaction chamber which contains the substrate and the boron hydride plasma. A boron hydride feed stock is introduced into the chamber simultaneously with the generation of a plasma discharge within the chamber. A boron hydride plasma of ions, electrons and free radicals which is generated by the plasma discharge interacts to form a uniformly smooth boron hydride polymer which is deposited on the substrate.

  4. Lithium uptake data of lithium imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-12-04

    Batch tests of lithium imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium from synthetic brines at T=45C. Initial selectivity data are included

  5. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.

    1999-06-01

    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  7. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  8. METHOD FOR PRODUCING ISOTOPIC METHANES FROM LITHIUM CARBONATE AND LITHIUM HYDRIDE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frazer, J.W.

    1959-10-27

    A process is descrlbed for the production of methane and for the production of methane containing isotopes of hydrogen and/or carbon. Finely divided lithium hydrlde and litldum carbonate reactants are mixed in intimate contact and subsequently compacted under pressures of from 5000 to 60,000 psl. The compacted lithium hydride and lithium carbenate reactunts are dispised in a gas collecting apparatus. Subsequently, the compact is heated to a temperature in the range 350 to 400 deg C whereupon a solid-solid reaction takes place and gaseous methane is evolved. The evolved methane is contaminated with gaseous hydrogen and a very small amount of CO/sub 2/; however, the desired methane product is separated from sald impurities by well known chemical processes, e.g., condensation in a cold trap. The product methane contalns isotopes of carbon and hydrogen, the Isotopic composition being determined by the carbon isotopes originally present In the lithium carbonate and the hydrogen isotopes originally present in the lithium hydride.

  9. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  10. Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a Nanoporous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a ... electrolyte material for use in lithium ion batteries that exhibits better ion ...

  11. Non-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Non-Cross-Linked Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley ... have invented nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. ...

  12. High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Conductivity Single-ion Cross-linked Polymers for Lithium Batteries and Fuel Cells ... for use as membranes in lithium batteries, fuel cells, and electrochromic windows. ...

  13. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, Kenneth Orville

    1998-01-01

    A polymer bonded sheet product suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance.

  14. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-06-30

    A polymer bonded sheet product is described suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance. 1 fig.

  15. Polymer considerations in rechargeable lithium ion plastic batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gozdz, A.S.; Tarascon, J.M.; Schmutz, C.N.; Warren, P.C.; Gebizlioglu, O.S.; Shokoohi, F.

    1995-07-01

    A series of polymers have been investigated in order to determine their suitability as ionically conductive binders of the active electrode materials and as hybrid electrolyte matrices in plastic lithium ion rechargeable batteries. Hybrid electrolyte films used in this study have been prepared by solvent casting using a 1:1 w/w mixture of the matrix polymer with 1 M LiPF{sub 6} in EC/PC. Based on electrochemical stability, mechanical strength, liquid electrolyte retention, and softening temperature, random copolymers of vinylidene fluoride containing ca. 12 mole % of hexafluoropropylene have been selected for this application.

  16. Density functional and neutron diffraction studies of lithium polymer electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baboul, A. G.

    1998-06-26

    The structure of PEO doped with lithium perchlorate has been determined using neutron diffraction on protonated and deuterated samples. The experiments were done in the liquid state. Preliminary analysis indicates the Li-O distance is about 2.0 {angstrom}. The geometries of a series of gas phase lithium salts [LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}, Li(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}N, Li(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}CH, LiClO{sub 4}, LiPF{sub 6}, LiAsF{sub 6}] used in polymer electrolytes have been optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) density functional level of theory. All local minima have been identified. For the triflate, imide, methanide, and perchlorate anions, the lithium cation is coordinated to two oxygens and have binding energies of ca 141 kcal/mol at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p)/B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. For the hexafluoroarsenate and hexafluorophosphate the lithium cation is coordinated to three oxygens and have binding energies of ca. 136 kcal/mol.

  17. Recent advances in metal hydrides for clean energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2013-06-01

    Metal hydrides are a fascinating class of materials that can be utilized for a surprising variety of clean energy applications, including smart solar collectors, smart windows, sensors, thermal energy storage, and batteries, in addition to their traditional application for hydrogen storage. Over the past decade, research on metal hydrides for hydrogen storage increased due to global governmental incentives and an increased focus on hydrogen storage research for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operation. Tremendous progress has been made in so-called complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications with the discovery of many new hydrides containing covalently bound complex anions. Many of these materials have applications beyond hydrogen storage and are being investigated for lithium-ion battery separator and anode materials. In this issue of MRS Bulletin , we present the state of the art of key evolving metal-hydride-based clean energy technologies with an outlook toward future needs.

  18. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  19. Electrophoretic NMR measurements of lithium transference numbers in polymer gel electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, H.; Sanderson, S.; Davey, J.; Uribe, F.; Zawodzinski, T.A. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    Polymer gel electrolytes are of increasing interest for plastic lithium batteries largely because of their high room temperature conductivity. Several studies have probed their conductivity and electrochemical stability but very little work has been done related to lithium transference numbers. Lithium ion transference numbers, the net number of Faradays carried by lithium upon the passage of 1 Faraday of charge across a cell, are key figures of merit for any potential lithium battery electrolytes. The authors describe here their application of electrophoretic NMR (ENMR) to the determination of transference numbers of lithium ions in polymer gel electrolytes. Two types of polymer gel electrolytes were selected for this study: PAN/PC/EC/LiX and Kynar/PC/LiX. Results obtained for the two types of gels are compared and the effects of anion, polymer-ion interactions and ion-ion interactions on lithium transference numbers are discussed. Significant differences in the behavior of transference numbers with salt concentration are observed for the two types of gels. This may be due to the extent of interaction between the polymer and the ions. Implications for solid polymer electrolytes are discussed.

  20. New Polymer and Liquid Electrolytes for Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Lee, H. S.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, X.

    1999-03-29

    All non-aqueous lithium battery electrolytes are Lewis bases that interact with cations. Unlike water, they don't interact with anions. The result is a high degree of ion pairing and the formation of triplets and higher aggregates. This decreases the conductivity and the lithium ion transference and results in polarization losses in batteries. Approaches that have been used to increase ion dissociation in PEO based electrolytes are the use of salts with low lattice energy, the addition of polar plasticizers to the polymer, and the addition of cation completing agents such as crown ethers or cryptands. Complexing of the anions is a more promising approach since it should increase both ion dissociation and the lithium transference. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) we have synthesized two new families of neutral anion completing agents, each based on Lewis acid centers. One is based on electron deficient nitrogen sites on substituted aza-ethers, wherein the hydrogen on the nitrogen is replaced by electron withdrawing groups such as CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3{sup -}}. The other is based on electron deficient boron sites on borane or borate compounds with various fluorinated aryl or alkyl groups. Some of the borane based anion receptors can promote the dissolution of LiF in several solvents. Several of these compounds, when added in equivalent amounts, produce 1.2M LiF solutions in DME, an increase in volubility of LiF by six orders of magnitude. Some of these LiF electrolytes have conductivities as high as 6 x 10{sup -3} Scm{sup -1}. The LiF electrolytes with borane anion acceptors in PC:EC:DEC solvents have excellent electrochemical stability. This has been demonstrated in small Li/LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells.

  1. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  2. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  3. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium polymer electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-02-01

    Lithium solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) batteries are being investigated by researchers worldwide as a possible energy source for future electric vehicles (EVs). One of the main reasons for interest in lithium SPE battery systems is the potential safety features they offer as compared to lithium battery systems using inorganic and organic liquid electrolytes. However, the development of lithium SPE batteries is still in its infancy, and the technology is not envisioned to be ready for commercialization for several years. Because the research and development (R&D) of lithium SPE battery technology is of a highly competitive nature, with many companies both in the United States and abroad pursuing R&D efforts, much of the information concerning specific developments of lithium SPE battery technology is proprietary. This report is based on information available only through the open literature (i.e., information available through library searches). Furthermore, whereas R&D activities for lithium SPE cells have focused on a number of different chemistries, for both electrodes and electrolytes, this report examines the general environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues common to many lithium SPE chemistries. However, EH&S issues for specific lithium SPE cell chemistries are discussed when sufficient information exists. Although lithium batteries that do not have a SPE are also being considered for EV applications, this report focuses only on those lithium battery technologies that utilize the SPE technology. The lithium SPE battery technologies considered in this report may contain metallic lithium or nonmetallic lithium compounds (e.g., lithium intercalated carbons) in the negative electrode.

  4. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Hydrides Theodore Motyka Savannah River National Laboratory Metal Hydride System Architect Jose-Miguel Pasini, & Bart van Hassel UTRC Claudio Corgnale & Bruce Hardy SRNL ...

  5. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, T.S.H.; Keller, D.G.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-05-12

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be over coated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance. 1 fig.

  6. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing; Keller, David Gerard; MacFadden, Kenneth Orville

    1998-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be overcoated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance.

  7. Systematic computational and experimental investigation of lithium-ion transport mechanisms in polyester-based polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Michael A.; Jung, Yukyung; Pesko, Danielle M.; Savoie, Brett M.; Yamamoto, Umi; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Wang, Zhen -Gang; Miller, III, Thomas F.

    2015-07-10

    Understanding the mechanisms of lithium-ion transport in polymers is crucial for the design of polymer electrolytes. We combine modular synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and molecular simulation to investigate lithium-ion transport in a new family of polyester-based polymers and in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Theoretical predictions of glass-transition temperatures and ionic conductivities in the polymers agree well with experimental measurements. Interestingly, both the experiments and simulations indicate that the ionic conductivity of PEO, relative to the polyesters, is far higher than would be expected from its relative glass-transition temperature. The simulations reveal that diffusion of the lithium cations in the polyesters proceeds via a different mechanism than in PEO, and analysis of the distribution of available cation solvation sites in the various polymers provides a novel and intuitive way to explain the experimentally observed ionic conductivities. This work provides a platform for the evaluation and prediction of ionic conductivities in polymer electrolyte materials.

  8. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2014-04-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

  9. P1.2 -- Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Lithium Polymer NEV Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests hybrid electric, pure electric, and other advanced technology vehicles. As part of this testing, 28 hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are being tested in fleet, dynamometer, and closed track environments. This paper discusses some of the HEV test results, with an emphasis on the battery performance of the HEVs. It also discusses the testing results for a small electric vehicle with a lithium polymer traction battery.

  10. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N.; Venkateswarlu, M.

    2014-04-24

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10{sup −3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

  11. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L.; Barry, Patrick E.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  12. Hydriding process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, J.W.; Taketani, H.

    1973-12-01

    BS>A method is described for hydriding a body of a Group IV-B metal, preferably zirconium, to produce a crack-free metal-hydride bedy of high hydrogen content by cooling the body at the beta to beta + delta boundary, without further addition of hydrogen, to precipitate a fine-grained delta-phase metal hydride in the beta + delta phase region and then resuming the hydriding, preferably preceded by a reheating step. (Official Gazette)

  13. Studies on the Properties of Plasticizer and Lithium Salt on PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, K. W.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-03-11

    The effects of plasticizer and lithium salt on PMMA-based solid polymer electrolyte have been investigated. In current project, three system samples consisted of pure poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) system, plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA-EC) system and the LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} salted-poly(methyl methacrylate) containing a fixed amount of plasticizer ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) system have been prepared using solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films from each system are characterized by impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectrum. With the addition of plasticizer, results show improvement on the ionic conductivity value where the value of 6.25x10{sup -10} Scm{sup -1} is obtained. This may be due to the nature of plasticizer that softens the polymer and hence enhanced the ionic transportation across the polymer. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting sample in the ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) system is 1.36x10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates complexation between the polymer and the plasticizer and the polymer, the plasticizer and the salts, and the result of XRD further supports the observation.

  14. Systematic computational and experimental investigation of lithium-ion transport mechanisms in polyester-based polymer electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Webb, Michael A.; Jung, Yukyung; Pesko, Danielle M.; Savoie, Brett M.; Yamamoto, Umi; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Wang, Zhen -Gang; Miller, III, Thomas F.

    2015-07-10

    Understanding the mechanisms of lithium-ion transport in polymers is crucial for the design of polymer electrolytes. We combine modular synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and molecular simulation to investigate lithium-ion transport in a new family of polyester-based polymers and in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Theoretical predictions of glass-transition temperatures and ionic conductivities in the polymers agree well with experimental measurements. Interestingly, both the experiments and simulations indicate that the ionic conductivity of PEO, relative to the polyesters, is far higher than would be expected from its relative glass-transition temperature. The simulations reveal that diffusion of the lithium cations in the polyesters proceeds viamore » a different mechanism than in PEO, and analysis of the distribution of available cation solvation sites in the various polymers provides a novel and intuitive way to explain the experimentally observed ionic conductivities. This work provides a platform for the evaluation and prediction of ionic conductivities in polymer electrolyte materials.« less

  15. Metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carnes, J.R.; Kherani, N.P.

    1987-11-01

    Metal hydride information is not available for most hydrides in a consolidated quick-reference source. This report's objective is to fill the need for such a document providing basic thermodynamic data for as many metal hydrides as possible. We conduced a computerized library search to access as many sources as possible and screened each source for such thermodynamic data as pressure-temperature graphs, van't Hoff curves, and impurity effects. We included any other relevant information and commented on it. A primary concern to be investigated in the future is the behavior of metal tritides. This would be important in the area of emergency tritium cleanup systems. The hydride graphs are useful, however, as tritides may be expected in most cases to behave similarly and at least follow trends of their respective hydrides. 42 refs., 40 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Hydride compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung, W.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  17. Hydride compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung W.

    1995-01-01

    A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  18. Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regeneration of Aluminum Hydride Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Regeneration of Lithium Aluminum Hydride (919 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Alane is one of the most promising solutions to storing hydrogen for use in hydrogen fuel cells. This technology provides exceptional improvement in solving the difficult problem of economically preparing the material. Description Describes methods and materials required for the

  19. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energys (DOEs) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTAs testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETAs contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTAs NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these testing activities for the AVTA, as part of DOEs FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  20. Plasma synthesis of lithium based intercalation powders for solid polymer electrolyte batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Nelson, Lee O.

    2005-01-04

    The invention relates to a process for preparing lithium intercalation compounds by plasma reaction comprising the steps of: forming a feed solution by mixing lithium nitrate or lithium hydroxide or lithium oxide and the required metal nitrate or metal hydroxide or metal oxide and between 10-50% alcohol by weight; mixing the feed solution with O.sub.2 gas wherein the O.sub.2 gas atomizes the feed solution into fine reactant droplets, inserting the atomized feed solution into a plasma reactor to form an intercalation powder; and if desired, heating the resulting powder to from a very pure single phase product.

  1. Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's research on complex metal hydrides targets the development of advanced metal hydride materials including light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides,...

  2. Lithium Ion Conducting Ionic Electrolytes - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium Ion Conducting ... electrolytes which combine lithium salts with high molecular weight anionic polymers. ...

  3. Hydride compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James R.; Salzano, Francis J.

    1978-01-01

    Method of producing high energy pressurized gas working fluid power from a low energy, low temperature heat source, wherein the compression energy is gained by using the low energy heat source to desorb hydrogen gas from a metal hydride bed and the desorbed hydrogen for producing power is recycled to the bed, where it is re-adsorbed, with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source. In one embodiment, the adsorption-desorption cycle provides a chemical compressor that is powered by the low energy heat source, and the compressor is connected to a regenerative gas turbine having a high energy, high temperature heat source with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source.

  4. Spontaneous aggregation of lithium ion coordination polymers in fluorinated electrolytes for high-voltage batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malliakas, Christos D.; Leung, Kevin; Pupek, Krzysztof Z.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2016-03-31

    Fluorinated carbonate solvents are pursued as liquid electrolytes for high-voltage Li-ion batteries. We report aggregation of [Li+(FEC)3]n polymer species from fluoroethylene carbonate containing electrolytes and scrutinized the causes for this behavior.

  5. Crosslinked polymer gel electrolytes based on polyethylene glycol methacrylate and ionic liquid for lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Chen; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Gel polymer electrolytes were synthesized by copolymerization polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate with polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of a room temperature ionic liquid, methylpropylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (MPPY TFSI). The physical properties of gel polymer electrolytes were characterized by thermal analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests. The ionic conductivities of the gel polymer electrolytes increased linearly with the amount of MPPY TFSI and were mainly attributed to the increased ion mobility as evidenced by the decreased glass transition temperatures. Li||LiFePO4 cells were assembled using the gel polymer electrolytes containing 80 wt% MPPY TFSI via an in situ polymerization method. A reversible cell capacity of 90 mAh g 1 was maintained under the current density of C/10 at room temperature, which was increased to 130 mAh g 1 by using a thinner membrane and cycling at 50 C.

  6. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in lithium batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries A polymer ...

  7. The Effects of Lithium Triflate (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) on the PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chew, K. W.; Chen, S. S.; Pang, W. L.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-03-11

    The effects of Lithium triflate salt (LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}), on the poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA)-based solid polymer electrolytes plasticized with propylene carbonate (PC) solvated in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) have been studied through a.c impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Lithium triflate was incorporated into the predetermined PMMA/PC system that has the highest value of ionic conductivity. In current investigations, four combination systems: Pure PMMA, (PMMA+PC) systems, (PMMA+LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) and (PMMA+PC+LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) systems were prepared using the solution cast method. Solutions were stirred for numerous hours to obtain a homogenous solution before it is poured into the petri dishes under ambient temperature to form the solid electrolyte thin film. The films were then removed from petri discs and transferred into the dessicator for further drying prior to the different tests. From the characterization done through the a.c impedance spectroscopy, the highest room temperature ionic conductivity in the pure PMMA sample, (PMMA+PC) system and (PMMA+LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) system is 2.83x10{sup -12} Scm{sup -1}, 4.39x10{sup -11} Scm{sup -1} and 3.93x10{sup -6} Scm{sup -1} respectively. The conductivity for (PMMA+PC+LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}) system was obtained with the 30 wt% of lithium triflate, which is 2.48x10{sup -5} Scm{sup -1}. Infrared spectroscopy shows that complexation occurred between the polymer and the plasticizer, and the polymer and plasticizer and salt. The interactions have been studied in the C=O band, C-O-C band and the O-CH{sub 3} band.

  8. Fact #603: December 28, 2009 Where Does Lithium Come From?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lithium ion batteries will be used in many of the upcoming plug-in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles because they are lighter and more powerful than the nickel-metal hydride batteries used in...

  9. Metal Hydride Storage Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office's (FCTO's) metal hydride storage materials research focuses on improving the volumetric and gravimetric capacities, hydrogen adsorption/desorption kinetics, cycle life, and reaction thermodynamics of potential material candidates.

  10. Hydride heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G.

    1977-01-01

    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  11. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Metal Hydride Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Metal Hydride Laboratories Working with SRNL Our Facilities - Metal Hydride Laboratories The Metal Hydride Laboratories are used for research and development on metal hydride absorption and desorption performance

  12. Compliant Glass-Polymer Hybrid Single Ion-ConductingElectrolytes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compliant Glass-Polymer Hybrid Single Ion-ConductingElectrolytes for Lithium Batteries ... excellent electrochemical stability, and limit the dissolution of lithium polysulfides. ...

  13. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  14. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  15. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  16. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Choe, Hyoun S.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  17. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This reduction in capacity was observed to be independent of the amount of charge/discharge cycles except for the composites containing siloxane, which showed less of an impact on hydrogen storage capacity as it was cycled further. While the reason for this is not clear, it may be due to a chemically stabilizing effect of the siloxane on the metal hydride. Flow-through calorimetry was used to characterize the mitigating effectiveness of the different composites relative to the neat (no polymer) material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation, and the best performing material was the siloxane-containing composite which reduced the heat release to less than 50% of the value of the neat material. However, upon cycling the composites, all mitigating behavior was lost. The combined results of the flow-through calorimetry, hydrogen capacity, and thermogravimetric analysis tests lead to the proposed conclusion that while the polymer composites have mitigating potential and are physically robust under cycling, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride.

  18. Better Lithium-Ion Batteries Are On The Way From Berkeley Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Lithium-ion Battery on the Way Simulations Reveal How New Polymer Absorbs Eight Times the Lithium of Current Designs September 23, 2011 Paul Preuss,...

  19. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under another project. However, since the cost of reducing magnesium from magnesium oxide makes up 85% of the cost of the slurry, if hydrogen can be stored many times in the slurry, then the cost of storing hydrogen can be spread over many units of hydrogen and can be significantly reduced from the costs of a chemical hydride system. This may be the most important finding of this project. If the slurry is used to carry a rechargeable hydride, the slurry can be stored in a conventional liquid fuel tank and delivered to a release system as hydrogen is needed. The release system will contain only the hydride needed to produce the hydrogen desired. This is in contrast to conventional designs proposed for other rechargeable hydride systems that store all the hydride in a large and heavy pressure and heat transfer vessel.

  20. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collaboration with Moltech Corporation to manufacture lithium polymer batteries (C/PNL/061). Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affinito, J.D.

    1996-08-01

    It was shown that all 7 of the layers of Moltech`s Li polymer battery are compatible with simultaneous, in-line, vacuum deposition onto a flexible plastic substrate via PNNL`s PML and LML technology. All the materials, including Li, could be deposited in a single pass without melting the substrate. Two problems were encountered and are discussed.

  1. Dimensionally stable metallic hydride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    A stable, metallic hydride composition and a process for making such a composition. The composition comprises a uniformly blended mixture of a metal hydride, kieselguhr, and a ballast metal, all in the form of particles. The composition is made by subjecting a metal hydride to one or more hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles to disintegrate the hydride particles to less than approximately 100 microns in size. The particles are partly oxidized, then blended with the ballast metal and the kieselguhr to form a uniform mixture. The mixture is compressed into pellets and calcined. Preferably, the mixture includes approximately 10 vol. % or more kieselguhr and approximately 50 vol. % or more ballast. Metal hydrides that can be used in the composition include Zr, Ti, V, Nb, Pd, as well as binary, tertiary, and more complex alloys of La, Al, Cu, Ti, Co, Ni, Fe, Zr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and mixtures and other combinations thereof. Ballast metals include Al, Cu and Ni.

  2. Solid polymeric electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2006-03-14

    Novel conductive polyanionic polymers and methods for their preparion are provided. The polyanionic polymers comprise repeating units of weakly-coordinating anionic groups chemically linked to polymer chains. The polymer chains in turn comprise repeating spacer groups. Spacer groups can be chosen to be of length and structure to impart desired electrochemical and physical properties to the polymers. Preferred embodiments are prepared from precursor polymers comprising the Lewis acid borate tri-coordinated to a selected ligand and repeating spacer groups to form repeating polymer chain units. These precursor polymers are reacted with a chosen Lewis base to form a polyanionic polymer comprising weakly coordinating anionic groups spaced at chosen intervals along the polymer chain. The polyanionic polymers exhibit high conductivity and physical properties which make them suitable as solid polymeric electrolytes in lithium batteries, especially secondary lithium batteries.

  3. Li and Mn uptake data from initial set of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-03-27

    Batch tests of crosslinked lithium and manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C .

  4. Li and Mn uptake data from initial set of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    Batch tests of crosslinked lithium and manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C .

  5. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  6. Erbium hydride decomposition kinetics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrizz, Robert Matthew

    2006-11-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) is used to study the decomposition kinetics of erbium hydride thin films. The TDS results presented in this report are analyzed quantitatively using Redhead's method to yield kinetic parameters (E{sub A} {approx} 54.2 kcal/mol), which are then utilized to predict hydrogen outgassing in vacuum for a variety of thermal treatments. Interestingly, it was found that the activation energy for desorption can vary by more than 7 kcal/mol (0.30 eV) for seemingly similar samples. In addition, small amounts of less-stable hydrogen were observed for all erbium dihydride films. A detailed explanation of several approaches for analyzing thermal desorption spectra to obtain kinetic information is included as an appendix.

  7. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  8. Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zircaloy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of this work is to develop the means of pre-hydriding unirradiated Zircaloy cladding such that a high concentration, or rim, of hydrides is formed at the cladding outside diameter.

  9. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, Leslie D.

    1982-01-01

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  10. Method of producing a chemical hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klingler, Kerry M.; Zollinger, William T.; Wilding, Bruce M.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Wendt, Kraig M.

    2007-11-13

    A method of producing a chemical hydride is described and which includes selecting a composition having chemical bonds and which is capable of forming a chemical hydride; providing a source of a hydrocarbon; and reacting the composition with the source of the hydrocarbon to generate a chemical hydride.

  11. Lithium battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, V. R.

    1981-02-24

    An electrolyte for a rechargeable electrochemical cell featuring diethylether, a cosolvent, and a lithium salt is disclosed.

  12. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  13. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  14. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  15. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  16. Polymers For Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  17. Polymers For Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  18. Lithium Batteries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information The Department of Energy's 'Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed high-performance thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high energy densities, can be recharged thousands of times, and are only 10 microns thick. They can be made in essentially any size

  19. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  20. Metal hydride composition and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Congdon, James W.

    1995-01-01

    A dimensionally stable hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made by forming particles of a metal hydride into porous granules, mixing the granules with a matrix material, forming the mixture into pellets, and sintering the pellets in the absence of oxygen. The ratio of matrix material to hydride is preferably between approximately 2:1 and 4:1 by volume. The porous structure of the granules accommodates the expansion that occurs when the metal hydride particles absorb hydrogen. The porous matrix allows the flow of hydrogen therethrough to contact the hydride particles, yet supports the granules and contains the hydride fines that result from repeated absorption/desorption cycles.

  1. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  2. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  3. Polymeric electrolytes for ambient temperature lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, G.C. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1991-07-01

    A new type of highly conductive Li{sup +} polymer electrolyte, referred to as the Innovision polymer electrolyte, is completely amorphous at room temperature and has an ionic conductivity in the range of 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm. This report discusses the electrochemical characteristics (lithium oxidation and reduction), conductivity, and physical properties of Innovision electrolytes containing various dissolved salts. These electrolytes are particularly interesting since they appear to have some of the highest room-temperature lithium ion conductivities yet observed among polymer electrolytes. 13 refs. 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  5. Vanadium hydride deuterium-tritium generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christensen, L.D.

    1980-03-13

    A pressure controlled vanadium hydride gas generator was designed to provide deuterium-tritium gas in a series of pressure increments. A high pressure chamber filled with vanadium-deuterium-tritium hydride is surrounded by a heater which controls the hydride temperature. The heater is actuated by a power controller which responds to the difference signal between the actual pressure signal and a programmed pressure signal.

  6. Igniter containing titanium hydride and potassium perchlorate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietzel, Russel W.; Leslie, William B.

    1976-01-01

    An explosive device is described which employs a particular titanium hydride-potassium perchlorate composition directly ignitible by an electrical bridgewire.

  7. Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride Batteries |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addthis Steps to Commercialization: Nickel Metal Hydride ... Through licensing and collaborative work, Energy ... Related Articles With help from the Clean Cities National ...

  8. Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Startup America Startup America Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Activated Aluminum Hydride Hydrogen Storage Compositions...

  9. Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation Systems Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage for High Temperature Power Generation ...

  10. Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical Storage Project Profile: Engineering a Novel High Temperature Metal Hydride Thermochemical ...

  11. Kinetics of hydride front in Zircaloy-2 and H release from a fractional hydrided surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diaz, M.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, A.; Moya, J. S.; Remartinez, B.; Perez, S.; Sacedon, J. L.

    2009-07-15

    The authors study the hydriding process on commercial nuclear fuel claddings from their inner surface using an ultrahigh vacuum method. The method allows determining the incubation and failure times of the fuel claddings, as well as the dissipated energy and the partial pressure of the desorbed H{sub 2} from the outer surface of fuel claddings during the hydriding process. The correlation between the hydriding dissipated energy and the amount of zirconium hydride (formed at different stages of the hydriding process) leads to a near t{sup 1/2} potential law corresponding to the time scaling of the reaction for the majority of the tested samples. The calibrated relation between energy and hydride thickness allows one to calculate the enthalpy of the {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} phase. The measured H{sub 2} desorption from the external surface is in agreement with a proposed kinetic desorption model from the hydrides precipitated at the surface.

  12. Lithium battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ikeda, H.; Nakaido, S.; Narukara, S.

    1983-08-16

    In a lithium battery having a negative electrode formed with lithium as active material and the positive electrode formed with manganese dioxide, carbon fluoride or the like as the active material, the discharge capacity of the negative electrode is made smaller than the discharge capacity of the positive electrode, whereby a drop in the battery voltage during the final discharge stage is steepened, and prevents a device using such a lithium battery as a power supply from operating in an unstable manner, thereby improving the reliability of such device.

  13. Direct synthesis of catalyzed hydride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Karl J.; Majzoub, Eric

    2004-09-21

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing alkali metal aluminum hydrides such as NaAlH.sub.4 and Na.sub.3 AlH.sub.6 from either the alkali metal or its hydride, and aluminum. The hydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a transition metal catalyst compound, such as TiCl.sub.3, TiF.sub.3, or a mixture of these materials, in order to render them reversibly hydridable. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen while heating the mixture to about 125.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

  14. Zirconium hydride containing explosive composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Franklin E.; Wasley, Richard J.

    1981-01-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising a non-explosive compound or mixture of non-explosive compounds which when subjected to an energy fluence of 1000 calories/cm.sup.2 or less is capable of releasing free radicals each having a molecular weight between 1 and 120. Exemplary donor additives are dibasic acids, polyamines and metal hydrides.

  15. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

    1990-04-10

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

  16. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary; Reilly, James; Graetz, Jason; Wegrzyn, James E.

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  17. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Niemann, Michael U.; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  18. Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Energy Storage Energy Storage Find More Like This Return to Search Advanced Lithium Ion Battery Technologies Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryScientists at Berkeley Lab have invented highly conductive polymer binder materials that significantly improve the viability of using silicon as an electrode material in lithium ion batteries. They have also combined lithium metal with the Berkeley Lab

  19. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  20. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  1. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  2. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-12-31

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R&D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed.

  3. Metastable Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graetz, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using hydrogen as a reliable energy carrier for both stationary and mobile applications has gained renewed interest in recent years due to improvements in high temperature fuel cells and a reduction in hydrogen production costs. However, a number of challenges remain and new media are needed that are capable of safely storing hydrogen with high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal hydrides and complex metal hydrides offer some hope of overcoming these challenges; however, many of the high capacity “reversible” hydrides exhibit a large endothermic decomposition enthalpy making it difficult to release the hydrogen at low temperatures. Onmore » the other hand, the metastable hydrides are characterized by a low reaction enthalpy and a decomposition reaction that is thermodynamically favorable under ambient conditions. The rapid, low temperature hydrogen evolution rates that can be achieved with these materials offer much promise for mobile PEM fuel cell applications. However, a critical challenge exists to develop new methods to regenerate these hydrides directly from the reactants and hydrogen gas. This spotlight paper presents an overview of some of the metastable metal hydrides for hydrogen storage and a few new approaches being investigated to address the key challenges associated with these materials.« less

  4. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    runaway in lithium batteries (Patent) | SciTech Connect electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not

  5. lithium cobalt oxide cathode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium cobalt oxide cathode - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers lithium cobalt oxide cathode Home...

  6. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Working with Nextval, Inc., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a Conducting Polymer Binder for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Clean Anodic Lithium Films for Longer Life, Rechargeable Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Clean Anodic Lithium Films for Longer Life, Rechargeable Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence ... use in safe, stable lithium ion batteries with high energy densities and good cycle life. ...

  8. Lithium | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Subscribe to RSS - Lithium Nearly everybody knows about lithium - a light, silvery alkali metal - used in rechargeable batteries powering everything from laptops to hybrid ...

  9. Lithium Balance | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Balance Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lithium Balance Place: Copenhagen, Denmark Product: Lithium ion battery developer. References: Lithium Balance1 This article is a stub....

  10. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard; Bouet, Jacques; Jordy, Christian; Mimoun, Michel; Gicquel, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  11. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Yu, Conrad [Antioch, CA

    2009-05-05

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  12. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Yu, Conrad

    2006-10-17

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  13. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in ...

  14. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2001-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  15. Ductility Evaluation of As-Hydrided and Hydride Reoriented Zircaloy-4 Cladding under Simulated Dry-Storage Condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong; Plummer, Lee K; Ray, Holly B; Cook, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z

    2014-01-01

    Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage expose cladding to higher temperatures and much higher pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to normal operation in-reactor and pool storage under these conditions. Radial hydrides could precipitate during slow cooling and provide an additional embrittlement mechanism as the cladding temperature decreases below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. As a means of simulating this behavior, unirradiated hydrided Zircaloy-4 samples were fabricated by a gas charging method to levels that encompass the range of hydrogen concentrations observed in current used fuel. Mechanical testing was carried out by the ring compression test (RCT) method at various temperatures to evaluate the sample s ductility for both as-hydrided and post-hydride reorientation treated specimens. As-hydrided samples with higher hydrogen concentration (>800 ppm) resulted in lower strain before fracture and reduced maximum load. Increasing RCT temperatures resulted in increased ductility of the as-hydrided cladding. A systematic radial hydride treatment was conducted at various pressures and temperatures for the hydrided samples with H content around 200 ppm. Following the radial hydride treatment, RCTs on the hydride reoriented samples were conducted and exhibited lower ductility compared to as-hydrided samples.

  16. Design and simulation of lithium rechargeable batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, C.M.

    1995-08-01

    Lithium -based rechargeable batteries that utilize insertion electrodes are being considered for electric-vehicle applications because of their high energy density and inherent reversibility. General mathematical models are developed that apply to a wide range of lithium-based systems, including the recently commercialized lithium-ion cell. The modeling approach is macroscopic, using porous electrode theory to treat the composite insertion electrodes and concentrated solution theory to describe the transport processes in the solution phase. The insertion process itself is treated with a charge-transfer process at the surface obeying Butler-Volmer kinetics, followed by diffusion of the lithium ion into the host structure. These models are used to explore the phenomena that occur inside of lithium cells under conditions of discharge, charge, and during periods of relaxation. Also, in order to understand the phenomena that limit the high-rate discharge of these systems, we focus on the modeling of a particular system with well-characterized material properties and system parameters. The system chosen is a lithium-ion cell produced by Bellcore in Red Bank, NJ, consisting of a lithium-carbon negative electrode, a plasticized polymer electrolyte, and a lithium-manganese-oxide spinel positive electrode. This battery is being marketed for consumer electronic applications. The system is characterized experimentally in terms of its transport and thermodynamic properties, followed by detailed comparisons of simulation results with experimental discharge curves. Next, the optimization of this system for particular applications is explored based on Ragone plots of the specific energy versus average specific power provided by various designs.

  17. EERE Success Story—California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity, Wins R&D 100 Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Working with Nextval, Inc., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a Conducting Polymer Binder for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  19. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  20. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  1. Regeneration of aluminum hydride - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    268,288 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like This Return to Search Regeneration of aluminum hydride United

  2. METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman Jr, Robert C; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V; Pollet, Dr. B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

  3. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jr., A. Burtron; Levy, Ira S.; Trimble, Dennis J.; Lanning, Donald D.; Gerber, Franna S.

    1990-01-01

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-bsed materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different composition and/or fabrication are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280.degree. to 316.degree. C.). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hyriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrision.

  4. The Role of Impurities in the Complex Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Predicted hydride destablization as a function of particle size, using the Wulff construction Kim, et al., Nanotechnology, 20, 204001 (2009) Benefits of Nanoconfinement * Improves ...

  5. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy This report documents the ...

  6. Complex Hydrides-A New Frontier for Future Energy Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    physics and chemistry of complex hydrides, X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron microscopy, and first-principles...

  7. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (HFIR). Irradiation of the capsules was conducted for post-irradiation examination (PIE) metallography. PDF icon Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR...

  8. Polymer nanocomposites for lithium battery applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Gregar, Kathleen Carrado

    2006-07-18

    A single ion-conducting nanocomposite of a substantially amorphous polyethylene ether and a negatively charged synthetic smectite clay useful as an electrolyte. Excess SiO2 improves conductivity and when combined with synthetic hectorite forms superior membranes for batteries. A method of making membranes is also disclosed.

  9. Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  10. Energy Distributions of Neutrons Scattered from Graphite, Light and Heavy Water, Ice, Zirconium Hydride, Lithium Hydride, Sodium Hydride and Ammonium Chloride by the Beryllium Detector Method

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Woods, A. D. B.; Brockhouse, Bertram N.; Sakamoto, M.; Sinclair, R. N.

    1960-09-12

    Energy distributions of neutrons scattered from various moderators and from several hydrogenous substances were measured at energy transfers of 0.02 to 0.24 ev. Results from experiments on graphite, light and heavy water, ice, ZrH, LiH, NaH, and NH4Cl are included. It is noted that the results are of a preliminary character; however, they are probably the most accurate measurements of high-energy transfers yet made. (J.R.D.)

  11. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at nightwhen the sun is not outto drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNLs metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800C). A high-temperature tank in PNNLs storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNLs thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  12. Polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  13. Polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  14. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, or during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.

  15. High energy density battery based on complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2016-04-26

    A battery and process of operating a battery system is provided using high hydrogen capacity complex hydrides in an organic non-aqueous solvent that allows the transport of hydride ions such as AlH.sub.4.sup.- and metal ions during respective discharging and charging steps.

  16. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Richard W.

    1980-01-01

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  17. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, ormore » during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.« less

  18. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. ... conductivity; suitable; lithium; batteries; electrochromic; devices; ...

  19. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries (IN-11-024) Low-Cost Phosphate ... that are highly functional when used in high-power and high-energy lithium batteries. ...

  20. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Olsen, Clayton E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  1. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, W.A.; Olsen, C.E.

    1980-03-12

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  2. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D.; Jankowski, Alan F.; Yu, Conrad

    2010-08-10

    An apparatus having a first substrate having (1) a cavity, (2) one or more resistive heaters, and (3) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen; a second substrate having (1) an outlet valve comprising a pressure relief structure and (2) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen, wherein said second substrate is coupled to said first substrate forming a sealed volume in said cavity; a metal hydride material contained within said cavity; and a gas distribution system formed by coupling a microfluidic interconnect to said pressure relief structure. Additional apparatuses and methods are also disclosed.

  3. Highly Concentrated Palladium Hydrides/Deuterides; Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios

    2013-11-26

    Accomplishments are reported in these areas: tight-binding molecular dynamics study of palladium; First-principles calculations and tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations of the palladium-hydrogen system; tight-binding studies of bulk properties and hydrogen vacancies in KBH{sub 4}; tight-binding study of boron structures; development of angular dependent potentials for Pd-H; and density functional and tight-binding calculations for the light-hydrides NaAlH4 and NaBH4

  4. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filby, Evan E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  5. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth

    2014-09-01

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing parameters. These contributing factors need to be recognized and a means to control them or separate their contributions will be required to obtain the desired information.

  6. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  7. Lithium Redistribution in Lithium-Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Albertus, P; Christensen, J; Newman, J

    2012-01-01

    A model of a lithium-metal battery with a CoO2 positive electrode has been modeled in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. A finite-element approach was used to incorporate an intercalation positive electrode using superposition, electrode tabbing, transport using concentrated solution theory, as well as the net movement of the lithium electrode during cycling. From this model, it has been found that movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface does occur during cycling and is affected by three factors: the cell geometry, the slope of the open-circuit-potential function of the positive electrode, and concentration gradients in both the solid and liquid phases in the cell. (C) 2012 The Electrochemical Society. [DOI: 10.1149/2.027210jes] All rights reserved.

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Lithium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium Nearly everybody knows about lithium - a light, silvery alkali metal - used in rechargeable batteries powering everything from laptops to hybrid cars. What may not be so...

  9. Lithium purification technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keough, Robert F.; Meadows, George E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  10. Lithium purification technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  11. Materials issues in lithium ion rechargeable battery technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, D.H.

    1995-07-01

    Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are predicted to replace Ni/Cd as the workhorse consumer battery. The pace of development of this battery system is determined in large part by the availability of materials and the understanding of interfacial reactions between materials. Lithium ion technology is based on the use of two lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems, it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these electrochemical cells have the high energy density, high voltage and light weight of metallic lithium, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge, improving their safety and cycle life.

  12. The Hydriding Kinetics of Organic Hydrogen Getters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G. L.

    2002-02-11

    The aging of hermetically sealed systems is often accompanied by the gradual production of hydrogen gas that is a result of the decay of environmental gases and the degradation of organic materials. In particular, the oxygen, water, hydrogen ''equilibrium'' is affected by the removal of oxygen due the oxidation of metals and organic materials. This shift of the above ''equilibrium'' towards the formation of hydrogen gas, particularly in crevices, may eventually reach an explosive level of hydrogen gas or degrade metals by hydriding them. The latter process is generally delayed until the oxidizing species are significantly reduced. Organic hydrogen getters introduced by Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division have proven to be a very effective means of preventing hydrogen gas accumulation in sealed containers. These getters are relatively unaffected by air and environmental gases. They can be packaged in a variety of ways to fit particular needs such as porous pellets, fine or coarse [gravel] powder, or loaded into silicone rubber. The hydrogen gettering reactions are extremely irreversible since the hydrogen gas is converted into an organic hydrocarbon. These getters are based on the palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to double and then single bonds in aromatic aryl compounds. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) typically mixed with 25% by weight carbon with palladium (1% by weight of carbon) is one of the newest and best of these organic hydrogen getters. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reaction with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates, including mixed alkyl and aryl hydrocarbons with the possibilities of many isomers. The reaction kinetics mechanisms are also strongly influenced by the form in which they are packaged. For example, the hydriding rates for pellets and gravel have a strong dependence on reaction extent (i.e., DEB reduction) and a kinetic order in pressure of 0.76. Silicone rubber based DEB getters hydride at a much lower rate, have little dependence on reaction extent, have a higher kinetic order in pressure (0.87), and have a lower activation energy. The kinetics of the reaction as a function of hydrogen pressure, stoichiometry, and temperature for hydrogen and deuterium near ambient temperature (0 to 75 C) for pressures near or below 100 Pa over a wide range (in some cases, the complete) hydrogenation range are presented along with multi-dimensional rate models.

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the components composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of its characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  14. A new phase in palladium hydride technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.

    1991-12-31

    Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  15. A new phase in palladium hydride technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  17. Process for production of a metal hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  18. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  19. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  20. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  1. High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

    2014-11-11

    Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

  2. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper-(1.83 wt. %)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600 C-1 h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported....

  3. Nonaqueous actinide hydride dissolution and production of actinide $beta$- diketonates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crisler, L.R.

    1975-11-11

    Actinide beta-diketonate complex molecular compounds are produced by reacting a beta-diketone compound with a hydride of the actinide material in a mixture of carbon tetrachloride and methanol. (auth)

  4. Lithium Droplet Injector......Inventors ..--..Lane Roquemore...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Droplet Injector......Inventors ..--..Lane Roquemore, Daniel Andruczyk A liquid lithium device has been invented that produces spherical droplets of lithium for the control ...

  5. American Lithium Energy Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lithium Energy Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Lithium Energy Corp Place: San Marcos, California Zip: 92069 Product: California-based developer of lithium ion...

  6. Cathode material for lithium batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Cathode material for lithium batteries A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium ...

  7. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Title: Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium ...

  8. Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overcharge Protection Prevents Exploding Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National ... conditions in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, i.e., exploding lithium ion batteries. ...

  9. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  10. Method of selective reduction of polyhalosilanes with alkyltin hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Kenneth G.; D'Errico, John J.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to the selective and stepwise reduction of polyhalosilanes by reacting at room temperature or below with alkyltin hydrides without the use of free radical intermediates. Alkyltin hydrides selectively and stepwise reduce the Si--Br, Si--Cl, or Si--I bonds while leaving intact any Si--F bonds. When two or more different halogens are present on the polyhalosilane, the halogen with the highest atomic weight is preferentially reduced.

  11. Method of selective reduction of halodisilanes with alkyltin hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    D'Errico, John J.; Sharp, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to the selective and sequential reduction of halodisilanes by reacting these compounds at room temperature or below with trialkyltin hydrides or dialkyltin dihydrides without the use of free radical intermediates. The alkyltin hydrides selectively and sequentially reduce the Si-Cl, Si-Br or Si-I bonds while leaving intact the Si-Si and Si-F bonds present.

  12. AIR PASSIVATION OF METAL HYDRIDE BEDS FOR WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J; R. H. Hsu, R

    2007-07-02

    Metal hydride beds offer compact, safe storage of tritium. After metal hydride beds have reached the end of their useful life, the beds will replaced with new beds and the old beds prepared for disposal. One acceptance criteria for hydride bed waste disposal is that the material inside the bed not be pyrophoric. To determine the pyrophoric nature of spent metal hydride beds, controlled air ingress tests were performed. A simple gas handling manifold fitted with pressure transducers and a calibrated volume were used to introduce controlled quantities of air into a metal hydride bed and the bed temperature rise monitored for reactivity with the air. A desorbed, 4.4 kg titanium prototype hydride storage vessel (HSV) produced a 4.4 C internal temperature rise upon the first air exposure cycle and a 0.1 C temperature rise upon a second air exposure. A total of 346 scc air was consumed by the bed (0.08 scc per gram Ti). A desorbed, 9.66 kg LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} prototype storage bed experienced larger temperature rises over successive cycles of air ingress and evacuation. The cycles were performed over a period of days with the bed effectively passivated after the 12th cycle. Nine to ten STP-L of air reacted with the bed producing both oxidized metal and water.

  13. Optimization of Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zr 4 Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Hanson, Brady D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of this work is to build on the results reported in the M2 milestone M2FT 13PN0805051, document number FCRD-USED-2013-000151 (Hanson, 2013). In that work, it was demonstrated that unirradiated samples of zircaloy-4 cladding could be pre-hydrided at temperatures below 400°C in pure hydrogen gas and that the growth of hydrides on the surface could be controlled by changing the surface condition of the samples and form a desired hydride rim on the outside diameter of the cladding. The work performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since the issuing of the M2 milestone has focused its efforts to optimize the formation of a hydride rim on available zircaloy-4 cladding samples by controlling temperature variation and gas flow control during pre-hydriding treatments. Surface conditioning of the outside surface was also examined as a variable. The results of test indicate that much of the variability in the hydride thickness is due to temperature variation occurring in the furnaces as well as how hydrogen gas flows across the sample surface. Efforts to examine other alloys, gas concentrations, and different surface conditioning plan to be pursed in the next FY as more cladding samples become available

  14. LITHIUM LITERATURE REVIEW: LITHIUM'S PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HEDL-TME 78-15 uc-20 LITHIUM LITERATURE REVIEW: LITHIUM'S PROPERTIES AND INTERACTIONS Hanf ord Engineering Development Laboratory -~ - - , . .. . D.W. Jeppson J.L. Ballif W.W. Yuan B.E. Chou - - - . - . - -- r - N O T l C E n ~ h u mpon w prepared as an account of work iponrored by the United States Government. Neither the Unitcd States nor the United Stater Department of Energy. nor any of their employees, nor any of then contractor^, subcontractors. or their employees, maker any warranty,

  15. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  17. High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Performance Binderless Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries National ... Electrode for fast-charging Lithium Ion Batteries, Accelerating Innovation Webinar ...

  18. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  19. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  20. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J.

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2012-01-06

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies formore » motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.« less

  2. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  3. Compliant Glass-Polymer Hybrid Single Ion-ConductingElectrolytes for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research December 21, 2015, Research Highlights Compliant Glass-Polymer Hybrid Single Ion-ConductingElectrolytes for Lithium Batteries Images for Ionic Conductivity Scientific Achievement We have successfully developed non-flammable hybrid single-ion-conducting electrolytes comprising inorganic sulfide glass particles covalently bonded to a perfluoropolyether polymer. These electrolytes present high transference numbers, unprecedented ionic

  4. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

  5. A new family of salts for lithium secondary batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baril, D.; Beranger, S.; Ravet, N.; Michot, C.; Armand, M.

    2000-07-01

    A novel family of salts suitable for lithium battery application was synthesized and characterized. These salts have a large delocalized anion whose charge is spread over a single SO{sub 2} and a phenyl ring. Remarkable properties were obtained for the lithium N-(3-trifluoromethyl phenyl) trifluoromethanesulfonamide salt or LiTFPTS. The electrochemical stability window is around 4.0 V and its conductivity in solid poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO is close to the one of the lithium perchlorate salt. Calorimetric analysis also showed that LiTFPTS behaves as a plasticizer since it hinders, to a certain extent, the PEO crystallization when it is used in a solid polymer matrix. Above all, its synthesis is quite straightforward and leads to potentially inexpensive salts as the starting amines are made commercially on a large scale.

  6. Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium literature review: lithium's properties and interactions × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and

  7. Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Internal Short Circuit Device for Improved Lithium-Ion Battery Design National Renewable ... any of the common lithium-ion, lithium sulfur, or lithium air electrochemical components. ...

  8. Electron-donor dopant, method of improving conductivity of polymers by doping therewith, and a polymer so treated

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, Raimond; Aldissi, Mahmoud

    1988-01-01

    Polymers with conjugated backbones, both polyacetylene and polyaromatic heterocyclic types, are doped with electron-donor agents to increase their electrical conductivity. The electron-donor agents are either electride dopants made in the presence of lithium or dopants derived from alkalides made in the presence of lithium. The dopants also contain a metal such as cesium and a trapping agent such as a crown ether.

  9. Electron-donor dopant, method of improving conductivity of polymers by doping therewith, and a polymer so treated

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Aldissi, M.

    1984-07-27

    Polymers with conjugated backbones, both polyacetylene and polyaromatic heterocyclic types, are doped with electron-donor agents to increase their electrical conductivity. The electron-donor agents are either electride dopants made in the presence of lithium or dopants derived from alkalides made in the presence of lithium. The dopants also contain a metal such as cesium and a trapping agent such as a crown ether.

  10. Phostech Lithium | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Phostech Lithium Jump to: navigation, search Name: Phostech Lithium Place: St-Bruno-de-Montarville, Quebec, Canada Zip: J3V 6B7 Sector: Hydro Product: String representation...

  11. Metal hydride hydrogen compression: Recent advances and future prospects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bowman, Jr., Robert C.; Yartys, Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Mykhaylo V.; Linkov, Vladimir; Grant, David; Stuart, Alastair; Eriksen, Jon; Denys, Roman

    2016-03-17

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is one of the more important applications of the metal hydrides. The present paper reviews recent advances in the field based on the analysis of the fundamental principles of this technology. The performances when boosting hydrogen pressure, along with two- and three-step compression units are analyzed. The paper includes also a theoretical modeling of a two-stage compressor aimed at both describing the performance of the experimentally studied systems, but, also, on their optimization and design of more advanced MH compressors. Business developments in the field are reviewed for the Norwegian company HYSTORSYS AS andmore » the South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry. Finally, future prospects are outlined presenting the role of the metal hydride compression in the overall development of the hydrogen driven energy systems. Lastly, the work is based on the analysis of the development of the technology in Europe, USA and South Africa.« less

  12. Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, K. A.; Schmidt, F. A.; Frerichs, A. E.; Ament, K. A.

    2013-08-20

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La1-xRx)(Ni1-yMy)(Siz), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  13. Ab-initio study of transition metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Ramesh; Shukla, Seema Dwivedi, Shalini Sharma, Yamini

    2014-04-24

    We have performed ab initio self consistent calculations based on Full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method to investigate the optical and thermal properties of yttrium hydrides. From the band structure and density of states, the optical absorption spectra and specific heats have been calculated. The band structure of Yttrium metal changes dramatically due to hybridization of Y sp orbitals with H s orbitals and there is a net charge transfer from metal to hydrogen site. The electrical resistivity and specific heats of yttrium hydrides are lowered but the thermal conductivity is slightly enhanced due to increase in scattering from hydrogen sites.

  14. METHOD OF PREPARING SINTERED ZIRCONIUM METAL FROM ITS HYDRIDES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angier, R.P.

    1958-02-11

    The invention relates to the preparation of metal shapes from zirconium hydride by powder metallurgical techniques. The zirconium hydride powder which is to be used for this purpose can be prepared by rendering massive pieces of crystal bar zirconium friable by heat treatment in purified hydrogen. This any then be ground into powder and powder can be handled in the air without danger of it igniting. It may then be compacted in the normal manner by being piaced in a die. The compact is sintered under vacuum conditions preferably at a temperature ranging from 1200 to 1300 deg C and for periods of one to three hours.

  15. Method for preparing hydride configurations and reactive metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-05-18

    A method for preparing reactive metal surfaces, particularly uranium surfaces is disclosed, whereby the metal is immediately reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure. The metal surfaces are first pretreated by exposure to an acid which forms an adherent hydride-bearing composition on the metal surface. Subsequent heating of the pretreated metal at a temperature sufficient to decompose the hydride coating in vacuum or inert gas renders the metal surface instantaneously reactive to hydrogen gas at room temperature and low pressure.

  16. Process of forming a sol-gel/metal hydride composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Congdon, James W.

    2009-03-17

    An external gelation process is described which produces granules of metal hydride particles contained within a sol-gel matrix. The resulting granules are dimensionally stable and are useful for applications such as hydrogen separation and hydrogen purification. An additional coating technique for strengthening the granules is also provided.

  17. Cascades for hydrogen isotope separation using metal hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, F.B.; Grzetic, V.

    1982-01-01

    Designs are presented for continuous countercurrent hydrogen isotope separation cascades based on the use of metal hydrides. The cascades are made up of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) or temperature swing adsorption (TSA) stages. The designs were evolved from consideration of previously conducted studies of the separation performance of four types of PSA and TSA processes.

  18. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. ... conductivity; suitable; lithium; batteries; electrochromic; devices; ...

  19. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1988-01-01

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  20. Lithium Iron Phosphate Composites for Lithium Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Batteries Technology available for licensing: Inexpensive, electrochemically active phosphate compounds with high functionality for high-power and high-energy lithium batteries ...

  1. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  2. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  3. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  4. Lithium Energy Japan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Japan Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lithium Energy Japan Place: Kyoto, Japan Zip: 6018520 Product: Kyoto-based developer, manufacturer and seller of large lithium-ion...

  5. "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the ...

  6. characterizing lithium-ion electrode microstructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    characterizing lithium-ion electrode microstructures - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon ... SunShot Grand Challenge: Regional Test Centers characterizing lithium-ion electrode ...

  7. Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Simultaneously Doped with Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Simultaneously Doped with Lithium and a Metal Dopant National ... quantity of charge balancing lithium ions per unit area, which may be ...

  8. Simplified Electrode Formation using Stabilized Lithium Metal...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simplified Electrode Formation using Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder (SLMP) Doping of Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This ...

  9. Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Improved spinel-containing "layered-layered" lithium metal oxide electrodes Materials ...

  10. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: ...

  11. US Lithium Energetics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energetics Jump to: navigation, search Name: US Lithium Energetics Product: Batteries manufacturer References: US Lithium Energetics1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  12. BIFUNCTIONAL ELECTROLYTES FOR LITHIUM ION BATTERIES | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries Bifunctional Electrolytes for Lithium-ion Batteries Progress in Electrolyte Component R&D within ...

  13. Self-Regulating, Nonflamable Rechargeable Lithium Batteries ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryRechargeable lithium batteries are superior to ...

  14. Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Lithium Batteries By OperandoEC-(S)TEM Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Quantification of Electrochemical Nanoscale Processes in Lithium Batteries By ...

  15. Y-12 lithium-6 production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lithium-6 production The United States was not expecting the Soviet Union's explosion of their first nuclear device using hydrogen and other fusion materials on August 12, 1953....

  16. Effect of Gaseous Impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and Aging Properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Lamb, Joshua; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; and Pal, Narendra.

    2011-03-28

    This program was dedicated to understanding the effect of impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and aging properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage. At the start of the program we found reversibility between Li2NH+LiH  LiH+LiNH2 (yielding ~5.8 wt.%H capacity). Then we tested the effect of impurity in H2 gas by pressure cycling at 255oC; first with industrial gas containing ppm levels of O2 and H2O as major impurities. Both these impurities had a significant impact on the reversibility and decreased the capacity by 2.65 wt.%H. Further increase in number of cycles from 500 to 1100 showed only a 0.2 wt%H more weight loss, showing some capacity is still maintained after a significant number of cycles. The loss of capacity is attributed to the formation of ~55 wt% LiH and ~30% Li2O, as major contaminant phases, along with the hydride Li2NH phase; suggesting loss of nitrogen during cycling. The effect of 100 ppm H2O in H2 also showed a decrease of ~2.5 wt.%H (after 560 cycles), and 100ppm O2 in H2; a loss of ~4.1 wt.%. Methane impurity (100 ppm, 100cycles), showed a very small capacity loss of 0.9 wt.%H under similar conditions. However, when Li3N was pressure cycled with 100ppmN2-H2 there were beneficial effects were observed (255oC); the reversible capacity increased to 8.4wt.%H after 853 cycles. Furthermore, with 20 mol.%N2-H2 capacity increased to ~10 wt.%H after 516 cycles. We attribute this enhancement to the reaction of nitrogen with liquid lithium during cycling as the Gibbs free energy of formation of Li3N (Go = -98.7 kJ/mol) is more negative than that of LiH (Go = -50.3 kJ/mol). We propose that the mitigation of hydrogen capacity losses is due to the destabilization of the LiH phase that tends to accumulate during cycling. Also more Li2NH phase was found in the cycled product. Mixed Alanates (3LiNH2:Li3AlH6) showed that 7 wt% hydrogen desorbed under dynamic vacuum. Equilibrium experiments (maximum 12 bar H2) showed up to 4wt% hydrogen reversibly stored in the material after the first desorption. The activation energy was found to be 51 kJ/mol, as compared to 81 kJ/mol for pure lithium alanate. It is proposed that based on the data obtained and CALPHAD modeling that the improvement in cycling is due to the formation of pure lithium (liquid at 255oC), which is able to react with nitrogen specifically forming Li3N. The presence of nitrogen in the 80/20 molar mixtures in a hydride bed along with hydrogen causes Li to form Li3N rather than LiH, and subsequently regenerates the Li2NH phase and yields a ~10 wt.%H reversibly.

  17. Carbonaceous materials as lithium intercalation anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, T.D.; Feikert, J.H.; Mayer, S.T.; Song, X.; Kinoshita, K.

    1994-10-01

    Commercial and polymer-derived carbonaceous materials were examined as lithium intercalation anodes in propylene carbonate (pyrolysis < 1350C, carbons) and ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (graphites) electrolytes. The reversible capacity (180--355 mAh/g) and the irreversible capacity loss (15--200 % based on reversible capacity) depend on the type of binder, carbon type, morphology, and phosphorus doping concentration. A carbon-based binder was chosen for electrode fabrication, producing mechanically and chemically stable electrodes and reproducible results. Several types of graphites had capacity approaching LiC{sub 6}. Petroleum fuel green cokes doped with phosphorous gave more than a 20 % increase in capacity compared to undoped samples. Electrochemical characteristics are related to SEM, TEM, XRD and BET measurements.

  18. Ionic Transport Across Interfaces of Solid Glass and Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Yu, Xiang; Hong, Kunlun; Perry, Kelly A; Dudney, Nancy J

    2011-01-01

    A study of lithium cation transport across solid-solid electrolyte interfaces to identify critical resistances in nanostructured solid electrolytes is reported. Bilayers of glass and polymer thin film electrolytes were fabricated and characterized for this study. The glass electrolyte was lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon), and two polymer electrolytes were studied: poly(methyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) and poly(styrene-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate). Both copolymers contained LiClO{sub 4} salt. In bilayers where polymer electrolyte layers are fabricated on top of Lipon, the interfacial resistance dominates transport. At 25 C, the interfacial resistance is at least three times greater than the sum of the Lipon and polymer electrolyte resistances. By reversing the structure and fabricating Lipon on top of the polymer electrolytes, the interfacial resistance is eliminated. Experiments to elucidate the origin of the interfacial resistance in the polymer-on-Lipon bilayers reveal that the solvent mixtures used to fabricate the polymer layers do not degrade the Lipon layer. The importance of the polymer electrolytes' mechanical properties is also discussed.

  19. METHOD OF MAKING DELTA ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE MONOLITHIC MODERATOR PIECES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vetrano, J.B.

    1962-01-23

    A method is given for preparing large, sound bodies of delta zirconium hydride. The method includes the steps of heating a zirconium body to a temperature of not less than l000 deg C, providing a hydrogen atmosphere for the zirconium body at a pressure not greater than one atmosphere, reducing the temperature slowly to 800 deg C at such a rate that cracks do not form while maintaining the hydrogen pressure substantially constant, and cooling in an atmosphere of hydrogen. (AEC)

  20. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Validation Strategy | Department of Energy Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride d-ZrH1.5 precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry

  1. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  2. Uranium metal reactions with hydrogen and water vapour and the reactivity of the uranium hydride produced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfrey, H.; Broan, C.; Goddard, D.; Hodge, N.; Woodhouse, G.; Diggle, A.; Orr, R.

    2013-07-01

    Within the nuclear industry, metallic uranium has been used as a fuel. If this metal is stored in a hydrogen rich environment then the uranium metal can react with the hydrogen to form uranium hydride which can be pyrophoric when exposed to air. The UK National Nuclear Laboratory has been carrying out a programme of research for Sellafield Limited to investigate the conditions required for the formation and persistence of uranium hydride and the reactivity of the material formed. The experimental results presented here have described new results characterising uranium hydride formed from bulk uranium at 50 and 160 C. degrees and measurements of the hydrolysis kinetics of these materials in liquid water. It has been shown that there is an increase in the proportion of alpha-uranium hydride in material formed at lower temperatures and that there is an increase in the rate of reaction with water of uranium hydride formed at lower temperatures. This may at least in part be attributable to a difference in the reaction rate between alpha and beta-uranium hydride. A striking observation is the strong dependence of the hydrolysis reaction rate on the temperature of preparation of the uranium hydride. For example, the reaction rate of uranium hydride prepared at 50 C. degrees was over ten times higher than that prepared at 160 C. degrees at 20% extent of reaction. The decrease in reaction rate with the extent of reaction also depended on the temperature of uranium hydride preparation.

  3. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  4. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  5. Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices ... For lithium-based electrochromic cells, the electrolyte contains mobile lithium which ...

  6. Advanced Lithium Power Inc ALP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lithium Power Inc ALP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Lithium Power Inc (ALP) Place: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Product: They develop lithium ion and advanced...

  7. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion ... Nanoscale Heterostructures and Thermoplastic Resin Binders: Novel Lithium-Ion Anodes

  8. Expanded North Carolina Lithium Facility Opens, Boosting U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lithium production facility as well as its production operations in Silver Peak, Nevada. ... The Kings Mountain and Silver Peak plants will produce lithium hydroxide and lithium ...

  9. Lithium Methyl Carbonate as a Reaction Product of Metallic Lithiumand...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium methyl carbonate is only one of the components, the others being lithium oxalate and lithium methoxide. Authors: Zhuang, Guorong V. ; Yang, Hui ; Ross Jr., Philip N. ; Xu, ...

  10. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  11. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  12. Vacuum deposited polymer films: Past, present, and future applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affinito, J.; Martin, P.; Gross, M.; Bennett, W.

    1994-11-01

    Two extremely high rate processes have been developed for the vacuum deposition of polymer thin films. Dubbed the PML (for Polymer Multi-Layer) and LML (for Liquid Multi-Layer) processes, the PML technique was originally developed for the manufacture of polymer/aluminum surface mount capacitors while the LML method arose from a need to fabricate lithium polymer batteries. These processes have since been found to be compatible with most other vacuum deposition techniques in, integrated, in-line coating processes. Battelle has developed an extensive program, and a great deal of hardware, to pursue a wide variety of PML and LML applications which integrate these two process technologies with other, conventional, vacuum deposition methods. The historical development of the technologies is reviewed and the Battelle PML/LML facilities are described. Current Battelle work involving solar thermal control films, PML QWOTs, and polymer/metal high reflectors are also discussed. Battelle PML work that is just starting, involving non-linear optical materials/devices, lithium polymer battery fabrication, electrochromic devices, and polymer/oxide multilayers, is discussed as well.

  13. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  14. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Filby, Evan E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  15. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Ritter, James A.; Ebner, Armin D.; Wang, Jun; Holland, Charles E.

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  16. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium.

  17. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the water exchange reactions are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium, and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium. LXD was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  18. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, B K

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  19. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kepler, Keith D.; Vaughey, John T.

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  20. Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2012-04-16

    Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

  1. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  2. Lithium-based Technologies | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-based Technologies Lithium-based Technologies Y-12's 60 years of rich lithium operational history and expertise make it the clear choice for deployment of new lithium-based ...

  3. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  4. Antimocrobial Polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  5. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2004-09-28

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  6. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, ...

  7. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  8. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  9. Air breathing lithium power cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  10. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  11. Method of generating hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S; Niemann, Michael U; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K

    2013-05-14

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  12. Polymer solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  13. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  14. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  15. Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, T.S.; MacFadden, K.O.; Johnson, S.L.

    1997-12-16

    A process is described for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

  16. Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing; MacFadden, Kenneth Orville; Johnson, Steven Lloyd

    1997-01-01

    A process for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

  17. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  18. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  19. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  3. Hierarchically Structured Materials for Lithium Batteries (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising power ... hybrid electric vehicles, and hybrid electrical vehicles. ...kg) , new energy storage systems, such as lithium-oxygen ...

  4. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  5. Lithium Technology Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lithium Technology Corporation Place: Plymouth Meeting, Pennsylvania Zip: PA 19462 Sector: Vehicles Product:...

  6. California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Lithium Battery, Inc. America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge 626 likes California Lithium Battery, Inc. Argonne National Laboratory California Lithium Battery ("CALBattery") is a start-up California company established in 2011 to develop and manufacture a breakthrough high energy density and long cycle life lithium battery for utility energy storage, transportation, and defense industries. The company is a joint venture between California-based Ionex Energy Storage

  7. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  8. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  9. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  10. Shape memory polymers (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    polymers Title: Shape memory polymers New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape ...

  11. Magnetism in LithiumOxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithiumoxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithiumoxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithiumoxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  12. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  13. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  14. Final report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the R&D activities within the U.S. Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) from March 2005 to June 2010. The purpose of the MHCoE has been to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE 2010 and 2015 system goals for hydrogen storage materials. The MHCoE combines three broad areas: mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials), materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized) and system design and engineering (which allow these new materials to be realized as practical automotive hydrogen storage systems). This Final Report summarizes the organization and execution of the 5-year research program to develop practical hydrogen storage materials for light duty vehicles. Major results from the MHCoE are summarized, along with suggestions for future research areas.

  15. In situ synthesis of polymer-clay nanocomposites from silicate gels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrado, K. A.; Xu, L.; Chemistry

    1998-01-01

    Polymer-containing silicate gels were hydrothermally crystallized to form layered magnesium silicate hectorite clays containing polymers that are incorporated in situ. Gels consist of silica sol, magnesium hydroxide sol, lithium fluoride, and the polymer of choice. Dilute solutions of gel in water are refluxed for various lengths of time and then isolated via centrifugation, washed, and air-dried. Polymer loadings up to 86% were attained by adding more polymer to the solutions after 2-day reaction times, reacting for another 24 h, and continuing this process prior to isolation. Polyaniline (PANI)- and polyacrylonitrile (PACN)-clay samples contain up to 57% and 76% polymer, respectively, after just one sequential addition at high polymer loading. Series of PANI-, PACN-, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP)-, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)-clays also were prepared by several sequential additions of lower polymer loading to the silicate gel during crystallization. Final polymer loadings were determined by thermal analysis. Basal spacings between clay interlayers were measured by X-ray powder diffraction for all samples. Increases in polymer loadings and basal spacings were observed for all the neutral polymers studied, until or unless delamination occurred. Delamination was evident for PACN- and PANI-clay nanocomposites. The highest loadings were observed for the PACN-clays, up to 86%. For the cationic polymer polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride, however, the loading could not be increased beyond about 20%. This is due to electrostatic interactions that balance the negatively charged sites on the silicate lattice with those on the cationic polymer chain. Beyond charge compensation, there is no driving force for further incorporation. Charge compensation in the case of the neutral polymers is attained by interlayer lithium(I) cations.

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  17. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  18. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary of Initial Activities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Irradiation is known to have a significant impact on the properties and performance of Zircaloy cladding and structural materials (material degradation processes, e.g., effects of hydriding).  This...

  19. Polymer electrolytes for a rechargeable li-Ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Argade, S.D.; Saraswat, A.K.; Rao, B.M.L.; Lee, H.S.; Xiang, C.L.; McBreen, J.

    1996-10-01

    Lithium-ion polymer electrolyte battery technology is attractive for many consumer and military applications. A Li{sub x}C/Li{sub y}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} battery system incorporating a polymer electrolyte separator base on novel Li-imide salts is being developed under sponsorship of US Army Research Laboratory (Fort Monmouth NJ). This paper reports on work currently in progress on synthesis of Li-imide salts, polymer electrolyte films incorporating these salts, and development of electrodes and cells. A number of Li salts have been synthesized and characterized. These salts appear to have good voltaic stability. PVDF polymer gel electrolytes based on these salts have exhibited conductivities in the range 10{sup -4} to 10{sub -3} S/cm.

  20. Development and In Situ Characterization of New Electrolyte and Electrode materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, X -Q; Xing, X K; Daroux, M

    2000-01-03

    The object of this project is to develop new electrolyte and cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries, especially for lithium ion and lithium polymer batteries. Enhancing performance, reducing cost, and replacing toxic materials by environmentally benign materials, are strategic goals of DOE in lithium battery research. This proposed project will address these goals on two important material studies, namely the new electrolytes and new cathode materials. For the new electrolyte materials, aza based anion receptors as additives, organic lithium salts and plasticizers which have been developed by BNL team under Energy Research programs of DOE, will be evaluated by Gould for potential use in commercial battery cells. All of these three types of compounds are aimed to enhance the conductivity and lithium transference number of lithium battery electrolytes and reduce the use of toxic salts in these electrolytes. BNL group will be working closely with Gould to further develop these compounds for commercialization. For the cathode material studies, BNL efforts wi U be focused on developing new superior characterization methclds, especially in situ techniques utilize the unique user facility of DOE at BNL, namely the National Synchrotrons Light Source (NSLS). In situ x-ray absorption and x-ray diftlaction spectroscopy will be used to study the relationship between performance and the electronic and structural characteristics of intercalation compounds such as LiNi02, LiCo02, and LiMn204 spinel. The study will be focused on LiMn204 spinel materials. Gould team will contribute their expertise in choosing the most promising compounds, providing overall performance requirements, and will use the results of this study to guide their procedure for quality control. The knowledge gained through this project will not only benefit Gould and BNL, but will be very valuable to the scientific community in battery research.

  1. Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence Final Report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence This technical report describes the activities carried out, key accomplishments, and recommendations from the DOE's Chemical Hydrogen Storage Center of Excellence, led by Los Alamos National Laboratory with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory from 2005 through 2010. The center's focus was the development of advanced chemical hydrogen storage materials that had the potential to meet the

  2. Photogeneration of Hydride Donors and Their Use Toward CO2 Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita,E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Polyansky, D.E.

    2009-06-07

    Despite substantial effort, no one has succeeded in efficiently producing methanol from CO2 using homogeneous photocatalytic systems. We are pursuing reaction schemes based on a sequence of hydride-ion transfers to carry out stepwise reduction of CO2 to methanol. We are using hydride-ion transfer from photoproduced C-H bonds in metal complexes with bio-inspired ligands (i.e., NADH-like ligands) that are known to store one proton and two electrons.

  3. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The teams innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  4. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  5. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galanina, L. I. Zelenskaja, N. S.

    2013-12-15

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  6. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  7. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  8. Morphological effects on the electrochemical performance of lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes, prepared by electrospinning technique, for lithium-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Ji Won; Kalathil, Abdul Kareem; Yim, Chul Jin; Im, Won Bin

    2014-06-01

    Li-rich Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.17}Co{sub 0.17}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} cathode materials were synthesized by electrospinning technique with different polymers, and their structural, morphological, and electrochemical performances were investigated. It was found that the electrospinning process leads to the formation of a fiber and flower-like morphology, by using different polymers and heat treatment conditions. The nanostructured morphology provided these materials with high initial discharge capacity. The cycling stability was improved with agglomerated nano-particles, as compared with porous materials. - Highlights: • Fiber and flower-like Li-rich cathode was synthesized by simple electrospinning. • Polymer dependent morphology and electrochemical performance was investigated. • Well-organized porous structure facilitates the diffusion of lithium ions. • Technique could be applicable to other cathode materials as well.

  9. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space between alkaline metal hydrides (AmH), Alkaline earth metal hydrides (AeH2), alane (AlH3), transition metal (Tm) hydrides (TmHz, where z=1-3) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The effort started first with variations of known alanates and subsequently extended the search to unknown compounds. In this stage, the FPM techniques were developed and validated on known alanate materials such as NaAlH4 and Na2LiAlH6. The coupled predictive methodologies were used to survey over 200 proposed phases in six quaternary spaces, formed from various combinations of Na, Li Mg and/or Ti with Al and H. A wide range of alanate compounds was examined using SSP having additions of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Fe. A number of compositions and reaction paths were identified having H weight fractions up to 5.6 wt %, but none meeting the 7.5 wt%H reversible goal. Similarly, MSP of alanates produced a number of interesting compounds and general conclusions regarding reaction behavior of mixtures during processing, but no alanate based candidates meeting the 7.5 wt% goal. A novel alanate, LiMg(AlH4)3, was synthesized using SBP that demonstrated a 7.0 wt% capacity with a desorption temperature of 150°C. The deuteride form was synthesized and characterized by the Institute for Energy (IFE) in Norway to determine its crystalline structure for related FPM studies. However, the reaction exhibited exothermicity and therefore was not reversible under acceptable hydrogen gas pressures for on-board recharging. After the extensive studies of alanates, the material class of emphasis was shifted to borohydrides. Through SBP, several ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2 complexes were synthesized. The Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 complex was found to change behavior with slightly different synthesis conditions and/or aging. One of the two mechanisms was an amine-borane (NH3BH3) like dissociation reaction which released up to 16 wt %H and more conservatively 9 wt%H when not including H2 released from the NH3. From FPM, the stability of the Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 compound was found to increase with the inclusion of NH3 groups in the inner-Mg coordination sphere, which in turn correlated with lowering the dimensionality of the Mg(BH4)2 network. Development of various Ak Tm-B-H compounds using SSP produced up to 12 wt% of H2 desorbed at temperatures of 400°C. However, the most active material can only be partially recharged to 2 wt% H2 at 220-300°C and 195 bar H2 pressure due to stable product formation. While gravimetric & volumetric targets are feasible, reversibility remains a persistent challenge.

  10. The Evaluation of Lithium Hydride for Use in a Space Nuclear Reactor Shield, Including a Historical Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Poeth

    2005-12-09

    LiH was one of the five primary shield materials the NRPCT intended to develop (along with beryllium, boron carbide, tungsten, and water) for potential Prometheus application. It was also anticipated that {sup 10}B metal would be investigated for feasibility at a low level of effort. LiH historically has been selected as a low mass, neutron absorption material for space shields (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), Topaz, SP-100). Initial NRPCT investigations did not produce convincing evidence that LiH was desirable or feasible for a Prometheus mission due to material property issues (primarily swelling and hydrogen cover gas containment), and related thermal design complexity. Furthermore, if mass limits allowed, an option to avoid use of LiH was being contemplated to lower development costs and associated risks. However, LiH remains theoretically the most efficient neutron shield material per unit mass, and, with sufficient testing and development, could be an optimal material choice for future flights.

  11. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weck, Philippe F; Tikare, Veena; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Clark, B; Mitchell, J; Glazoff, Michael V.; Homer, Eric R.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride δ-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. In this work, a model to numerically simulate hydride precipitation at the microstructural scale, in a wide variety of Zr-based claddings, under dry-storage conditions is being developed. It will be used to aid in the evaluation of the mechanical integrity of used fuel rods during dry storage and transportation by providing the structural conditions from the microstructural scale to the continuum scale to engineering component scale models to predict if the used fuel rods will perform without failure under normal and off-normal conditions. The microstructure, especially, the hydride structure is thought to be a primary determinant of cladding failure, thus this component of UFD’s storage and transportation analysis program is critical. The model development, application and validation of the model are documented and the limitations of the current model are discussed. The model has been shown to simulate hydride precipitation in Zircaloy-4 cladding with correct morphology, thermodynamics and kinetics. An unexpected insight obtained from simulations hydride formation in Zircaloy-4 is that small (sub-micron) precipitates need to order themselves to form the larger hydrides typically described as radially-reoriented precipitates. A limitation of this model is that it does not currently solve the stress state that forms dynamically in the precipitate or matrix surrounding the precipitate. A method to overcome the limitations is suggested and described in detail. The necessary experiments to provide key materials physics and to validate the model are also recommended.

  12. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Kesanli, Banu; Neal, John S.

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  13. Field desorption of lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stintz, A.; Panitz, J.A. )

    1995-03-01

    Layers of lithium fluoride (LiF), [similar to]10 nm thick, were field desorbed from iridium substrates at temperatures between 25 and 600 [degree]C. The electric field was increased until desorption of the salt layer occurred. Combined mass spectroscopy and field desorption microscopy characterized the desorption process. During desorption, ions of the form (LiF)[sub [ital n

  14. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY); Okamoto, Yoshiyuki (Fort Lee, NJ); Lee, Hung S. (Woodside, NY)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-7 S cm.sup.-1 at room temperature.

  15. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Lee, H.S.

    1989-11-21

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10[sup [minus]4] to 10[sup [minus]7] S cm[sup [minus]1] at room temperature.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of metal hydride electrodes. Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBreen, J.; Reilly, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this project is to elucidate the compositional and structural parameters that affect the thermodynamics, kinetics and stability of alloy hydride electrodes and to use this information in the development of new high capacity long life hydride electrodes for rechargeable batteries. The work focuses on the development of AB{sub 5} alloys and the application of in situ methods, at NSLS, such as x-ray absorption (XAS), to elucidate the role of the alloying elements in hydrogen storage and corrosion inhibition. The most significant results to date are: The decay of electrode capacity on cycling was directly related to alloy corrosion. The rate of corrosion depended in part on both the alloy composition and the partial molar volume of hydrogen, V{sub H}. The corrosion rate depended on the composition of the A component in AB{sub 5} (LaNi{sub 5} type) alloys. Partial substitution of La with Ce in AB{sub 5} alloys substantially inhibits electrode corrosion on cycling. Recent results indicate that Co also greatly inhibits electrode corrosion, possibly by minimizing V{sub H}. The AB{sub 5} alloys investigated included LaNi{sub 5}, ternary alloys (e.g. LaN{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2} and La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 5}), alloys with various substitutions for both La and Ni (e.g. La{sub 0.8}Ce{sub 0.2}Ni{sub 4.8}Sn{sub 0.2}) and mischmetal (Mm) alloys of the type normally used in batteries, such as MmB{sub 5} (B = Ni{sub 3.55}Mn{sub 0.4}A1{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.75}). A major effort was devoted to the effects of La substitution in the A component. Both in situ and ex situ XAS measurements are used to study the electronic effects that occur on the addition of various metal substitutions and on the ingress of hydrogen.

  17. A Lithium-Air Battery Based on Lithium Superoxide | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TEM images of Ir-rGO composite showing Ir nanoparticles less than 2 nm in size. (courtesy of Nature Publishing Group) A Lithium-Air Battery Based on Lithium Superoxide January 20, ...

  18. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion ...

  19. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart ...

  20. Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control Lithium coatings on the ...

  1. Electronic structure and crystal phase stability of palladium hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houari, Abdesalem; Matar, Samir F.; Eyert, Volker

    2014-11-07

    The results of electronic structure calculations for a variety of palladium hydrides are presented. The calculations are based on density functional theory and used different local and semilocal approximations. The thermodynamic stability of all structures as well as the electronic and chemical bonding properties are addressed. For the monohydride, taking into account the zero-point energy is important to identify the octahedral Pd-H arrangement with its larger voids and, hence, softer hydrogen vibrational modes as favorable over the tetrahedral arrangement as found in the zincblende and wurtzite structures. Stabilization of the rocksalt structure is due to strong bonding of the 4d and 1s orbitals, which form a characteristic split-off band separated from the main d-band group. Increased filling of the formerly pure d states of the metal causes strong reduction of the density of states at the Fermi energy, which undermines possible long-range ferromagnetic order otherwise favored by strong magnetovolume effects. For the dihydride, octahedral Pd-H arrangement as realized, e.g., in the pyrite structure turns out to be unstable against tetrahedral arrangement as found in the fluorite structure. Yet, from both heat of formation and chemical bonding considerations, the dihydride turns out to be less favorable than the monohydride. Finally, the vacancy ordered defect phase Pd{sub 3}H{sub 4} follows the general trend of favoring the octahedral arrangement of the rocksalt structure for Pd:H ratios less or equal to one.

  2. Polymers with increased order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, Samuel P.; Talhi, Abdelhafid; Taylor, Craig M.

    1998-08-25

    The invention features polymers with increased order, and methods of making them featuring a dense gas.

  3. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant energy density if their graphite anodes were replaced with lithium metal anodes. But there's a major concern with substituting lithium-when the battery cycles, microscopic fibers of the lithium anodes ("dendrites")

  4. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant energy density if their graphite anodes were replaced with lithium metal anodes. But there's a major concern with substituting lithium-when the battery cycles, microscopic fibers of the lithium anodes ("dendrites") form on the surface of the lithium electrode and spread across the electrolyte until they reach

  5. A Material Change: Bringing Lithium Production Back to America | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy A Material Change: Bringing Lithium Production Back to America A Material Change: Bringing Lithium Production Back to America June 29, 2012 - 5:34pm Addthis The Rockwood Lithium manufacturing facility in Kings Mountain, North Carolina. | Photo courtesy of Rockwood Lithium. The Rockwood Lithium manufacturing facility in Kings Mountain, North Carolina. | Photo courtesy of Rockwood Lithium. Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Between 1980 and

  6. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles The purpose of this project was for Seeo to develop a high energy lithium based technology with targets of over 500 Wh/l and 325 Wh/kg. Seeo would leverage the work already achieved with its unique proprietary solid polymer DryLyteTM technology in cells which had a specific

  7. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  8. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  9. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  10. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  11. Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) produced its first plasma in September, 2008. The new device will continue the promising, innovative work...

  12. Multilayer Graphene-Silicon Structures for Lithium Ion Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multilayer Graphene-Silicon Structures for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Lawrence Berkeley ... anodes for advanced half and full lithium-ion cells," Nano Energy, August 27, 2011. ...

  13. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Studies on Lithium Manganese Rich MNC Composite Cathodes ... Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials

  14. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2011

  15. Electrical Detector for Liquid Lithium Leaks Around Demountable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrical Detector for Liquid Lithium Leaks Around Demountable Pipe Joints This system is designed to detect leaks of liquid lithium from around demountable pipe joints. ...

  16. Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production Expansion of Novolyte Capacity for Lithium Ion Electrolyte Production FY 2012

  17. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-02-07

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  18. High Rate and Stable Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cycling of Lithium Metal Anode Coulombic efficiency (CE) of Li platingstripping is > 99.1% in concentrated LiFSI-DME electrolyte Scientific Achievement Lithium metal is an ...

  19. Surface-Modified Active Materials for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Materials for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory ... Berkeley Lab researcher Gao Liu has developed a new fabrication technique for lithium ion ...

  20. Nanotube composite anode materials improve lithium-ion battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improve lithium-ion battery performance (ANL-09-034) Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Rechargeable lithium-ion ...

  1. COLLOQUIUM: The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) Dr. Richard Majeski Princeton University Presentation: Office presentation icon Presentation The Lithium Tokamak ...

  2. Solid Lithium Ion Conducting Electrolytes Suitable for Manufacturing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Ion Conducting Electrolytes Suitable for Manufacturing Processes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThe lithium ...

  3. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations Review of Oak Ridge process and QC activities by David Wood, ...

  4. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  5. Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) produced its first plasma in September, 2008. The new device will continue the promising, innovative work ...

  6. Surface-Modified Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Copper Current Collector for Lithium Ion Battery Anode Lawrence Berkeley National ... the adhesion of anode laminate to copper current collectors in lithium ion batteries. ...

  7. Improved Lithium-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for Neutron Detection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improved Lithium-Loaded Liquid Scintillators for Neutron Detection Oak Ridge National ... A liquid scintillator with a substantially increased lithium weight was developed by ORNL ...

  8. High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery Lawrence ... have increased the power performance of lithium ion batteries by over 20 percent by ...

  9. Tritium Behavior in Lead Lithium Eutectic (LLE) at Low Tritium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Behavior in Lead Lithium Eutectic (LLE) at Low Tritium Partial Pressure Tritium Behavior in Lead Lithium Eutectic (LLE) at Low Tritium Partial Pressure Presentation from the 33rd ...

  10. Layered Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes for Lithium Cells and Batteries Technology available for licensing: Layered lithium metal oxide compounds for ultra-high-capacity, rechargeable cathodes Lowers cost to ...

  11. Novel Redox Shuttles for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: Electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles (electron transporters) for lithium-ion batteries ...

  12. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for licensing: A new class of intermetallic material that can be used as a negative electrode for nonaqueous lithium ...

  13. simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode - Sandia Energy Energy ... simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode HomeTag:simulate the ...

  14. Researchers Create Transparent Lithium-Ion Battery - Joint Center...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Researchers Create Transparent Lithium-Ion Battery Stanford and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory researchers have invented a transparent lithium-ion battery that is also highly ...

  15. Etna Resources soon to be Pan American Lithium | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Etna Resources soon to be Pan American Lithium Jump to: navigation, search Name: Etna Resources (soon to be Pan American Lithium) Place: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Zip:...

  16. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  17. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications Presentation given by...

  19. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

  20. China Lithium Energy Electric Vehicle Investment Group CLEEVIG...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lithium Energy Electric Vehicle Investment Group CLEEVIG Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Lithium Energy Electric Vehicle Investment Group (CLEEVIG) Place: Beijing, China...

  1. Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Title Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Publication Type Miscellaneous Year of Publication 2014...

  2. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  3. Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Title Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013...

  4. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-01-01

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  5. Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing agent A lithium based electrochemical cell system includes a positive electrode; a negative electrode; an ...

  6. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries ...

  7. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes (Patent) ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium ion batteries with titaniagraphene anodes Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to ...

  8. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-IonBattery Electrodes Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen ...

  9. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2013 DOE ...

  10. Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composite Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries Technology available for ... of lithium layers by transition metal ions. PDF icon compositeelectrodesforlibatteries

  11. Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time - Joint...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2012, Videos Scientists Probe Lithium-Sulfur Batteries in Real Time Lithium-sulfur batteries are a promising technology that could some day power electric vehicles. Scientists ...

  12. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage Program is ...

  13. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the ...

  14. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Title: Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Functional electrolyte solvents include ...

  15. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    manufacturing process will be developed for high-energy-density lithium batteries. ... Advance Patent Waiver W(A)2012-034 Block Copolymer Separators for Lithium Batteries 2014 ...

  16. Understanding Lithium-Sulfur Batteries at the Molecular Level...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 17, 2015, Accomplishments Understanding Lithium-Sulfur Batteries at the Molecular Level Conceived some 40 years ago, the lithium-sulfur battery can store, in theory, ...

  17. Beyond Lithium-Ion Batteries - Joint Center for Energy Storage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries beyondlithiumionbatterisaudio JCESR Director George Crabtree and Deputy Director Jeff Chamberlain discuss how JCESR will go beyond lithium ion batteries ...

  18. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes Title: Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes The present invention relates to non-aqueous electrolytes ...

  19. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries (Technical Report...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries We have been investigating three primary areas ...

  20. Solid-state lithium battery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. ...

  1. Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Modification Agents Increase Safety, Security of Lithium-Ion Batteries New Process to Modify the Surface of the Active Material Used in Lithium-Ion Batteries Argonne ...

  2. Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Title: Functional electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries Functional electrolyte solvents include compounds having at least one ...

  3. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Title: Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Methods for making composite anodes, such as macroporous composite ...

  4. Nanocomposite Carbon/Tin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanocomposite CarbonTin Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence Berkeley National ... Applications and Industries Anodes for lithium ion batteries More InformationFOR MORE ...

  5. Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Novel Electrolyte Enables Stable Graphite Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries Lawrence ... Coulombic Efficiency for Lithium Ion Batteries," Journal of the Electrochemical ...

  6. Organosilicon-Based Electrolytes for Long-Life Lithium Primary...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Long-Life Lithium Primary Batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Organosilicon-Based Electrolytes for Long-Life Lithium Primary Batteries This report describes ...

  7. Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries (Patent)...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Title: Methods for making anodes for lithium ion batteries Methods for making composite anodes, ...

  8. Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Negative Electrodes Improve Safety in Lithium Cells and Batteries Argonne National ... To help improve the stability and safety of lithium-ion batteries, Argonne researchers ...

  9. Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Data Explorer Search Results Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes Title: Long life lithium batteries with stabilized electrodes The present invention relates to ...

  10. Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intermetallic Electrodes Improve Safety and Performance in Lithium-ion Batteries Argonne ... Summary Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have become the battery of choice for ...

  11. Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Longer Life Lithium Ion Batteries with Silicon Anodes Lawrence Berkeley National ... Researchers have developed a new technology to advance the life of lithium-ion batteries. ...

  12. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias; Liu, Jun

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  13. Superlattices Patterned by Polymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Superlattices Patterned by Polymers Superlattices Patterned by Polymers Print Wednesday, 30 March 2016 13:31 Scientists have shown that self-assembled superlattices, made up of nanoparticles with polymer chains grafted onto their surfaces ("hairy nanoparticles," or polymer "brushes"), can be tailored to exhibit desired characteristics for applications ranging from nano- to biotechnology. Such multicomponent polymer-nanoparticle composites represent an important class of

  14. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  15. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebanoff, Lennie

    2007-09-01

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  16. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-30

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  17. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Godshall, Ned A.; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  18. Imaging Heterogeneous Ion Transfer: Lithium Ion Quantification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 24, 2014, Research Highlights Imaging Heterogeneous Ion Transfer: Lithium Ion Quantification using Mercury Amalgams as In Situ Electrochemical Probes in Nonaqueous Media ...

  19. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2013-10-29

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  20. Categorical Exclusion 4497: Lithium Wet Chemistry Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion Detennination Form Proposed Action Tills: Lithium W@t Chemistry Project (4597) Program or Fild Oftke: Y-12 Site Office L&cationfs)...

  1. Categorical Exclusion 4577: Lithium Isotope Separation & Enrichment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Isotope Separation & Enrichment Technologies (4577) Program or Field Office: Y-12 Site Office Location(s) (CityCountyState): Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee...

  2. ELECTROCHROMIC NICKEL OXIDE SIMULTANEOUSLY DOPED WITH LITHIUM...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Events Return to Search ELECTROCHROMIC NICKEL OXIDE SIMULTANEOUSLY DOPED WITH LITHIUM AND A METAL DOPANT United States Patent Application *** PATENT GRANTED ***...

  3. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Cyclic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and ester solvents coordinate Li+ cations in electrolyte solutions for lithium batteries. One approach to gleaning significant insight into these interactions is to examine...

  4. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. Inventors: ...

  5. Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Lithium-Ion Batteries Predictive computer models for ... Technology Marketing SummaryDesign. Build. Test. Break. Repeat. Developing batteries is an ...

  6. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: ... Improving charge time and these other battery characteristics could significantly expand ...

  7. Lithium Air Electrodes - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Air Electrodes Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology A comparison chart illustrates that Li-Air electrodes offer the highest energy ...

  8. Lithium electrodeposition dynamics in aprotic electrolyte observed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrodeposited metallic lithium is an ideal negative battery electrode, but nonuniform microstructure evolution during cycling leads to degradation and safety issues. A better ...

  9. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-01-14

    Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the interactive function of all components at mesoscale. Fundamental understanding of mesoscale phenomenon sets the basis for innovative designing of new materials. Here we report the achievement and origin of a significant performance enhancement of electrode for lithium ion batteries based on Si nanoparticles wrapped with conductive polymer. This new material is in marked contrast with conventional material, which exhibit fast capacity fade. In-situ TEM unveils that the enhanced cycling stability of the conductive polymer-Si composite is associated with mesoscale concordant function of Si nanoparticles and the conductive polymer. Reversible accommodation of the volume changes of Si by the conductive polymer allows good electrical contact between all the particles during the cycling process. In contrast, the failure of the conventional Si-electrode is probed to be the inadequate electrical contact.

  10. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  11. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  12. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom

    2012-01-01

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  13. Shape memory polymers (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    New shape memory polymer compositions, methods for synthesizing new shape memory polymers, and apparatus comprising an actuator and a shape memory polymer wherein the shape ...

  14. Mechanical Deformation of a Lithium-Metal Anode Due to a Very Stiff Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-05-21

    This work builds on the two-dimensional model presented by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc., 159, A1615 (2012)1, which captures the movement of lithium metal at the negative electrode during cycling in a Li-metal/LiCoO2 cell. In this paper, the separator is modeled as a dendrite-inhibiting polymer separator with an elastic modulus of 16 GPa. The separator resists the movement of lithium through the generation of stresses in the cell. These stresses affect the negative electrode through two mechanisms altering the thermodynamics of the negative electrode and deforming the negative electrode mechanically. From this analysis, we find that the dendrite-inhibiting separator causes plastic and elastic deformation of the lithium at the negative electrode which flattens the electrode considerably when compared to the liquid-electrolyte case. This flattening of the negative electrode causes only very slight differences in the local state of charge in the positive electrode. When comparing the magnitude of the effects flattening the negative electrode, we find that the plastic deformation plays a much larger role than either the pressure-modified reaction kinetics or elastic deformation. This is due to the low yield strength of the lithium metal, which limits the stresses such that they have only a small effect on the reaction kinetics. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely that the next step will be accomplished through a combination of joint venture partnering and licensing of the technology.

  16. Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from aluminum-based hydride materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Balema, Viktor P.

    2004-08-10

    The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is mechanically processed in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pure gaseous hydrogen. Unlike previous methods, hydrogen may be obtained from the solid material without heating, and without the addition of a solvent during processing. The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous hydrogen as a fuel.

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamics-Aided Analysis of a Hydride Vapor Phase

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Epitaxy Reactor (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Computational Fluid Dynamics-Aided Analysis of a Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computational Fluid Dynamics-Aided Analysis of a Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Reactor Authors: Schulte, Kevin L. ; Simon, John ; Roy, Abhra ; Reedy, Robert C. ; Young, David L. ; Kuech, Thomas F. ; Ptak, Aaron J. Publication Date: 2016-01-15 OSTI Identifier: 1233143 Report Number(s): NREL/JA-5J00-64594 Journal ID:

  18. Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1999-01-01

    A silica embedded metal hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made via the following process: A quantity of fumed silica is blended with water to make a paste. After adding metal hydride particles, the paste is dried to form a solid. According to one embodiment of the invention, the solid is ground into granules for use of the product in hydrogen storage. Alternatively, the paste can be molded into plates or cylinders and then dried for use of the product as a hydrogen filter. Where mechanical strength is required, the paste can be impregnated in a porous substrate or wire network.

  19. White Paper Summary of 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sindelar, R.; Louthan, M.; PNNL, B.

    2015-05-29

    This white paper recommends that ASTM International develop standards to address the potential impact of hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloys. The need for such standards was apparent during the 2nd ASTM International Workshop on Hydrides in Zirconium Alloy Cladding and Assembly Components, sponsored by ASTM International Committee C26.13 and held on June 10-12, 2014, in Jackson, Wyoming. The potentially adverse impacts of hydrogen and hydrides on the long term performance of irradiated zirconium-alloy cladding on used fuel were shown to depend on multiple factors such as alloy chemistry and processing, irradiation and post irradiation history, residual and applied stresses and stress states, and the service environment. These factors determine the hydrogen content and hydride morphology in the alloy, which, in turn, influence the response of the alloy to the thermo-mechanical conditions imposed (and anticipated) during storage, transport and disposal of used nuclear fuel. Workshop presentations and discussions showed that although hydrogen/hydride induced degradation of zirconium alloys may be of concern, the potential for occurrence and the extent of anticipated degradation vary throughout the nuclear industry because of the variations in hydrogen content, hydride morphology, alloy chemistry and irradiation conditions. The tools and techniques used to characterize hydrides and hydride morphologies and their impacts on material performance also vary. Such variations make site-to-site comparisons of test results and observations difficult. There is no consensus that a single material or system characteristic (e.g., reactor type, burnup, hydrogen content, end-of life stress, alloy type, drying temperature, etc.) is an effective predictor of material response during long term storage or of performance after long term storage. Multi-variable correlations made for one alloy may not represent the behavior of another alloy exposed to identical conditions and the material responses to thermo-mechanical exposures will be different depending on the materials and systems used. The discussions at the workshop showed several gaps in the standardization of processes and techniques necessary to assess the long term performance of irradiated zirconium alloy cladding during dry storage and transport. The development of, and adherence to, standards to help bridge these gaps will strengthen the technical basis for long term storage and post-storage operations, provide consistency across the nuclear industry, maximize the value of most observations, and enhance the understanding of behavioral differences among alloys. The need for, and potential benefits of, developing the recommended standards are illustrated in the various sections of this report.

  20. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  1. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  2. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  3. Impact of Lithium Availability on Vehicle Electrification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.

    2011-07-01

    This presentation discusses the relationship between electric drive vehicles and the availability of lithium.

  4. 2015 Market Research Report on Global Niobium Oxalate Lithium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Niobium Oxalate Lithium Industry Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  5. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  6. Polymer gel molds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walls, Claudia A.; Nunn, Stephen D.; Janney, Mark A.; McMillan, April D.; Kirby, Glen H.

    2002-01-01

    A polymer gel is formed into a mold defining a preselected shape. A flowable composition may be formed into a preselected shape via contact with the polymer gel mold.

  7. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  8. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco

  9. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behl, W.K.; Chin, D.T.

    1988-02-08

    This invention relates in general to a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery and, in particular, to an electrolyte additive for such a battery that provides overcharge protection. Rechargeable lithium-organic electrolyte batteries are being developed to provide low-cost, high-energy-density power sources for communication, night vision and various other Army applications. Typically, a rechargeable lithium organic electrolyte battery includes a lithium anode, a cathode including compounds such as titanium disulfide, molybdenum oxide, molybdenum sulfide, vanadium oxide, vanadium sulfide, chromium oxide, etc an electrolyte solution including an inorganic lithium salt such as lithium hexafluoroarsenate, lithium perchlorate, etc.

  10. Insulating polymer concrete

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schorr, H. Peter; Fontana, Jack J.; Steinberg, Meyer

    1987-01-01

    A lightweight insulating polymer concrete formed from a lightweight closed cell aggregate and a water resistance polymeric binder.

  11. Draft of M2 Report on Integration of the Hybrid Hydride Model into INL's MBM Framework for Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikare, Veena; Weck, Philippe F.; Schultz, Peter A.; Clark, Blythe; Glazoff, Michael; Homer, Eric

    2014-07-01

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding. While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. This document demonstrates a basic hydride precipitation model that is built on a recently developed hybrid Potts-phase field model that combines elements of Potts-Monte Carlo and the phase-field models. The model capabilities are demonstrated along with the incorporation of the starting microstructure, thermodynamics of the Zr-H system and the hydride formation mechanism.

  12. First Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Mei-Yin

    2014-09-29

    Complex metal hydrides are believed to be one of the most promising materials for developing hydrogen storage systems that can operate under desirable conditions. At the same time, these are also a class of materials that exhibit intriguing properties. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to study the fundamental properties of these materials.

  13. Project Profile: Low-Cost Metal Hydride Thermal Energy Storage System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    -- This project is inactive -- The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, is collaborating with Curtin University (CU) to evaluate new metal hydride materials for thermal energy storage (TES) that meet the SunShot cost and performance targets for TES systems.

  14. Internal hydriding in irradiated defected Zircaloy fuel rods: A review (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, J C

    1987-10-01

    Although not a problem in recent commercial power reactors, including the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor, internal hydriding of Zircaloy cladding was a persistent cause of gross cladding failures during the 1960s. It occurred in the fuel rods of water-cooled nuclear power reactors that had a small cladding defect. This report summarizes the experimental findings, causes, mechanisms, and methods of minimizing internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods. Irradiation test data on the different types of defected fuel rods, intentionally fabricated defected and in-pile operationally defected rods, are compared. Significant factors affecting internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods (defect hole size, internal and external sources of hydrogen, Zircaloy cladding surface properties, nickel alloy contamination of Zircaloy, the effect of heat flux and fluence) are discussed. Pertinent in-pile and out-of-pile test results from Bettis and other laboratories are used as a data base in constructing a qualitative model which explains hydrogen generation and distribution in Zircaloy cladding of defected water-cooled reactor fuel rods. Techniques for minimizing internal hydride failures in Zircaloy-clad fuel rods are evaluated.

  15. Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-03-01

    A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

  16. Neutron diffraction studies of a four-coordinated hydride in near square-planar geometry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liao, Jian -Hong; Dhayal, Rajendra Singh; Wang, Xiaoping; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean -Yves; Liu, C. W.

    2014-10-07

    The structure of a nanospheric polyhydrido copper cluster, [Cu20(H)11{S2P(OiPr)2}9], was determined by single-crystal neutron diffraction. Cu20 cluster consists of an elongated triangular orthobicupola constructed from 18 Cu atoms that encapsulate a [Cu2H5}3- ion in the center with an exceptionally short Cu-Cu distance. The eleven hydrides in the cluster display three different coordination modes to the Cu atoms: Six μ3-hydrides in pyramidal geometry, two μ4-hydrides in tetrahedral cavity, and three μ4-hydrides in an unprecedented near square-planar geometry. The neutron data set was collected on a small crystal of the size 0.20 mm x 0.50 mm x 0.65 mm for seven daysmore » using the Spallation Neutron Source TOPAZ single-crystal time-of-flight Laue diffractometer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Furthermore, the final R-factor is 8.64% for 16014 reflections.« less

  17. Trace Water Catalyzes Lithium Peroxide Electrochemistry - Joint Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Research June 19, 2014, Research Highlights Trace Water Catalyzes Lithium Peroxide Electrochemistry Reaction cycle for reduction of di-oxygen by lithium and water to lithium peroxide on single crystal gold surface. Scientific Achievement Water at ppm levels catalyzes the conversion of lithium superoxide (LiO2) to lithium peroxide (Li2O2) by the reaction cycle shown. Because water is not consumed in the cycle, trace amounts leverage large effects. Significance and Impact Trace

  18. Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strong Lithium Polysulfide Chemisorption on Electroactive Sites of Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Composites For High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes Despite the high

  19. Process for recovering tritium from molten lithium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maroni, Victor A.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium tritide (LiT) is extracted from molten lithium metal that has been exposed to neutron irradiation for breeding tritium within a thermonuclear or fission reactor. The extraction is performed by intimately contacting the molten lithium metal with a molten lithium salt, for instance, lithium chloride - potassium chloride eutectic to distribute LiT between the salt and metal phases. The extracted tritium is recovered in gaseous form from the molten salt phase by a subsequent electrolytic or oxidation step.

  20. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian; Nguyen, Vinh

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  1. Electrolytic method for the production of lithium using a lithium-amalgam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Krikorian, Oscar H.; Homsy, Robert V.

    1979-01-01

    A method for recovering lithium from its molten amalgam by electrolysis of the amalgam in an electrolytic cell containing as a molten electrolyte a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of two or more alkali metal halides, preferably alkali metal halides selected from lithium iodide, lithium chloride, potassium iodide and potassium chloride. A particularly suitable molten electrolyte is a fused-salt consisting essentially of a mixture of at least three components obtained by modifying an eutectic mixture of LiI-KI by the addition of a minor amount of one or more alkali metal halides. The lithium-amalgam fused-salt cell may be used in an electrolytic system for recovering lithium from an aqueous solution of a lithium compound, wherein electrolysis of the aqueous solution in an aqueous cell in the presence of a mercury cathode produces a lithium amalgam. The present method is particularly useful for the regeneration of lithium from the aqueous reaction products of a lithium-water-air battery.

  2. Modeling Lithium Movement over Multiple Cycles in a Lithium-Metal Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-04-11

    This paper builds on the work by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem., 159, A1615 (2012)], where a model of a lithium-metal battery with a LiyCoO2 positive electrode was created in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. In this paper, the model is expanded to study the movement of lithium along the lithium-metal anode over multiple cycles. From this model, it is found that when a low percentage of lithium at the negative electrode is utilized, the movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface reaches a quasi steady state after multiple cycles. This steady state is affected by the slope of the open-circuit-potential function in the positive electrode, the rate of charge and discharge, the depth of discharge, and the length of the rest periods. However, when a high percent of the lithium at the negative electrode is utilized during cycling, the movement does not reach a steady state and pinching can occur, where the lithium nearest the negative tab becomes progressively thinner after cycling. This is another nonlinearity that leads to a progression of the movement of lithium over multiple cycles. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society.

  3. Effect of delivery condition on desorption rate of ZrCo metal hydride bed for fusion fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, H.G.; Yun, S.H.; Chung, D.; Oh, Y.H.; Chang, M.H.; Cho, S.; Chung, H.; Song, K.M.

    2015-03-15

    For the safety of fusion fuel cycle, hydrogen isotope gases including tritium are stored as metal hydride form. To satisfy fueling requirement of fusion machine, rapid delivery from metal hydride bed is one of major factors for the development of tritium storage and delivery system. Desorption from metal hydride depends on the operation scenario by pressure and temperature control of the bed. The effect of operation scenario and pump performance on desorption rate of metal hydride bed was experimentally investigated using ZrCo bed. The results showed that the condition of pre-heating scenario before actual delivery of gas affected the delivery performance. Different pumps were connected to desorption line from bed and the effect of pump capacity on desorption rate were also found to be significant. (authors)

  4. Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The report demonstrates a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage.

  5. Lithium-Ion Battery Teacher Workshop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium Ion Battery Teacher Workshop 2012 2 2 screw eyes 2 No. 14 rubber bands 2 alligator clips 1 plastic gear font 2 steel axles 4 nylon spacers 2 Pitsco GT-R Wheels 2 Pitsco ...

  6. Y-12 begins to separate lithium isotopes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    begins to separate lithium isotopes During the years from 1946 through the early 1950s, Y-12 continued to expand as needed to meet the demand for a growing primary mission of...

  7. Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More Like This Return to Search Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant United States Patent Patent Number: 8,687,261 Issued: April 1,...

  8. Shock Induced Birefringence in Lithium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holmes, N C

    2001-06-01

    We have used an ellipsometer to measure the birefringence of lithium fluoride in shock compression experiments. In previous x-ray diffraction experiments, single crystal [100] LiF has been reported to remain cubic at moderate pressures.

  9. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  10. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Kahaian, Arthur J.; Kim, Jeom-Soo

    2008-04-15

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  11. Cathode material for lithium batteries (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material. Inventors: Park, Sang-Ho ; Amine, Khalil Issue Date: 2015-01-13 ...

  12. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  13. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, H.; Vangerow, J. von; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.; Bogomolov, A. S.; Baklanov, A. V.; Reich, D. M.; Skomorowski, W.; Koch, C. P.

    2015-01-28

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li{sup +} and LiI{sup +} ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V{sub XA} = 650(20) cm{sup −1}. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  14. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  15. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  16. Electrode for a lithium cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  17. Effect of additives on lithium cycling efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirai, Toshiro; Yoshimatsu, Isamu; Yamaki, J. )

    1994-09-01

    Lithium cycling efficiency was evaluated for LiAsF[sub 6]-ethylene carbonate/2-methyltetrahydrofuran mixed-solvent electrolyte (LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF) with several additives: tetraalkylammonium chlorides with a long n-alkyl chain and three methyl groups. The ammonium chlorides with n-alkyl group longer than n-C[sub 12]H[sub 25]- increased lithium cycling efficiency. Cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) produced the best improvement in lithium cycling efficiency. A figure of merit (FOM) of lithium for 0.01 M CTAC was 46, which was 1.5 times the FOM for the corresponding additive-free electrolyte. The LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF with CTAC showed an increase in FOM with stack pressure, but the effect was less than that for the additive-free LiAsF[sub 6]-EC/2MeTHF. Scanning electron microscope observation showed that the addition of CTAC decreased the needle-like lithium deposition and increased particulate lithium deposition. This deposition morphology may be the main cause of the increase in FOM. The additive had no effect on rate capability for cell cycling at 3 mA/cm[sup 2] discharge and 1 mA/cm[sup 2] charge.

  18. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Littrell, Ken; Parish, Chad M

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distributionmore » of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.« less

  19. The influence of surface morphology and oxide microstructure on the nucleation and growth of uranium hydride on alpha uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Hawley, M.E.; Brown, G.W.

    1998-12-31

    While the bulk kinetics of the uranium-hydrogen reaction are well understood, the mechanisms underlying the initial nucleation of uranium hydride on uranium remain controversial. In this study, the authors have employed environmental cell optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy, (AFM) in an attempt to relate the structure of the surface and the microstructure of the substrate with the susceptibility and site of hydride nucleation. Samples have been investigated with varying grain size, inclusion (carbide) concentration, and thermal history. There is a clear correlation to heat treatment immediately prior to hydrogen exposure. Susceptibility to hydride formation also appears to be related to impurities in the uranium. The oxidized surface is very complex, exhibiting wide variations in thickness and topography between samples, between grains in the same sample, and within individual grains. It is, however, very difficult to relate this fine scale variability to the relatively sparse hydride initiation sites. Therefore, the surface oxide layer itself does not appear to control the sites where hydride attack is initiated, although it must play a role in the induction period prior to hydride initiation.

  20. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong; Qian, Shuo; Littrell, Ken; Parish, Chad M; Plummer, Lee K

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.

  1. Superlattices Patterned by Polymers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    grafted onto their surfaces ("hairy nanoparticles," or polymer "brushes"), can be tailored to exhibit desired characteristics for applications ranging from nano- to biotechnology. ...

  2. Polymer Engineering Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... * DEA is suitable for online- measurements of phase transitions in composite manufacturing Conclusions Summary Polymer Engineering Center University of Wisconsin-Madison Prof. ...

  3. Synthesis, NMR spectra, and structure of rhodium hydride complexes with Rh-Sn bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krut'ko, B.P.; Permin, A.B.; Petrosyan, V.S.; Reutov, O.A.

    1985-06-20

    The authors study the hydride complexes using Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectroscopy. The spectra were taken in a pulse mode on a Varian FT-80A spectrometer equipped with a wideband system at 29.66 and 79.54 MHz. The Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectral parameters for a solution of the complex (Bu/sub 4/N)/sub 3/ (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) in CD/sub 3/CN are shown, the spectra show that the (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sup 3 -/ anion has octahedral structure with four equatorial and one axial Rh-Sn bonds. New rhodium hydride complexes with general formula (R/sub 4/N)/sub 3/(HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) were synthesized.

  4. In-bed measurement of tritium loading in process metal hydride beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nobile, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Replacement Tritium Facility at Savannah River Plant will make extensive use of metal hydride technology for the storage, pumping, isotopic separation, and compression of hydrogen isotopes. Two options were considered for routine accountability of tritium stored in metal hydride beds. One option was to use standard P-V-T-mass spectrometry techniques after desorption of storage beds to tanks of known volume. The second option was to develop a technique for direct measurement of bed loading. It was thought that such a technique would be more rapid and would account for heel, although some accuracy would be lost.The static nitrogen and flowing nitrogen methods were considered for this option. The flowing nitrogen method was eventually selected because it was insensitive to bed physical properties and isotopic gas composition, as well as being more accurate and easier to automate.

  5. In-bed accountability of tritium in production scale metal hydride storage beds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    1995-10-01

    An `in-bed accountability` (IBA) flowing gas calorimetric measurement method has been developed and implemented to eliminate the need to remove tritium from production scale metal hydride storage beds for inventory measurement purposes. Six-point tritium IBA calibration curves have been completed for two, 390 gram tritium metal hydride storage beds. The calibration curves for the two tritium beds are similar to those obtained from the `cold` test program. Tritium inventory errors at the 95 percent confidence level ranged from {+-} 7.3 to 8.6 grams for the cold test results compared to {+-} 4.2 to 7.5 grams obtained for the two tritium calibrated beds. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. High Resolution Neutron Radiography and Tomography of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Ray, Holly B; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Yan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Neutron radiography for hydrogen analysis was performed with several Zircaloy-4 cladding samples with controlled hydrogen concentrations up to 1100 ppm. Hydrogen charging was performed in a process tube that was heated to facilitate hydrogen absorption by the metal. A correlation between the hydrogen concentration in the hydrided tubes and the neutron intensity was established, by which hydrogen content can be determined precisely in a small area (55 m x 55 m). Radiography analysis was also performed to evaluate the heating rate and its correlation with the hydrogen distribution through hydrided materials. In addition to radiography analysis, tomography experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 tube samples to study the local hydrogen distribution. Through tomography analysis a 3D reconstruction of the tube was evaluated in which an uneven hydrogen distribution in the circumferential direction can be observed.

  7. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.E.

    2005-07-15

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains on internal 'U-tube' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds.IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95% confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory.Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM.Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  8. In-Bed Accountability Development for a Passively Cooled, Electrically Heated Hydride (PACE) Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KLEIN, JAMES

    2004-10-12

    A nominal 1500 STP-L PAssively Cooled, Electrically heated hydride (PACE) Bed has been developed for implementation into a new Savannah River Site tritium project. The 1.2 meter (four-foot) long process vessel contains an internal ''U-tube'' for tritium In-Bed Accountability (IBA) measurements. IBA will be performed on six, 12.6 kg production metal hydride storage beds. IBA tests were done on a prototype bed using electric heaters to simulate the radiolytic decay of tritium. Tests had gas flows from 10 to 100 SLPM through the U-tube or 100 SLPM through the bed's vacuum jacket. IBA inventory measurement errors at the 95 percent confidence level were calculated using the correlation of IBA gas temperature rise, or (hydride) bed temperature rise above ambient temperature, versus simulated tritium inventory. Prototype bed IBA inventory errors at 100 SLPM were the largest for gas flows through the vacuum jacket: 15.2 grams for the bed temperature rise and 11.5 grams for the gas temperature rise. For a 100 SLPM U-tube flow, the inventory error was 2.5 grams using bed temperature rise and 1.6 grams using gas temperature rise. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA gas temperature rise inventory errors were nominally one to two grams that increased above four grams for flows less than 50 SLPM. For 50 to 100 SLPM U-tube flows, the IBA bed temperature rise inventory errors were greater than the gas temperature rise errors, but similar errors were found for both methods at gas flows of 20, 30, and 40 SLPM. Electric heater IBA tests were done for six production hydride beds using a 45 SLPM U-tube gas flow. Of the duplicate runs performed on these beds, five of the six beds produced IBA inventory errors of approximately three grams: consistent with results obtained in the laboratory prototype tests.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  10. Empirical and physics based mathematical models of uranium hydride decomposition kinetics with quantified uncertainties.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salloum, Maher N.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.

    2013-10-01

    Metal particle beds have recently become a major technique for hydrogen storage. In order to extract hydrogen from such beds, it is crucial to understand the decomposition kinetics of the metal hydride. We are interested in obtaining a a better understanding of the uranium hydride (UH3) decomposition kinetics. We first developed an empirical model by fitting data compiled from different experimental studies in the literature and quantified the uncertainty resulting from the scattered data. We found that the decomposition time range predicted by the obtained kinetics was in a good agreement with published experimental results. Secondly, we developed a physics based mathematical model to simulate the rate of hydrogen diffusion in a hydride particle during the decomposition. We used this model to simulate the decomposition of the particles for temperatures ranging from 300K to 1000K while propagating parametric uncertainty and evaluated the kinetics from the results. We compared the kinetics parameters derived from the empirical and physics based models and found that the uncertainty in the kinetics predicted by the physics based model covers the scattered experimental data. Finally, we used the physics-based kinetics parameters to simulate the effects of boundary resistances and powder morphological changes during decomposition in a continuum level model. We found that the species change within the bed occurring during the decomposition accelerates the hydrogen flow by increasing the bed permeability, while the pressure buildup and the thermal barrier forming at the wall significantly impede the hydrogen extraction.

  11. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE ...

  12. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Our way of life is deeply ... As conventional lithium-ion batteries approach their theoretical energy-storage limits, ...

  13. Physicist Tyler Abrams models lithium erosion in tokamaks | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Physicist Tyler Abrams models lithium erosion in tokamaks By Raphael Rosen March 21, 2016 ... energy to erode the layer of liquid lithium that may be used to coat components that ...

  14. Tritium Behavior in Lead Lithium Eutectic (LLE) at Low Tritium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Behavior in Lead Lithium Eutectic (LLE) at Low Tritium Partial Pressure 33 rd Tritium ... understood. - H Solubility from Lead-Lithium Eutectic (85 at.% Pb and 15 at.% Li), ...

  15. A Method to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium This white paper outlines a method for the removal of tritium and deuterium from liquid lithium. The method is based on rapid or flash ...

  16. Solid-state Inorganic Lithium-Ion Conductors - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Solid-state Inorganic Lithium-Ion Conductors ... milling system for preparation of electrodes for use in a solid state lithium-ion battery. ...

  17. Solar and Lithium Ion Car Race Winners Announced - News Releases...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar and Lithium Ion Car Race Winners Announced May 18, 2013 Ninety-seven teams from 28 ... teams raced solar and lithium ion powered vehicles they designed and built themselves. ...

  18. "Stationary Flowing Liquid Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium System For Pumping Out Atomic Hydrogen Isotopes and Ions" Leonid E. Zakharov and Charles Gentile The system is comprised of a stationary closed loop for liquid lithium flow ...

  19. Electrode Interface Dictates Oxygen Evolution from Lithium Peroxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Lithium Peroxide in Li-O2 Batteries Isolation of the charge reaction from the discharge in Li-O2 cells by utilizing electrodes prefilled with commercial lithium peroxide ...

  20. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Wednesday, 27 February 2013 00:00 Our way of life is deeply ...

  1. Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski This invention is designed to be a subsystem of a device, a tokamak with walls or plasma facing components of liquid lithium. ...

  2. Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic Fusion Devices with Lithium Conditioned Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Walls | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic Fusion Devices with Lithium Conditioned Carbon Walls American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Deuterium Uptake in Magnetic Fusion Devices with Lithium Conditioned Carbon Walls

  3. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  4. Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Nanostructured Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries New Anodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Increase Energy Density Four-Fold...

  5. California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California: Geothermal Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand May 21, 2013 - 5:54pm Addthis Through funding provided by the...

  6. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in ... 8.0.1 show a lower "lowest unoccupied molecular orbital" for the new Berkeley Lab ...

  7. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever ...

  8. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lithium-sulfur cathodes. PDF icon es230cui2015o.pdf More Documents & Publications Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Vehicle Technologies...

  10. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good ...

  11. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide ...

  12. Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of Novel Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with Wide Operating Temperature Range Electrolytes for Use in High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries with ...

  13. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good ...

  14. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries A ...

  15. Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of Lithium PFC Coatings on NSTX Density Control You are accessing a ...

  16. Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. V. Acetonitrile-Lithium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) Mixtures (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. V. Acetonitrile-Lithium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) Mixtures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrolyte Solvation and Ionic Association. V. Acetonitrile-Lithium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) Mixtures Electrolytes with the salt lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) have been evaluated relative to comparable electrolytes with other lithium salts.

  17. Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyung, Yoo-Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2012-05-01

    A lithium based electrochemical cell system includes a positive electrode; a negative electrode; an electrolyte; and a degassing agent.

  18. Process for the production of lithium fluoride detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nink, R.

    1980-08-12

    A lithium fluoride detector for thermoluminescence dosimetry is produced by pulling a doped lithium fluoride monocrystal from the melt. Lithium fluoride powder with titanium added to it is used as starting material and oxygen is incorporated into the lithium fluoride crystal lattice during or after production of the crystal. If titanium dioxide is added to the starting material, the oxygen may be incorporated during production of the crystal by eliminating the oxygen from the titanium dioxide.

  19. Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    metal particles (Patent) | DOEPatents Data Explorer Search Results Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium metal particles Title: Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium metal particles An electroactive composition includes an anodic material; a poly(arylene oxide); and stabilized lithium metal particles; where the stabilized lithium metal particles have a size less than about 200 .mu.m in diameter, are coated with a

  20. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es057_henderson_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic

  1. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  2. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing and ...

  3. Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Electrolytes - R&D for Advanced Lithium Batteries. Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Interfacial Behavior of Electrolytes Electrolytes - ...

  4. Porous polymer media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    Highly crosslinked monolithic porous polymer materials for chromatographic applications. By using solvent compositions that provide not only for polymerization of acrylate monomers in such a fashion that a porous polymer network is formed prior to phase separation but also for exchanging the polymerization solvent for a running buffer using electroosmotic flow, the need for high pressure purging is eliminated. The polymer materials have been shown to be an effective capillary electrochromatographic separations medium at lower field strengths than conventional polymer media. Further, because of their highly crosslinked nature these polymer materials are structurally stable in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents and over a pH range of 2-12.

  5. Lithium electrodeposition dynamics in aprotic electrolyte observed in situ

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    via transmission electron microscopy (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Lithium electrodeposition dynamics in aprotic electrolyte observed in situ via transmission electron microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium electrodeposition dynamics in aprotic electrolyte observed in situ via transmission electron microscopy Electrodeposited metallic lithium is an ideal negative battery electrode, but nonuniform microstructure evolution during cycling leads to

  6. RECOVERY AND SEPARATION OF LITHIUM VALUES FROM SALVAGE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansford, D.L.; Raabe, E.W.

    1963-08-20

    Lithium values can be recovered from an aqueous basic solution by reacting the values with a phosphate salt soluble in the solution, forming an aqueous slurry of the resultant aqueous insoluble lithium phosphate, contacting the slurry with an organic cation exchange resin in the acid form until the slurry has been clarified, and thereafter recovering lithium values from the resin. (AEC)

  7. Reciprocal Lithium-ion Cell with Novel Lithium-Free Cathode and Pre-Lithiated Carbonaceus Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravdel, Boris

    2010-05-19

    Phase I of this program was focused mostly on the testing of pre-lithiated carbonaceous negative-electrode material as the source of the active lithium in lithium-ion cells coupled with "lithium-free" positive-electrode material. The secondary objective was na attempt to determine the ways of developing such as inexpense, stable, and environmentally benign "lithium-free" high-energy cathode material.

  8. Lithium sputtering from lithium-coated plasma facing components in the NSTX

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    divertor (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect sputtering from lithium-coated plasma facing components in the NSTX divertor Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on March 17, 2017 Title: Lithium sputtering from lithium-coated plasma facing components in the NSTX divertor Authors: Scotti, F. ; Soukhanovskii, V. A. ; Ahn, J. -W. ; Bell, R. E. ; Gerhardt, S. P. ; Jaworski, M. A. ; Kaita, R. ; Kugel, H. W. ; McLean, A. G. ; Meier, E. T. ; Podestà, M. ;

  9. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  10. Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-03-29

    The Electrochemical Lithium Ion Battery Performance Model allows for the computer prediction of the basic thermal, electrical, and electrochemical performance of a lithium ion cell with simplified geometry. The model solves governing equations describing the movement of lithium ions within and between the negative and positive electrodes. The governing equations were first formulated by Fuller, Doyle, and Newman and published in J. Electrochemical Society in 1994. The present model solves the partial differential equations governingmore » charge transfer kinetics and charge, species, heat transports in a computationally-efficient manner using the finite volume method, with special consideration given for solving the model under conditions of applied current, voltage, power, and load resistance.« less

  11. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  12. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  13. Soluble porphyrin polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gust, Jr., John Devens; Liddell, Paul Anthony

    2015-07-07

    Porphyrin polymers of Structure 1, where n is an integer (e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or greater) ##STR00001## are synthesized by the method shown in FIGS. 2A and 2B. The porphyrin polymers of Structure 1 are soluble in organic solvents such as 2-MeTHF and the like, and can be synthesized in bulk (i.e., in processes other than electropolymerization). These porphyrin polymers have long excited state lifetimes, making the material suitable as an organic semiconductor for organic electronic devices including transistors and memories, as well as solar cells, sensors, light-emitting devices, and other opto-electronic devices.

  14. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen; Xu, Wu

    2008-01-01

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  15. Electrolytic orthoborate salts for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Tempe, AZ

    2009-05-05

    Orthoborate salts suitable for use as electrolytes in lithium batteries and methods for making the electrolyte salts are provided. The electrolytic salts have one of the formulae (I). In this formula anionic orthoborate groups are capped with two bidentate chelating groups, Y1 and Y2. Certain preferred chelating groups are dibasic acid residues, most preferably oxalyl, malonyl and succinyl, disulfonic acid residues, sulfoacetic acid residues and halo-substituted alkylenes. The salts are soluble in non-aqueous solvents and polymeric gels and are useful components of lithium batteries in electrochemical devices.

  16. Lithium Surface Coatings for Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kugel, H W; Ahn, J -W; Allain, J P; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaye, S; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Wampler, W R

    2008-02-19

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and frequent benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components. Lithium pellet injection on NSTX introduced lithium pellets with masses 1 to 5 mg via He discharges. Lithium coatings have also been applied with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coating were sometimes, but not always seen. These improvements sometimes included decreases plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and ELM frequency, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and periods of MHD quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  17. Pulsed deuterium lithium nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, A.G.

    1980-01-08

    A nuclear reactor that burns hydrogen bomb material 6-lithium deuterotritide to helium in successive microexplosions which are ignited electrically and enclosed by this same molten material, and that permits the conversion of the reaction heat into useful electrical power. A specially-constructed high-current pulse machine is discharged via a thermally-preformed highly conducting path through a mass of the molten salt 6lid1-xtx (0

  18. Lithium pellet production (LiPP): A device for the production of small spheres of lithium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiflis, P.; Andrucyzk, D.; McGuire, M.; Curreli, D.; Ruzic, D. N. [Center for Plasma Material Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Roquemore, A. L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    With lithium as a fusion material gaining popularity, a method for producing lithium pellets relatively quickly has been developed for NSTX. The Lithium Pellet Production device is based on an injector with a sub-millimeter diameter orifice and relies on a jet of liquid lithium breaking apart into small spheres via the Plateau-Rayleigh instability. A prototype device is presented in this paper and for a pressure difference of {Delta}P= 5 Torr, spheres with diameters between 0.91 < D < 1.37 mm have been produced with an average diameter of D= 1.14 mm, which agrees with the developed theory. Successive tests performed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Wood's metal have confirmed the dependence of sphere diameter on pressure difference as predicted.

  19. Lithium Polysulfidophosphates: A Family of Lithium-Conducting Sulfur-Rich Compounds for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhan; Liu, Zengcai; Fu, Wujun; Dudney, Nancy J; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-01-01

    Given the great potential for improving the energy density of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries by a factor of 5, a breakthrough in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries will have a dramatic impact in a broad scope of energy related fields. Conventional Li-S batteries that use liquid electrolytes are intrinsically short-lived with low energy efficiency. The challenges stem from the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of elemental sulfur and its discharge products. We report herein lithium polysulfidophosphates (LPSP), a family of sulfur-rich compounds, as the enabler of long-lasting and energy-efficient Li-S batteries. LPSP have ionic conductivities of 3.0 10-5 S cm-1 at 25 oC, which is 8 orders of magnitude higher than that of Li2S (~10-13 S cm-1). The high Li-ion conductivity of LPSP is the salient characteristic of these compounds that impart the excellent cycling performance to Li-S batteries. In addition, the batteries are configured in an all-solid state that promises the safe cycling of high-energy batteries with metallic lithium anodes.

  20. Sulfonated polyphenylene polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cornelius, Christopher J.; Fujimoto, Cy H.; Hickner, Michael A.

    2007-11-27

    Improved sulfonated polyphenylene compositions, improved polymer electrolyte membranes and nanocomposites formed there from for use in fuel cells are described herein. The improved compositions, membranes and nanocomposites formed there from overcome limitations of Nafion.RTM. membranes.