National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydride lithium polymer

  1. Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and beryllium hydride polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birkenheuer, Uwe

    Ab initio treatment of electron correlations in polymers: Lithium hydride chain and berylliumH and beryllium hydride Be2H4 . First, employing a Wannier-function-based approach, the systems are studiedH and the beryllium hydride polymer Be2H4 . As a simple, but due to its ionic character, non- trivial model polymer

  2. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  3. Lithium uptake data of lithium imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-12-04

    Batch tests of lithium imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium from synthetic brines at T=45C. Initial selectivity data are included

  4. Investigation of Cracked Lithium Hydride Reactor Vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    bird, e.l.; mustaleski, t.m.

    1999-06-01

    Visual examination of lithium hydride reactor vessels revealed cracks that were adjacent to welds, most of which were circumferentially located in the bottom portion of the vessels. Sections were cut from the vessels containing these cracks and examined by use of the metallograph, scanning electron microscope, and microprobe to determine the cause of cracking. Most of the cracks originated on the outer surface just outside the weld fusion line in the base material and propagated along grain boundaries. Crack depths of those examined sections ranged from {approximately}300 to 500 {micro}m. Other cracks were reported to have reached a maximum depth of 1/8 in. The primary cause of cracking was the creation of high tensile stresses associated with the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion between the filler metal and the base metal during operation of the vessel in a thermally cyclic environment. This failure mechanism could be described as creep-type fatigue, whereby crack propagation may have been aided by the presence of brittle chromium carbides along the grain boundaries, which indicates a slightly sensitized microstructure.

  5. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  6. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  7. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  8. A mechanistic study of aryl halide reactions with lithium aluminum hydride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Fu-Fan

    1980-01-01

    A M:"CHA~JISTIC STUDv OF ARYL HALID RHAC IC~JS ' ITH LITHIUM ALUM 'J"M HYDRIDE A Thesis FU-FAJJ CHUI'JG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in nartial fulfillment of the reauirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCI- JC... August Jo80 Major Subject: Chemistry A MECHANISTIC STUDY OF ARYL HALIDE REACTIONS 1'IITH LITHIUM ALUMINUM HYDRIDE A Thesis by FU-FAN CHUNG Approved as to style and content by; (Chairman of Co ittee) (Member) , . 7 1 (Member) (Member) i (Head...

  9. Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Response of Lithium Polymer Batteries to Mechanical Loading Karl Suabedissen1, Christina Peabody2 #12;Outline · Motivation · Battery Structure · Testing and Results · Conclusions #12;Motivation · Lithium polymer batteries are everywhere. · Efforts to create flexible batteries. · Restrictive battery

  10. Polymer Electrolytes for High Energy Density Lithium Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    25, 2008 in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08balsara.pdf More Documents & Publications Polymers For Advanced Lithium Batteries Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced...

  11. Calculation of properties of crystalline lithium hydride using correlated wave function theory S. J. Nolan,1 M. J. Gillan,2,3 D. Alf,2,3,4 N. L. Allan,1 and F. R. Manby1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    Calculation of properties of crystalline lithium hydride using correlated wave function theory S. J, and cohesive energy of lithium hydride are calculated to very high accuracy through a combination of periodic. All calculated properties of lithium hydride and deuteride agree with empirical observations to within

  12. Measurements of Ionic Structure in Shock Compressed Lithium Hydride from Ultrafast X-Ray Thomson Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kritcher, A. L. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Neumayer, P.; Doeppner, T.; Landen, O. L.; Glenzer, S. H. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Brown, C. R. D. [Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); AWE plc., Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Davis, P. [L-399, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Falcone, R. W.; Lee, H. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Wuensch, K. [CFSA, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G. [Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Holst, B.; Redmer, R. [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Physik, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Morse, E. C. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94709 (United States); Pelka, A.; Roth, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-12-11

    We present the first ultrafast temporally, spectrally, and angularly resolved x-ray scattering measurements from shock-compressed matter. The experimental spectra yield the absolute elastic and inelastic scattering intensities from the measured density of free electrons. Laser-compressed lithium-hydride samples are well characterized by inelastic Compton and plasmon scattering of a K-alpha x-ray probe providing independent measurements of temperature and density. The data show excellent agreement with the total intensity and structure when using the two-species form factor and accounting for the screening of ion-ion interactions.

  13. Lithium Polymer (LiPo) Battery Usage Lithium polymer batteries are now being widely used in hobby and UAV applications. They work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Lithium Polymer (LiPo) Battery Usage 1 Lithium polymer batteries are now being widely used in hobby nickel metal and ni-cad batteries. But with this increase in battery life come potential hazards. Use batteries with a battery charger specifically designed for lithium polymer batteries. As an example, you

  14. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-06-30

    A polymer bonded sheet product is described suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance. 1 fig.

  15. Process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A polymer bonded sheet product suitable for use as an electrode in a non-aqueous battery system. A porous electrode sheet is impregnated with a solid polymer electrolyte, so as to diffuse into the pores of the electrode. The composite is allowed to cool, and the electrolyte is entrapped in the porous electrode. The sheet products composed have the solid polymer electrolyte composition diffused into the active electrode material by melt-application of the solid polymer electrolyte composition into the porous electrode material sheet. The solid polymer electrolyte is maintained at a temperature that allows for rapid diffusion into the pores of the electrode. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are formed on current collectors and can be coated with solid polymer electrolyte prior to battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte coating has low resistance.

  16. Recent advances in metal hydrides for clean energy applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2013-06-01

    Metal hydrides are a fascinating class of materials that can be utilized for a surprising variety of clean energy applications, including smart solar collectors, smart windows, sensors, thermal energy storage, and batteries, in addition to their traditional application for hydrogen storage. Over the past decade, research on metal hydrides for hydrogen storage increased due to global governmental incentives and an increased focus on hydrogen storage research for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell operation. Tremendous progress has been made in so-called complex metal hydrides for hydrogen storage applications with the discovery of many new hydrides containing covalently bound complex anions. Many of these materials have applications beyond hydrogen storage and are being investigated for lithium-ion battery separator and anode materials. In this issue of MRS Bulletin , we present the state of the art of key evolving metal-hydride-based clean energy technologies with an outlook toward future needs.

  17. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  18. Surface-Modified Membrane as A Separator for Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jun Young

    This paper describes the fabrication of novel modified polyethylene (PE) membranes using plasma technology to create high-performance and cost-effective separator membranes for practical applications in lithium-ion polymer ...

  19. Self-assembly of conformal polymer electrolyte film for lithium ion microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieber, Christalee

    2007-01-01

    I apply the theory of polar and apolar intermolecular interactions to predict the behavior of combinations of common battery materials, specifically the cathode substrate lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) and the polymer separator ...

  20. Laser Transferable Polymer-Ionic Liquid Separator/Electrolytes for Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Craig B.

    Laser Transferable Polymer-Ionic Liquid Separator/Electrolytes for Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium-Ion characterized by ac-impedance spectroscopy and in lithium- ion microbatteries. Size and weight percent effects be laser transferred onto a substrate to form a solid separator/electrolyte layer for a lithium ion power

  1. Neutron and X-ray scattering experiments on lithium polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    The authors are carrying out structural, dynamical and transport measurements of lithium polymer electrolytes, in order to provide information needed to improve the performance of secondary lithium battery systems. Microscopically, they behave as liquids under conditions of practical interest. Development of batteries based on these materials has focused on rechargeable systems with intercalation/insertion cathodes and lithium or lithium-containing materials as anodes. The electrolytes are generally composites of a polyethylene oxide (PEO) or another modified polyether and a salt such as LiClO{sub 4}, LiAsF{sub 6} or LiCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}. Research on electrolyte materials for lithium batteries has focused on synthesis, characterization, and development of practical devices. Some characterization work has been carried out to determine the properties of the ion polymer and ion interactions, principally through spectroscopic, thermodynamic and transport measurements. It is generally believed that ionic conduction is a property of the amorphous phase of these materials. It is also believed that ion association, ion polymer interactions and local relaxations of the polymer strongly influence the ionic mobility. However, much about the nature of the charge carriers, the ion association processes, and the ion polymer interactions and the role that these play in the ionic conductivity of the electrolytes remains unknown. The authors have initiated a combined experimental and theoretical study of the structure and dynamics of lithium polymer electrolytes. They plan to investigate the effects of the polymer host on ion solvation and the attendant effects of ion pairing, which affect the ionic transport in these systems.

  2. Low density metal hydride foams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maienschein, Jon L. (Oakland, CA); Barry, Patrick E. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed is a low density foam having a porosity of from 0 to 98% and a density less than about 0.67 gm/cc, prepared by heating a mixture of powered lithium hydride and beryllium hydride in an inert atmosphere at a temperature ranging from about 455 to about 490 K for a period of time sufficient to cause foaming of said mixture, and cooling the foam thus produced. Also disclosed is the process of making the foam.

  3. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, T.S.H.; Keller, D.G.; MacFadden, K.O.

    1998-05-12

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be over coated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance. 1 fig.

  4. Continuous process to produce lithium-polymer batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing (Midlothian, VA); Keller, David Gerard (Baltimore, MD); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD)

    1998-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes are extruded with active electrode material in a continuous, one-step process to form composite electrolyte-electrodes ready for assembly into battery cells. The composite electrolyte-electrode sheets are extruded onto current collectors to form electrodes. The composite electrodes, as extruded, are electronically and ionically conductive. The composite electrodes can be overcoated with a solid polymer electrolyte, which acts as a separator upon battery assembly. The interface between the solid polymer electrolyte composite electrodes and the solid polymer electrolyte separator has low resistance.

  5. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2014-04-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

  6. P1.2 -- Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Lithium Polymer NEV Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests hybrid electric, pure electric, and other advanced technology vehicles. As part of this testing, 28 hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are being tested in fleet, dynamometer, and closed track environments. This paper discusses some of the HEV test results, with an emphasis on the battery performance of the HEVs. It also discusses the testing results for a small electric vehicle with a lithium polymer traction battery.

  7. Electrospun nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte for secondary lithium battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmaraj, O.; Rao, B. Nageswara; Jena, Paramananda; Satyanarayana, N., E-mail: nallanis2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry-605014 (India); Venkateswarlu, M. [R and D, Amaraja batteries, Thirupathi-517501 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Hybrid nanocomposite [poly(vinylidene fluoride -co- hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-co-HFP)/magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4})] fibrous polymer membranes were prepared by electrospinning method. The prepared pure and nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membranes were soaked into the liquid electrolyte 1M LiPF{sub 6} in EC: DEC (1:1,v/v). XRD and SEM are used to study the structural and morphological studies of nanocomposite electrospun fibrous polymer membranes. The nanocomposite fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane with 5 wt.% of MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibits high ionic conductivity of 2.80 × 10{sup ?3} S/cm at room temperature. The charge-discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO{sub 2} coin cells composed of the newly prepared nanocomposite [(16 wt.%) PVdF-co-HFP+(5 wt.%) MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}] fibrous polymer electrolyte membrane was also studied and compared with commercial Celgard separator.

  8. Highly Conductive Solvent-Free Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Filler, Zhong Shi and Braja Mandal

    2004-10-21

    In order to obviate the deficiencies of currently used electrolytes in lithium rechargeable batteries, there is a compelling need for the development of solvent-free, highly conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs). The problem will be addressed by synthesizing a new class of block copolymers and plasticizers, which will be used in the formulation of highly conducting electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. The main objective of this Phase-I effort is to determine the efficacy and commercial prospects of new specifically designed SPEs for use in electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV) batteries. This goal will be achieved by preparing the SPEs on a small scale with thorough analyses of their physical, chemical, thermal, mechanical and electrochemical properties. SPEs will play a key role in the formulation of next generation lithium-ion batteries and will have a major impact on the future development of EVs/HEVs and a broad range of consumer products, e.g., computers, camcorders, cell phones, cameras, and power tools.

  9. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    polymer battery, lithium-ion batteries, and lithium-basedElectrolyte For Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Batteries," LithiumK. Ozawa, "Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries with LiCo0 and

  10. Hydride compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Myung, W.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  11. Systematic computational and experimental investigation of lithium-ion transport mechanisms in polyester-based polymer electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Webb, Michael A.; Jung, Yukyung; Pesko, Danielle M.; Savoie, Brett M.; Yamamoto, Umi; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Balsara, Nitash P.; Wang, Zhen -Gang; Miller, III, Thomas F.

    2015-07-10

    Understanding the mechanisms of lithium-ion transport in polymers is crucial for the design of polymer electrolytes. We combine modular synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and molecular simulation to investigate lithium-ion transport in a new family of polyester-based polymers and in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Theoretical predictions of glass-transition temperatures and ionic conductivities in the polymers agree well with experimental measurements. Interestingly, both the experiments and simulations indicate that the ionic conductivity of PEO, relative to the polyesters, is far higher than would be expected from its relative glass-transition temperature. The simulations reveal that diffusion of the lithium cations in the polyesters proceeds viamore »a different mechanism than in PEO, and analysis of the distribution of available cation solvation sites in the various polymers provides a novel and intuitive way to explain the experimentally observed ionic conductivities. This work provides a platform for the evaluation and prediction of ionic conductivities in polymer electrolyte materials.« less

  12. A Simulation Study of the Lithium Ion Transport Mechanism in Ternary Polymer Electrolytes - The Critical Role of the Segmental Mobility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diddo Diddens; Andreas Heuer

    2013-10-01

    We present an extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study of the lithium ion transport in ternary polymer electrolytes consisting of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), lithium-bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI) and the ionic liquid N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (PYR13TFSI). In particular, we focus on two different strategies by which the ternary electrolytes can be devised, namely by (a) adding the ionic liquid to PEO20LiTFSI, and (b) substituting the PEO chains in PEO20LiTFSI by the ionic liquid. In order to grasp the changes of the overall lithium transport mechanism, we employ an analytical, Rouse-based cation transport model (Maitra et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2007, 98, 227802), which has originally been devised for binary PEO-based electrolytes. This model distinguishes three different microscopic transport mechanisms, each quantified by an individual time scale. In the course of our analysis, we extend this mathematical description to account for an entirely new transport mechanism, namely the TFSI-supported diffusion of lithium ions decoupled from the PEO chains, which emerges for certain stoichiometries. We find that the segmental mobility plays a decisive role in PEO-based polymer electrolytes. That is, whereas the addition of the ionic liquid to PEO20LiTFSI plasticizes the polymer network and thus also increases the lithium diffusion, the amount of free, mobile ether oxygens reduces when substituting the PEO chains by the ionic liquid, which compensates the plasticizing effect. In total, our observations allow us to formulate some general principles about the lithium ion transport mechanism in ternary polymer electrolytes. Moreover, our insights also shed light on recent experimental observations (Joost et al., Electrochim. Acta, 2012, 86, 330).

  13. Design Principles for the Use of Electroactive Polymers for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas-Alyea, Karen E.; Newman, John; Chen, Guoying; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Newman, Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries, ch. Modeling ofProtection of Lithium-Ion Batteries Karen E. Thomas-Alyea,protec- tion for lithium-ion batteries. The model shows how

  14. Lithium Ion Transport Mechanism in Ternary Polymer Electrolyte-Ionic Liquid Mixtures - A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diddo Diddens; Andreas Heuer

    2013-02-20

    The lithium transport mechanism in ternary polymer electrolytes, consisting of PEO/LiTFSI and various fractions of the ionic liquid N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide, are investigated by means of MD simulations. This is motivated by recent experimental findings [Passerini et al., Electrochim. Acta 2012, 86, 330-338], which demonstrated that these materials display an enhanced lithium mobility relative to their binary counterpart PEO/LiTFSI. In order to grasp the underlying microscopic scenario giving rise to these observations, we employ an analytical, Rouse-based cation transport model [Maitra at al., PRL 2007, 98, 227802], which has originally been devised for conventional polymer electrolytes. This model describes the cation transport via three different mechanisms, each characterized by an individual time scale. It turns out that also in the ternary electrolytes essentially all lithium ions are coordinated by PEO chains, thus ruling out a transport mechanism enhanced by the presence of ionic-liquid molecules. Rather, the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid contributes to the increased lithium mobility by enhancing the dynamics of the PEO chains and consequently also the motion of the attached ions. Additional focus is laid on the prediction of lithium diffusion coefficients from the simulation data for various chain lengths and the comparison with experimental data, thus demonstrating the broad applicability of our approach.

  15. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery ..Performance of Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery Introduction Assolid state lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery were adhesively

  16. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2006, 163,of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2008, 180,Up of a Lithium-Ion Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources 2009,

  17. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these testing activities for the AVTA, as part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program.

  18. Metal Hydride Hydrogen Storage Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's research on complex metal hydrides targets the development of advanced metal hydride materials including light-weight complex hydrides, destabilized binary hydrides, intermetallic hydrides,...

  19. Hydride compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James R. (Wading River, NY); Salzano, Francis J. (Patchogue, NY)

    1978-01-01

    Method of producing high energy pressurized gas working fluid power from a low energy, low temperature heat source, wherein the compression energy is gained by using the low energy heat source to desorb hydrogen gas from a metal hydride bed and the desorbed hydrogen for producing power is recycled to the bed, where it is re-adsorbed, with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source. In one embodiment, the adsorption-desorption cycle provides a chemical compressor that is powered by the low energy heat source, and the compressor is connected to a regenerative gas turbine having a high energy, high temperature heat source with the recycling being powered by the low energy heat source.

  20. Design Principles for the Use of Electroactive Polymers for Overcharge Protection of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas-Alyea, Karen E.; Newman, John; Chen, Guoying; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    environment of the lithium- ion battery. The model, in bothlithium-ion batteries. The model shows how the cell is transformed upon overcharge from a battery

  1. Plasma synthesis of lithium based intercalation powders for solid polymer electrolyte batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Pink, Robert J. (Pocatello, ID); Nelson, Lee O. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-01-04

    The invention relates to a process for preparing lithium intercalation compounds by plasma reaction comprising the steps of: forming a feed solution by mixing lithium nitrate or lithium hydroxide or lithium oxide and the required metal nitrate or metal hydroxide or metal oxide and between 10-50% alcohol by weight; mixing the feed solution with O.sub.2 gas wherein the O.sub.2 gas atomizes the feed solution into fine reactant droplets, inserting the atomized feed solution into a plasma reactor to form an intercalation powder; and if desired, heating the resulting powder to from a very pure single phase product.

  2. MC-CAM Publications "Allyl Glycidyl Ether-Based Polymer Electrolytes for Room Temperature Lithium Batteries"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Lithium Batteries" Katherine P. Barteau, Martin Wolffs, Nathaniel A. Lynd, Glenn H. Fredrickson, Edward J Nitride/Carbon Microfibers as Efficient and Stable Electrocatalysts for Li­ O2 Batteries" Jihee Park

  3. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode Jun Liu,Modeling of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power SourcesBehavior of a Lithium-Polymer Battery. J. Power Sources

  4. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01

    the solid state thin-film lithium battery S8-ES ( Front EdgeLithium-Ion Polymer Battery ..Mikhaylik, "Lithium-Sulfur Secondary Battery: Chemistry and

  5. Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

    2012-02-01

    In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

  6. Fact #603: December 28, 2009 Where Does Lithium Come From?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lithium ion batteries will be used in many of the upcoming plug-in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles because they are lighter and more powerful than the nickel-metal hydride batteries used in...

  7. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClaine, Andrew W.

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chao-Yang

    Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow W-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a primary lithium/thionyl chloride battery. The model to the first task with important examples of lead-acid,1-3 nickel-metal hydride,4-8 and lithium-based batteries

  9. Destabilization of magnesium hydride through interface engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dam, Bernard

    Destabilization of magnesium hydride through interface engineering Lennard Mooij #12;Destabilization of magnesium hydride through interface engineering PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3 Magnesium hydride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1

  10. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  11. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  12. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  13. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ron, Moshe (Haifa, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Mendelsohn, Marshall H. (Woodridge, IL); Sheft, Irving (Oak Park, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  14. Better Lithium-Ion Batteries Are On The Way From Berkeley Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Lithium-ion Battery on the Way Simulations Reveal How New Polymer Absorbs Eight Times the Lithium of Current Designs September 23, 2011 Paul Preuss,...

  15. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  16. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  17. Dimensionally stable metallic hydride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A stable, metallic hydride composition and a process for making such a composition. The composition comprises a uniformly blended mixture of a metal hydride, kieselguhr, and a ballast metal, all in the form of particles. The composition is made by subjecting a metal hydride to one or more hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles to disintegrate the hydride particles to less than approximately 100 microns in size. The particles are partly oxidized, then blended with the ballast metal and the kieselguhr to form a uniform mixture. The mixture is compressed into pellets and calcined. Preferably, the mixture includes approximately 10 vol. % or more kieselguhr and approximately 50 vol. % or more ballast. Metal hydrides that can be used in the composition include Zr, Ti, V, Nb, Pd, as well as binary, tertiary, and more complex alloys of La, Al, Cu, Ti, Co, Ni, Fe, Zr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and mixtures and other combinations thereof. Ballast metals include Al, Cu and Ni.

  18. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High elastic modulus polymer...

  19. Solid polymeric electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles A.; Xu, Wu; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2006-03-14

    Novel conductive polyanionic polymers and methods for their preparion are provided. The polyanionic polymers comprise repeating units of weakly-coordinating anionic groups chemically linked to polymer chains. The polymer chains in turn comprise repeating spacer groups. Spacer groups can be chosen to be of length and structure to impart desired electrochemical and physical properties to the polymers. Preferred embodiments are prepared from precursor polymers comprising the Lewis acid borate tri-coordinated to a selected ligand and repeating spacer groups to form repeating polymer chain units. These precursor polymers are reacted with a chosen Lewis base to form a polyanionic polymer comprising weakly coordinating anionic groups spaced at chosen intervals along the polymer chain. The polyanionic polymers exhibit high conductivity and physical properties which make them suitable as solid polymeric electrolytes in lithium batteries, especially secondary lithium batteries.

  20. Li and Mn uptake data from initial set of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-03-27

    Batch tests of crosslinked lithium and manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C .

  1. Li and Mn uptake data from initial set of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    Batch tests of crosslinked lithium and manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C .

  2. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory collaboration with Moltech Corporation to manufacture lithium polymer batteries (C/PNL/061). Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affinito, J.D.

    1996-08-01

    It was shown that all 7 of the layers of Moltech`s Li polymer battery are compatible with simultaneous, in-line, vacuum deposition onto a flexible plastic substrate via PNNL`s PML and LML technology. All the materials, including Li, could be deposited in a single pass without melting the substrate. Two problems were encountered and are discussed.

  3. Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information...

  4. The Effects of Various Conductive Additive and Polymeric Binder Contents on the Performance of a Lithium-ion Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, G.

    2008-01-01

    conductive additive, and polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), a polymer binder) on the power performance of lithium-ion composite

  5. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  6. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nextval, Inc., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a Conducting Polymer Binder for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. With a focus on enabling smaller,...

  7. The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    The Lithium-Ion Cell: Model, State Of Charge Estimation and Battery Management System Tutor and Y. Fuentes. Computer simulations of a lithium-ion polymer battery and implications for higher. Di Domenico, A. Stefanopoulou, and G. Fiengo., Reduced Order Lithium-ion Battery Electrochemical

  8. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles A. (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2009-03-17

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  9. Long cycle life solid-state solid polymer electrolyte cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-02-02

    This patent describes a rechargeable solid-state lithium conducting solid polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell comprising: a lithium intercalation compound negative electrode selected from the group consisting of: MoO/sub 2/; RuO/sub 2/; WO; OsO/sub 2/; IrO/sub 2/; and Mo1/2V1/2O/sub 2/; a lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte complexed with a solid polymer contacting the negative electrode on one side; and a lithium intercalation compound positive electrode contacting the opposite side of the solid polymer electrolyte.

  10. Complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2006-08-22

    A hydrogen storage material and process of forming the material is provided in which complex hydrides are combined under conditions of elevated temperatures and/or elevated temperature and pressure with a titanium metal such as titanium butoxide. The resulting fused product exhibits hydrogen desorption kinetics having a first hydrogen release point which occurs at normal atmospheres and at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 90.degree. C.

  11. Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrani, Kurt Amir

    2010-01-01

    1.2.1 PWRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.2Actinides Multi-Recycling in PWR Using Hydride Fuels. InRecycling in Hydride Fueled PWR Cores. Nuclear Engineering

  12. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oak Brook, IL)

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  13. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  14. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Belharouak, Ilias (Bolingbrook, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  15. Maxim > App Notes > BATTERY MANAGEMENT INTERFACE CIRCUITS Keywords: USB, USB Charger, Li+ USB charger, Lithium Ion USB charger, NiMH USB charger, USB battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    charger, Lithium Ion USB charger, NiMH USB charger, USB battery charger, charging batteries from USB, and cabling. An overview of nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium battery technologies, charging methodsMaxim > App Notes > BATTERY MANAGEMENT INTERFACE CIRCUITS Keywords: USB, USB Charger, Li+ USB

  16. Direct synthesis of catalyzed hydride compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Karl J.; Majzoub, Eric

    2004-09-21

    A method is disclosed for directly preparing alkali metal aluminum hydrides such as NaAlH.sub.4 and Na.sub.3 AlH.sub.6 from either the alkali metal or its hydride, and aluminum. The hydride thus prepared is doped with a small portion of a transition metal catalyst compound, such as TiCl.sub.3, TiF.sub.3, or a mixture of these materials, in order to render them reversibly hydridable. The process provides for mechanically mixing the dry reagents under an inert atmosphere followed by charging the mixed materials with high pressure hydrogen while heating the mixture to about 125.degree. C. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive and provides reversible hydride compounds which are free of the usual contamination introduced by prior art wet chemical methods.

  17. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  18. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  19. Manganese uptake of imprinted polymers

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Susanna Ventura

    2015-09-30

    Batch tests of manganese imprinted polymers of variable composition to assess their ability to extract lithium and manganese from synthetic brines at T=45C . Data on manganese uptake for two consecutive cycles are included.

  20. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Levy, I.S.; Trimble, D.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Gerber, F.S.

    1990-04-10

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-based materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different compositions and/or fabrication methods are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280 to 316 C). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hydriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrosion. 1 figure.

  1. Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandrock, Gary (Ringwood, NJ); Reilly, James (Bellport, NY); Graetz, Jason (Mastic, NY); Wegrzyn, James E. (Brookhaven, NY)

    2010-11-23

    In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

  2. Wire Wrapped Hexagonal Pin Arrays for Hydride Fueled PWRs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diller, Peter

    This work contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT

  3. Hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S. (Tampa, FL); Niemann, Michael U. (Venice, FL); Goswami, D. Yogi (Tampa, FL); Stefanakos, Elias K. (Tampa, FL)

    2012-04-10

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  4. Liquid suspensions of reversible metal hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Winsche, W.E.

    1983-12-08

    The reversibility of the process M + x/2 H/sub 2/ ..-->.. MH/sub x/, where M is a metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under a liquid, thereby to reduce contamination, provide better temperature control and provide in situ mobility of the reactants. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen (at high pressures) and to release (at low pressures) previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the former is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer Nanocomposites for Energy Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Wonchang

    2011-10-21

    Polymer nanocomposites are used in a variety of applications due to their good mechanical properties. Specifically, better performance of lithium ion batteries and thermal interface material can be obtained by using conductive materials and polymer...

  6. Metastable Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graetz, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using hydrogen as a reliable energy carrier for both stationary and mobile applications has gained renewed interest in recent years due to improvements in high temperature fuel cells and a reduction in hydrogen production costs. However, a number of challenges remain and new media are needed that are capable of safely storing hydrogen with high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal hydrides and complex metal hydrides offer some hope of overcoming these challenges; however, many of the high capacity “reversible” hydrides exhibit a large endothermic decomposition enthalpy making it difficult to release the hydrogen at low temperatures. Onmore »the other hand, the metastable hydrides are characterized by a low reaction enthalpy and a decomposition reaction that is thermodynamically favorable under ambient conditions. The rapid, low temperature hydrogen evolution rates that can be achieved with these materials offer much promise for mobile PEM fuel cell applications. However, a critical challenge exists to develop new methods to regenerate these hydrides directly from the reactants and hydrogen gas. This spotlight paper presents an overview of some of the metastable metal hydrides for hydrogen storage and a few new approaches being investigated to address the key challenges associated with these materials.« less

  7. Stochastic model of lithium ion conduction in poly,,ethylene oxide... L. Gitelman,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Averbuch, Amir

    Stochastic model of lithium ion conduction in poly,,ethylene oxide... L. Gitelman,1 A. Averbuch,2,a. We calculate the energy of configurations of one or two lithium ions in the loop and derive developed a model of lithium ion conduction in dilute and concentrated polymer electrolytes LiI:P EO n 3 n

  8. New sealed rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnett, B.M. ); Dowgiallo, E. ); Halpert, G. ); Matsuda, Y. ); Takehara, Z.I. )

    1993-01-01

    This conference was divided into the following sections: supercapacitors; nickel-metal hydride batteries; lithium polymer batteries; lithium/carbon batteries; cathode materials; and lithium batteries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers of this conference.

  9. Coated porous carbon cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kercher, Andrew K [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Klett, James William [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Coated porous carbon cathodes for automotive lithium batteries are being developed with the goal of overcoming the problems with capacity fade and poor thermal management in conventional polymer-bonded cathodes. The active cathode material (lithium iron phosphate nanoparticles) is carbon-bonded to the porous carbon support material. Cathodes have been developed with high specific energy and power and with good cycling behavior.

  10. METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    METALLIC HYDRIDES. Magnetic properties of laves-phase rare earth hydrides J. J. Rhyne and G. E on the rare earth site. The rare earth spins disorder at a temperature lower than the bulk Tc in ErFe2 H3 5 per formula unit assuming complete occupation of 3 tetrahedral sites. The heavy rare earth (RFe2

  11. Polymer Reaction Engineering Laboratory Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Kyu Yong

    Polymer Reaction Engineering Laboratory Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering University Styrene (Aldrich) was vacuum distilled over calcium hydride, and activated alumina was used to remove or 10:1 mixture of DI water and buffered HF for 5 to 15 sec. #12;Polymer Reaction Engineering Laboratory

  12. Optimization of hydride fueled pressurized water reactor cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuffler, Carter Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the Hydride Fuels Project, a collaborative effort between UC Berkeley and MIT aimed at investigating the potential benefits of hydride fuel use in light water reactors (LWRs). This pursuit involves ...

  13. Advances in Design of the Next Generation Hydride Bed | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Design of the Next Generation Hydride Bed Advances in Design of the Next Generation Hydride Bed Presentation from the 32nd Tritium Focus Group Meeting held in Germantown, Maryland...

  14. Thermal hydraulic analysis of hydride fuels in BWR's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creighton, John Everett

    2005-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the hydride nuclear fuel project being completed by UC Berkeley and MIT to assess the possible benefits of using hydride fuel in light water nuclear reactors (LWR's). More specifically, this ...

  15. Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Lithium Local Pseudopotential Using DFT Sergio Orozco Student Advisor: Chen Huang Faculty Mentor Lithium LPS Test Lithium LPS #12;Density Functional Theory (DFT) Successful quantum mechanical approach (1979) #12;Building LPS for Lithium Create a LPS using NLPS density for Lithium Test LPS by comparing

  16. Atomistic Potentials for Palladium-Silver Hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, L M; Zimmerman, J A; Zhou, X

    2013-01-01

    New EAM potentials for the ternary palladium-silver-hydrogen system are developed by extending a previously developed palladium-hydrogen potential. The ternary potentials accurately capture the heat of mixing and structural properties associated with solid solution alloys of palladium-silver. Stable hydrides are produced with properties that smoothly transition across the compositions. Additions of silver to palladium are predicted to alter the properties of the hydrides by decreasing the miscibility gap and increasing the likelihood of hydrogen atoms occupying tetrahedral interstitial sites over octahedral interstitial sites.

  17. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. Roya source of ?100 mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized

  18. Hydridable material for the negative electrode in a nickel-metal hydride storage battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knosp, Bernard (Neuilly-sur-Seine, FR); Bouet, Jacques (Paris, FR); Jordy, Christian (Dourdan, FR); Mimoun, Michel (Neuilly-sur-Marne, FR); Gicquel, Daniel (Lanorville, FR)

    1997-01-01

    A monophase hydridable material for the negative electrode of a nickel-metal hydride storage battery with a "Lave's phase" structure of hexagonal C14 type (MgZn.sub.2) has the general formula: Zr.sub.1-x Ti.sub.x Ni.sub.a Mn.sub.b Al.sub.c Co.sub.d V.sub.e where ##EQU1##

  19. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2006-10-17

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  20. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Yu, Conrad [Antioch, CA

    2009-05-05

    Disclosed herein is a metal hydride fuel storage cartridge having integrated resistive heaters that can be used in conjunction with fuel cells such as MEMS-based fuel cells. The cartridge is fabricated using micromachining methods and thin/thick film materials synthesis techniques.

  1. SANS Measurement of Hydrides in Uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spooner, S; Ludtka, G.M.; Bullock, J.S.; Bridges, R.L.; Powell, G.L.

    2001-09-04

    SANS scattering is shown to be an effective method for detecting the presence of hydrogen precipitates in uranium. High purity polycrystalline samples of depleted uranium were given several hydriding treatments which included extended exposures to hydrogen gas at two different pressures at 630 C as well as a furnace anneal at 850 C followed by slow cooling in the near absence hydrogen gas. All samples exhibited neutron scattering that was in proportion to the expected levels of hydrogen content. While the scattering signal was strong, the shape of the scattering curve indicated that the scattering objects were large sized objects. Only by use of a very high angular resolution SANS technique was it possible to make estimates of the major diameter of the scattering objects. This analysis permits an estimate of the volume fraction and means size of the hydride precipitates in uranium.

  2. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2001-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  3. METAL HYDRIDE HYDROGEN COMPRESSORS: A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman Jr, Robert C; Yartys, Dr. Volodymyr A.; Lototskyy, Dr. Michael V; Pollet, Dr. B.G.

    2014-01-01

    Metal hydride (MH) thermal sorption compression is an efficient and reliable method allowing a conversion of energy from heat into a compressed hydrogen gas. The most important component of such a thermal engine the metal hydride material itself should possess several material features in order to achieve an efficient performance in the hydrogen compression. Apart from the hydrogen storage characteristics important for every solid H storage material (e.g. gravimetric and volumetric efficiency of H storage, hydrogen sorption kinetics and effective thermal conductivity), the thermodynamics of the metal-hydrogen systems is of primary importance resulting in a temperature dependence of the absorption/desorption pressures). Several specific features should be optimized to govern the performance of the MH-compressors including synchronisation of the pressure plateaus for multi-stage compressors, reduction of slope of the isotherms and hysteresis, increase of cycling stability and life time, together with challenges in system design associated with volume expansion of the metal matrix during the hydrogenation. The present review summarises numerous papers and patent literature dealing with MH hydrogen compression technology. The review considers (a) fundamental aspects of materials development with a focus on structure and phase equilibria in the metal-hydrogen systems suitable for the hydrogen compression; and (b) applied aspects, including their consideration from the applied thermodynamic viewpoint, system design features and performances of the metal hydride compressors and major applications.

  4. Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrani, Kurt Amir

    2010-01-01

    Uranium in the fuel remains metallic since the equilibriumtype of hydride fuel consists of metallic uranium particlesalloying the metallic components of the fuel followed by a

  5. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    does not currently solve the stress state that forms dynamically in the precipitate or matrix surrounding the precipitate. A path forward is presented. DocHybridHydrid...

  6. Incorporation of Hydride Nuclear Fuels in Commercial Light Water Reactors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrani, Kurt Amir

    2010-01-01

    filled gap between the zirconia layer and the hydride fuel (calculated peaks for zirconia is possibly due to preferredpossibly coupled with a thin zirconia layer, as a kinetic

  7. Neutron Irradiation of Hydrided Cladding Material in HFIR Summary...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Investigations Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used Fuel Claddings: A Status Report on Current Model Capabilities...

  8. Polymer geometry and Li+ conduction in poly(ethylene oxide)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Averbuch, Amir

    Polymer geometry and Li+ conduction in poly(ethylene oxide) L. Gitelman a , M. Israeli b, , A: Lithium battery Polymer molecule Brownian motion Simulation Conductivity PEO a b s t r a c t We study of the amorphous PE structure is increased by mechanical stretching due to the unraveling of loops in the polymer

  9. Method to predict relative hydriding within a group of zirconium alloys under nuclear irradiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Jr., A. Burtron (Richland, WA); Levy, Ira S. (Kennewick, WA); Trimble, Dennis J. (Kennewick, WA); Lanning, Donald D. (Kennewick, WA); Gerber, Franna S. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01

    An out-of-reactor method for screening to predict relative in-reactor hydriding behavior of zirconium-bsed materials is disclosed. Samples of zirconium-based materials having different composition and/or fabrication are autoclaved in a relatively concentrated (0.3 to 1.0M) aqueous lithium hydroxide solution at constant temperatures within the water reactor coolant temperature range (280.degree. to 316.degree. C.). Samples tested by this out-of-reactor procedure, when compared on the basis of the ratio of hydrogen weight gain to oxide weight gain, accurately predict the relative rate of hyriding for the same materials when subject to in-reactor (irradiated) corrision.

  10. LANL/PNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage LANLPNNL Virtual Center for Chemical Hydrides and New Concepts for Hydrogen Storage...

  11. 1020 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 62, NO. 3, MARCH 2013 State of Charge Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles Using Extended Kalman Filtering Zheng Chen. Index Terms--Extended Kalman filter (EKF), hardware-in- the-loop, lithium-ion battery, nonlinear battery], a modeling approach for the scale-up of a lithium- ion polymer battery (LIPB) is reported. A comparison

  12. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  13. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  14. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Poris, Jaime (Portola Valley, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  15. One of the fascinating possibilities of space systems research is the development of reconfigurable,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,000 Wh/kg in air respectively, translating to 15 and 40 times the energy density of lithium ion batteries. This is using high-efficiency lithium hydride fueled Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells with lives

  16. Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-05

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

  17. Rubbery Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Solid-State, Thin-Film Lithium Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    Rubbery Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Solid-State, Thin-Film Lithium Batteries Patrick E. Trapa, and safety.1 Clearly, per- formance gains could be made if a dry, solid electrolyte were ex- ploited. Since When a lithium salt is added, the polymer becomes a solid electrolyte, behaving mechani- cally like

  18. Method of making crack-free zirconium hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Richard W. (Denver, CO)

    1980-01-01

    Crack-free hydrides of zirconium and zirconium-uranium alloys are produced by alloying the zirconium or zirconium-uranium alloy with beryllium, or nickel, or beryllium and scandium, or nickel and scandium, or beryllium and nickel, or beryllium, nickel and scandium and thereafter hydriding.

  19. Metal Hydrides for High-Temperature Power Generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.; Westman, Matthew P.; Zheng, Feng; Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2015-08-10

    Metal hydrides can be utilized for hydrogen storage and for thermal energy storage (TES) applications. By using TES with solar technologies, heat can be stored from sun energy to be used later which enables continuous power generation. We are developing a TES technology based on a dual-bed metal hydride system, which has a high-temperature (HT) metal hydride operating reversibly at 600-800°C to generate heat as well as a low-temperature (LT) hydride near room temperature that is used for hydrogen storage during sun hours until there is a need to produce electricity, such as during night time, a cloudy day, ormore »during peak hours. We proceeded from selecting a high-energy density, low-cost HT-hydride based on performance characterization on gram size samples, to scale-up to kilogram quantities and design, fabrication and testing of a 1.5kWh, 200kWh/m3 bench-scale TES prototype based on a HT-bed of titanium hydride and a hydrogen gas storage instead of a LT-hydride. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to make performance predictions for cylindrical hydride beds with varying diameters and thermal conductivities. Based on experimental and modeling results, a bench-scale prototype was designed and fabricated and we successfully showed feasibility to meet or exceed all performance targets.« less

  20. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    facing rechargeable lithium batteries. Nature 414, 359-367 (lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionics 135,electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materials

  1. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    film lithium and lithium-ion batteries. Solid State Ionicselectrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Advanced Materialsand side reactions in lithium-ion batteries. Journal of the

  2. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, William A. (Los Alamos, NM); Olsen, Clayton E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1982-01-01

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  3. Porous metal hydride composite and preparation and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, W.A.; Olsen, C.E.

    1980-03-12

    A composite formed from large pieces of aggregate formed from (1) metal hydride (or hydride-former) powder and (2) either metal powder or plastic powder or both is prepared. The composite has large macroscopic interconnected pores (much larger than the sizes of the powders which are used) and will have a very fast heat transfer rate and low windage loss. It will be useful, for example, in heat engines, hydrogen storage devices, and refrigerator components which depend for their utility upon both a fast rate of hydriding and dehydriding. Additionally, a method of preparing the composite and a method of increasing the rates of hydriding and dehydriding of metal hydrides are also given.

  4. Highly Concentrated Palladium Hydrides/Deuterides; Theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papaconstantopoulos, Dimitrios

    2013-11-26

    Accomplishments are reported in these areas: tight-binding molecular dynamics study of palladium; First-principles calculations and tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations of the palladium-hydrogen system; tight-binding studies of bulk properties and hydrogen vacancies in KBH{sub 4}; tight-binding study of boron structures; development of angular dependent potentials for Pd-H; and density functional and tight-binding calculations for the light-hydrides NaAlH4 and NaBH4

  5. Metal hydride fuel storage and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2010-08-10

    An apparatus having a first substrate having (1) a cavity, (2) one or more resistive heaters, and (3) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen; a second substrate having (1) an outlet valve comprising a pressure relief structure and (2) one or more coatings forming a diffusion barrier to hydrogen, wherein said second substrate is coupled to said first substrate forming a sealed volume in said cavity; a metal hydride material contained within said cavity; and a gas distribution system formed by coupling a microfluidic interconnect to said pressure relief structure. Additional apparatuses and methods are also disclosed.

  6. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth

    2014-09-01

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing parameters. These contributing factors need to be recognized and a means to control them or separate their contributions will be required to obtain the desired information.

  7. Lithium ion sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Prabir K.

    2014-01-01

    HIFAN 1866 Lithium ion sources by Prabir K. Roy, Wayne G.No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Lithium ion sources Prabir K. RoyUSA Abstract A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion

  8. Carbon-Fluorine Bond Cleavage by Zirconium Metal Hydride Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Carbon-Fluorine Bond Cleavage by Zirconium Metal Hydride Complexes Brian L. Edelbach, A. K. Fazlur, Rochester, New York 14627 Received April 8, 1999 The zirconium hydride dimer [Cp2ZrH2]2 reacts with C6F6. [Cp2ZrH2]2 reacts with C6F5H to give Cp2Zr(p-C6F4H)F, Cp2ZrF2, C6F4H2, and H2. The zirconium hydride

  9. The Hydriding Kinetics of Organic Hydrogen Getters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, G. L.

    2002-02-11

    The aging of hermetically sealed systems is often accompanied by the gradual production of hydrogen gas that is a result of the decay of environmental gases and the degradation of organic materials. In particular, the oxygen, water, hydrogen ''equilibrium'' is affected by the removal of oxygen due the oxidation of metals and organic materials. This shift of the above ''equilibrium'' towards the formation of hydrogen gas, particularly in crevices, may eventually reach an explosive level of hydrogen gas or degrade metals by hydriding them. The latter process is generally delayed until the oxidizing species are significantly reduced. Organic hydrogen getters introduced by Allied Signal Aerospace Company, Kansas City Division have proven to be a very effective means of preventing hydrogen gas accumulation in sealed containers. These getters are relatively unaffected by air and environmental gases. They can be packaged in a variety of ways to fit particular needs such as porous pellets, fine or coarse [gravel] powder, or loaded into silicone rubber. The hydrogen gettering reactions are extremely irreversible since the hydrogen gas is converted into an organic hydrocarbon. These getters are based on the palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation of triple bonds to double and then single bonds in aromatic aryl compounds. DEB (1,4 bis (phenyl ethynyl) benzene) typically mixed with 25% by weight carbon with palladium (1% by weight of carbon) is one of the newest and best of these organic hydrogen getters. The reaction mechanisms are complex involving solid state reaction with a heterogeneous catalyst leading to the many intermediates, including mixed alkyl and aryl hydrocarbons with the possibilities of many isomers. The reaction kinetics mechanisms are also strongly influenced by the form in which they are packaged. For example, the hydriding rates for pellets and gravel have a strong dependence on reaction extent (i.e., DEB reduction) and a kinetic order in pressure of 0.76. Silicone rubber based DEB getters hydride at a much lower rate, have little dependence on reaction extent, have a higher kinetic order in pressure (0.87), and have a lower activation energy. The kinetics of the reaction as a function of hydrogen pressure, stoichiometry, and temperature for hydrogen and deuterium near ambient temperature (0 to 75 C) for pressures near or below 100 Pa over a wide range (in some cases, the complete) hydrogenation range are presented along with multi-dimensional rate models.

  10. Polymer nanocomposites for lithium battery applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandi-Tapia, Giselle; Gregar, Kathleen Carrado

    2006-07-18

    A single ion-conducting nanocomposite of a substantially amorphous polyethylene ether and a negatively charged synthetic smectite clay useful as an electrolyte. Excess SiO2 improves conductivity and when combined with synthetic hectorite forms superior membranes for batteries. A method of making membranes is also disclosed.

  11. A new phase in palladium hydride technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. A new phase in palladium hydride technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walters, R.T.

    1991-12-31

    Two plateaux are observed in both the absorption and desorption isotherms of palladium hydride. For the absorption isotherm, a change in plateau pressure is observed at a hydrogen-to-metal (H/M) ratio of about 0.35 for all temperatures studied. For the desorption isotherm, the change in plateau pressure appears to be a function of temperature, ranging from an H/M ratio of 0.18 at 80{degrees}C to 0.3 at 140{degrees}C. These data are interpreted as being experimentally observed boundaries to an equilibrium phase line located in the miscibility gap of the palladium/hydrogen phase diagram. This new phase does not appear to be a stoichiometric compounds, but rather its composition seems to vary with temperature. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Ni/metal hydride secondary element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bauerlein, Peter

    2005-04-19

    A Ni/metal hydride secondary element having a positive nickel hydroxide electrode, a negative electrode having a hydrogen storage alloy, and an alkaline electrolyte, the positive electrode, provided with a three-dimensional metallic conductive structure, also contains an aluminum compound which is soluble in the electrolyte, in addition to nickel hydroxide and cobalt oxide. The aluminum compound is aluminum hydroxide and/or aluminum oxide, and the mass of the aluminum compound which is present in the positive bulk material mixture is 0.1 to 2% by weight relative to the mass of the nickel hydroxide which is present. In combination with aluminum hydroxide or aluminum oxide, the positive electrode further contains lanthanoid oxidic compounds Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Ca(OH).sub.2, as well as mixtures of these compounds.

  14. Process for production of a metal hydride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Nathan Tait; Butterick, III, Robert; Chin, Arthur Achhing; Millar, Dean Michael; Molzahn, David Craig

    2014-08-12

    A process for production of a metal hydride compound MH.sub.x, wherein x is one or two and M is an alkali metal, Be or Mg. The process comprises combining a compound of formula (R.sup.1O).sub.xM with aluminum, hydrogen and at least one metal selected from among titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, vanadium, tantalum and iron to produce a compound of formula MH.sub.x. R.sup.1 is phenyl or phenyl substituted by at least one alkyl or alkoxy group. A mole ratio of aluminum to (R.sup.1O).sub.xM is from 0.1:1 to 1:1. The catalyst is present at a level of at least 200 ppm based on weight of aluminum.

  15. Hydrogen storage in sodium aluminum hydride.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Herberg, J.L.; McCarty, Kevin F.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Stumpf, Roland Rudolph; Majzoub, Eric H.

    2005-11-01

    Sodium aluminum hydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, has been studied for use as a hydrogen storage material. The effect of Ti, as a few mol. % dopant in the system to increase kinetics of hydrogen sorption, is studied with respect to changes in lattice structure of the crystal. No Ti substitution is found in the crystal lattice. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the NaAlH{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6} structures are complex-ionic hydrides with Na{sup +} cations and AlH{sub 4}{sup -} and AlH{sub 6}{sup 3-} anions, respectively. Compound formation studies indicate the primary Ti-compound formed when doping the material at 33 at. % is TiAl{sub 3} , and likely Ti-Al compounds at lower doping rates. A general study of sorption kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4}, when doped with a variety of Ti-halide compounds, indicates a uniform response with the kinetics similar for all dopants. NMR multiple quantum studies of solution-doped samples indicate solvent interaction with the doped alanate. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice dynamics of NaAlH{sub 4}, and illustrated the molecular ionic nature of the lattice as a separation of vibrational modes between the AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion-modes and lattice-modes. In-situ Raman measurements indicate a stable AlH{sub 4}{sup -} anion that is stable at the melting temperature of NaAlH{sub 4}, indicating that Ti-dopants must affect the Al-H bond strength.

  16. High capacity stabilized complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Mohtadi, Rana F; Fewox, Christopher; Sivasubramanian, Premkumar

    2014-11-11

    Complex hydrides based on Al(BH.sub.4).sub.3 are stabilized by the presence of one or more additional metal elements or organic adducts to provide high capacity hydrogen storage material.

  17. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper-(1.83 wt. %)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600 C-1 h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported....

  18. Polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  19. Interfacial behavior of polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, John; Kerr, John B.; Han, Yong Bong; Liu, Gao; Reeder, Craig; Xie, Jiangbing; Sun, Xiaoguang

    2003-06-03

    Evidence is presented concerning the effect of surfaces on the segmental motion of PEO-based polymer electrolytes in lithium batteries. For dry systems with no moisture the effect of surfaces of nano-particle fillers is to inhibit the segmental motion and to reduce the lithium ion transport. These effects also occur at the surfaces in composite electrodes that contain considerable quantities of carbon black nano-particles for electronic connection. The problem of reduced polymer mobility is compounded by the generation of salt concentration gradients within the composite electrode. Highly concentrated polymer electrolytes have reduced transport properties due to the increased ionic cross-linking. Combined with the interfacial interactions this leads to the generation of low mobility electrolyte layers within the electrode and to loss of capacity and power capability. It is shown that even with planar lithium metal electrodes the concentration gradients can significantly impact the interfacial impedance. The interfacial impedance of lithium/PEO-LiTFSI cells varies depending upon the time elapsed since current was turned off after polarization. The behavior is consistent with relaxation of the salt concentration gradients and indicates that a portion of the interfacial impedance usually attributed to the SEI layer is due to concentrated salt solutions next to the electrode surfaces that are very resistive. These resistive layers may undergo actual phase changes in a non-uniform manner and the possible role of the reduced mobility polymer layers in dendrite initiation and growth is also explored. It is concluded that PEO and ethylene oxide-based polymers are less than ideal with respect to this interfacial behavior.

  20. Optimization of Hydride Rim Formation in Unirradiated Zr 4 Cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Hanson, Brady D.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2013-09-30

    The purpose of this work is to build on the results reported in the M2 milestone M2FT 13PN0805051, document number FCRD-USED-2013-000151 (Hanson, 2013). In that work, it was demonstrated that unirradiated samples of zircaloy-4 cladding could be pre-hydrided at temperatures below 400°C in pure hydrogen gas and that the growth of hydrides on the surface could be controlled by changing the surface condition of the samples and form a desired hydride rim on the outside diameter of the cladding. The work performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since the issuing of the M2 milestone has focused its efforts to optimize the formation of a hydride rim on available zircaloy-4 cladding samples by controlling temperature variation and gas flow control during pre-hydriding treatments. Surface conditioning of the outside surface was also examined as a variable. The results of test indicate that much of the variability in the hydride thickness is due to temperature variation occurring in the furnaces as well as how hydrogen gas flows across the sample surface. Efforts to examine other alloys, gas concentrations, and different surface conditioning plan to be pursed in the next FY as more cladding samples become available

  1. Lithium purification technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keough, Robert F. (Richland, WA); Meadows, George E. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  2. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiations: Lithium Chloride Catalysis Lekha Gupta, 2008 Ortholithiations of a range of arenes mediated by lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) in THF at -78 °C protocols with unpurified commercial samples of n-butyl- lithium to prepare LDA or commercially available

  3. Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide: A View of Lithium Ion Solvation through a Glass-Bottom Boat BRETT L and reactivities, we were drawn to lithium hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS; (Me3Si)2NLi) by its promi- nence principles of lithium ion coordination chemistry.2 Understanding how solvation influences organolithium

  4. Understanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur Cathode Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    structural configurations of conductive polymer-sulfur composites employed in previous studies. In this workUnderstanding the Role of Different Conductive Polymers in Improving the Nanostructured Sulfur for the confinement of lithium polysulfides. However, the roles of different conductive polymers

  5. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup ?6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup ?4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup ?3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  6. Lithium Ion Production NDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in) Construction of laser caliper (Keyence sensors ) system on a slot-die coater to measure thickness Thickness, and D.L. Wood, "Non-destructive evaluation of slot-die-coated lithium secondary battery electrodes by in

  7. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  8. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atresponse of lithium rechargeable batteries,” Journal of therechargeable lithium batteries (Preliminary report, Sept.

  9. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vanpuzzling mysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book beginssuch importance to lithium ion batteries one is amazed that

  10. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec- trochemistryOptimization of Lithium-Ion Batteries PhD thesis (Universityfor Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of The

  11. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    molten salts as lithium battery electrolyte,” ElectrochimicaFigure 15. Rechargeable lithium-ion battery. Figure 16 showsbattery. It is essential that an ionic liquid – lithium salt

  12. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    K. M. Directions in secondary lithium battery research-and-runaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journalrunaway inhibitors for lithium battery electrolytes. Journal

  13. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    of a Rechargeable Lithium Battery," J. Power Sources, 24,Wada, "Rechargeable Lithium Battery Based on Pyrolytic Car-Li-Ion Battery," Lithium Battery Symposium, Electrochemical

  14. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene Carbonate for Lithium Ion Battery Use. Journal oflithium atoms in lithium-ion battery electrolyte. Chemicalcapacity fading of a lithium-ion battery cycled at elevated

  15. Lithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patoux, Sebastien; Richardson, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    in A. Nazri, G.Pistoia (Eds. ), Lithium batteries, Science &structure materials in lithium cells, for a lower limitLithium Insertion Chemistry of Some Iron Vanadates Sébastien

  16. Solid Solution Lithium Alloy Cermet Anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Chen, Guoying

    2006-01-01

    Solid Solution Lithium Alloy Cermet Anodes Thomas J.94720 USA Abstract Lithium-magnesium solid solution alloysHeating mixtures of lithium nitride and magnesium provides a

  17. Synthesis and small molecule chemistry of the niobaziridine-hydride functional group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueroa, Joshua S

    2005-01-01

    Chapter 1. Synthesis and Divergent Reactivity of the Niobaziridine-Hydride Functional Group The synthesis, characterization and reactivity of the niobaziridine-hydride complex Nb(H)([eta]²-t- ]Bu(H)C=NAr)(N[Np]Ar)? (la-H; ...

  18. Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Analytical assessment of the thermal behavior of nickelemetal hydride batteries during fast (LAEC), Mechatronic Systems Engineering, School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey charging of batteries Charging efficiency Integral-transformation technique Nickelemetal hydride battery

  19. Thermochemistry and Kinetics of Silicon Hydride Cluster Formation during Thermal Decomposition of Silane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swihart, Mark T.

    Thermochemistry and Kinetics of Silicon Hydride Cluster Formation during Thermal Decomposition of Silane Mark T. Swihart*, and Steven L. Girshick Department of Mechanical Engineering, Uni an extensive chemical kinetic mechanism for silicon hydride cluster formation during silane pyrolysis

  20. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL)

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  1. Structural properties and enthalpy of formation of magnesium hydride from quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfè, Dario

    Structural properties and enthalpy of formation of magnesium hydride from quantum Monte Carlo calculations to study the structural properties of magnesium hydride MgH2 , including the pressure. INTRODUCTION The energetics of metal hydrides has recently become an issue of large scientific

  2. Enhancement of heat and mass transfer in metal hydride beds with the addition of Al plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    in the hydriding process with the addition of internal aluminum plates. The two-dimensional equations governing during the absorption/desorption process in the metal hydride beds. The main factors governing the metal hydride matrix and kinetics of the hydrogen sorption processes, etc. By ne- glecting the hydrogen

  3. Models for Metal Hydride Particle Shape, Packing, and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kyle C. Smith; Timothy S. Fisher

    2012-05-04

    A multiphysics modeling approach for heat conduction in metal hydride powders is presented, including particle shape distribution, size distribution, granular packing structure, and effective thermal conductivity. A statistical geometric model is presented that replicates features of particle size and shape distributions observed experimentally that result from cyclic hydride decreptitation. The quasi-static dense packing of a sample set of these particles is simulated via energy-based structural optimization methods. These particles jam (i.e., solidify) at a density (solid volume fraction) of 0.665+/-0.015 - higher than prior experimental estimates. Effective thermal conductivity of the jammed system is simulated and found to follow the behavior predicted by granular effective medium theory. Finally, a theory is presented that links the properties of bi-porous cohesive powders to the present systems based on recent experimental observations of jammed packings of fine powder. This theory produces quantitative experimental agreement with metal hydride powders of various compositions.

  4. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, David J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Dou, Shichen [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies for motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roach, David J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Dou, Shichen [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies for motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium polyether-ester-sulfonate ionomers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roach, David J.; Dou, Shichen; Colby, Ralph H.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2012-01-06

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the dynamics of poly(ethylene oxide)-based lithium sulfonate ionomer samples that have low glass transition temperatures. 1H and 7Li spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) of the bulk polymer and lithium ions, respectively, were measured and analyzed in samples with a range of ion contents. The temperature dependence of T1 values along with the presence of minima in T1 as a function of temperature enabled correlation times and activation energies to be obtained for both the segmental motion of the polymer backbone and the hopping motion of lithium cations. Similar activation energies formore »motion of both the polymer and lithium ions in the samples with lower ion content indicate that the polymer segmental motion and lithium ion hopping motion are correlated in these samples, even though their respective correlation times differ significantly. A divergent trend is observed for correlation times and activation energies of the highest ion content sample with 100% lithium sulfonation due to the presence of ionic aggregation. Details of the polymer and cation dynamics on the nanosecond timescale are discussed and complement the findings of X-ray scattering and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering experiments.« less

  8. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,

  9. Lithium battery management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J. (Waukesha, WI)

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  10. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  11. Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes...

  12. Six-Membered-Ring Malonatoborate-Based Lithium Salts as Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    References 1. Lithium Ion Batteries: Fundamentals andProgram for Lithium Ion Batteries, U.S. Department ofas Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Li Yang a , Hanjun

  13. Electron-donor dopant, method of improving conductivity of polymers by doping therewith, and a polymer so treated

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, Raimond (Los Alamos, NM); Aldissi, Mahmoud (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    Polymers with conjugated backbones, both polyacetylene and polyaromatic heterocyclic types, are doped with electron-donor agents to increase their electrical conductivity. The electron-donor agents are either electride dopants made in the presence of lithium or dopants derived from alkalides made in the presence of lithium. The dopants also contain a metal such as cesium and a trapping agent such as a crown ether.

  14. Electron-donor dopant, method of improving conductivity of polymers by doping therewith, and a polymer so treated

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Aldissi, M.

    1984-07-27

    Polymers with conjugated backbones, both polyacetylene and polyaromatic heterocyclic types, are doped with electron-donor agents to increase their electrical conductivity. The electron-donor agents are either electride dopants made in the presence of lithium or dopants derived from alkalides made in the presence of lithium. The dopants also contain a metal such as cesium and a trapping agent such as a crown ether.

  15. Phenomenological theory of a single domain wall in uniaxial trigonal ferroelectrics: Lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalan, Venkatraman

    Phenomenological theory of a single domain wall in uniaxial trigonal ferroelectrics: Lithium niobate and lithium tantalate David A. Scrymgeour and Venkatraman Gopalan Department of Materials Science, lithium niobate and lithium tantalate. The contributions to the domain- wall energy from polarization

  16. California Lithium Battery, Inc.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California Lithium Battery (CaLBattery), based in Los Angeles, California, is developing a low-cost, advanced lithium-ion battery that employs a novel silicon graphene composite material that will substantially improve battery cycle life. When combined with other advanced battery materials, it could effectively lower battery life cycle cost by up to 70 percent. Over the next year, CALBattery will be working with Argonne National Laboratory to combine their patented silicon-graphene anode material process together with other advanced ANL cathode and electrolyte battery materials.

  17. FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

    2009-03-10

    The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

  18. Micro-and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Micro- and nanoscale domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate Vladimir Ya. Shur investigation of the domain evolution in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate during backswitched electric sources based on quasi-phase matching.11 Lithium niobate LiNbO3 (LN) and lithium tantalate LiTaO3 (LT

  19. Characteristics of Interconnected Delta-Hydride Precipitates in Zr

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.J. Carroll; M.R. Tonks; T.M. Lillo; B.S. Fromm; DC Haggard; T.C. Morris; W.D. Swank; T.L. Trowbridge; M.C. Carroll

    2014-09-01

    Characterization of extended delta-ZrH1.66 structures in unalloyed zirconium by electron backscatter diffraction analysis confirms that they consist of many interconnected precipitates of multiple, but distinctly related, orientations. The expected orientation relationship of (0001)a-Zr//(111)delta-ZrH1.66 is confirmed between the hydride and one of the surrounding a-Zr matrix grains. The delta-ZrH1.66 precipitates do not extend in a discrete crystalline orientation, but are regularly divided by 60° type {111} twins in which adjacent delta-ZrH1.66 grains share a {111} plane. The observed matching of the close-packed FCC planes of impinging or twinned hydrides within an interconnected structure enables the minimization of the overall interfacial energy through successive nucleation and growth events and twinning.

  20. Effect of Gaseous Impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and Aging Properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Dhanesh; Lamb, Joshua; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; and Pal, Narendra.

    2011-03-28

    This program was dedicated to understanding the effect of impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and aging properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage. At the start of the program we found reversibility between Li2NH+LiH ? LiH+LiNH2 (yielding ~5.8 wt.%H capacity). Then we tested the effect of impurity in H2 gas by pressure cycling at 255oC; first with industrial gas containing ppm levels of O2 and H2O as major impurities. Both these impurities had a significant impact on the reversibility and decreased the capacity by 2.65 wt.%H. Further increase in number of cycles from 500 to 1100 showed only a 0.2 wt%H more weight loss, showing some capacity is still maintained after a significant number of cycles. The loss of capacity is attributed to the formation of ~55 wt% LiH and ~30% Li2O, as major contaminant phases, along with the hydride Li2NH phase; suggesting loss of nitrogen during cycling. The effect of 100 ppm H2O in H2 also showed a decrease of ~2.5 wt.%H (after 560 cycles), and 100ppm O2 in H2; a loss of ~4.1 wt.%. Methane impurity (100 ppm, 100cycles), showed a very small capacity loss of 0.9 wt.%H under similar conditions. However, when Li3N was pressure cycled with 100ppmN2-H2 there were beneficial effects were observed (255oC); the reversible capacity increased to 8.4wt.%H after 853 cycles. Furthermore, with 20 mol.%N2-H2 capacity increased to ~10 wt.%H after 516 cycles. We attribute this enhancement to the reaction of nitrogen with liquid lithium during cycling as the Gibbs free energy of formation of Li3N (?Go = -98.7 kJ/mol) is more negative than that of LiH (?Go = -50.3 kJ/mol). We propose that the mitigation of hydrogen capacity losses is due to the destabilization of the LiH phase that tends to accumulate during cycling. Also more Li2NH phase was found in the cycled product. Mixed Alanates (3LiNH2:Li3AlH6) showed that 7 wt% hydrogen desorbed under dynamic vacuum. Equilibrium experiments (maximum 12 bar H2) showed up to 4wt% hydrogen reversibly stored in the material after the first desorption. The activation energy was found to be 51 kJ/mol, as compared to 81 kJ/mol for pure lithium alanate. It is proposed that based on the data obtained and CALPHAD modeling that the improvement in cycling is due to the formation of pure lithium (liquid at 255oC), which is able to react with nitrogen specifically forming Li3N. The presence of nitrogen in the 80/20 molar mixtures in a hydride bed along with hydrogen causes Li to form Li3N rather than LiH, and subsequently regenerates the Li2NH phase and yields a ~10 wt.%H reversibly.

  1. Thermomechanics of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides: modeling and analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomas Roubicek; Giuseppe Tomassetti

    2013-09-12

    A thermodynamically consistent mathematical model for hydrogen adsorption in metal hydrides is proposed. Beside hydrogen diffusion, the model accounts for phase transformation accompanied by hysteresis, swelling, temperature and heat transfer, strain, and stress. We prove existence of solutions of the ensuing system of partial differential equations by a carefully-designed, semi-implicit approximation scheme. A generalization for a drift-diffusion of multi-component ionized "gas" is outlined, too.

  2. Diffusional exchange of isotopes in a metal hydride sphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfer, Wilhelm G.; Hamilton, John C.; James, Scott Carlton

    2011-04-01

    This report describes the Spherical Particle Exchange Model (SPEM), which simulates exchange of one hydrogen isotope by another hydrogen isotope in a spherical metal hydride particle. This is one of the fundamental physical processes during isotope exchange in a bed of spherical metal particles and is thus one of the key components in any comprehensive physics-based model of exchange. There are two important physical processes in the model. One is the entropy of mixing between the two isotopes; the entropy of mixing is increased by having both isotopes randomly placed at interstitial sites on the lattice and thus impedes the exchange process. The other physical process is the elastic interaction between isotope atoms on the lattice. The elastic interaction is the cause for {beta}-phase formation and is independent of the isotope species. In this report the coupled diffusion equations for two isotopes in the {beta}-phase hydride are solved. A key concept is that the diffusion of one isotope depends not only on its concentration gradient, but also on the concentration gradient of the other isotope. Diffusion rate constants and the chemical potentials for deuterium and hydrogen in the {beta}-phase hydride are reviewed because these quantities are essential for an accurate model of the diffusion process. Finally, a summary of some of the predictions from the SPEM model are provided.

  3. Measurement and modeling of strain fields in zirconium hydrides precipitated at a stress concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Gregory B.; Kerr, Matthew; Daymond, Mark R. (Queens)

    2012-10-23

    Hydrogen adsorption into zirconium, as a result of corrosion in aqueous environments, leads to the precipitation of a secondary brittle hydride phase. These hydrides tend to first form at stress concentrations such as fretting flaws or cracks in engineering components, potentially degrading the structural integrity of the component. One mechanism for component failure is a slow crack growth mechanism known as Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC), where hydride fracture occurs followed by crack arrest in the ductile zirconium matrix. The current work employs both an experimental and a modeling approach to better characterize the effects and behavior of hydride precipitation at such stress concentrations. Strains around stress concentrations containing hydrides were mapped using High Energy X-ray Diffraction (HEXRD). These studies highlighted important differences in the behavior of the hydride phase and the surrounding zirconium matrix, as well as the strain associated with the precipitation of the hydride. A finite element model was also developed and compared to the X-ray strain mapping results. This model provided greater insight into details that could not be obtained directly from the experimental approaches, as well as providing a framework for future modeling to predict the effects of hydride precipitation under varied conditions.

  4. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (New Lenox, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  5. Si composite electrode with Li metal doping for advanced lithium-ion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent

    2015-12-15

    A silicon electrode is described, formed by combining silicon powder, a conductive binder, and SLMP.TM. powder from FMC Corporation to make a hybrid electrode system, useful in lithium-ion batteries. In one embodiment the binder is a conductive polymer such as described in PCT Published Application WO 2010/135248 A1.

  6. Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoway, Donald Robert

    Self-doped block copolymer electrolytes for solid-state, rechargeable lithium batteries Donald R of Li to nearly unity in a solid polymer electrolyte, block copolymer materials have been prepared. Introduction The ideal electrolyte material for a solid-state battery would have the ionic conductivity

  7. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  8. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature byof view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer,lithium ion batteries. The chapter on aging summarizes the effects of the chemistry on the battery

  9. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheSalts Formed on the Lithium-Ion Battery Negative Electrodeion batteries In a lithium ion battery, positively charged

  10. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

    2008-01-01

    their use in lithium-ion batteries. However, applications atfor use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities andFor rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, we require that any

  11. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    simulate those in a lithium battery. Chapter 3 TransientModel for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of TheRole in Nonaqueous Lithium-Oxygen Battery Electrochemistry.

  12. Lithium Manganese Silicate Positive Electrode Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    of LiMnO2 microcubes for lithium ion battery application[J].battery systems The lithium-ion battery was developed inneed. The first lithium-ion battery was created in Japan by

  13. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    experimental data from plastic lithium ion cells. Journal ofelectrolyte additive for lithium-ion batteries. Elec-Model for Aging of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells. Journal of The

  14. Double Photoionization of excited Lithium and Beryllium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yip, Frank L.

    2010-01-01

    of excited Lithium and Beryllium F. L. Yip, 1 C. W. McCurdy,ion- ization of lithium and beryllium starting from aligned,DPI from aligned lithium and beryllium atoms in excited P-

  15. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    harness high energy Lithium electrode Completely stable in air, water, aggressive solvents Allows pairing of previously incompatible chemistries (i.e. Liaqueous) Enables...

  16. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  17. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Secondary Lithium Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemicalin Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Overcharge Protection.G. M. in Handbook of Batteries (eds Linden, D. & Reddy, T.

  18. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gabano, Ed. , Lithium Batteries, Academic Press, New York,K. V. Kordesch, "Primary Batteries 1951-1976," J. Elec- n ~.Rechargeable Lithium Batteries," J. Electrochem. Soc. , [20

  19. Imaging Lithium Air Electrodes | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron Imaging Reveals Lithium Distribution in Lithium-Air Electrodes Agatha Bardoel - January 01, 2013 Image produced by neutron-computed tomography. The next step in...

  20. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Acyclic Carbonates and Esters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates:...

  1. ORNL microscopy directly images problematic lithium dendrites...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    images of the nucleation and growth of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. ORNL electron microscopy captured the first real-time nanoscale...

  2. Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award February...

  3. Thermal Design of a Metal Hydride Storage Bed, Permitting Tritium Accountancy to 0.1% Resolution and Repeatability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Design of a Metal Hydride Storage Bed, Permitting Tritium Accountancy to 0.1% Resolution and Repeatability

  4. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  5. INTRODUCTION Among different types of rechargeable batteries, polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    INTRODUCTION Among different types of rechargeable batteries, polymer lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells% per month), and long cycling life [1]. Such desired features have made Li-ion batteries one the most vehicles with Li- ion batteries in order to reduce or remove the contribution of internal combustion engine

  6. A non-isothermal model of a nickelmetal hydride cell , M. Mohammedb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A non-isothermal model of a nickel±metal hydride cell B. Wua , M. Mohammedb , D. Brighamb , R. Elderb , R.E. Whitea,* a Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC Abstract A model for a nickel±metal hydride cell was constructed based on the planar electrode

  7. UNDERSTANDING OF HYDRIDING MECHANISMS OF ZIRCALOY-4 ALLOY DURING CORROSION IN PWR SIMULATED CONDITIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    1 UNDERSTANDING OF HYDRIDING MECHANISMS OF ZIRCALOY-4 ALLOY DURING CORROSION IN PWR SIMULATED CONDITIONS AND INFLUENCE OF ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDES ON ZIRCALOY-4 CORROSION C. BISOR-MELLOUL, M. TUPIN, P. BOSSIS-sur-Yvette ­ France A. MOTTA Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, Penn State University 227 Reber Building

  8. 1,2-Aryl and 1,2-Hydride Migration in Transition Metal Complex Catalyzed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jianbo

    1,2-Aryl and 1,2-Hydride Migration in Transition Metal Complex Catalyzed Diazo Decomposition of Bioorganic Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Peking Uni,2-hydride migration was studied. A reaction mechanism involving a "bridged" phenonium ion is proposed

  9. Hydrogen storage material and process using graphite additive with metal-doped complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy (Aiken, SC); Ritter, James A. (Lexington, SC); Ebner, Armin D. (Lexington, SC); Wang, Jun (Columbia, SC); Holland, Charles E. (Cayce, SC)

    2008-06-10

    A hydrogen storage material having improved hydrogen absorbtion and desorption kinetics is provided by adding graphite to a complex hydride such as a metal-doped alanate, i.e., NaAlH.sub.4. The incorporation of graphite into the complex hydride significantly enhances the rate of hydrogen absorbtion and desorption and lowers the desorption temperature needed to release stored hydrogen.

  10. Hydride transfer reaction dynamics of OD+ Li Liu, Elizabeth S. Richards, and James M. Farrara

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrar, James M.

    Hydride transfer reaction dynamics of OD+ +C3H6 Li Liu, Elizabeth S. Richards, and James M. Farrara 30 April 2007; published online 29 June 2007 The hydride transfer reaction between OD+ and C3H6 has, with maxima close to the velocity and direction of the precursor propylene beam, characteristic of direct

  11. Hydride precipitation kinetics in Zircaloy-4 studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    Hydride precipitation kinetics in Zircaloy-4 studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction Olivier F fuel cladding and precipitate as brittle hydride particles, which may reduce cladding ductility. Dissolved hydrogen responds to temperature gradients, resulting in transport and precipitation into cold

  12. Ionic Transport Across Interfaces of Solid Glass and Polymer Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Perry, Kelly A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    A study of lithium cation transport across solid-solid electrolyte interfaces to identify critical resistances in nanostructured solid electrolytes is reported. Bilayers of glass and polymer thin film electrolytes were fabricated and characterized for this study. The glass electrolyte was lithium phosphorous oxynitride (Lipon), and two polymer electrolytes were studied: poly(methyl methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) and poly(styrene-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate). Both copolymers contained LiClO{sub 4} salt. In bilayers where polymer electrolyte layers are fabricated on top of Lipon, the interfacial resistance dominates transport. At 25 C, the interfacial resistance is at least three times greater than the sum of the Lipon and polymer electrolyte resistances. By reversing the structure and fabricating Lipon on top of the polymer electrolytes, the interfacial resistance is eliminated. Experiments to elucidate the origin of the interfacial resistance in the polymer-on-Lipon bilayers reveal that the solvent mixtures used to fabricate the polymer layers do not degrade the Lipon layer. The importance of the polymer electrolytes' mechanical properties is also discussed.

  13. Mathematical modeling of the nickel/metal hydride battery system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paxton, B K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    A group of compounds referred to as metal hydrides, when used as electrode materials, is a less toxic alternative to the cadmium hydroxide electrode found in nickel/cadmium secondary battery systems. For this and other reasons, the nickel/metal hydride battery system is becoming a popular rechargeable battery for electric vehicle and consumer electronics applications. A model of this battery system is presented. Specifically the metal hydride material, LaNi{sub 5}H{sub 6}, is chosen for investigation due to the wealth of information available in the literature on this compound. The model results are compared to experiments found in the literature. Fundamental analyses as well as engineering optimizations are performed from the results of the battery model. In order to examine diffusion limitations in the nickel oxide electrode, a ``pseudo 2-D model`` is developed. This model allows for the theoretical examination of the effects of a diffusion coefficient that is a function of the state of charge of the active material. It is found using present data from the literature that diffusion in the solid phase is usually not an important limitation in the nickel oxide electrode. This finding is contrary to the conclusions reached by other authors. Although diffusion in the nickel oxide active material is treated rigorously with the pseudo 2-D model, a general methodology is presented for determining the best constant diffusion coefficient to use in a standard one-dimensional battery model. The diffusion coefficients determined by this method are shown to be able to partially capture the behavior that results from a diffusion coefficient that varies with the state of charge of the active material.

  14. Metal Hydride Chemical Heat Pumps for Industrial Use 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ally, M. R.; Rebello, W. J.; Rosso, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    occasionally, the ideal behaviour shown in Figure 1 is observed, in practice there are usually slight deviations from this ideal. Fig ure 2 shows isotherms obtained for a gractical nickel-aluminium-mischmetal compound. t1) Note that the plateau is sloped.... The expansion is accomodated by the loosely packed individual capsules, preventing any stress on the main container walls. Each capsule is a thin-walled aluminium tube containing the hydride can, capped on one or both ends with a porous metal filter. Such a...

  15. Chemical Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage in Fuel Cell Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devarakonda, Maruthi N.; Brooks, Kriston P.; Ronnebro, Ewa; Rassat, Scot D.; Holladay, Jamelyn D.

    2012-04-16

    Due to its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to 19.6% by weight for the release of 2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions, ammonia borane (AB) is a promising material for chemical hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications in transportation sector. Several systems models for chemical hydride materials such as solid AB, liquid AB and alane were developed and evaluated at PNNL to determine an optimal configuration that would meet the 2010 and future DOE targets for hydrogen storage. This paper presents an overview of those systems models and discusses the simulation results for various transient drive cycle scenarios.

  16. The calculated rovibronic spectrum of scandium hydride, ScH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson\\, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure of six low-lying electronic states of scandium hydride, $X\\,{}^{1}\\Sigma^+$, $a\\,{}^{3}\\Delta$, $b\\,{}^{3}\\Pi$, $A\\,{}^{1}\\Delta$ $c\\,{}^{3}\\Sigma^+$, and $B\\,{}^{1}\\Pi$, is studied using multi-reference configuration interaction as a function of bond length. Diagonal and off-diagonal dipole moment, spin-orbit coupling and electronic angular momentum curves are also computed. The results are benchmarked against experimental measurements and calculations on atomic scandium. The resulting curves are used to compute a line list of molecular ro-vibronic transitions for $^{45}$ScH.

  17. Electrochemical process and production of novel complex hydrides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy

    2013-06-25

    A process of using an electrochemical cell to generate aluminum hydride (AlH.sub.3) is provided. The electrolytic cell uses a polar solvent to solubilize NaAlH.sub.4. The resulting electrochemical process results in the formation of AlH.sub.3. The AlH.sub.3 can be recovered and used as a source of hydrogen for the automotive industry. The resulting spent aluminum can be regenerated into NaAlH.sub.4 as part of a closed loop process of AlH.sub.3 generation.

  18. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Metal Hydride Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubictheThepresented in1: ModelGloveboxMetal Hydride

  19. Protein-Polymer Nanomaterials for Therapeutic Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsumoto, Nicholas Masao

    2014-01-01

    of Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes. Scienceof Nanowires for Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes. Science

  20. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  1. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  2. Cation Transport in Polymer Electrolytes: A Microscopic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Maitra; A. Heuer

    2007-05-11

    A microscopic theory for cation diffusion in polymer electrolytes is presented. Based on a thorough analysis of molecular dynamics simulations on PEO with LiBF$_4$ the mechanisms of cation dynamics are characterised. Cation jumps between polymer chains can be identified as renewal processes. This allows us to obtain an explicit expression for the lithium ion diffusion constant D_{Li} by invoking polymer specific properties such as the Rouse dynamics. This extends previous phenomenological and numerical approaches. In particular, the chain length dependence of D_{Li} can be predicted and compared with experimental data. This dependence can be fully understood without referring to entanglement effects.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J. Electrochem.advances in lithium ion battery materials. Electrochim. Actamaterials for lithium ion battery. Journal of Nanoparticle

  4. Visualization of Charge Distribution in a Lithium Battery Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    microdiffraction. Lithium ion batteries have made a greatthose used in lithium-ion batteries. Dynamic potentiometricrechargeable lithium ion batteries consist of many layers of

  5. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variouselectrodes for lithium-ion batteries, Journal of MaterialsAdvances in Lithium-Ion Batteries (Chapter 4), Kluwer

  6. The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project Andrewto evaluate emerging lithium battery technologies for plug-vehicles. By emerging lithium battery chemistries were meant

  7. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    materials for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Powersilicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with longal. High-performance lithium-ion anodes using a hierarchical

  8. ELLIPSOMETRY OF SURFACE LAYERS ON LEAD AND LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Richard Dudley

    2011-01-01

    Surface Layers on Lead and Lithium By Richard Dudley Peterssulfuric acid and and lithium to water, Acid concentrationsbeen observed in the reaction of lithium with water vapor. i

  9. Method of generating hydrogen-storing hydride complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Sesha S; Niemann, Michael U; Goswami, D. Yogi; Stefanakos, Elias K

    2013-05-14

    A ternary hydrogen storage system having a constant stoichiometric molar ratio of LiNH.sub.2:MgH.sub.2:LiBH.sub.4 of 2:1:1. It was found that the incorporation of MgH.sub.2 particles of approximately 10 nm to 20 nm exhibit a lower initial hydrogen release temperature of 150.degree. C. Furthermore, it is observed that the particle size of LiBNH quaternary hydride has a significant effect on the hydrogen sorption concentration with an optimum size of 28 nm. The as-synthesized hydrides exhibit two main hydrogen release temperatures, one around 160.degree. C. and the other around 300.degree. C., with the main hydrogen release temperature reduced from 310.degree. C. to 270.degree. C., while hydrogen is first reversibly released at temperatures as low as 150.degree. C. with a total hydrogen capacity of 6 wt. % to 8 wt. %. Detailed thermal, capacity, structural and microstructural properties have been demonstrated and correlated with the activation energies of these materials.

  10. GAS-PHASE REACTIONS OF HYDRIDE ANION, H{sup -}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Oscar; Yang Zhibo; Demarais, Nicholas J.; Bierbaum, Veronica M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 215 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0215 (United States); Snow, Theodore P., E-mail: Oscar.Martinez@colorado.ed, E-mail: Zhibo.Yang@colorado.ed, E-mail: Nicholas.Demarais@colorado.ed, E-mail: Veronica.Bierbaum@colorado.ed, E-mail: Theodore.Snow@colorado.ed [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, 391 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0391 (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Rate constants were measured at 300 K for the reactions of the hydride anion, H{sup -}, with neutral molecules C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}CN, CH{sub 3}OH, (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CO, CH{sub 3}CHO, N{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 3}Cl, (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}CCl, (CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}){sub 2}O, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and D{sub 2} using a flowing-afterglow instrument. Experimental work was supplemented by ab initio calculations to provide insight into the viability of reaction pathways. Our reported rate constants should prove useful to models of astrophysical environments where conditions prevail for the existence of both H{sup -} and neutral species. The variety of neutral reactants studied includes representative species from prototypical chemical groups, effectively mapping reactivity trends for the hydride anion.

  11. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  12. Six-Membered-Ring Malonatoborate-Based Lithium Salts as Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    05CH11231. References 1. Lithium Ion Batteries: FundamentalsExamination of Generation 2 Lithium-Ion Cells and AssessmentDevelopment Program for Lithium Ion Batteries, U.S.

  13. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  14. Design and Simulation of Lithium Rechargeable Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    polymer electrolyte, consisting of a nonaqueous carbonateand dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The polymer matrix is a random

  15. Redox shuttle additives for overcharge protection in lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Ross Jr., P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Protection in Lithium Batteries”, T. J. Richardson* and P.PROTECTION IN LITHIUM BATTERIES T. J. Richardson* and P. N.in lithium and lithium ion batteries are now available. The

  16. Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Reagents DOI: 10.1002/anie.200603038 Lithium Diisopropylamide: Solution Kinetics Keywords: kinetics · lithium diisopropylamide · metalation · solvent effects · synthesis design D. B: lithium diiso- propylamide (LDA). LDA has played a profound role in organic synthesis, serving as the base

  17. Lithium System Operation Dan Lev and David Stein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium System Operation Dan Lev and David Stein March 1, 2011 (or Lithium tank for dummies) 1 #12 for Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 9 Lithium Handling 52 9.1 Glove Box for Ordering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 9.2 Lithium Cleaning

  18. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Kepler, Keith D. (Mountain View, CA); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  19. Branched Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Kenyon; Peter Winkler

    2007-09-14

    Building on and from the work of Brydges and Imbrie, we give an elementary calculation of the volume of the space of branched polymers of order $n$ in the plane and in 3-space. Our development reveals some more general identities, and allows exact random sampling. In particular we show that a random 3-dimensional branched polymer of order $n$ has diameter of order $\\sqrt{n}$.

  20. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  1. Solvated electron lithium electrode for high energy density battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1987-05-26

    A rechargeable high energy density lithium-based cell is described comprising: a solvated electron lithium negative electrode comprising a solution of lithium dissolved in liquid ammonia; a lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; a liquid non-aqueous lithium ion conducting electrolyte comprising a lithium ion conducting supporting electrolyte dissolved in a non-aqueous solvent. The liquid electrolyte contacting the lithium ion conducting solid electrolyte; and a solid lithium intercalation positive electrode contacting the liquid electrolyte.

  2. Final report for the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Jay O.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the R&D activities within the U.S. Department of Energy Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) from March 2005 to June 2010. The purpose of the MHCoE has been to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE 2010 and 2015 system goals for hydrogen storage materials. The MHCoE combines three broad areas: mechanisms and modeling (which provide a theoretically driven basis for pursuing new materials), materials development (in which new materials are synthesized and characterized) and system design and engineering (which allow these new materials to be realized as practical automotive hydrogen storage systems). This Final Report summarizes the organization and execution of the 5-year research program to develop practical hydrogen storage materials for light duty vehicles. Major results from the MHCoE are summarized, along with suggestions for future research areas.

  3. The Development of a Cathodic Charging System to Form Hydrides in Zircaloy-4 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brito, Ryan

    2013-02-01

    This project investigates several methods of electrochemical insertion of hydrogen into Zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding. These systems are being assembled at Texas A & M to form zirconium hydride in cladding to model crack propagation during storage...

  4. The Use of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Recovery from Industrial Off-Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rebello, W. J.; Guerrero, P. S.; Goodell, P. D.

    1987-01-01

    technical factors may make it economically attractive for them to consider the hydride separation technology. Table 1 SECONDARY HYDROGEN CAPACITY IN 15 INDUSTRIES elements including palladium, vana dium, and magnesium. and with allo s based...

  5. Electrochromically switched, gas-reservoir metal hydride devices with application to energy-efficient windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2008-01-01

    allow molecular hydrogen to reach the palladium-capped metalhydrogen is converted to protons, which are transported through the ZrO 2 electrolyte to the palladiumhydrogen and transforms into a transparent hydride. A catalytic capping layer of palladium

  6. Model for Simulation of Hydride Precipitation in Zr-Based Used...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    a meso-scale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride precipitation in the cladding of used fuels during long-term dry-storage. While the Zr-based...

  7. Air breathing lithium power cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  8. Towards standardizing the measurement of electrochemical properties of solid state electrolytes in lithium batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dees, D. W.; Henriksen, G. L.

    1999-05-06

    The purpose of this paper is to stimulate thought and discussion in the technical community on standardization of the experimental determination of the pertinent electrochemical properties of solid electrolytes in lithium batteries. This standardization is needed for comparison and modeling of solid electrolytes in a practical lithium battery. The appropriate electrochemical properties include transport, thermodynamic, and physical parameters that generally depend on concentration and temperature. While it is beyond the scope of this work to put forward definitive measurement techniques for all types of solid electrolytes, it is hoped that comparisons between various techniques to examine a dissolved binary lithium salt in a dry polymer solvent will lead to improved understanding and methodology for examining solid electrolytes.

  9. Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

  10. Methods of enhancing conductivity of a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod

    2003-12-02

    Methods for enhancing conductivity of polymer-ceramic composite electrolytes are provided which include forming a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte film by a melt casting technique and uniaxially stretching the film from about 5 to 15% in length. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte is also preferably annealed after stretching such that it has a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1. The polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte formed by the methods of the present invention may be used in lithium rechargeable batteries.

  11. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2013-09-10

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes include chemical compounds comprising a polymer backbone with side chains that include guanidinium cations.

  12. First-principles calculations of niobium hydride formation in superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Denise C.; Cooley, Lance D.; Seidman, David N.

    2013-09-01

    Niobium hydride is suspected to be a major contributor to degradation of the quality factor of niobium superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. In this study, we connect the fundamental properties of hydrogen in niobium to SRF cavity performance and processing. We modeled several of the niobium hydride phases relevant to SRF cavities and present their thermodynamic, electronic, and geometric properties determined from calculations based on density-functional theory. We find that the absorption of hydrogen from the gas phase into niobium is exothermic and hydrogen becomes somewhat anionic. The absorption of hydrogen by niobium lattice vacancies is strongly preferred over absorption into interstitial sites. A single vacancy can accommodate six hydrogen atoms in the symmetrically equivalent lowest-energy sites and additional hydrogen in the nearby interstitial sites affected by the strain field: this indicates that a vacancy can serve as a nucleation center for hydride phase formation. Small hydride precipitates may then occur near lattice vacancies upon cooling. Vacancy clusters and extended defects should also be enriched in hydrogen, potentially resulting in extended hydride phase regions upon cooling. We also assess the phase changes in the niobium-hydrogen system based on charge transfer between niobium and hydrogen, the strain field associated with interstitial hydrogen, and the geometry of the hydride phases. The results of this study stress the importance of not only the hydrogen content in niobium, but also the recovery state of niobium for the performance of SRF cavities.

  13. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    as cathode materials for lithium ion battery. ElectrochimicaCapacity, High Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Utilizinghours. 1.4 Lithium Ion Batteries Lithium battery technology

  14. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of thin films for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Provo, James L., E-mail: jlprovo@verizon.net [Consultant, J.L. Provo Consulting, Trinity, Florida 34655-7179 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    An important aspect of understanding industrial processing is to know the characteristics of the materials used in such processes. A study was performed to determine the effects of hydriding chamber material on the degree of hydriding for the commercial production of thin film hydride targets for various research universities, commercial companies, and government national laboratories. The goal was to increase the degree of hydriding of various thin film hydrides and to study the vacuum environment during air-exposure hydriding. For this purpose, dynamic residual gas analysis during deuterium gas hydride processing was utilized with erbium thin films, employing a special set-up for direct dynamic hydride gas sampling during processing at elevated temperature and full loading gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper–(1.83?wt.?%)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600?°C–1?h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported. Dynamic residual gas analysis comparisons during hydriding are presented for hydriding chambers made from (2) alumina (99.8 wt.?%), (3) copper (with an interior aluminum coating ?10 k Å thick, and (4) for a stainless-steel air-fired passivated (900?°C–1?h) chamber. Dynamic data with deuterium gas in the chamber at the hydriding temperature (450?°C) showed the presence and growth of water vapor (D{sub 2}O) and related mixed ion species(H{sub 2}O{sup +}, HDO{sup +}, D{sub 2}O{sup +}, and OD{sup +}) from hydrogen isotope exchange reactions during the 1?h process time. Peaks at mass-to-charge ratios (i.e., m/e) of 12(C{sup +}), 16(CD{sub 2}{sup +}), 17(CHD{sub 2}{sup +}), and 18(CD{sub 3}{sup +}, OD{sup +}) increased for approximately the first half hour of a 1?h hydriding process and then approach steady state. Mass-to-charge peaks at 19(HDO{sup +}) and 20(D{sub 2}O{sup +}) continue to increase throughout the process cycle. Using the m/e?=?20 (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (1)–Cu(1.83 wt.?%)Be as a standard, the peak intensity from chamber (4)—stainless-steel (air-fired) was 7.1× higher, indicating that the surface of stainless-steel had a larger concentration of reactive oxygen and/or water than hydrogen. The (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (3)—Cu (interior Al coating) was 1.55× larger and chamber (2)—alumina(99.8%) was 1.33× higher than Cu(1.83 wt.?%)Be. Thus copper–(1.83 wt.?%)beryllium was the best hydriding chamber material studied followed closely by the alumina (99.8 wt.?%) chamber. Gas take-up by Er occluder targets processed in Cu(1.83?wt.?%)Be hydriding chambers (i.e., gas/metal atomic ratios) correlate with the dynamic RGA data.

  15. Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    on larger scales. Im- provement of the safety of lithium-ion batteries must occur if they are to be utilized in aqueous cells. However, the choice of a suitable anode material for an aqueous lithium-ion battery is moreSynthesis and Electrochemical Performance of a Lithium Titanium Phosphate Anode for Aqueous Lithium-Ion

  16. Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endres. William J.

    Real-time observation of lithium fibers growth inside a nanoscale lithium-ion battery Hessam to observe the real-time nucleation and growth of the lithium fibers inside a nanoscale Li-ion battery. Our.1063/1.3643035] Lithium-ion batteries are of great interest due to their high energy density, however, various safety

  17. SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bluemel, Janet

    @ Pergamon SOLID STATE NMR STUDY SUPPORTING THE LITHIUM VACANCY DEFECT MODEL IN CONGRUENT LITHIUM performed on powdered and single crystal lithium niobate of defectivecongruent composition (48.4%LirO;51.6% NbrOr) using a magnetic field strength of 7.05 Tesla with the aim to distinguish between a lithium

  18. Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide (LiHMDS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Ion Solvation: Amine and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon Solvates of Lithium Hexamethyldisilazide, and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of 6Li-15N labeled lithium hexamethyldisilazide ([6Li,15N]- Li ligand structure and lithium amide aggregation state is a complex and sensitive function of amine alkyl

  19. Polymer inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Syed Moeez Hassan; Viqar Husain; Sanjeev S. Seahra

    2015-03-05

    We consider the semi-classical dynamics of a free massive scalar field in a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological spacetime. The scalar field is quantized using the polymer quantization method assuming that it is described by a gaussian coherent state. For quadratic potentials, the semi-classical equations of motion yield a universe that has an early "polymer inflation" phase which is generic and almost exactly de Sitter, followed by a epoch of slow-roll inflation. We compute polymer corrections to the slow roll formalism, and discuss the probability of inflation in this model using a physical Hamiltonian arising from time gauge fixing. We also show how in this model, it is possible to obtain a significant amount of slow-roll inflation from sub-Planckain initial data, hence circumventing some of the criticisms of standard scenarios. These results show the extent to which a quantum gravity motivated quantization method affects early universe dynamics.

  20. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ? 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ? 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space between alkaline metal hydrides (AmH), Alkaline earth metal hydrides (AeH2), alane (AlH3), transition metal (Tm) hydrides (TmHz, where z=1-3) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The effort started first with variations of known alanates and subsequently extended the search to unknown compounds. In this stage, the FPM techniques were developed and validated on known alanate materials such as NaAlH4 and Na2LiAlH6. The coupled predictive methodologies were used to survey over 200 proposed phases in six quaternary spaces, formed from various combinations of Na, Li Mg and/or Ti with Al and H. A wide range of alanate compounds was examined using SSP having additions of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Fe. A number of compositions and reaction paths were identified having H weight fractions up to 5.6 wt %, but none meeting the 7.5 wt%H reversible goal. Similarly, MSP of alanates produced a number of interesting compounds and general conclusions regarding reaction behavior of mixtures during processing, but no alanate based candidates meeting the 7.5 wt% goal. A novel alanate, LiMg(AlH4)3, was synthesized using SBP that demonstrated a 7.0 wt% capacity with a desorption temperature of 150°C. The deuteride form was synthesized and characterized by the Institute for Energy (IFE) in Norway to determine its crystalline structure for related FPM studies. However, the reaction exhibited exothermicity and therefore was not reversible under acceptable hydrogen gas pressures for on-board recharging. After the extensive studies of alanates, the material class of emphasis was shifted to borohydrides. Through SBP, several ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2 complexes were synthesized. The Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 complex was found to change behavior with slightly different synthesis conditions and/or aging. One of the two mechanisms was an amine-borane (NH3BH3) like dissociation reaction which released up to 16 wt %H and more conservatively 9 wt%H when not including H2 released from the NH3. From FPM, the stability of the Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 compound was found to increase with the inclusion of NH3 groups in the inner-Mg coordination

  1. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  2. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-01-01

    Advances in Lithium-Ion Batteries Edited by Walter A. vantolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission andmysteries of lithium ion batteries. The book begins with an

  3. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2009-09-14

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael

    2013-04-19

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2010-01-08

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Michael Thackery on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Michael Thackery

    2010-01-08

    Michael Thackery, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  7. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Documentation of Hybrid Hydride Model for Incorporation into Moose-Bison and Validation Strategy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weck, Philippe F; Tikare, Veena; Schultz, Peter Andrew; Clark, B; Mitchell, J; Glazoff, Michael V.; Homer, Eric R.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride ?-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. In this work, a model to numerically simulate hydride precipitation at the microstructural scale, in a wide variety of Zr-based claddings, under dry-storage conditions is being developed. It will be used to aid in the evaluation of the mechanical integrity of used fuel rods during dry storage and transportation by providing the structural conditions from the microstructural scale to the continuum scale to engineering component scale models to predict if the used fuel rods will perform without failure under normal and off-normal conditions. The microstructure, especially, the hydride structure is thought to be a primary determinant of cladding failure, thus this component of UFD’s storage and transportation analysis program is critical. The model development, application and validation of the model are documented and the limitations of the current model are discussed. The model has been shown to simulate hydride precipitation in Zircaloy-4 cladding with correct morphology, thermodynamics and kinetics. An unexpected insight obtained from simulations hydride formation in Zircaloy-4 is that small (sub-micron) precipitates need to order themselves to form the larger hydrides typically described as radially-reoriented precipitates. A limitation of this model is that it does not currently solve the stress state that forms dynamically in the precipitate or matrix surrounding the precipitate. A method to overcome the limitations is suggested and described in detail. The necessary experiments to provide key materials physics and to validate the model are also recommended.

  9. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  10. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet describing development and application of processing and process control for nanocomposite materials for lithium ion batteries

  11. Polymer solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krawczyk, Gerhard Erich; Miller, Kevin Michael

    2011-07-26

    There is provided a method of making a polymer solution comprising polymerizing one or more monomer in a solvent, wherein said monomer comprises one or more ethylenically unsaturated monomer that is a multi-functional Michael donor, and wherein said solvent comprises 40% or more by weight, based on the weight of said solvent, one or more multi-functional Michael donor.

  12. Magnetism in Lithium–Oxygen Discharge Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A.; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S.; Greeley, Jeffrey P.; Ferguson, Glen A.; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2013-05-13

    Nonaqueous lithium–oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium–oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium–oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium– oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide- type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  13. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  14. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  15. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  16. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  17. Polymers Pushing Polymers: Polymer Mixtures in Thermodynamic Equilibrium with a Pore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    Polymers Pushing Polymers: Polymer Mixtures in Thermodynamic Equilibrium with a Pore R. Podgornik, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia Polymer Science and Engineering Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, United States ABSTRACT: We investigate polymer partitioning from polymer

  18. Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, T.S.; MacFadden, K.O.; Johnson, S.L.

    1997-12-16

    A process is described for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

  19. Fabrication methods for low impedance lithium polymer electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chern, Terry Song-Hsing (Midlothian, VA); MacFadden, Kenneth Orville (Highland, MD); Johnson, Steven Lloyd (Arbutus, MD)

    1997-01-01

    A process for fabricating an electrolyte-electrode composite suitable for high energy alkali metal battery that includes mixing composite electrode materials with excess liquid, such as ethylene carbonate or propylene carbonate, to produce an initial formulation, and forming a shaped electrode therefrom. The excess liquid is then removed from the electrode to compact the electrode composite which can be further compacted by compression. The resulting electrode exhibits at least a 75% lower resistance.

  20. Development of Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  1. Polymer Electrolytes for Advanced Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-CompatiblePlaying7NEPA/309 ReviewersElectrolytes

  2. Polymers For Advanced Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-CompatiblePlaying7NEPA/309Proceedings2 DOE

  3. Polymers For Advanced Lithium Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrder 422.1,an R7-CompatiblePlaying7NEPA/309Proceedings2 DOE1 DOE

  4. Lithium Salt-doped, Gelled Polymer Electrolyte with a Nanoporous,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E CChinaC L S C O N C E P TBicontinuous

  5. POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Nanomanufacturing with Polymers"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    POLYMER PROGRAM SEMINAR "Nanomanufacturing with Polymers" Prof. Joey Mead University Lowell has developed a suite of processes to enable the nanomanufacturing of polymer based products of properties (e.g. biocompatibility, polarity, and modulus). Polymer materials can be used as substrates

  6. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  7. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  8. Development of a lithium hydride powered hydrogen generator for use in long life, low power PEM fuel cell power supplies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strawser, Daniel DeWitt

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies a hybrid PEM fuel cell system for use in low power, long life sensor networks. PEM fuel cells offer high efficiency and environmental friendliness but have not been widely adopted due to cost, reliability, ...

  9. The Primordial Lithium Problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian D. Fields

    2012-03-15

    Big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory, together with the precise WMAP cosmic baryon density, makes tight predictions for the abundances of the lightest elements. Deuterium and 4He measurements agree well with expectations, but 7Li observations lie a factor 3-4 below the BBN+WMAP prediction. This 4-5\\sigma\\ mismatch constitutes the cosmic "lithium problem," with disparate solutions possible. (1) Astrophysical systematics in the observations could exist but are increasingly constrained. (2) Nuclear physics experiments provide a wealth of well-measured cross-section data, but 7Be destruction could be enhanced by unknown or poorly-measured resonances, such as 7Be + 3He -> 10C^* -> p + 9B. (3) Physics beyond the Standard Model can alter the 7Li abundance, though D and 4He must remain unperturbed; we discuss such scenarios, highlighting decaying Supersymmetric particles and time-varying fundamental constants. Present and planned experiments could reveal which (if any) of these is the solution to the problem.

  10. Electronic structure and crystal phase stability of palladium hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houari, Abdesalem; Matar, Samir F.; Eyert, Volker

    2014-11-07

    The results of electronic structure calculations for a variety of palladium hydrides are presented. The calculations are based on density functional theory and used different local and semilocal approximations. The thermodynamic stability of all structures as well as the electronic and chemical bonding properties are addressed. For the monohydride, taking into account the zero-point energy is important to identify the octahedral Pd-H arrangement with its larger voids and, hence, softer hydrogen vibrational modes as favorable over the tetrahedral arrangement as found in the zincblende and wurtzite structures. Stabilization of the rocksalt structure is due to strong bonding of the 4d and 1s orbitals, which form a characteristic split-off band separated from the main d-band group. Increased filling of the formerly pure d states of the metal causes strong reduction of the density of states at the Fermi energy, which undermines possible long-range ferromagnetic order otherwise favored by strong magnetovolume effects. For the dihydride, octahedral Pd-H arrangement as realized, e.g., in the pyrite structure turns out to be unstable against tetrahedral arrangement as found in the fluorite structure. Yet, from both heat of formation and chemical bonding considerations, the dihydride turns out to be less favorable than the monohydride. Finally, the vacancy ordered defect phase Pd{sub 3}H{sub 4} follows the general trend of favoring the octahedral arrangement of the rocksalt structure for Pd:H ratios less or equal to one.

  11. Morphological effects on the electrochemical performance of lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes, prepared by electrospinning technique, for lithium-ion battery applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Ji Won; Kalathil, Abdul Kareem; Yim, Chul Jin; Im, Won Bin

    2014-06-01

    Li-rich Li{sub 1.2}Ni{sub 0.17}Co{sub 0.17}Mn{sub 0.5}O{sub 2} cathode materials were synthesized by electrospinning technique with different polymers, and their structural, morphological, and electrochemical performances were investigated. It was found that the electrospinning process leads to the formation of a fiber and flower-like morphology, by using different polymers and heat treatment conditions. The nanostructured morphology provided these materials with high initial discharge capacity. The cycling stability was improved with agglomerated nano-particles, as compared with porous materials. - Highlights: • Fiber and flower-like Li-rich cathode was synthesized by simple electrospinning. • Polymer dependent morphology and electrochemical performance was investigated. • Well-organized porous structure facilitates the diffusion of lithium ions. • Technique could be applicable to other cathode materials as well.

  12. Lithium-6 from Solar Flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Ramaty; V. Tatischeff; J. P. Thibaud; B. Kozlovsky; N. Mandzhavidze

    2000-03-23

    By introducing a hitherto ignored Li-6 producing process, due to accelerated He-3 reactions with He-4, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more Li-6 than Li-7. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data we demonstrate that the Li-6 produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric Li-7, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration.

  13. CCCOOOLLLUUUMMMBBBIIIAAA UUUNNNIIIVVVEEERRRSSSIIITTTYYY CCCHHHEEEMMMIIICCCAAALLL SSSEEEGGGRRREEEGGGAAATTTIIIOOONNN aaannnddd SSSTTTOOORRRAAAGGGEEE CCCHHHAAARRRTTT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    shelves* Organic acids - Acetic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, Lactic acid, Oxaly Flammable liquids- Sodium metal, Potassium metal, Lithium metal, Lithium Aluminium hydride, Sodium Hydride Separate from all. Lithium Aluminum Hydride, Sodium

  14. Hydride transfer reaction dynamics of OD{sup +}+C{sub 3}H{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Li; Richards, Elizabeth S.; Farrar, James M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)

    2007-06-28

    The hydride transfer reaction between OD{sup +} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} has been studied experimentally and theoretically over the center of mass collision energy range from 0.21 to 0.92 eV using the crossed beam technique and density functional theory calculations. The center of mass flux distributions of the product ions at three different energies are highly asymmetric, with maxima close to the velocity and direction of the precursor propylene beam, characteristic of direct reactions. In the hydride transfer process, the entire reaction exothermicity is transformed into product internal excitation, consistent with mixed energy release in which the hydride ion is transferred with both the breaking and forming bonds extended. At higher collision energies, at least 85% of the incremental translational energy appears in product translation, providing a clear example of induced repulsive energy release. Compared to the related reaction of OD{sup +} with C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, reaction along the pathway initiated by addition of OD{sup +} to the C=C bond in propylene has a critical bottleneck caused by the torsional motion of the methyl substituent on the double bond. This bottleneck suppresses reaction through an intermediate complex in favor of direct hydride abstraction. Hydride abstraction appears to be a sequential process initiated by electron transfer in the triplet manifold, followed by rapid intersystem crossing and subsequent hydrogen atom transfer to form ground state allyl cation and HOD.

  15. Spatial periphery of lithium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galanina, L. I., E-mail: galan_lidiya@mail.ru; Zelenskaja, N. S. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    The spatial structure of lithium isotopes is studied with the aid of the charge-exchange and (t, p) reactions on lithium nuclei. It is shown that an excited isobaric-analog state of {sup 6}Li (0{sup +}, 3.56MeV) has a halo structure formed by a proton and a neutron, that, in the {sup 9}Li nucleus, there is virtually no neutron halo, and that {sup 11}Li is a Borromean nucleus formed by a {sup 9}Li core and a two-neutron halo manifesting itself in cigar-like and dineutron configurations.

  16. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  17. Materials Down-selection Decisions Made within the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE) - September-October 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klebanoff, Lennie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Reports on which hydrogen storage materials offer potential for further research as decided by DOE's Metal Hydride Center of Excellence.

  18. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  19. Deadtime Correction and Hydride Evaluation for Atom-Probe Data, with Applications for Studies of Nanoscale Grains and Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deadtime Correction and Hydride Evaluation for Atom-Probe Data, with Applications for Studies for Atom-Probe Tomography, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston hydride formation [3]. Measurements for this study are made with a Cameca LEAP 4000X Si atom

  20. Stimulated Emission from As-grown GaN Hexagons by Selective Area Growth Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stimulated Emission from As-grown GaN Hexagons by Selective Area Growth Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Engineering and the Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's St., Boston, MA 02215-2421, USA R hydride vapor phase epitaxy. We found the threshold for bulk stimulated emission to be 3.4 MW cm2

  1. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Hydride Reduction Stephane G. Ouellet, Jamison B. Tuttle, and David W. C. MacMillan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, David W. C.

    Enantioselective Organocatalytic Hydride Reduction Ste´phane G. Ouellet, Jamison B. Tuttle, and David W. C. MacMillan* DiVision of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute enzymes and hydride-reduction cofactors such as NADH or FADH2.2 On this basis, we recently questioned

  2. Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of surface electronic structure in GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Scanning Kelvin probe microscopy of surface electronic structure in GaN grown by hydride vapor Engineering and Program in Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla microscopy is used to image surface potential variations in GaN 0001 grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

  3. Acid strength and solvation effects on methylation, hydride transfer, and isomerization rates during catalytic homologation of C1 species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Acid strength and solvation effects on methylation, hydride transfer, and isomerization rates,b, a Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, USA b Division, FAU, MFI) via methylation and hydride transfer steps that favor isobutane and triptane formation

  4. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Capacity, High Rate Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Utilizingas cathode materials for lithium ion battery. Electrochimica

  5. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. (Shoreham, NY); Okamoto, Yoshiyuki (Fort Lee, NJ); Lee, Hung S. (Woodside, NY)

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10.sup.-4 to 10.sup.-7 S cm.sup.-1 at room temperature.

  6. Preparation of metallic cation conducting polymers based on sterically hindered phenols containing polymeric systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Lee, H.S.

    1989-11-21

    The present invention relates to ion-conducting solvent-free polymeric systems characterized as being cationic single ion conductors. The solvent-free polymer electrolytes comprise a flexible polymer backbone to which is attached a metal salt, such as a lithium, sodium or potassium salt, of a sterically hindered phenol. The solid polymer electrolyte may be prepared either by (1) attaching the hindered phenol directly to a flexible polymeric backbone, followed by neutralization of the phenolic OH's or (2) reacting the hindered phenol with a polymer precursor which is then polymerized to form a flexible polymer having phenolic OH's which are subsequently neutralized. Preferably the hindered phenol-modified polymeric backbone contains a polyether segment. The ionic conductivity of these solvent-free polymer electrolytes has been measured to be in the range of 10[sup [minus]4] to 10[sup [minus]7] S cm[sup [minus]1] at room temperature.

  7. High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel A. Mosher; Xia Tang; Ronald J. Brown; Sarah Arsenault; Salvatore Saitta; Bruce L. Laube; Robert H. Dold; Donald L. Anton

    2007-07-27

    This final report describes the motivations, activities and results of the hydrogen storage independent project "High Density Hydrogen Storage System Demonstration Using NaAlH4 Based Complex Compound Hydrides" performed by the United Technologies Research Center under the Department of Energy Hydrogen Program, contract # DE-FC36-02AL67610. The objectives of the project were to identify and address the key systems technologies associated with applying complex hydride materials, particularly ones which differ from those for conventional metal hydride based storage. This involved the design, fabrication and testing of two prototype systems based on the hydrogen storage material NaAlH4. Safety testing, catalysis studies, heat exchanger optimization, reaction kinetics modeling, thermochemical finite element analysis, powder densification development and material neutralization were elements included in the effort.

  8. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom

    2012-01-01

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  9. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Xiaofan

    2013-01-01

    strain in dielectric elastomers, Journal of Polymer SciencePart B: Polymer Physics. 49 (2011) 504–515. [25] X. Zhao, Z.Electroactive nanostructured polymers as tunable actuators,

  10. Polymer Physics Research Profile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    Polymer Physics Research Profile Our main interests are the theory of simplification and some behavior on different autonomous levels of description. Our favorite applications range from polymer + Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics + Coarse Graining + Soft Matter + Polymer Physics + Rheology + Competences

  11. Toward a Lithium-"Air" Battery: The Effect of CO2 on the Chemistry of a Lithium-Oxygen Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Toward a Lithium-"Air" Battery: The Effect of CO2 on the Chemistry of a Lithium-Oxygen Cell Hyung as a "lithium-air battery". Most studies of lithium-air batteries have focused on demonstrating battery operations in pure oxygen conditions; such a battery should technically be described as a "lithium- dioxygen

  12. Lithium equation-of-state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blink, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    In 1977, Dave Young published an equation-of-state (EOS) for lithium. This EOS was used by Lew Glenn in his AFTON calculations of the HYLIFE inertial-fusion-reactor hydrodynamics. In this paper, I summarize Young's development of the EOS and demonstrate a computer program (MATHSY) that plots isotherms, isentropes and constant energy lines on a P-V diagram.

  13. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  14. Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from aluminum-based hydride materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Balema, Viktor P.

    2004-08-10

    The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is mechanically processed in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pure gaseous hydrogen. Unlike previous methods, hydrogen may be obtained from the solid material without heating, and without the addition of a solvent during processing. The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous hydrogen as a fuel.

  15. Method and composition in which metal hydride particles are embedded in a silica network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    A silica embedded metal hydride composition and a method for making such a composition. The composition is made via the following process: A quantity of fumed silica is blended with water to make a paste. After adding metal hydride particles, the paste is dried to form a solid. According to one embodiment of the invention, the solid is ground into granules for use of the product in hydrogen storage. Alternatively, the paste can be molded into plates or cylinders and then dried for use of the product as a hydrogen filter. Where mechanical strength is required, the paste can be impregnated in a porous substrate or wire network.

  16. Dielectric Actuation of Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Xiaofan

    2013-01-01

    AgNW) polymer composite material that is conductive enoughAgNW/polymer composite was nominated as a highly conductive,

  17. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,for lithium rechargeable batteries. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A 1,

  18. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion...

  19. Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    987 94 Model Reformulation and Design of Lithium-ion Batteries V.R. Subramanian1,*, V. Boovaragavan Prediction......................................997 Optimal Design of Lithium-ion Batteries Lithium-ion batteries, product design, Bayesian estimation, Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation

  20. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    silicon nanowires for lithium ion battery anode with longfor high-performance lithium-ion battery anodes. Appl. Phys.as the anode for a lithium-ion battery with high coulombic

  1. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Friday, 23 March 2012 13:53 Lithium-ion batteries are in smart...

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    1/3 O 2 for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sourcesof LiFePO4 based lithium ion batteries. Mater. Lett. 2007,negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in an

  3. Coated Silicon Nanowires as Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watts, David James

    2014-01-01

    for advanced lithium-ion batteries. J. Power Sources 174,composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem.cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J. Electrochem.advances in lithium ion battery materials. Electrochim. ActaO 2 cathode material for lithium ion battery: Dependence of

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    negative electrode in lithium-ion batteries: AFM study in anJ. R. , Alloy design for lithium-ion battery anodes. J.Carbon materials for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries.

  6. Development and testing of a lithium ion source and injector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidl, P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Development and testing of a lithium ion source and injectortesting of an intense lithium ion source and injector for anFIG. 4. The modeled and measured lithium ion source surface

  7. Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide: Oligomer Structures at Low Ligand Concentrations Jennifer L. Rutherford-dimensional 6Li and 15N NMR spectroscopic studies of lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) solvated ligand concentrations are discussed. Introduction Spectroscopic studies of lithium amides at low ligand

  8. Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

    2012-01-01

    A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

  9. An Electrolytic Method to Form Zirconium Hydride Phases in Zirconium Alloys with Morphologies Similar to Hydrides Formed in Used Nuclear Fuel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhr, Samuel Houston

    2012-10-19

    )........................................................................................................... 56 Figure 23 Copper from the bronze electrode dissolved into solution and electroplated on top of graphite anode. ............................................... 60 Figure 24 Method 2 sample holder configuration... morphologies, densities, and geometries of hydrides which mimic those found in the real world application. 2.3.1 Electrolytic Method Electrolytic methods involving sulfuric acid baths or molten salt baths are used to coat the outside of the sample...

  10. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Oakbrook, IL)

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  11. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Kim, Jaekook (Naperville, IL)

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  12. Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes Designing Silicon Nanostructures for High Energy Lithium Ion Battery Anodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  13. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

  14. Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of lithium-ion battery anodes using lignin Authors:...

  15. Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions for Lithium Salts and Ionic Liquids for Lithium Battery Electrolytes Inexpensive, Nonfluorinated (or Partially Fluorinated) Anions...

  16. Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes Overcoming Processing Cost Barriers of High-Performance Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes 2012 DOE Hydrogen...

  17. Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components Diagnostic Studies on Lithium Battery Cells and Cell Components 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  18. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report Breakout session presentation for the EV Everywhere Grand...

  19. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries nanocompositematerialsliion.pdf More Documents & Publications Progress of DOE...

  20. Stability and Rate Capability of Al Substituted Lithium-Rich...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium-Rich High-Manganese Content Oxide Materials for Li-Ion Batteries The structures, electrochemical properties and thermal stability of Al-substituted lithium-excess...

  1. Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer Deposition Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic...

  2. Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium-Ion Batteries for Stationary Energy Storage (October 2012) DOE's Energy Storage...

  3. Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries Additives and Cathode Materials for High-Energy Lithium Sulfur Batteries 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High Energy Lithium Batteries for PHEV Applications Presentation given by...

  5. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K. (Ocean, NJ); Chin, Der-Tau (Winthrop, NY)

    1989-01-01

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  6. Electrolyte additive for lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behl, Wishvender K.; Chin, Der-Tau

    1989-02-07

    A large excess of lithium iodide in solution is used as an electrolyte adive to provide overcharge protection for a lithium rechargeable organic electrolyte battery.

  7. Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Title Can Automotive Battery Recycling Help Meet Lithium Demand? Publication Type Presentation Year of Publication 2013...

  8. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries Lucht, Brett L 25 ENERGY STORAGE We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have...

  9. Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles Development of High Energy Lithium Batteries for Electric Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  10. Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials Addressing the Voltage Fade Issue with Lithium-Manganese-Rich Oxide Cathode Materials 2012 DOE Hydrogen and...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cathodes Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: High Energy Lithium-Sulfur Cathodes Presentation given by Stanford University at 2015 DOE...

  12. Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lithium Ion Solvation and Diffusion in Bulk Organic Electrolytes from First Principles and Classical Reactive Molecular Dynamics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lithium...

  13. Studies on Lithium Manganese Rich MNC Composite Cathodes | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Studies on Lithium Manganese Rich MNC Composite Cathodes Studies on Lithium Manganese Rich MNC Composite Cathodes 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  14. Examining Hysteresis in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Composite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hysteresis in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Composite Cathode Materials Examining Hysteresis in Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Composite Cathode Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  15. Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides Thermodynamic Investigations of Lithium- and Manganese-Rich Transition Metal Oxides 2013 DOE...

  16. Lithium Ion Electrode Production NDE and QC Considerations |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Secondary Batteries Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Electrode Coating Defect Analysis and Processing NDE for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries Roll-to-Roll...

  17. Expanded North Carolina Lithium Facility Opens, Boosting U.S...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Expanded North Carolina Lithium Facility Opens, Boosting U.S. Production of a Key Manufacturing Material Expanded North Carolina Lithium Facility Opens, Boosting U.S. Production of...

  18. Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina Secretary Chu Celebrates Expansion of Lithium-Ion Battery Production in North Carolina July 26, 2011 -...

  19. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Batteries PolyPlus Battery Company - Berkeley, CA A...

  20. Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Title Closing the Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycle: Poster handout Publication Type Miscellaneous Year of Publication 2014...

  1. UAO 22.3.2007 primordial lithium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Korn, Andreas

    UAO ­ 22.3.2007 primordial lithium a way to potentially measure log (Li)p was discovered lithium abundance Spite & Spite 1982, Nature 297, 483 Spite & Spite 1982, A&A 115, 357 log NLi = 2.05 #12;UAO ­ 22.3.2007 How to observe lithium Asplund et al. 2006, ApJ 644,229 LiI resonance doublet at 6707�

  2. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL); Belharouak, Ilias (Westmont, IL); Liu, Jun (Naperville, IL)

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  3. Mesoscale Origin of the Enhanced Cycling-Stability of the Si-Conductive Polymer Anode for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Meng; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Browning, Nigel D.; Wang, Chong M.

    2014-01-14

    Electrode used in lithium-ion battery is invariably a composite of multifunctional components. The performance of the electrode is controlled by the interactive function of all components at mesoscale. Fundamental understanding of mesoscale phenomenon sets the basis for innovative designing of new materials. Here we report the achievement and origin of a significant performance enhancement of electrode for lithium ion batteries based on Si nanoparticles wrapped with conductive polymer. This new material is in marked contrast with conventional material, which exhibit fast capacity fade. In-situ TEM unveils that the enhanced cycling stability of the conductive polymer-Si composite is associated with mesoscale concordant function of Si nanoparticles and the conductive polymer. Reversible accommodation of the volume changes of Si by the conductive polymer allows good electrical contact between all the particles during the cycling process. In contrast, the failure of the conventional Si-electrode is probed to be the inadequate electrical contact.

  4. Lithium Metal Anodes for Rechargeable Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Wu; Wang, Jiulin; Ding, Fei; Chen, Xilin; Nasybulin, Eduard N.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium metal batteries have much higher energy density than those of lithium ion batteries using graphite anode. Unfortunately, uncontrollable dendritic lithium growth inherent in these batteries (upon repeated charge/discharge cycling) and limited Coulombic efficiency during lithium deposition/striping has prevented their practical application over the past 40 years. With the emerging of post Li-ion batteries, safe and efficient operation of lithium metal anode has become an enabling technology which may determine the fate of several promising candidates for the next generation of energy storage systems, including rechargeable Li-air battery, Li-S battery, and Li metal battery which utilize lithium intercalation compounds as cathode. In this work, various factors which affect the morphology and Coulombic efficiency of lithium anode will be analyzed. Technologies used to characterize the morphology of lithium deposition and the results obtained by modeling of lithium dendrite growth will also be reviewed. At last, recent development in this filed and urgent need in this field will also be discussed.

  5. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    lithium iron phosphates. Electrochemistry Communications 4,C. and Armand, M. Electrochemistry of liquids vs. solids:Journal of Applied Electrochemistry 25, Shin, J. H. ,

  6. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-30

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  7. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raistrick, Ian D. (Menlo Park, CA); Godshall, Ned A. (Stanford, CA); Huggins, Robert A. (Stanford, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  8. Structural Interactions within Lithium Salt Solvates: Cyclic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and ester solvents coordinate Li+ cations in electrolyte solutions for lithium batteries. One approach to gleaning significant insight into these interactions is to examine...

  9. Tennessee, Pennsylvania: Porous Power Technologies Improves Lithium...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Laboratory (ORNL), developed SYMMETRIX HPX-F, a nanocomposite separator for improved lithium-ion battery technology. This breakthrough membrane technology addresses market...

  10. Electronic structural and electrochemical properties of lithium...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Electronic structural and electrochemical properties of lithium zirconates and their capabilities of CO2 capture: A first-principles density-functional theory and...

  11. Nanocomposite Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    abuse tolerant lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is an important step in electrifying the drive train and facilitating widespread adoption of HEVs and PHEVs. Nanocomposite...

  12. A PROTOTYPE FOUR INCH SHORT HYDRIDE (FISH) BED AS A REPLACEMENT TRITIUM STORAGE BED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, J.; Estochen, E.; Shanahan, K.; Heung, L.

    2011-02-23

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities have used 1st generation (Gen1) metal hydride storage bed assemblies with process vessels (PVs) fabricated from 3 inch nominal pipe size (NPS) pipe to hold up to 12.6 kg of LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} metal hydride for tritium gas absorption, storage, and desorption for over 15 years. The 2nd generation (Gen2) of the bed design used the same NPS for the PV, but the added internal components produced a bed nominally 1.2 m long, and presented a significant challenge for heater cartridge replacement in a footprint limited glove-box. A prototype 3rd generation (Gen3) metal hydride storage bed has been designed and fabricated as a replacement candidate for the Gen2 storage bed. The prototype Gen3 bed uses a PV pipe diameter of 4 inch NPS so the bed length can be reduced below 0.7 m to facilitate heater cartridge replacement. For the Gen3 prototype bed, modeling results show increased absorption rates when using hydrides with lower absorption pressures. To improve absorption performance compared to the Gen2 beds, a LaNi{sub 4.15}Al{sub 0.85} material was procured and processed to obtain the desired pressure-composition-temperature (PCT) properties. Other bed design improvements are also presented.

  13. Elucidating Reactivity Differences in Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Processes: The Chemistry of Palladium Hydrides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Gregory C.

    Elucidating Reactivity Differences in Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Processes: The Chemistry of Palladium Hydrides Ivory D. Hills and Gregory C. Fu* Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute recently been described in the develop- ment of highly active palladium-based catalysts for cross

  14. FAILURE OF ZIRCALOY-4 SHEET CONTAINING HYDRIDE BLISTERS O.N. Pierron1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    FAILURE OF ZIRCALOY-4 SHEET CONTAINING HYDRIDE BLISTERS O.N. Pierron1 , D.A. Koss1 , A.T. Motta2 , R.S. Daum3 , and K.S. Chan4 1 Dept. Materials Science and Engineering, Penn State Univ., University Park, PA 16802 2 Dept. Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State University, University Park, PA

  15. INFLUENCE OF HYDRIDE MICROSTRUCTURE ON THROUGH-THICKNESS CRACK GROWTH IN ZIRCALOY-4 SHEET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    1 INFLUENCE OF HYDRIDE MICROSTRUCTURE ON THROUGH-THICKNESS CRACK GROWTH IN ZIRCALOY-4 SHEET P. A and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 2 Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 3 Southwest Research

  16. The influence of hydride blisters on the fracture of Zircaloy-4 O.N. Pierron a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    The influence of hydride blisters on the fracture of Zircaloy-4 O.N. Pierron a , D.A. Koss a,*, A.T. Motta b , K.S. Chan c a Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA c Southwest Research Institute, San

  17. Friction Stir Welding of Hydrided Titanium Alloys Mark Taylor, D.P. Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Friction Stir Welding of Hydrided Titanium Alloys Mark Taylor, D.P. Field Multi-Scale Engineering for Undergraduates program under grant number EEC-0754370 During Friction Stir Welding (FSW), a non-consumable tool-state welding process, much frictional heating and force is required of the tool. This steep demand on the tool

  18. Model for the Prediction of the Hydriding Thermodynamics of Pd-Rh-Co Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teter, D.F.; Thoma, D.J.

    1999-03-01

    A dilute solution model (with respect to the substitutional alloying elements) has been developed, which accurately predicts the hydride formation and decomposition thermodynamics and the storage capacities of dilute ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The effect of varying the rhodium and cobalt compositions on the thermodynamics of hydride formation and decomposition and hydrogen capacity of several palladium-rhodium-cobalt ternary alloys has been investigated using pressure-composition (PC) isotherms. Alloying in the dilute regime (<10 at.%) causes the enthalpy for hydride formation to linearly decrease with increasing alloying content. Cobalt has a stronger effect on the reduction in enthalpy than rhodium for equivalent alloying amounts. Also, cobalt reduces the hydrogen storage capacity with increasing alloying content. The plateau thermodynamics are strongly linked to the lattice parameters of the alloys. A near-linear dependence of the enthalpy of hydride formation on the lattice parameter was observed for both the binary Pd-Rh and Pd-Co alloys, as well as for the ternary Pd-Rh-Co alloys. The Pd-5Rh-3Co (at. %) alloy was found to have similar plateau thermodynamics as a Pd-10Rh alloy, however, this ternary alloy had a diminished hydrogen storage capacity relative to Pd-10Rh.

  19. First Principles Studies of Phase Stability and Reaction Dynamics in Complex Metal Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Mei-Yin

    2014-09-29

    Complex metal hydrides are believed to be one of the most promising materials for developing hydrogen storage systems that can operate under desirable conditions. At the same time, these are also a class of materials that exhibit intriguing properties. We have used state-of-the-art computational techniques to study the fundamental properties of these materials.

  20. First-row hydrides: Dissociation and ground state energies using quantum Monte Carlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, James B.

    First-row hydrides: Dissociation and ground state energies using quantum Monte Carlo Arne Lu, Pennsylvania 16802 Received 20 May 1996; accepted 24 July 1996 Accurate ground state energies comparable FN-DQMC method. The residual energy, the nodal error due to the error in the nodal structure

  1. Internal hydriding in irradiated defected Zircaloy fuel rods: A review (LWBR Development Program)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, J C

    1987-10-01

    Although not a problem in recent commercial power reactors, including the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor, internal hydriding of Zircaloy cladding was a persistent cause of gross cladding failures during the 1960s. It occurred in the fuel rods of water-cooled nuclear power reactors that had a small cladding defect. This report summarizes the experimental findings, causes, mechanisms, and methods of minimizing internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods. Irradiation test data on the different types of defected fuel rods, intentionally fabricated defected and in-pile operationally defected rods, are compared. Significant factors affecting internal hydriding in defected Zircaloy-clad fuel rods (defect hole size, internal and external sources of hydrogen, Zircaloy cladding surface properties, nickel alloy contamination of Zircaloy, the effect of heat flux and fluence) are discussed. Pertinent in-pile and out-of-pile test results from Bettis and other laboratories are used as a data base in constructing a qualitative model which explains hydrogen generation and distribution in Zircaloy cladding of defected water-cooled reactor fuel rods. Techniques for minimizing internal hydride failures in Zircaloy-clad fuel rods are evaluated.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    397 ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRON EXCITATION SPECTRA IN HEAVY RARE EARTH METALS, HYDRIDES AND OXIDES C thin evaporated foils of heavy rare earths (Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) in three different chemical of high energy incident electrons (75 keV) transmitted through thin foils of yttric rare earth elements

  3. Preparation of Prototypic Irradiated Hydrided-Zircaloy Cladding for UFDC Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ott, Larry J [ORNL] [ORNL; Howard, Richard H [ORNL] [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL] [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel Lee [ORNL] [ORNL; Yan, Yong [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) has tasked ORNL to investigate the behavior of light-water-reactor fuel cladding material performance related to extended storage and transportation of used fuel. Fast neutron irradiation of pre-hydrided zirconium-alloy cladding in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at elevated temperatures has been used to simulate the effects of high burnup on used fuel cladding for use in understanding the materials properties relevant to very long-term storage (VLTS) and subsequent transportation. The irradiated pre-hydrided metallic materials will generate baseline data to benchmark hot-cell testing of high-burnup used fuel cladding; and, more importantly, samples free of alpha contamination can be provided to the researchers who do not have hot cell facilities to handle highly contaminated high-burnup used fuel cladding to support their research projects for the UFDC. In order to accomplish this research, ORNL has produced unirradiated zirconium-based cladding tubes with a certain hydrogen concentration. Two capsules (HYCD-1 and HYCD-2) containing hydrided zirconium-based samples, 9.50 mm (0.374 in) in diameter, were inserted in HFIR for neutron irradiation. HYCD-1 was removed after Cycle 440B and HYCD-2 after Cycle 442. This paper will describe the general HYCD experiment configuration, achieved temperatures, and temperature gradients within the cladding, and current results of the PIE of the irradiated hydrided cladding samples.

  4. Polymers with increased order

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawan, Samuel P. (Tyngsborough, MA); Talhi, Abdelhafid (Rochester, MI); Taylor, Craig M. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    1998-08-25

    The invention features polymers with increased order, and methods of making them featuring a dense gas.

  5. Mechanical Deformation of a Lithium-Metal Anode Due to a Very Stiff Separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-05-21

    This work builds on the two-dimensional model presented by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem. Soc., 159, A1615 (2012)1, which captures the movement of lithium metal at the negative electrode during cycling in a Li-metal/LiCoO2 cell. In this paper, the separator is modeled as a dendrite-inhibiting polymer separator with an elastic modulus of 16 GPa. The separator resists the movement of lithium through the generation of stresses in the cell. These stresses affect the negative electrode through two mechanisms altering the thermodynamics of the negative electrode and deforming the negative electrode mechanically. From this analysis, we find that the dendrite-inhibiting separator causes plastic and elastic deformation of the lithium at the negative electrode which flattens the electrode considerably when compared to the liquid-electrolyte case. This flattening of the negative electrode causes only very slight differences in the local state of charge in the positive electrode. When comparing the magnitude of the effects flattening the negative electrode, we find that the plastic deformation plays a much larger role than either the pressure-modified reaction kinetics or elastic deformation. This is due to the low yield strength of the lithium metal, which limits the stresses such that they have only a small effect on the reaction kinetics. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  6. A lithium oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F.

    1987-08-01

    In principle the lithium-oxygen couple should provide one of the highest energy densities yet investigated for advanced battery systems. The problem to this time has been one of identifying strategies for achieving high electrochemical reversibilities at each electrode under conditions where one might anticipate to also achieve long materials lifetimes. This has been addressed in recent work by us via the application of stabilized zirconia oxygen vacancy conducting solid electrolytes, for the effective separation of respective half-cell reactions.

  7. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  8. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely that the next step will be accomplished through a combination of joint venture partnering and licensing of the technology.

  9. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, David M; Dang, Liem X

    2015-01-01

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reaction...

  10. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  11. Jeff Chamberlain on Lithium-air batteries

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, Jeff

    2013-04-19

    Jeff Chamberlain, technology transfer expert at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries. More information at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/batteries090915.html

  12. Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Separator Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Mechanical Properties of Lithium-Ion Battery Separator Materials Patrick Sinko B.S. Materials and motivation ­ Why study lithium-ion batteries? ­ Lithium-ion battery fundamentals ­ Why study the mechanical behaviors in lithium-ion batteries? · Current work ­ Mechanical behaviors the separator ­ How do we test

  13. Solvated electron lithium electrode for high energy density battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammels, A.F.

    1987-08-04

    A solvated electron lithium negative electrode is described containing: containment means holding a solution of lithium dissolved in liquid ammonia to form a solvated electron solution, the solvated electron solution contacting a lithium intercalating membrane and providing lithium to the intercalating membrane during discharge and accepting it from the intercalating membrane during charge.

  14. Lithium-Assisted Electrochemical Welding in Silicon Nanowire Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    Lithium-Assisted Electrochemical Welding in Silicon Nanowire Battery Electrodes Khim Karki, Eric-healing, interfacial lithium diffusivity, in situ TEM, lithium-ion battery Silicon is an auspicious candidate to replace today's widely utilized graphitic anodes in lithium ion batteries because its specific energy

  15. Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    Intense Lithium Streams in Tokamaks 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University, Princeton Plasma. Temperature of the streams. 2. Lithium jets. 3. Injection into vacuum chamber. 4. Propulsion inside the vacuum chamber. 5. Stability of the lithium streams. 6. Expulsion of the lithium. 7. Summary. PRINCETON PLASMA

  16. Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator Thruster (LiLFA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerator Thruster (LiLFA) Adam Coulon Princeton University Electric #12;LiLFA Thruster · Lithium vapor ionizes in the electric field · A current evolves in the plasma and Control System Position Sensing Detector #12;Lithium Reservoir Argon Flow Copper Water Flow Piston/Lithium

  17. Impact of Lithium Availability on Vehicle Electrification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, J.

    2011-07-01

    This presentation discusses the relationship between electric drive vehicles and the availability of lithium.

  18. A Failure and Structural Analysis of Block Copolymer Electrolytes for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Gregory Michael

    2012-01-01

    for Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries By Gregory Michaelfor Rechargeable Lithium Metal Batteries by Gregory Michaelin rechargeable lithium metal batteries. The block copolymer

  19. STUDIES ON THE ROLE OF THE SUBSTRATE INTERFACE FOR GERMANIUM AND SILICON LITHIUM ION BATTERY ANODES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    AND SILICON LITHIUM ION BATTERY ANODES........................................................................................................................16 1.1 Lithium Ion Batteries...................................................................................17 1.1.2 Lithium Ion Battery Chemistry

  20. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01

    O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energydecomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-principlesMaterials for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Funct. Mater. 23,

  1. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of VariousAdvisor utilizing lithium-ion batteries of the differentin hybrids. Keywords: lithium-ion batteries, plug-in hybrid

  2. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Whether any of the lithium battery chemistries can meetgeneral the higher cost lithium battery chemistries have thecosts for various lithium battery chemistries Electrode

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Simultaneous Electronic and Ionic Conducting Block Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Shrayesh

    2013-01-01

    Copolymer: Application in Lithium Battery Electrodes. Angew.Schematic of the Proposed lithium battery electrode with aBlock Copolymers for Lithium Battery Electrodes By Shrayesh

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF THE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATIC DISCHARGE BEHAVIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollard, Richard

    2012-01-01

    composition profiles in lithium/sulfur battery analogues hasTHE LITHIUM-ALUMINUM, IRON SULFIDE BATTERY. I. GALVONOSTATICthe Lithium-Aluminum, Iron Sulfide Battery I. Galvanostatic

  5. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Variousare presented for lithium-ion cells and modules utilizingAdvisor utilizing lithium-ion batteries of the different

  6. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01

    O 2 Cathode Material in Lithium Ion Batteries. Adv. Energysolvent decomposition in lithium ion batteries: first-Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. Funct.

  7. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Alternatives to Current Lithium-Ion Batteries. Adv. EnergyElectrode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries. MaterialsTechniques to the Study of Lithium Ion Batteries. J. Solid

  8. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  9. URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sames, William

    2011-08-08

    Work was done to study a hydride-dehydride method for producing uranium metal powder. Particle distribution analysis was conducted using digital microscopy and grayscale image analysis software. The particle size was found ...

  10. Thermal analysis of uranium zirconium hydride fuel using a lead-bismuth gap at LWR operating temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ensor, Brendan M. (Brendan Melvin)

    2012-01-01

    Next generation nuclear technology calls for more advanced fuels to maximize the effectiveness of new designs. A fuel currently being studied for use in advanced light water reactors (LWRs) is uranium zirconium hydride ...

  11. Block copolymer electrolytes for lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudson, William Rodgers

    2011-01-01

    polymer photoresists by scanning transmission x-ray microscopy. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology

  12. J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113,9575-9585 9575 Mixed Aggregation of Lithium Enolates and Lithium Halides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    J. Am. Chem. SOC.1991, 113,9575-9585 9575 Mixed Aggregation of Lithium Enolates and Lithium Halides with Lithium 2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidide(LiTMP) Patricia L. Hall, James H. Gilchrist, Aidan T. Harrison]-lithiumdi-tert-butylamide and conformationally locked [6Li]-lithium2,2,4,6,6-pentamethylpiperidide shed further light

  13. The influence of surface morphology and oxide microstructure on the nucleation and growth of uranium hydride on alpha uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Hawley, M.E.; Brown, G.W.

    1998-12-31

    While the bulk kinetics of the uranium-hydrogen reaction are well understood, the mechanisms underlying the initial nucleation of uranium hydride on uranium remain controversial. In this study, the authors have employed environmental cell optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy, (AFM) in an attempt to relate the structure of the surface and the microstructure of the substrate with the susceptibility and site of hydride nucleation. Samples have been investigated with varying grain size, inclusion (carbide) concentration, and thermal history. There is a clear correlation to heat treatment immediately prior to hydrogen exposure. Susceptibility to hydride formation also appears to be related to impurities in the uranium. The oxidized surface is very complex, exhibiting wide variations in thickness and topography between samples, between grains in the same sample, and within individual grains. It is, however, very difficult to relate this fine scale variability to the relatively sparse hydride initiation sites. Therefore, the surface oxide layer itself does not appear to control the sites where hydride attack is initiated, although it must play a role in the induction period prior to hydride initiation.

  14. Fast, Quantitative, and Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Yong; Qian, Shuo; Littrell, Ken; Parish, Chad M; Plummer, Lee K

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive neutron scattering method to precisely measure the uptake of hydrogen and the distribution of hydride precipitates in light water reactor (LWR) fuel cladding was developed. Zircaloy-4 cladding used in commercial LWRs was used to produce hydrided specimens. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and hydrogen gas. Following hydrogen charging, the hydrogen content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method, by which the samples with desired hydrogen concentration were selected for the neutron study. Optical microscopy shows that our hydriding procedure results in uniform distribution of circumferential hydrides across the wall. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering was performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Our study demonstrates that the hydrogen in commercial Zircaloy-4 cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes by this nondestructive method over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations from a very small amount ( 20 ppm) to over 1000 ppm. The hydrogen distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor determined by a calibration process using standard, destructive direct chemical analysis methods on the specimens. This scale factor can be used in future tests with unknown hydrogen concentrations, thus providing a nondestructive method for absolute hydrogen concentration determination.

  15. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  16. Y-12 lithium-6 production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifies largest single andNuclearsafety workshop |lithium-6

  17. Lithium | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesse BergkampCenter (LMI-EFRC) ProximityCenterLee Facultya AListLithium

  18. Stiff Quantum Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Kleinert

    2007-05-01

    At ultralow temperatures, polymers exhibit quantum behavior, which is calculated here for the moments and of the end-to-end distribution in the large-stiffness regime. The result should be measurable for polymers in wide optical traps.

  19. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jae Wook [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Mielke, Charles H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zapf, Vivien [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baiardo, Joseph P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Richmond, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mun, Eun D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Smith, Alice Iulia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized ?-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  20. High Resolution Neutron Radiography and Tomography of Hydrided Zircaloy-4 Cladding Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Ray, Holly B; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Yan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Neutron radiography for hydrogen analysis was performed with several Zircaloy-4 cladding samples with controlled hydrogen concentrations up to 1100 ppm. Hydrogen charging was performed in a process tube that was heated to facilitate hydrogen absorption by the metal. A correlation between the hydrogen concentration in the hydrided tubes and the neutron intensity was established, by which hydrogen content can be determined precisely in a small area (55 m x 55 m). Radiography analysis was also performed to evaluate the heating rate and its correlation with the hydrogen distribution through hydrided materials. In addition to radiography analysis, tomography experiments were performed on Zircaloy-4 tube samples to study the local hydrogen distribution. Through tomography analysis a 3D reconstruction of the tube was evaluated in which an uneven hydrogen distribution in the circumferential direction can be observed.

  1. Use of Solid Hydride Fuel for Improved long-Life LWR Core Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenspan, E

    2006-04-30

    The primary objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of improving the performance of PWR and BWR cores by using solid hydride fuels instead of the commonly used oxide fuel. The primary measure of performance considered is the bus-bar cost of electricity (COE). Additional performance measures considered are safety, fuel bundle design simplicity – in particular for BWR’s, and plutonium incineration capability. It was found that hydride fuel can safely operate in PWR’s and BWR’s without restricting the linear heat generation rate of these reactors relative to that attainable with oxide fuel. A couple of promising applications of hydride fuel in PWR’s and BWR’s were identified: (1) Eliminating dedicated water moderator volumes in BWR cores thus enabling to significantly increase the cooled fuel rods surface area as well as the coolant flow cross section area in a given volume fuel bundle while significantly reducing the heterogeneity of BWR fuel bundles thus achieving flatter pin-by-pin power distribution. The net result is a possibility to significantly increase the core power density – on the order of 30% and, possibly, more, while greatly simplifying the fuel bundle design. Implementation of the above modifications is, though, not straightforward; it requires a design of completely different control system that could probably be implemented only in newly designed plants. It also requires increasing the coolant pressure drop across the core. (2) Recycling plutonium in PWR’s more effectively than is possible with oxide fuel by virtue of a couple of unique features of hydride fuel – reduced inventory of U-238 and increased inventory of hydrogen. As a result, the hydride fuelled core achieves nearly double the average discharge burnup and the fraction of the loaded Pu it incinerates in one pass is double that of the MOX fuel. The fissile fraction of the Pu in the discharged hydride fuel is only ~2/3 that of the MOX fuel and the discharged hydride fuel is more proliferation resistant. Preliminary feasibility assessment indicates that by replacing some of the ZrH1.6 by ThH2 it will be possible to further improve the plutonium incineration capability of PWR’s. Other possibly promising applications of hydride fuel were identified but not evaluated in this work. A number of promising oxide fueled PWR core designs were also found as spin-offs of this study: (1) The optimal oxide fueled PWR core design features smaller fuel rod diameter of D=6.5 mm and a larger pitch-to-diameter ratio of P/D=1.39 than presently practiced by industry – 9.5mm and 1.326. This optimal design can provide a 30% increase in the power density and a 24% reduction in the cost of electricity (COE) provided the PWR could be designed to have the coolant pressure drop across the core increased from the reference 29 psia to 60 psia. (2) Using wire wrapped oxide fuel rods in hexagonal fuel assemblies it is possible to design PWR cores to operate at 54% higher power density than the reference PWR design that uses grid spacers and a square lattice, provided 60 psia coolant pressure drop across the core could be accommodated. Uprating existing PWR’s to use such cores could result in 40% reduction in the COE. The optimal lattice geometry is D = 8.08 mm and P/D = 1.41. The most notable advantages of wire wraps over grid spacers are their significant lower pressure drop, higher critical heat flux and improved vibrations characteristics.

  2. Synthesis, NMR spectra, and structure of rhodium hydride complexes with Rh-Sn bonds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krut'ko, B.P.; Permin, A.B.; Petrosyan, V.S.; Reutov, O.A.

    1985-06-20

    The authors study the hydride complexes using Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectroscopy. The spectra were taken in a pulse mode on a Varian FT-80A spectrometer equipped with a wideband system at 29.66 and 79.54 MHz. The Sn 119 and H 1 NMR spectral parameters for a solution of the complex (Bu/sub 4/N)/sub 3/ (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) in CD/sub 3/CN are shown, the spectra show that the (HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/)/sup 3 -/ anion has octahedral structure with four equatorial and one axial Rh-Sn bonds. New rhodium hydride complexes with general formula (R/sub 4/N)/sub 3/(HRh(SnCl/sub 3/)/sub 5/) were synthesized.

  3. Engineering of the band gap and optical properties of thin films of yttrium hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Chang Chuan; Mongstad, Trygve; Maehlen, Jan Petter; Karazhanov, Smagul, E-mail: smagulk@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

    2014-07-21

    Thin films of oxygen-containing yttrium hydride show photochromic effect at room temperature. In this work, we have studied structural and optical properties of the films deposited at different deposition pressures, discovering the possibility of engineering the optical band gap by variation of the oxygen content. In sum, the transparency of the films and the wavelength range of photons triggering the photochromic effect can be controlled by variation of the deposition pressure.

  4. Polymer Reaction & Colloidal Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giger, Christine

    Polymer Reaction & Colloidal Engineering Research Profile The Morbidelli Group is carrying out research in numerous areas related to polymer and colloid science and enginee- ring. Our research activity combines a variety of experimen- tal techniques for polymers and particles characterization with advanced

  5. OPTIMIZATION OF INTERNAL HEAT EXCHANGERS FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE TANKS UTILIZING METAL HYDRIDES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, S.; Tamburello, D.; Hardy, B.; Anton, D.; Gorbounov, M.; Cognale, C.; van Hassel, B.; Mosher, D.

    2011-07-14

    Two detailed, unit-cell models, a transverse fin design and a longitudinal fin design, of a combined hydride bed and heat exchanger are developed in COMSOL{reg_sign} Multiphysics incorporating and accounting for heat transfer and reaction kinetic limitations. MatLab{reg_sign} scripts for autonomous model generation are developed and incorporated into (1) a grid-based and (2) a systematic optimization routine based on the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex method to determine the geometrical parameters that lead to the optimal structure for each fin design that maximizes the hydrogen stored within the hydride. The optimal designs for both the transverse and longitudinal fin designs point toward closely-spaced, small cooling fluid tubes. Under the hydrogen feed conditions studied (50 bar), a 25 times improvement or better in the hydrogen storage kinetics will be required to simultaneously meet the Department of Energy technical targets for gravimetric capacity and fill time. These models and methodology can be rapidly applied to other hydrogen storage materials, such as other metal hydrides or to cryoadsorbents, in future work.

  6. STUDIES ON TWO CLASSES OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Solid Solutions: Coupled Lithium-Ion and Electron Mobility.lithium batteries, II. Lithium ion rechargeable batteries.1/4)Ni(3/4)O(2) for lithium-ion batteries. Electrochimica

  7. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation and Anionic Fries Rearrangement of Aryl Carbamates: Role of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Ortholithiation and Anionic Fries Rearrangement of Aryl of the lithium diisopropylamide (LDA)-mediated anionic Fries rearrangements of aryl carbamates are described, an LDA-lithium phenolate mixed dimer, and homoaggregated lithium phenolates. The highly insoluble

  8. Lithium abundances in exoplanet-hosts stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Castro; S. Vauclair; O. Richard; N. C. Santos

    2008-03-20

    Exoplanet-host stars (EHS) are known to present surface chemical abundances different from those of stars without any detected planet (NEHS). EHS are, on the average, overmetallic compared to the Sun. The observations also show that, for cool stars, lithium is more depleted in EHS than in NEHS. The overmetallicity of EHS may be studied in the framework of two different scenarii. We have computed main sequence stellar models with various masses, metallicities and accretion rates. The results show different profiles for the lithium destruction according to the scenario. We compare these results to the spectroscopic observations of lithium.

  9. Gas Diffusion in Metals: Fundamental Study of Helium-Point Defect Interactions in Iron and Kinetics of Hydrogen Desorption from Zirconium Hydride

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xunxiang

    2013-01-01

    steel, nickel, iron and zirconium. Nucl. Instrum. MethodsSteinbruck. Hydrogen absorption by zirconium alloys at highHydride formation in zirconium alloys. JOM. 64 R. Yang, O.

  10. Modeling Lithium Movement over Multiple Cycles in a Lithium-Metal Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrese, A; Newman, J

    2014-04-11

    This paper builds on the work by Ferrese et al. [J. Electrochem., 159, A1615 (2012)], where a model of a lithium-metal battery with a LiyCoO2 positive electrode was created in order to predict the movement of lithium in the negative electrode along the negative electrode/separator interface during cell cycling. In this paper, the model is expanded to study the movement of lithium along the lithium-metal anode over multiple cycles. From this model, it is found that when a low percentage of lithium at the negative electrode is utilized, the movement of lithium along the negative electrode/separator interface reaches a quasi steady state after multiple cycles. This steady state is affected by the slope of the open-circuit-potential function in the positive electrode, the rate of charge and discharge, the depth of discharge, and the length of the rest periods. However, when a high percent of the lithium at the negative electrode is utilized during cycling, the movement does not reach a steady state and pinching can occur, where the lithium nearest the negative tab becomes progressively thinner after cycling. This is another nonlinearity that leads to a progression of the movement of lithium over multiple cycles. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society.

  11. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01

    Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam and Marcarechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an integral

  12. Characterization of Electrode Materials for Lithium Ion and Sodium Ion Batteries using Synchrotron Radiation Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum is used for lithium ion battery cathodes and alland copper is used for lithium ion battery anodes. After the

  13. Surface reconstruction and chemical evolution of stoichiometric layered cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Layered, “Li-Excess” Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Materialthe surfaces of lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes evolve

  14. Passivation of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xueyuan; Devine, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    of Aluminum in Lithium-ion Battery Electrolytes with LiBOBin commercially available lithium-ion battery electrolytes,

  15. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01

    Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C. Kam andusing rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become an

  16. Finding Room for Improvement in Transition Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kam, Kinson

    2012-01-01

    Metal Oxides Cathodes for Lithium-ion Batteries Kinson C.storage using rechargeable lithium-ion batteries has become

  17. Nanoporous polymer electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elliott, Brian (Wheat Ridge, CO); Nguyen, Vinh (Wheat Ridge, CO)

    2012-04-24

    A nanoporous polymer electrolyte and methods for making the polymer electrolyte are disclosed. The polymer electrolyte comprises a crosslinked self-assembly of a polymerizable salt surfactant, wherein the crosslinked self-assembly includes nanopores and wherein the crosslinked self-assembly has a conductivity of at least 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 S/cm at 25.degree. C. The method of making a polymer electrolyte comprises providing a polymerizable salt surfactant. The method further comprises crosslinking the polymerizable salt surfactant to form a nanoporous polymer electrolyte.

  18. Synthetic Methods DOI: 10.1002/anie.201200370

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -formylation with acetic formic anhydride followed by reduction with lithium alumi- num hydride.[9] The product

  19. Hydrocracking of polymers to liquid fuels over strong solid acid catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatesh, K.R.; Hu, J.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Post-consumer plastic wastes make a significant portion of the total solid wastes generated annually in the U.S. and are not significantly recycled. We have found that certain polymeric wastes can be hydrocracked to provide high quality, environmentally acceptable transportation fuels. In this paper, we disclose results obtained from the depolymerization-liquefaction of polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene, thermoplastics which make up the bulk of plastic wastes. The polymers can be converted over solid acid catalysts to C{sub 4}-C{sub 20} liquids with yields of gasoline (C{sub 4}-C{sub 12}) range products exceeding 75 wt%. The product distribution could be varied by manipulating reaction parameters (reaction conditions, feed to catalyst ratios, addition of hydride donor/transfer agents) and catalyst composition. The effect of catalyst modifications on the activity and selectivity in hydrocracking of polymers will be discussed. Changes in physicochemical characteristics of the catalysts after reaction will also be discussed.

  20. Draft of M2 Report on Integration of the Hybrid Hydride Model into INL’s MBM Framework for Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tikare, Veena; Weck, Philippe F.; Schultz, Peter A.; Clark, Blythe; Glazoff, Michael; Homer, Eric

    2014-07-01

    This report documents the development, demonstration and validation of a mesoscale, microstructural evolution model for simulation of zirconium hydride {delta}-ZrH{sub 1.5} precipitation in the cladding of used nuclear fuels that may occur during long-term dry storage. While the Zr-based claddings are manufactured free of any hydrogen, they absorb hydrogen during service, in the reactor by a process commonly termed ‘hydrogen pick-up’. The precipitation and growth of zirconium hydrides during dry storage is one of the most likely fuel rod integrity failure mechanisms either by embrittlement or delayed hydride cracking of the cladding (Hanson et al., 2011). While the phenomenon is well documented and identified as a potential key failure mechanism during long-term dry storage (Birk et al., 2012 and NUREG/CR-7116), the ability to actually predict the formation of hydrides is poor. The model being documented in this work is a computational capability for the prediction of hydride formation in different claddings of used nuclear fuels. This work supports the Used Fuel Disposition Research and Development Campaign in assessing the structural engineering performance of the cladding during and after long-term dry storage. This document demonstrates a basic hydride precipitation model that is built on a recently developed hybrid Potts-phase field model that combines elements of Potts-Monte Carlo and the phase-field models (Homer et al., 2013; Tikare and Schultz, 2012). The model capabilities are demonstrated along with the incorporation of the starting microstructure, thermodynamics of the Zr-H system and the hydride formation mechanism.

  1. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  2. Side Reactions in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Maureen Han-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Model for the Graphite Anode in Li-Ion Batteries. Journal ofgraphite Chapters 2-3 have developed a method using ferrocene to characterize the SEI in lithium- ion batteries.

  3. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  4. Layered electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S. (Naperville, IL); Thackeray, Michael M. (Naperville, IL); Vaughey, John T. (Elmhurst, IL); Kahaian, Arthur J. (Chicago, IL); Kim, Jeom-Soo (Naperville, IL)

    2008-04-15

    Lithium metal oxide compounds of nominal formula Li.sub.2MO.sub.2, in which M represents two or more positively charged metal ions, selected predominantly and preferably from the first row of transition metals are disclosed herein. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds have a layered-type structure, which can be used as positive electrodes for lithium electrochemical cells, or as a precursor for the in-situ electrochemical fabrication of LiMO.sub.2 electrodes. The Li.sub.2MO.sub.2 compounds of the invention may have additional functions in lithium cells, for example, as end-of-discharge indicators, or as negative electrodes for lithium cells.

  5. Lithium-Beryllium-Boron : Origin and Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elisabeth Vangioni-Flam; Michel Casse; Jean Audouze

    1999-07-13

    The origin and evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron is a crossing point between different astrophysical fields : optical and gamma spectroscopy, non thermal nucleosynthesis, Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis and finally galactic evolution. We describe the production and the evolution of Lithium-Beryllium-Boron from Big Bang up to now through the interaction of the Standard Galactic Cosmic Rays with the interstellar medium, supernova neutrino spallation and a low energy component related to supernova explosions in galactic superbubbles.

  6. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bechtold, Dieter (Bad Vilbel, DE); Bartke, Dietrich (Kelkheim, DE); Kramer, Peter (Konigstein, DE); Kretzschmar, Reiner (Kelkheim, DE); Vollbert, Jurgen (Hattersheim, DE)

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  7. Glass for sealing lithium cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leedecke, C.J.

    1981-08-28

    Glass compositions resistant to corrosion by lithium cell electrolyte and having an expansion coefficient of 45 to 85 x 10/sup -70/C/sup -1/ have been made with SiO/sub 2/, 25 to 55% by weight; B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 to 12%; Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 12 to 35%; CaO, 5 to 15%; MgO, 5 to 15%; SrO, 0 to 10%; and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0 to 5%. Preferred compositions within that range contain 3 to 8% SrO and 0.5 to 2.5% La/sub 2/O/sub 3/.

  8. Predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, H; Stienkemeier, F; Bogomolov, A S; Baklanov, A V; Reich, D M; Skomorowski, W; Koch, C P; Mudrich, M

    2015-01-01

    The predissociation dynamics of lithium iodide (LiI) in the first excited A-state is investigated for molecules in the gas phase and embedded in helium nanodroplets, using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. In the gas phase, the transient Li+ and LiI+ ion signals feature damped oscillations due to the excitation and decay of a vibrational wave packet. Based on high-level ab initio calculations of the electronic structure of LiI and simulations of the wave packet dynamics, the exponential signal decay is found to result from predissociation predominantly at the lowest avoided X-A potential curve crossing, for which we infer a coupling constant V=650(20) reciprocal cm. The lack of a pump-probe delay dependence for the case of LiI embedded in helium nanodroplets indicates fast droplet-induced relaxation of the vibrational excitation.

  9. Electrode for a lithium cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Vaughey, John T.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2008-10-14

    This invention relates to a positive electrode for an electrochemical cell or battery, and to an electrochemical cell or battery; the invention relates more specifically to a positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell or battery when the electrode is used therein. The positive electrode includes a composite metal oxide containing AgV.sub.3O.sub.8 as one component and one or more other components consisting of LiV.sub.3O.sub.8, Ag.sub.2V.sub.4O.sub.11, MnO.sub.2, CF.sub.x, AgF or Ag.sub.2O to increase the energy density of the cell, optionally in the presence of silver powder and/or silver foil to assist in current collection at the electrode and to improve the power capability of the cell or battery.

  10. Mechanics of amorphous polymers and polymer gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chester, Shawn Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Many applications of amorphous polymers require a thermo-mechanically coupled large-deformation elasto-viscoplasticity theory which models the strain rate and temperature dependent response of amorphous polymeric materials ...

  11. Tetraarylborate polymer networks as single-ion conducting solid electrolytes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Van Humbeck, Jeffrey F.; Aubrey, Michael L.; Alsbaiee, Alaaeddin; Ameloot, Rob; Coates, Geoffrey W.; Dichtel, William R.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2015-06-23

    A new family of solid polymer electrolytes based upon anionic tetrakis(phenyl)borate tetrahedral nodes and linear bis-alkyne linkers is reported. Sonogashira polymerizations using tetrakis(4-iodophenyl)borate, tetrakis(4-iodo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate and tetrakis(4-bromo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate delivered highly cross-linked polymer networks with both 1,4-diethynylbeznene and a tri(ethylene glycol) substituted derivative. Promising initial conductivity metrics have been observed, including high room temperature conductivities (up to 2.7 × 10-4 S cm-1), moderate activation energies (0.25–0.28 eV), and high lithium ion transport numbers (up to tLi+ = 0.93). Initial investigations into the effects of important materials parameters such as bulk morphology, porosity, fluorination, and other chemical modification, provide starting design parameters for furthermore »development of this new class of solid electrolytes.« less

  12. ReaxFFMgH Reactive Force Field for Magnesium Hydride Systems Sam Cheung, Wei-Qiao Deng, Adri C. T. van Duin, and William A. Goddard III*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Duin, Adri

    ReaxFFMgH Reactive Force Field for Magnesium Hydride Systems Sam Cheung, Wei-Qiao Deng, Adri C. T and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 ReceiVed: September 3FFMgH) for magnesium and magnesium hydride systems. The parameters for this force field were derived from fitting

  13. Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of free and donor-bound exciton in GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of free and donor-bound exciton in GaN grown by hydride and Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, 02215 R in unintentionally doped GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Low temperature (4 K), time-integrated PL spectra

  14. Modifying Carbon Cryogel-Hydride Nanocomposites for H2 Storage Saghar Sepehri, Betzaida Batalla Garca, Aaron Feaver, Qifeng Zhang, and Guozhong Cao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    Modifying Carbon Cryogel- Hydride Nanocomposites for H2 Storage Saghar Sepehri, Betzaida Batalla García, Aaron Feaver, Qifeng Zhang, and Guozhong Cao Materials Science and Engineering, University resorcinol-formaldehyde CCs as nanoscaffold for hydrides. Ammonia borane (AB), a stable, white, crystalline

  15. Tunneling of Polymer Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Martín-Ruiz; E. Chan-López; A. Carbajal-Domínguez; J. Bernal

    2014-08-28

    In this paper we study the tunneling using a background independent (polymer) quantization scheme. We show that at low energies, for the tunneling through a single potential barrier, the polymer transmission coefficient and the polymer tunneling time converge to its quantum-mechanical counterparts in a clear fashion. As the energy approaches the maximum these polymer quantities abruptly decrease to zero. We use the transfer matrix method to study the tunneling through a series of identical potential barriers. We obtain that the transmission coefficients (polymer and quantum-mechanical) behave qualitatively in a similar manner, as expected. Finally we show that the polymer tunneling time exhibits anomalous peaks compared with the standard result. Numerical results are also presented.

  16. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  17. A Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries Print Lithium-ion batteries are in smart phones, laptops, most other consumer electronics, and the newest electric cars. Good...

  18. Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Two Studies Reveal Details of Lithium-Battery Function Print Wednesday, 27 February 2013 00:00 Our way of life is deeply...

  19. Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects Novel Lithium Ion Anode Structures: Overview of New DOE BATT Anode Projects 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  20. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  1. California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand California Geothermal Power Plant to Help Meet High Lithium Demand September 20, 2012 - 1:15pm Addthis Ever...

  2. Lithium-based inorganic-organic framework materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Hamish Hei-Man

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation describes research into lithium-based inorganic-organic frameworks, which has led to an increased understanding of the structural diversity and properties of these materials. The crystal structures of 11 new forms of lithium...

  3. Design of novel lithium storage materials with a polyanionic framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jae Chul, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries for large-scale applications demand a strict safety standard from a cathode material during operating cycles. Lithium manganese borate (LiMnBO?) that crystallizes into a hexagonal or monoclinic framework ...

  4. Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL Development of Large Format Lithium Ion Cells with Higher Energy Density Exceeding 500WhL 2012 DOE...

  5. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials...

  6. Effects of lithium carbonate administration to healthy cats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dieringer, Therese Marie

    1990-01-01

    cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia and is effective in preventing the recurrent neutropenia associated with canine cyclic hematopoiesis. ' '" Use of lithium salts in cats has not been evaluated. It is unknown whether lithium administration causes neutrophilia... intolerable side effects. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Pharmacology of Lithium Lithium is the lightest of the group Ia alkali metals and shares some, but not all, characteristics with sodium and potassium. It is found in trace amounts in animal tissues...

  7. EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Next Generation Lithium Ion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Beyond Lithium Ion Breakout Session Report EV Everywhere Batteries Workshop - Materials Processing...

  8. Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for Lithium-ion Battery Separator Celgard US Manufacturing Facilities Initiative for...

  9. Lithium based electrochemical cell systems having a degassing agent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyung, Yoo-Eup (Naperville, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL); Amine, Khalil (Downers Grove, IL)

    2012-05-01

    A lithium based electrochemical cell system includes a positive electrode; a negative electrode; an electrolyte; and a degassing agent.

  10. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schutts, Scott M. (Menomonie, WI); Kinney, Robert J. (Woodbury, MN)

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  11. Engineering Polymer Informatics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Nico; Ryder, Jennifer; Jessop, David M; Corbett, Peter; Murray-Rust, Peter

    2007-12-17

    stream_source_info Engineering Polymer Informatics.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9453 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Engineering Polymer Informatics.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... Engineering Polymer Informatics Nico Adams, Jen Ryder, Nicholas England, David Jessop, Peter Corbett, Peter Murray-Rust Our mission is to develop an informatics toolbox, which will take into account the special computational needs of polymers and will make...

  12. Polymer Composites for Radiation Scintillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qi

    2012-01-01

    J. B. Peng and Y. Cao, Polymer, 2008, 49, G. Yu, S. W. Yin,and K. C. Tsou, Journal of Polymer Science Part a-Generaland K. C. Tsou, Journal of Polymer Science Part a-General

  13. Mechanistic study of the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and palladium hydride powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Outka, D.A.; Foltz, G.W. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A detailed mechanism for the isotopic-exchange reaction between gaseous hydrogen and solid palladium hydride is developed which extends previous model for this reaction by specifically including surface reactions. The modeling indicates that there are two surface-related processes that contribute to the overall rate of exchange: the desorption of hydrogen from the surface and the exchange between surface hydrogen and bulk hydrogen. This conclusion is based upon measurements examining the effect of small concentrations of carbon monoxide were helpful in elucidating the mechanism. Carbon monoxide reversibly inhibits certain steps in the exchange; this slows the overall rate of exchange and changes the distribution of products from the reactor.

  14. Feasibility study for the recycling of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatini, J.C.; Field, E.L.; Wu, I.C.; Cox, M.R.; Barnett, B.M.; Coleman, J.T. [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This feasibility study examined three possible recycling processes for two compositions (AB{sub 2} and AB{sub 5}) of nickel metal hydride electric vehicle batteries to determine possible rotes for recovering battery materials. Analysts examined the processes, estimated the costs for capital equipment and operation, and estimated the value of the reclaimed material. They examined the following three processes: (1) a chemical process that leached battery powders using hydrochloric acid, (2) a pyrometallurical process, and (3) a physical separation/chemical process. The economic analysis revealed that the physical separation/chemical process generated the most revenue.

  15. Metal hydrides as electrode/catalyst materials for oxygen evolution/reduction in electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Arcadia, CA); Halpert, Gerald (Pasadena, CA); Fultz, Brent (Pasadena, CA); Witham, Charles K. (Pasadena, CA); Bowman, Robert C. (La Mesa, CA); Hightower, Adrian (Whittier, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An at least ternary metal alloy of the formula, AB.sub.(5-Y)X(.sub.y), is claimed. In this formula, A is selected from the rare earth elements, B is selected from the elements of groups 8, 9, and 10 of the periodic table of the elements, and X includes at least one of the following: antimony, arsenic, and bismuth. Ternary or higher-order substitutions, to the base AB.sub.5 alloys, that form strong kinetic interactions with the predominant metals in the base metal hydride are used to form metal alloys with high structural integrity after multiple cycles of hydrogen sorption.

  16. Method and apparatus for storing hydrogen isotopes. [stored as uranium hydride in a block of copper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMullen, J.W.; Wheeler, M.G.; Cullingford, H.S.; Sherman, R.H.

    1982-08-10

    An improved method and apparatus for storing isotopes of hydrogen (especially tritium) are provided. The hydrogen gas is stored as hydrides of material (for example uranium) within boreholes in a block of copper. The mass of the block is critically important to the operation, as is the selection of copper, because no cooling pipes are used. Because no cooling pipes are used, there can be no failure due to cooling pipes. And because copper is used instead of stainless steel, a significantly higher temperature can be reached before the eutectic formation of uranium with copper occurs, (the eutectic of uranium with the iron in stainless steel forms at a significantly lower temperature).

  17. Complex Hydrides-A New Frontier for Future Energy Applications | The Ames

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit the following commentsMethods for Estimating:ILaboratory Hydrides-A New

  18. Microstructural Modeling and Design of Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    García, R. Edwin

    Microstructural Modeling and Design of Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries R. Edwin Garci´a,a, *,z microstructure. Experi- mental measurements are reproduced. Early models for lithium-ion batteries were developed Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 01239-4307, USA The properties of rechargeable lithium-ion

  19. High energy density lithium-oxygen secondary battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1989-02-07

    A high energy density lithium-oxygen secondary cell is described comprising a lithium-containing negative electrode; a lithium ion conducting molten salt electrolyte contacting the negative electrode; an oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte contacting and containing the molten salt electrolyte; and an oxygen redox positive electrode contacting the oxygen ion conducting solid electrolyte.

  20. Description: Lithium batteries are used daily in our work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Description: Lithium batteries are used daily in our work activities from flashlights, cell phones containing one SureFire 3-volt non-rechargeable 123 lithium battery and one Interstate 3-volt non-rechargeable 123 lithium battery. A Garage Mechanic had the SureFire flashlight in his shirt pocket with the lens

  1. Interconnected hollow carbon nanospheres for stable lithium metal anodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    storage, batteries with higher energy storage density than existing lithium ion batteries need such as lithium metal, silicon and tin as anodes, and sulphur and oxygen as cathodes. Lithium metal would) accommodating the large change in electrode volume during cycling (unlike graphite and silicon anodes, where

  2. Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunham, Maitreya

    Lithium acetate transformation of yeast Maitreya Dunham August 2004 Original protocol from Katja until the OD600 is around 0.7-0.8 (~7 hours). Spin down the cells. Resuspend in 5 ml lithium acetate mix. Spin. Resuspend in 0.5 ml lithium acetate mix. Transfer to an eppendorf tube. Incubate 60 minutes

  3. 2008 Nature Publishing Group High-performance lithium battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Yi

    © 2008 Nature Publishing Group High-performance lithium battery anodes using silicon nanowires in lithium batteries have shown capacity fading and short battery lifetime due to pulverization and loss December 2007; doi:10.1038/nnano.2007.411 There is great interest in developing rechargeable lithium

  4. Proposal on Lithium Wall Experiment (LWX) on PBXM 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zakharov, Leonid E.

    Proposal on Lithium Wall Experiment (LWX) on PBX­M 1 Leonid E. Zakharov, Princeton University; OUTLINE 1. Mini­conference on Lithium walls and low recycling regime. 2. PBX­M Capabilities. 3. Motivation "Lithium covered walls and low recycling regimes in toka­ maks". APS meeting, October 23­27, 2000, Quebec

  5. Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Enolization: Catalysis by Hemilabile Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collum, David B.

    Lithium Diisopropylamide-Mediated Enolization: Catalysis by Hemilabile Ligands Antonio Ramirez of a lithium diisopropylamide (LDA)-mediated ester enolization. Hemilabile amino ether MeOCH2CH2NMe2, binding-based catalysis are thwarted by the occlusion of the catalyst on the lithium salt products and byproducts (eq 1

  6. Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments in CDX-U R. Majeski,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid Lithium Wall Experiments in CDX-U R. Kaita, a R. Majeski, a S. Luckhardt, b R. Doerner, b M ABSTRACT The concept of a flowing lithium first wall for a fusion reactor may lead to a significant advance is intensely heated and well diagnosed, and an extensive liquid lithium plasma-facing surface will be used

  7. Use of Lithium Hexafluoroisopropoxide as a Mild Base for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Use of Lithium Hexafluoroisopropoxide as a Mild Base for Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Olefination The weak base lithium 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropoxide (LiHFI) is shown to be highly effective of base-sensitive substrates, leading to the discovery that lithium 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropoxide (Li

  8. Lithium Mass Flow Control for High Power Lorentz Force Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lithium Mass Flow Control for High Power Lorentz Force Accelerators Andrea D. Kodys1 , Gregory Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (609).258.5220, choueiri@princeton.edu Abstract. A lithium feeding system has been developed to measure and control propellant flow for 30-200 kW Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators

  9. RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Alex D.

    RESONANT FARADAY ROTATION IN A HOT LITHIUM VAPOR By SCOTT RUSSELL WAITUKAITIS A Thesis Submitted: #12;Abstract I describe a study of Faraday rotation in a hot lithium vapor. I begin by dis- cussing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.3 The Lithium Oven and Solenoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3 Theoretical Framework

  10. Lithium Isotope History of Cenozoic Seawater: Changes in Silicate Weathering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paytan, Adina

    Lithium Isotope History of Cenozoic Seawater: Changes in Silicate Weathering and Reverse Weathering 70 Ma · Overview of the Marine Lithium Cycle · Analytical Challenges · 68 Million Year Seawater Lithium Isotope Record (Forams) · Interpretation Standard: NIST L-SVEC Li (SRM 8545) #12;100 Ma Climate

  11. Tracking the lithium isotopic evolution of the mantle using carbonatites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Tracking the lithium isotopic evolution of the mantle using carbonatites Ralf Halama a,, William F. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: lithium isotopes; carbonatites; mantle geochemistry 1. Introduction Lithium (Li) is an incompatible element that is typi- cally enriched 10 to 50-fold in crustal

  12. Development of Low Cost Carbonaceous Materials for Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsukov, Igor V.

    2002-12-10

    Final report on the US DOE CARAT program describes innovative R & D conducted by Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL, USA in cooperation with researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and defines the proper type of carbon and a cost effective method for its production, as well as establishes a US based manufacturer for the application of anodes of the Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer batteries of the Hybrid Electric and Pure Electric Vehicles. The three materials each representing a separate class of graphitic carbon, have been developed and released for field trials. They include natural purified flake graphite, purified vein graphite and a graphitized synthetic carbon. Screening of the available on the market materials, which will help fully utilize the graphite, has been carried out.

  13. The effects of phosphorous donor ligand substitution on the reactivity of anionic group 6 transition metal carbonyl hydrides 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lusk, Richard Jay

    1986-01-01

    in THP, followed by protonation with methanol, gave rise to a new group of chromium and tungsten hydrides, 7 HM(CO) P . The importance of the P-substituted hydr ides is enhanced 4 reactivity as well as the possibility of selective hydride transfer... reduction products were thus benzyl alcohol and octane. Initial GC runs were undertaken using THF solutions of benzyl alcohol of three different concentrations, corresponding to yields of 25, 100, and 150$. Each of the three also contained an equivalent...

  14. CRADA (AL-C-2009-02) Final Report: Phase I. Lanthanum-based Start Materials for Hydride Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl; Schmidt, Frederick; Frerichs, A.E.; Ament, Katherine A.

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of Phase I of this work is to focus on developing a La-based start material for making nickel-metal (lanthanum)-hydride batteries based on our carbothermic-silicon process. The goal is to develop a protocol for the manufacture of (La{sub 1-x}R{sub x})(Ni{sub 1-y}M{sub y})(Si{sub z}), where R is a rare earth metal and M is a non-rare earth metal, to be utilized as the negative electrode in nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries.

  15. Cells containing solvated electron lithium negative electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uribe, F.A.; Semkow, K.W.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Incorporated, Aurora, IL (US))

    1989-12-01

    Preliminary work performed on a novel solvated electron lithium negative electrode which may have application in either high energy density secondary or reserve battery systems is discussed. The lithium electrode investigated consisted of lithium initially dissolved in liquid ammonia to give a solvated electron solution. Containment of this liquid negative active material from direct contact with a liquid nonaqueous electrolyte present in the cell positive electrode compartment was addressed via the use of a lithium intercalated electronically conducting ceramic membrane of the general composition Li{sub x}WO{sub 2}(0.1{lt}x{lt} 1.0). Secondary electrochemical cells having the general configuration Li,NH{sub 3}/Li{sub x}WO{sub 2}NAE/TiS{sub 2} using nonaqueous electrolytes (NAE) based upon both propylene carbonate and 2Me-THF. Depending upon initial lithium activity in the negative electrode compartments the cell possessed an initial open-circuit potential (OCP 3.44V). Both cells, which were operated at ambient pressure (low temperature) and ambient temperature (high pressure) showed evidence for electrochemical reversibility.

  16. A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    A New Method for Quantitative Marking of Deposited Lithium via Chemical Treatment on Graphite Anodes in Lithium-Ion Cells Yvonne Krämer*[a] , Claudia Birkenmaier[b] , Julian Feinauer[a,c] , Andreas*[e] and Thomas Schleid[f] Abstract: A novel approach for the marking of deposited lithium on graphite anodes from

  17. The development of low cost LiFePO4-based high power lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shim, Joongpyo; Sierra, Azucena; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01

    HIGH POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES Joongpyo Shim, Azucenaof rechargeable lithium batteries for application in hybridin consumer-size lithium batteries, such as the synthetic

  18. Simulations of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles Using Advanced Lithium Batteries and Ultracapacitors on Various Driving Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Zhao, Hengbing

    2010-01-01

    The UC Davis Emerging Lithium Battery Test Project, Report3 for the advanced lithium battery chemistries are based onwith ultracapacitors, the LTO lithium battery should be

  19. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  20. Polymers 2014, 6, 311-326; doi:10.3390/polym6020311 ISSN 2073-4360

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takada, Shoji

    #12;Polymers 2014, 6, 311-326; doi:10.3390/polym6020311 polymers ISSN 2073-4360 www.mdpi.com/journal/polymers copolymers, star polymers, and concentrated polymer brushes on solid surfaces were prepared using living catalysts; block copolymers; triblock copolymers; star polymers; polymer brushes OPEN ACCESS #12;Polymers