National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hydraulic fracturing operations

  1. NETL Releases Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory has released a technical report on the results of a limited field study that monitored a hydraulic fracturing operation in Greene County, PA.

  2. Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large increase in the use of hydraulic fracture stimulation of these inherently low permeability reservoir rocks. Operators and service companies require data that can be used to...

  3. Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting, Monitoring, Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two data collection tools specifically developed for hydraulic fracturing are available to help regulatory agencies monitor drilling and completion operations and enhance environmental protection.

  4. Method for directional hydraulic fracturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swanson, David E.; Daly, Daniel W.

    1994-01-01

    A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

  5. Hydraulic Fracturing | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydraulic Fracturing Home Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150) Contributor 30 June, 2015 - 03:49 Shale Gas Application in Hydraulic Fracturing Market is likely to grow...

  6. Hydraulic Fracturing Market | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydraulic Fracturing Market Home Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150) Contributor 30 June, 2015 - 03:49 Shale Gas Application in Hydraulic Fracturing Market is likely...

  7. Hydraulic Fracturing Technology | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique in which large volumes of water and sand, and small volumes of chemical additives are injected into low-permeability subsurface formations to ...

  8. Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir Fracture Evolution Following a ...

  9. Hydraulic fracturing utilizing a refractory proppant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R.; Stowe, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for hydraulically fracturing a formation where a fused refractory proppant is used. It comprises: placing into a fracturing fluid a fused refractory proppant consisting essentially of silicon carbide or silicon nitride having a mohs hardness of about 9 and in an amount sufficient to prop a created fracture where the proppant is substantially crush and acid resistant; injecting into the formation the fracturing fluid with the proppant therein under a pressure sufficient to fracture the formation; and fracturing the formation and thereafter causing the pressure to be released thereby propping at least one fracture which proppant provides for increased heat transfer into the formation.

  10. New proppant for deep hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, K.; Underdown, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    Much work has focused on developing and evaluating various materials for use as proppants for hydraulic fracturing. Sand is used most often as a fracturing proppant in shallow wells. Deep wells with high closure stresses require a proppant, such as sintered bauxite, that will not crush under adverse conditions. Ceramic and zirconium oxide beads and resin-coated sand proppants also have been developed for deep hydraulic fracturing. A new fracturing proppant has been developed that exhibits the properties necessary for use in deep hydraulic fracturing. This proppant is produced by precuring a specially modified phenolformaldehyde resin onto sand. The new proppant maintains conductivity and resists crushing much better than does sand. The new proppant was compared to intermediate-density sintered bauxitic proppants and cured-in-place proppants and the tests were confirmed by an independent laboratory.

  11. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  12. New proppant for deep hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Underdown, D.R.; Das, K.

    1982-01-01

    Much work has been done in the development and evaluation of various materials for use as proppants for hydraulic fracturing. Sand is most often used as a frac proppant in shallow wells. Deep wells having high closure stresses require a proppant such as sintered bauxite which will not crush under such adverse conditions. Proppants such as ceramic and zirconium oxide beads and resin coated sand have been developed for deep hydraulic fracturing; however, use of these materials has been limited. A new frac proppant has been developed which exhibits the properties necessary for use in deep hydraulic fracturing. This frac proppant is produced by precuring a specially modified phenol-formaldehyde resin onto sand. The new frac proppant maintains conductivity and resists crushing, similar to that of sintered bauxite at high closure stress. 11 references.

  13. 1112323-danimer-abstract-hydraulic-fractures | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fracturing treatments including: less hydraulic horsepower requirements, decreased footprint, simpler execution, lower water utilization, use of non-damaging biodegradable...

  14. Hydraulic Fracturing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chemicals Groundwater Protection Related Reports A Perspective on Health and Natural Gas Operations: A Report for Denton City Council Just the Fracking Facts The Politics of...

  15. Method for enhancement of sequential hydraulic fracturing using control pulse fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Strubhar, M.K.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for creating multiple sequential hydraulic fractures via hydraulic fracturing combined with controlled pulse fracturing where two wells are utilized comprising: (a) drilling and completing a first and second well so that the wells will be in fluid communication with each other after subsequent fracturing in each well; (b) creating more than two simultaneous multiple vertical fractures via a controlled pulse fracturing method in the second well; (c) thereafter hydraulically fracturing the reservoir via the first well thereby creating fractures in the reservoir and afterwards shutting-in the first well without any induced pressure; (d) applying thereafter hydraulic pressure to the reservoir via the second well in an amount sufficient to fracture the reservoir thereby forming a first hydraulic fracture perpendicular to the least principal in-situ stress; (e) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the reservoir while pumping via the second well alternate slugs of a thin-fluid spacer and a temporary blocking agent having a proppant therein whereupon a second hydraulic fracture is initiated; (f) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the second well while pumping alternate slugs of spacer and blocking agent into the second hydraulic fracture thereby causing the second hydraulic fracture to propagate away from the first hydraulic fracture in step (e) in a curved trajectory which intersects a fracture created in the first well; (g) maintaining the hydraulic pressure while pumping as in step (f) whereupon another hydraulic fracture initiates causing another curved fracture trajectory to form and intersect the fracture created in the first well; and (h) repeated steps (f) and (g) until a desired number of hydraulic fractures are created which allows a substantial improvement in removing a natural resource from the reservoir.

  16. Application of the directional hydraulic fracturing at Berezovskaya Mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekontsev, Y.M.; Sazhin, P.V.

    2008-05-15

    The paper analyzes the experimental research of the directional hydraulic fracturing applied for weakening of rocks at Berezovskaya Mine (Kuznetsk Coal Basin) in 2005-2006.

  17. Shale Gas Application in Hydraulic Fracturing Market is likely...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on unconventional reservoirs such as coal bed methane, tight gas, tight oil, shale gas, and shale oil. Over the period of time, hydraulic fracturing technique has found...

  18. Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS Reservoir

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project will provide the first ever formal evaluation of fracture and fracture flow evolution in an EGS reservoir following a hydraulic stimulation.

  19. Numerical solution of sand transport in hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daneshy, A.A.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1980-02-07

    A numerical solution is developed for the deposition of a propping agent inside a hydraulic fracture. Such parameters as fluid leak-off into the formation, increase in sand concentration caused by leak-off, non-Newtonian fracturing fluids, hindered settling velocity, and an up-to-date geometry are taken into consideration. Three examples investigate the proppant deposition for low-, medium-, and high-viscosity fracturing fluids.

  20. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are defined from the numerical solution of a complex hypersingular integral equation written for a given fracture configuration and loading. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures with existing discontinuities such as faults and joints. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two- and three-dimensional heat extraction solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate heat extraction and the variations of the reservoir stress with cooling. The numerical models have been developed in a user-friendly environment to create a tool for improving fracture design and investigating single or multiple fracture propagation in rock.

  1. Fully Coupled Geomechanics and Discrete Flow Network Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing for Geothermal Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Hao, Y; Carrigan, C R

    2011-01-18

    The primary objective of our current research is to develop a computational test bed for evaluating borehole techniques to enhance fluid flow and heat transfer in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Simulating processes resulting in hydraulic fracturing and/or the remobilization of existing fractures, especially the interaction between propagating fractures and existing fractures, represents a critical goal of our project. To this end, we are continuing to develop a hydraulic fracturing simulation capability within the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC), a combined FEM/DEM analysis code with explicit solid-fluid mechanics coupling. LDEC simulations start from an initial fracture distribution which can be stochastically generated or upscaled from the statistics of an actual fracture distribution. During the hydraulic stimulation process, LDEC tracks the propagation of fractures and other modifications to the fracture system. The output is transferred to the Non-isothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code to capture heat transfer and flow at the reservoir scale. This approach is intended to offer flexibility in the types of analyses we can perform, including evaluating the effects of different system heterogeneities on the heat extraction rate as well as seismicity associated with geothermal operations. This paper details the basic methodology of our approach. Two numerical examples showing the capability and effectiveness of our simulator are also presented.

  2. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical issues in tight gas fracturing, in particular the roles of gel damage, polymer loading (water-frac versus gel frac), and proppant concentration on the created fracture conductivity. To achieve this objective, we have designed the experimental apparatus to conduct the dynamic fracture conductivity tests. The experimental apparatus has been built and some preliminary tests have been conducted to test the apparatus.

  3. Horizontal well replaces hydraulic fracturing in North Sea gas well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Seymour, K.P. )

    1991-11-25

    This paper reports on excessive water production from hydraulically fractured wells in a poor quality reservoir in the North SEa which prompted the drilling of a horizontal well. Gas production from the horizontal well reached six times that of the offset vertical wells, and no water production occurred. This horizontal well proved commercial the western section of the Anglia field. Horizontal drilling in the North SEa is as an effective technology to enhance hydrocarbon recovery from reservoirs that previously had proven uncommercial with other standard techniques. It is viable for the development of marginal reservoirs, particularly where conditions preclude stimulation from hydraulic fracturing.

  4. Method for enhancing heavy oil production using hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Smith, R.C.

    1991-04-09

    This patent describes a method for producing viscous substantially fines-free hydrocarbonaceous fluids from an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated formation. It comprises drilling into the formation at least one well into a first productive interval of the formation; fracturing hydraulically the well with a viscous fracturing fluid containing a proppant therein which is of a size sufficient to prop a created fracture and restrict fines movement into the fracture which proppant comprises silicon carbide, silicon nitride, or garnet; injecting a pre-determined volume of steam into the well in an amount sufficient to soften the viscous fluid and lower the viscosity of the fluid adjacent a fracture face producing the well at a rate sufficient to allow formation fines to build up on a fracture face communicating with the well thereby resulting in a filter screen sufficient to substantially remove formation fines from the hydrocarbonaceous fluids; injecting a second volume of steam into the well and producing substantially fines free hydrocarbonaceous fluids to the surface; repeating steps until a desired amount of hydrocarbonaceous fluids have been produced from the first interval; and isolating mechanically the first interval and repeating steps in a second productive interval of the formation.

  5. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic fractures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  6. Microbial Community Changes in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids and Produced Water from Shale Gas Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Hartsock, Angela; Bibby, Kyle J.; Hammack, Richard W.; Vidic, Radisav D.; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2013-11-19

    Microbial communities associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing are not well understood, and their deleterious activity can lead to significant increases in production costs and adverse environmental impacts. In this study, we compared the microbial ecology in prefracturing fluids (fracturing source water and fracturing fluid) and produced water at multiple time points from a natural gas well in southwestern Pennsylvania using 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, pyrosequencing, and quantitative PCR. The majority of the bacterial community in prefracturing fluids constituted aerobic species affiliated with the class Alphaproteobacteria. However, their relative abundance decreased in produced water with an increase in halotolerant, anaerobic/facultative anaerobic species affiliated with the classes Clostridia, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Fusobacteria. Produced water collected at the last time point (day 187) consisted almost entirely of sequences similar to Clostridia and showed a decrease in bacterial abundance by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the prefracturing fluids and produced water samplesfrom earlier time points. Geochemical analysis showed that produced water contained higher concentrations of salts and total radioactivity compared to prefracturing fluids. This study provides evidence of long-term subsurface selection of the microbial community introduced through hydraulic fracturing, which may include significant implications for disinfection as well as reuse of produced water in future fracturing operations.

  7. Environmentally Friendly, Rheoreversible, Hydraulic-fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Stephens, Sean A.; Suresh, Niraj; Beck, Anthon NR; Varga, Tamas; Martin, Paul F.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Bonneville, Alain; Heldebrant, David J.; Carroll, KC; Moore, Joseph; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effective creation of high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock is the primary challenge for the feasibility of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Current reservoir stimulation entails adverse environmental impacts and substantial economic costs due to the utilization of large volumes of water “doped” with chemicals including rheology modifiers, scale and corrosion inhibitors, biocides, friction reducers among others where, typically, little or no information of composition and toxicity is disclosed. An environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid has recently been developed that significantly enhances rock permeability at effective stress significantly lower than current technology. We evaluate the potential of this novel fracturing fluid for application on geothermal sites under different chemical and geomechanical conditions, by performing laboratory-scale fracturing experiments with different rock sources under different confining pressures, temperatures, and pH environments. The results demonstrate that CO2-reactive aqueous solutions of environmentally amenable Polyallylamine (PAA) represent a highly versatile fracturing fluid technology. This fracturing fluid creates/propagates fracture networks through highly impermeable crystalline rock at significantly lower effective stress as compared to control experiments where no PAA was present, and permeability enhancement was significantly increased for PAA compared to conventional hydraulic fracturing controls. This was evident in all experiments, including variable rock source/type, operation pressure and temperature (over the entire range for EGS applications), as well as over a wide range of formation-water pH values. This versatile novel fracturing fluid technology represents a great alternative to industrially available fracturing fluids for cost-effective and competitive geothermal energy production.

  8. Stress wave propagationin the site 12 hydraulic/explosive fracturing experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boade, R. R.; Reed, R. P.

    1980-05-01

    The Site 12 experiment was a heavily instrumented field event performed to examine the hydraulic/explosive fracturing concept for preparing an underground oil shale bed for true in situ processing. One of the key phases of this fracturing concept is the blasting operation which involves the insertion and detonation of slurry explosive in a pre-formed system of hydrofractures. To obtain a sound understanding of the nature of the blasting operations, a rather extensive array of stress gages, accelerometers, and time-of-arrival gages was installed in the rock mass in the vacinity of the explosive to monitor the dynamic events initiated by the detonation. These gages provided considerable amounts of information which were useful in evaluating overall results of the experiment. Details of the gage array, of the data, of analysis methods, and of the results and conclusions are considered in the report.

  9. Active and passive acoustic imaging inside a large-scale polyaxial hydraulic fracture test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glaser, S.D.; Dudley, J.W. II; Shlyapobersky, J.

    1999-07-01

    An automated laboratory hydraulic fracture experiment has been assembled to determine what rock and treatment parameters are crucial to improving the efficiency and effectiveness of field hydraulic fractures. To this end a large (460 mm cubic sample) polyaxial cell, with servo-controlled X,Y,Z, pore pressure, crack-mouth-opening-displacement, and bottom hole pressure, was built. Active imaging with embedded seismic diffraction arrays images the geometry of the fracture. Preliminary tests indicate fracture extent can be imaged to within 5%. Unique embeddible high-fidelity particle velocity AE sensors were designed and calibrated to allow determination of fracture source kinematics.

  10. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using Hig Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-11-21

    The Yowlumne field is a giant field in the southern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. It is a deep (13,000 ft) waterflood operation that produces from the Miocene- aged Stevens Sand. The reservoir is interpreted as a layered, fan-shaped, prograding turbidite complex containing several lobe-shaped sand bodies that represent distinct flow units. A high ultimate recovery factor is expected, yet significant quantities of undrained oil remain at the fan margins. The fan margins are not economic to develop using vertical wells because of thinning pay, deteriorating rock quality, and depth. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the northeast distal fan margin through the use of a high- angle well completed with multiple hydraulic- fracture treatments. A high-angle well offers greater pay exposure than can be achieved with a vertical well. Hydraulic-fracture treatments will establish vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at a cost of approximately two vertical wells. The near-horizontal well penetrated the Yowlumne sand; a Stevens sand equivalent, in the distal fan margin in the northeast area of the field. The well was drilled in a predominately westerly direction towards the interior of the field, in the direction of improving rock quality. Drilling and completion operations proved to be very challenging, leading to a number of adjustments to original plans. Hole conditions resulted in obtaining less core material than desired and setting intermediate casing 1200 ft too high. The 7 in. production liner stuck 1000 ft off bottom, requiring a 5 in. liner to be run the rest of the way. The cement job on the 5 in. liner resulted in a very poor bond, which precluded one of three hydraulic fracture treatments originally planned for the well. Openhole logs confirmed most expectations going into the project about basic rock properties: the formation was shaly with low porosities, and water saturations were in line with expectations, including the presence of some intervals swept out by the waterflood. High water saturations at the bottom of the well eliminated one of the originally planned hydraulic fracture treatments. Although porosities proved to be low, they were more uniform across the formation than expected. Permeabilities of the various intervals continue to be evaluated, but appear to be better than expected from the porosity log model derived in Budget Period One. The well was perforated in all pay sections behind the 5 in. liner. Production rates and phases agree nicely with log calculations, fractional flow calculations, and an analytical technique used to predict the rate performance of the well.

  11. Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norm Warpinski; Steve Wolhart; Larry Griffin; Eric Davis

    2007-01-31

    The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.

  12. Finite Element Code For 3D-Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Equations (3-layer).

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-24

    HYFRACP3D is a finite element program for simulation of a pseudo three-dimensional fracture geometries with a two-dimensional planar solution. The model predicts the height, width and winglength over time for a hydraulic fracture propagating in a three-layered system of rocks with variable rock mechanics properties.

  13. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J.; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Forster, Robert J.

    2014-10-22

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. Thus, the metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsiblemore » for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.« less

  14. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Quarterly report, Apr 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laue, M.L.

    1997-08-31

    This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically-fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well. The long radius, near-horizontal well has been drilled and completion operations are in progress. Upon initial review of log data, two hydraulic fracture treatments were planned. However, the probability of the lower frac growing into thick sands previously swept by waterflood has called for additional information to be obtained prior to proceeding with hydraulic fracture treatments. Should permeabilities prove to be as favorable as some data indicate, produced water volumes could be excessively high. Prior to pumping the first frac, the well will be perforated and produced from lower pay intervals. These perfs will not impact future frac work. Rate data and pressure transient analysis will dictate the need for the lower frac.

  15. Project Captures First-Ever Comprehensive Hydraulic Fracturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    April 6, 2016 - 1:51pm Addthis Data acquisition under the project included- Comprehensive geophysical well logs Side wall cores Diagnostic fracture injection tests Cross-well ...

  16. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  17. Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, Scott F.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

  18. Project Captures First-Ever Comprehensive Hydraulic Fracturing Research Data from 1.5 Miles Underground

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), working with the Gas Technology Institute, Laredo Petroleum, and other industry partners, has collected what is possibly the world’s most comprehensive hydraulic-fracturing research dataset in unconventional shale.

  19. METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINING THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF FRACTURED POROUS MEDIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.

    2013-09-30

    Plausible, but unvalidated, theoretical model constructs for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of fractured porous media are currently used in Performance Assessment (PA) modeling for cracked saltstone and concrete (Flach 2011). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed concern about the lack of model support for these assumed Moisture Characteristic Curves (MCC) data, as noted in Requests for Additional Information (RAIs) PA-8 and SP-4 (Savannah River Remediation, LLC, 2011). The objective of this task was to advance PA model support by developing an experimental method for determining the hydraulic conductivity of fractured cementitious materials under unsaturated conditions, and to demonstrate the technique on fractured saltstone samples. The task was requested through Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-SSF-TTR-2012-0016 and conducted in accordance with Task Technical & Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-TR-2012-00090. Preliminary method development previously conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) identified transient outflow extraction as the most promising method for characterizing the unsaturated properties of fractured porous media. While the research conducted by Kohn et al. (2012) focused on fractured media analogs such as stacked glass slides, the current task focused directly on fractured saltstone. For this task, four sample types with differing fracture geometries were considered: 1) intact saltstone, 2) intact saltstone with a single saw cut, smooth surface fracture, 3) micro-fractured saltstone (induced by oven drying), and 4) micro-fractured saltstone with a single, fully-penetrating, rough-surface fracture. Each sample type was tested initially for saturated hydraulic conductivity following method ASTM D 5084 using a flexible wall permeameter. Samples were subsequently tested using the transient outflow extraction method to determine cumulative outflow as a function of time and applied pressure. Of the four sample types tested, two yielded datasets suitable for analysis (sample types 3 and 4). The intact saltstone sample (sample type 1) did not yield any measureable outflow over the pressure range of the outflow test (0-1000 cm H{sub 2}O). This was expected because the estimated air entry pressure for intact saltstone is on the order of 100,000 cm H{sub 2}O (Dixon et al., 2009). The intact saltstone sample with a single saw cut smooth surface fracture (sample type 2) did not produce useable data because the fracture completely drained at less than 10 cm H{sub 2}O applied pressure. The cumulative outflow data from sample types 3 and 4 were analyzed using an inverse solution of the Richards equation for water flow in variably saturated porous media. This technique was implemented using the computer code Hydrus-1D (im?nek et al., 2008) and the resulting output included the van Genuchten-Mualem water retention and relative permeability parameters and predicted saturated hydraulic conductivity (Van Genuchten, 1980; Van Genuchten et al., 1991). Estimations of relative permeability and saturated conductivity are possible because the transient response of the sample to pressure changes is recorded during the multi-step outflow extraction test. Characteristic curves were developed for sample types 3 and 4 based on the results of the transient outflow method and compared to that of intact saltstone previously reported by Dixon et al. (2009). The overall results of this study indicate that the outflow extraction method is suitable for measuring the hydraulic properties of micro-fractured porous media. The resulting cumulative outflow data can be analyzed using the computer code Hydrus-1D to generate the van Genuchten curve fitting parameters that adequately describe fracture drainage. The resulting characteristic curves are consistent with blended characteristic curves that combine the behaviors of low pressure drainage associated with fracture flow with high pressure drainage from the bulk saltstone matrix.

  20. Correlations to predict frictional pressure loss of hydraulic-fracturing slurry in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, S.; Zhoi, Y.X.; Bailey, M.; Hernandez, J.

    2009-08-15

    Compared with conventional-tubing fracturing, coiled-tubing (CT) fracturing has several advantages. CT fracturing has become an effective stimulation technique for multizone oil and gas wells. It is also an attractive production-enhancement method for multiseam coalbed-methane wells, and wells with bypassed zones. The excessive frictional pressure loss through CT has been a concern in fracturing. The small diameter of the string limits the cross-sectional area open to flow. Furthermore, the tubing curvature causes secondary flow and results in extra flow resistance. This increased frictional pressure loss results in high surface pumping pressure. The maximum possible pump rate and sand concentration, therefore, have to be reduced. To design a CT fracturing job properly, it is essential to predict the frictional pressure loss through the tubing accurately. This paper presents correlations for the prediction of frictional pressure loss of fracturing slurries in straight tubing and CT. They are developed on the basis of full-scale slurry-flow tests with 11/2-in. CT and slurries prepared with 35 lbm/1,000 gal of guar gel. The extensive experiments were conducted at the full-scale CT-flow test facility. The proposed correlations have been verified with the experimental data and actual field CT-fracturing data. Case studies of wells recently fractured are provided to demonstrate the application of the correlations. The correlations will be useful to the CT engineers in their hydraulics design calculations.

  1. Stimuli Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Energy Production (Part II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Um, Wooyong; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Varga, Tamas; Suresh, Niraj; Stephens, Sean A.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-12-14

    We have used an environmentally friendly and recyclable hydraulic fracturing fluid - diluted aqueous solutions of polyallylamine or PAA for reservoir stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). This fluid undergoes a controlled and large volume expansion with a simultaneous increase in viscosity triggered by CO2 at EGS temperatures. We are presenting here the results of laboratory-scale hydraulic fracturing experiment using the fluid on small cylindrical rock cores (1.59 cm in diameter and 5.08 cm in length) from the Coso geothermal field in California. Rock samples consisted of Mesozoic diorite metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The experiments were conducted on 5 samples for realistic ranges of pressures (up to 275 bar) and temperatures (up to 210 C) for both the rock samples and the injected fluid. After fracturing, cores were subjected to a CO2 leakage test, injection of KI solution, and X-ray microtomography (XMT) scanning to examine the formation and distribution of fractures. The design and conduct of these experiments will be presented and discussed in details. Based on the obtained XMT images, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were then performed to visualize hydraulic fractures and compute the bulk permeability. OpenFOAM (OpenCFD Ltd., Reading, UK), was used to solve the steady state simulation. The flow predictions, based upon the laminar, 3-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for fluid mass and momentum, show the remarkable stimulation of the permeability in the core samples and demonstrate the efficiency of such a CO2 triggered fluid in EGS.

  2. Laboratory data in support of hydraulically fracturing EGSP OH Well No. 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, U.; Swartz, G.C.; Scnatz, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    Geologic and geophysical interpretations of data from the EGSP OH Well No. 3 show that an organically lean shale has a gradual transition with depth to an organically rich shale and that two layers (bound each shale formation. The laboratory test program was designed to understand the containment and productivity of a hydraulic fracture induced in this well to enhance gas production from the shale. The porosity in the formations of interest, including the upper barrier, the lower barrier, and the organic shales, varied from 6 to 10 percent. The porosity of each formation averaged about 8%. Densities and ultrasonic velocities were used to evaluate dynamic moduli. Over the tested intervals moduli consistently increased with depth. This indicates the possibility of upward migration of an induced fracture. Perforations, therefore, should be limited to the lower portion of the pay sand and it is also advisable to use low injection rates. Of the four fracturing fluids tested, the two code-named Dow II and Hal I caused, respectively, the least amount of matrix permeability damage to the organically lean and organically rich shales. However, the damage caused by the other fracturing fluids were not severe enough to cause any significant permanent reduction in well productivity. The fracture conductivity tests under the influence of fracturing fluids indicated that Hal I and Dow I caused, respectively, the least amount of multilayered fracture conductivity damage to the organically lean and organically rich samples. For monolayer fracture conductivities Dow I caused least damage to the organically lean shale. With the exception of Dow III all other fluids showed good results in the monolayer tests for organically rich shales. In the situation where both the lean and the rich shales are to be fractured together, the use of either Hal I or Dow I is indicated.

  3. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J.; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Forster, Robert J.

    2014-10-22

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. Thus, the metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  4. Rapid method for the determination of 226Ra in hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Warren, Richard A.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-03-24

    A new method that rapidly preconcentrates and measures 226Ra from hydraulic fracturing wastewater samples was developed in the Savannah River Environmental Laboratory. The method improves the quality of 226Ra measurements using gamma spectrometry by providing up to 100x preconcentration of 226Ra from this difficult sample matrix, which contains very high levels of calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium and sodium. The high chemical yield, typically 80-90%, facilitates a low detection limit, important for lower level samples, and indicates method ruggedness. Ba-133 tracer is used to determine chemical yield and correct for geometry-related counting issues. The 226Ra sample preparation takes < 2 hours.

  5. Microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing for recovery of shale gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Hartsock, Angela; Hammack, Richard W.; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction from shale produces waste brine known as flowback that is impounded at the surface prior to reuse and/or disposal. During impoundment, microbial activity can alter the fate of metals including radionuclides, give rise to odorous compounds, and result in biocorrosion that complicates water and waste management and increases production costs. Here, we describe the microbial ecology at multiple depths of three flowback impoundments from the Marcellus shale that were managed differently. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments were depth dependent, diverse, and most similar to species within the taxa [gamma]-proteobacteria, [alpha]-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, Clostridia, Synergistetes, Thermotogae, Spirochetes, and Bacteroidetes. The bacterial community in the pretreated and aerated impoundment was uniform with depth, less diverse, and most similar to known iodide-oxidizing bacteria in the [alpha]-proteobacteria. Archaea were identified only in the untreated and biocide-amended impoundments and were affiliated to the Methanomicrobia class. This is the first study of microbial communities in flowback water impoundments from hydraulic fracturing. The findings expand our knowledge of microbial diversity of an emergent and unexplored environment and may guide the management of flowback impoundments.

  6. Sustainable Management of Flowback Water during Hydraulic Fracturing of Marcellus Shale for Natural Gas Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vidic, Radisav

    2015-01-24

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using abandoned mine drainage (AMD) as make- up water for the reuse of produced water for hydraulic fracturing. There is an abundance of AMD sources near permitted gas wells as documented in this study that can not only serve as makeup water and reduce the demand on high quality water resources but can also as a source of chemicals to treat produced water prior to reuse. The assessment of AMD availability for this purpose based on proximity and relevant regulations was accompanied by bench- and pilot-scale studies to determine optimal treatment to achieve desired water quality for use in hydraulic fracturing. Sulfate ions that are often present in AMD at elevated levels will react with Ba²⁺ and Sr²⁺ in produced water to form insoluble sulfate compounds. Both membrane microfiltration and gravity separation were evaluated for the removal of solids formed as a result of mixing these two impaired waters. Laboratory studies revealed that neither AMD nor barite formed in solution had significant impact on membrane filtration but that some produced waters contained submicron particles that can cause severe fouling of microfiltration membrane. Coagulation/flocculation was found to be an effective process for the removal of suspended solids and both bench- and pilot-scale studies revealed that optimal process conditions can consistently achieve the turbidity of the finished water below 5 NTU. Adjusting the blending ratio of AMD and produced water can achieve the desired effluent sulfate concentration that can be accurately predicted by chemical thermodynamics. Co-treatment of produced water and AMD will result in elevated levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the solid waste generated in this process due to radium co-precipitation with barium sulfate. Laboratory studies revealed that the mobility of barite that may form in the subsurface due to the presence of sulfate in the fracturing fluid can be controlled by the addition of appropriate antiscalants.

  7. Hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkan, Philip; Imam, Imdad

    1978-01-01

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A vent is located hydraulically between the actuating space and the valve for affording communication between said actuating space and a low pressure region. Flow control means is provided for restricting leakage through said vent to a rate that prevents said leakage from substantially detracting from the development of pressure within said actuatng space during the period from initial opening of the valve to the time when said piston has moved through most of its opening stroke. Following such period and while the valve is still open, said flow control means allows effective leakage through said vent. The accumulator has a limited capacity that results in the pressure within said actuating space decaying promptly to a low value as a result of effective leakage through said vent after the piston has moved through a circuit-breaker opening stroke and while the valve is in its open state. Means is provided for resetting the valve to its closed state in response to said pressure decay in the actuating space.

  8. Estimation of deformation and stiffness of fractures close to tunnels using data from single-hole hydraulic testing and grouting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fransson, A.; Tsang, C.-F.; Rutqvist, J.; Gustafson, G.

    2010-05-01

    Sealing of tunnels in fractured rocks is commonly performed by pre- or post-excavation grouting. The grouting boreholes are frequently drilled close to the tunnel wall, an area where rock stresses can be low and fractures can more easily open up during grout pressurization. In this paper we suggest that data from hydraulic testing and grouting can be used to identify grout-induced fracture opening, to estimate fracture stiffness of such fractures, and to evaluate its impact on the grout performance. A conceptual model and a method are presented for estimating fracture stiffness. The method is demonstrated using grouting data from four pre-excavation grouting boreholes at a shallow tunnel (50 m) in Nygard, Sweden, and two post-excavation grouting boreholes at a deep tunnel (450 m) in Aespoe HRL, Sweden. The estimated stiffness of intersecting fractures for the boreholes at the shallow Nygard tunnel are low (2-5 GPa/m) and in agreement with literature data from field experiments at other fractured rock sites. Higher stiffness was obtained for the deeper tunnel boreholes at Aespoe which is reasonable considering that generally higher rock stresses are expected at greater depths. Our method of identifying and evaluating the properties and impact of deforming fractures might be most applicable when grouting takes place in boreholes adjacent to the tunnel wall, where local stresses might be low and where deforming (opening) fractures may take most of the grout.

  9. Hydraulic fracture model and diagnostics verification at GRI/DOE multi-site projects and tight gas sand program support. Final report, July 28, 1993--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroeder, J.E.

    1997-12-31

    The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over twenty years. Early production experiments included nuclear stimulations and massive hydraulic fracture treatments. This work culminated in the US Department of Energy (DOE)`s Multiwell Experiment (MWX), a field laboratory designed to study the reservoir and production characteristics of low permeability sands. A key feature of MWX was an infrastructure which included several closely spaced wells that allowed detailed characterization of the reservoir through log and core analysis, and well testing. Interference and tracer tests, as well as the use of fracture diagnostics gave further information on stimulation and production characteristics. Thus, the Multiwell Experiment provided a unique opportunity for identifying the factors affecting production from tight gas sand reservoirs. The purpose of this operation was to support the gathering of field data that may be used to resolve the number of unknowns associated with measuring and modeling the dimensions of hydraulic fractures. Using the close-well infrastructure at the Multiwell Site near Rifle, Colorado, this operation focused primarily on the field design and execution of experiments. The data derived from the experiments were gathered and analyzed by DOE team contractors.

  10. Expansion of decline curve parameters for tight gas sands with massive hydraulic fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, T.

    1995-12-31

    With the advances in modern hydrocarbon technology and expansion of geologic settings for development, it is necessary to make changes to the conventional wisdoms that accompany production technology. This paper discusses some possible changes that necessitate implementation as observed both empirically and analytically. Specifically it discusses the time at which a decline curve can be implemented for production forecasting, the need for a dual decline model, and the severity of the decline variable that may be used for this model. It is the point of this paper to prove that for fight gas sands with massive hydraulic fractures that it is not only feasible to use decline variables that are greater than the traditional limit of harmonic or 1.0, but that the decline curve may also be implemented in the transient flow period of the well and decline both hyperbolically and exponentially. These ideas were not only proven through field study, but were additionally modeled with a fracture flow simulator. In order to prove these points this paper first introduces the Red Fork Formation and the development of an initial field model curve for this formation. After the initial model was developed, questions arose as to its feasibility. These questions were first addressed with a literature survey and further comparisons were made to test the models accuracy using pressure decline analysis and a fracture flow simulator. All of these methods were used to justify the implementation of a decline exponent as high as 2.1 for a hyperbolic curve during the early transient flow period, and regressing this hyperbolic into an exponential decline in the pseudo-steady state period.

  11. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on two general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.

  12. Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Annual report, September 28, 1995--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niemeyer, B.L.

    1997-09-01

    The digital fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economic to develop using verticle wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional verticle wells while maintaining verticle communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three verticle wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  13. High speed hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Iman, I.

    1983-06-07

    This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a breaker-opening piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A dashpotting mechanism operating separately from the hydraulic actuating system is provided, thereby reducing flow restriction interference with breaker opening. 3 figs.

  14. Hydraulically-activated operating system for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imam, Imdad; Barkan, Philip

    1979-01-01

    This operating system comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit-breaker opening operation. A normally-closed valve located on the breaker-closing-side of the piston is openable to release liquid from the breaker-closing space so that pressurized liquid in the breaker-opening space can drive the piston in an opening direction. Means is provided for restoring the valve to its closed position following the circuit-breaker opening operation. An impeded passage affords communication between the accumulator and the breaker-closing space to allow pressurized liquid to flow from the accumulator to the breaker-closing space and develop a pressure therein substantially equal to accumulator pressure when the valve is restored to closed position following breaker-opening. This passage is so impeded that the flow therethrough from the accumulator into the breaker-closing space is sufficiently low during initial opening motion of the piston through a substantial portion of its opening stroke as to avoid interference with said initial opening motion of the piston.

  15. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; Moridis, George J.

    2015-03-01

    We conducted three-dimensional coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical modeling of fault activation and seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing stimulation of a shale-gas reservoir. We simulated a case in which a horizontal injection well intersects a steeply dip- ping fault, with hydraulic fracturing channeled within the fault, during a 3-hour hydraulic fracturing stage. Consistent with field observations, the simulation results show that shale-gas hydraulic fracturing along faults does not likely induce seismic events that could be felt on the ground surface, but rather results in numerous small microseismic events, as well as aseismic deformations along with the fracture propagation. The calculated seismicmore » moment magnitudes ranged from about -2.0 to 0.5, except for one case assuming a very brittle fault with low residual shear strength, for which the magnitude was 2.3, an event that would likely go unnoticed or might be barely felt by humans at its epicenter. The calculated moment magnitudes showed a dependency on injection depth and fault dip. We attribute such dependency to variation in shear stress on the fault plane and associated variation in stress drop upon reactivation. Our simulations showed that at the end of the 3-hour injection, the rupture zone associated with tensile and shear failure extended to a maximum radius of about 200 m from the injection well. The results of this modeling study for steeply dipping faults at 1000 to 2500 m depth is in agreement with earlier studies and field observations showing that it is very unlikely that activation of a fault by shale-gas hydraulic fracturing at great depth (thousands of meters) could cause felt seismicity or create a new flow path (through fault rupture) that could reach shallow groundwater resources.« less

  16. Modeling of fault activation and seismicity by injection directly into a fault zone associated with hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Cappa, Frédéric; Moridis, George J.

    2015-03-01

    We conducted three-dimensional coupled fluid-flow and geomechanical modeling of fault activation and seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing stimulation of a shale-gas reservoir. We simulated a case in which a horizontal injection well intersects a steeply dip- ping fault, with hydraulic fracturing channeled within the fault, during a 3-hour hydraulic fracturing stage. Consistent with field observations, the simulation results show that shale-gas hydraulic fracturing along faults does not likely induce seismic events that could be felt on the ground surface, but rather results in numerous small microseismic events, as well as aseismic deformations along with the fracture propagation. The calculated seismic moment magnitudes ranged from about -2.0 to 0.5, except for one case assuming a very brittle fault with low residual shear strength, for which the magnitude was 2.3, an event that would likely go unnoticed or might be barely felt by humans at its epicenter. The calculated moment magnitudes showed a dependency on injection depth and fault dip. We attribute such dependency to variation in shear stress on the fault plane and associated variation in stress drop upon reactivation. Our simulations showed that at the end of the 3-hour injection, the rupture zone associated with tensile and shear failure extended to a maximum radius of about 200 m from the injection well. The results of this modeling study for steeply dipping faults at 1000 to 2500 m depth is in agreement with earlier studies and field observations showing that it is very unlikely that activation of a fault by shale-gas hydraulic fracturing at great depth (thousands of meters) could cause felt seismicity or create a new flow path (through fault rupture) that could reach shallow groundwater resources.

  17. Analysis of the hydraulic data from the MI fracture zone at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davey, A.; Karasaki, K.; Long, J.C.S.; Landsfeld, M.; Mensch, A.; Martel, S.J.

    1989-10-01

    One of the major problems in analyzing flow and transport in fractured rock is that the flow may be largely confined to a poorly connected network of fractures. In order to overcome some of this problem, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has been developing a new type of fracture hydrology model called an equivalent discontinuum model. In this model the authors represent the discontinuous nature of the problem through flow on a partially filled lattice. A key component in constructing an equivalent discontinuum model from this lattice is removing some of the conductive elements such that the system is partially connected in the same manner as the fracture network. This is done through a statistical inverse technique called simulated annealing. The fracture network model is annealed by continually modifying a base model, or template such that the modified systems behave more and more like the observed system. In order to see how the simulated annealing algorithm works, the authors have developed a series of synthetic real cases. In these cases, the real system is completely known so that the results of annealing to steady state data can be evaluated absolutely. The effect of the starting configuration has been studied by varying the percent of conducting elements in the initial configuration. Results have shown that the final configurations converge to about the same percentage of conducting elements. An example using Nagra field data from the Migration Experiment (MI) at Grimsel Rock Laboratory in Switzerland is also analyzed. 24 refs., 33 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tight/shale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs, short-term gas, and water transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reagan, Matthew T.; Moridis, George J.; Keen, Noel D.; Johnson, Jeffrey N.

    2015-04-18

    Hydrocarbon production from unconventional resources and the use of reservoir stimulation techniques, such as hydraulic fracturing, has grown explosively over the last decade. However, concerns have arisen that reservoir stimulation creates significant environmental threats through the creation of permeable pathways connecting the stimulated reservoir with shallower freshwater aquifers, thus resulting in the contamination of potable groundwater by escaping hydrocarbons or other reservoir fluids. This study investigates, by numerical simulation, gas and water transport between a shallow tight-gas reservoir and a shallower overlying freshwater aquifer following hydraulic fracturing operations, if such a connecting pathway has been created. We focus on twomore » general failure scenarios: (1) communication between the reservoir and aquifer via a connecting fracture or fault and (2) communication via a deteriorated, preexisting nearby well. We conclude that the key factors driving short-term transport of gas include high permeability for the connecting pathway and the overall volume of the connecting feature. Production from the reservoir is likely to mitigate release through reduction of available free gas and lowering of reservoir pressure, and not producing may increase the potential for release. We also find that hydrostatic tight-gas reservoirs are unlikely to act as a continuing source of migrating gas, as gas contained within the newly formed hydraulic fracture is the primary source for potential contamination. Such incidents of gas escape are likely to be limited in duration and scope for hydrostatic reservoirs. Reliable field and laboratory data must be acquired to constrain the factors and determine the likelihood of these outcomes.« less

  19. Microsoft Word - EPA 6 Analysis of Fracture Propagation_final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in ... induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. ...

  20. Microseismic and deformation imaging of hydraulic fracture growth and geometry in the C sand interval, GRI/DOE M-Site project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warpinski, N.R.; Uhl, J.E.; Engler, B.P.

    1997-08-01

    Six hydraulic-fracture injections into a fluvial sandstone at a depth of 4300 ft were monitored with multi-level tri-axial seismic receivers in two wells and an inclinometer array in one well, resulting in maps of the growth and final geometry of each fracture injection. These diagnostic images show the progression of height and length growth with fluid volume, rate and viscosity. Complexities associated with shut downs and high treatment pressures can be observed. Validation of the seismic geometry was made with the inclinometers and diagnostic procedures in an intersecting well. Fracture information related to deformation, such as fracture closure pressure, residual widths, and final prop distribution, were obtained from the inclinometer data.

  1. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  2. Evaluation of operational safety at Babcock and Wilcox Plants: Volume 2, Thermal-hydraulic results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wheatley, P.D.; Davis, C.B.; Callow, R.A.; Fletcher, C.D.; Dobbe, C.A.; Beelman, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a research program to develop a methodology to assess the operational performance of Babcock and Wilcox plants and to apply this methodology on a trial basis. The methodology developed for analyzing Babcock and Wilcox plants integrated methods used in both thermal-hydraulics and human factors and compared results with information used in the assessment of risk. The integrated methodology involved an evaluation of a selected plant for each pressurized water reactor vendor during a limited number of transients. A plant was selected to represent each vendor, and three transients were identified for analysis. The plants were Oconee Unit 1 for Babcock and Wilcox, H.B. Robinson Unit 2 for Westinghouse, and Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 for Combustion Engineering. The three transients were a complete loss of all feedwater, a small-break loss-of-coolant accident, and a steam-generator overfill with auxiliary feedwater. Included in the integrated methodology was an assessment of the thermal-hydraulic behavior, including event timing, of the plants during the three transients. Thermal-hydraulic results are presented in this volume (Volume 2) of the report. 26 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Stimuli-Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids as a Greener Alternative to Support Geothermal and Fossil Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, KC; Kabilan, Senthil; Heldebrant, David J.; Hoyt, David W.; Zhong, Lirong; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Adams, Lexor; Bonneville, Alain; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effective yet safe creation of high-permeability reservoirs within deep bedrock is the primary challenge for the viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and unconventional oil/gas recovery. Although fracturing fluids are commonly used for oil/gas, standard fracturing methods are not developed or proven for EGS temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of currently used fracturing methods are only recently being determined. Widespread concerns about the environmental contamination have resulted in a number of regulations for fracturing fluids advocating for greener fracturing processes. To enable EGS feasibility and lessen environmental impact of reservoir stimulation, an environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid that enhances permeability through fracturing (at significantly lower effective stress than standard fracturing fluids) due to in situ volume expansion and gel formation is investigated herein. The chemical mechanism, stability, phase-change behavior, and rheology for a novel polyallylamine (PAA)-CO2 fracturing fluid was characterized at EGS temperatures and pressures. Hydrogel is formed upon reaction with CO2 and this process is reversible (via CO2 depressurization or solubilizing with a mild acid) allowing removal from the formation and recycling, decreasing environmental impact. Rock obtained from the Coso geothermal field was fractured in laboratory experiments under various EGS temperatures and pressures with comparison to standard fracturing fluids, and the fractures were characterized with imaging, permeability measurement, and flow modeling. This novel fracturing fluid and process may vastly reduce water usage and the environmental impact of fracturing practices and effectively make EGS production and unconventional oil/gas exploitation cost-effective and cleaner.

  4. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic ... Title: Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic ...

  5. Establishment of Stress-Permeabilty relationship of fractured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... hydraulic conductivity for intact and fractured ... D, Hayashi K, Effect of thermal deformation on fracture ... constant (K) Fracture density* (m -2 ) Mean trace ...

  6. History of the 185-/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory and its effects on reactor operations at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 185-D deaeration building and the 189-D refrigeration building were constructed at Hanford during 1943 and 1944. Both buildings were constructed as part of the influent water cooling system for D reactor. The CMS studies eliminated the need for 185-D function. Early gains in knowledge ended the original function of the 189-D building mission. In 1951, 185-D and 189-D were converted to a thermal-hydraulic laboratory. The experiments held in the thermal-hydraulic lab lead to historic changes in Hanford reactor operations. In late 1951, the exponential physics experiments were moved to the 189-D building. In 1958, new production reactor experiments were begun in 185/189-D. In 1959, Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor experiments were added to the 185/189-D facility. By 1960, the 185/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory was one of the few full service facilities of its type in the nation. During the years 1961--1963 tests continued in the facility in support of existing reactors, new production reactors, and the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. In 1969, Fast Flux Test Facility developmental testings began in the facility. Simulations in 185/189-D building aided in the N Reactor repairs in the 1980`s. In 1994 the facility was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, because of its pioneering role over many years in thermal hydraulics, flow studies, heat transfer, and other reactor coolant support work. During 1994 and 1995 it was demolished in the largest decontamination and decommissioning project thus far in Hanford Site history.

  7. Poroelastic modeling of fracture-seismic wave interaction (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and hydraulic properties are examined. From parametric studies, we found that the hydraulic permeability of a fracture fully saturated with water has little impact on ...

  8. hydraulic_fracturing_poster.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

  9. Use of Tracers to Characterize Fractures in Engineered Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fabricate and test a downhole instrument for measuring fracture flow following a hydraulic stimulation experiment. reservoirrosetracerscharacterizefractures.pdf More...

  10. Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Numerical simulation of the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing of tightshale gas reservoirs on near-surface groundwater: Background, base cases, shallow reservoirs,...

  11. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  12. Numerical evaluation of effective unsaturated hydraulic properties for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fractured rocks (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Numerical evaluation of effective unsaturated hydraulic properties for fractured rocks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical evaluation of effective unsaturated hydraulic properties for fractured rocks To represent a heterogeneous unsaturated fractured rock by its homogeneous equivalent, Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain upscaled (effective) flow properties. In this study, we present a numerical

  13. Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization Project objectives: To understand how EGS fracture networks develop; To develop technology to determine accurate absolute three-dimensional positions of EGS fracture networks. PDF icon seismic_foulger_microearthquake.pdf More Documents & Publications Creation of an Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation Newberry EGS

  14. Application of new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    Based on the information presented in this report, our conclusions regarding the potential for new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells are as follows: New and improved gas storage well revitalization methods have the potential to save industry on the order of $20-25 million per year by mitigating deliverability decline and reducing the need for costly infill wells Fracturing technologies have the potential to fill this role, however operators have historically been reluctant to utilize this approach due to concerns with reservoir seal integrity. With advanced treatment design tools and methods, however, this risk can be minimized. Of the three major fracturing classifications, namely hydraulic, pulse and explosive, two are believed to hold potential to gas storage applications (hydraulic and pulse). Five particular fracturing technologies, namely tip-screenout fracturing, fracturing with liquid carbon dioxide, and fracturing with gaseous nitrogen, which are each hydraulic methods, and propellant and nitrogen pulse fracturing, which are both pulse methods, are believed to hold potential for gas storage applications and will possibly be tested as part of this project. Field evidence suggests that, while traditional well remediation methods such as blowing/washing, mechanical cleaning, etc. do improve well deliverability, wells are still left damaged afterwards, suggesting that considerable room for further deliverability enhancement exists. Limited recent trials of hydraulic fracturing imply that this approach does in fact provide superior deliverability results, but further RD&D work is needed to fully evaluate and demonstrate the benefits and safe application of this as well as other fracture stimulation technologies.

  15. Bridge Hydraulics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    hydraulics experiments conducted at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center TRACC ... Through collaborations among Argonne National Laboratory, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research ...

  16. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  17. ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukul M. Sharma

    2005-03-01

    The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those predicted by fracture models. There was no accepted optimal method for conducting hydraulic fracturing in the Bossier. Each operator used a different approach. Anadarko, the most active operator in the play, had tested at least four different kinds of fracture treatments. The ability to arrive at an optimal fracturing program was constrained by the lack of adequate fracture models to simulate the fracturing treatment, and an inability to completely understand the results obtained in previous fracturing programs. This research aimed at a combined theoretical, experimental and field-testing program to improve fracturing practices in the Bossier and other tight gas plays.

  18. Pros and cons of hydraulic drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using hydraulic drilling are discussed. The low maintenance, energy efficiency, drilling speeds, and operating costs are the main advantages of the hydraulic drills. The economics and maintenance of air drills are also compared.

  19. Numerical evaluation of effective unsaturated hydraulic properties for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fractured rocks (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Numerical evaluation of effective unsaturated hydraulic properties for fractured rocks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical evaluation of effective unsaturated hydraulic properties for fractured rocks × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service.

  20. Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Podgorney, Robert Karl

    2015-04-01

    A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.

  1. Hydraulic analysis of reciprocating pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, J.D.; Miller, .E. [White Rock Engineering, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A general discussion is given of the factors affecting reciprocating pump hydraulics and methods of reducing the magnitude of the hydraulic pressure disturbances on the pump and the system. Pump type, speed, design, pump valves, suction conditions, and fluid being pumped affect volumetric efficiency and magnitude of hydraulic pressure disturbances. Total Cylinder Pressure (TCP) as a method of specifying minimum suction operating pressure versus Net Positive Suction Head required (NPSHR) is discussed. Diagnostic method of analyzing reciprocating pump performance is presented along with methods of controlling the hydraulic pressure disturbances with pulsation control devices. A review of types of pump pulsation dampeners is presented.

  2. FRACTURE ENHANCED SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION AT THE A-014 OUTFALL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riha, B; Warren Hyde, W; Richard Hall , R

    2008-03-12

    Data collected during this study show that the performance of hydraulically fractured wells (with respect to mass removal rates) may tend to decrease with time following precipitation events. These effects are due to temporary increases in water saturation in the formation within the vicinity of the fractures, therefore, the wells should tend to rebound during subsequent dry periods. The data available for fractured well versus conventional well performance (with respect to flow rate versus vacuum pressure) are limited in this study. However, the data that we have to draw from suggest that, with the possible exception of a few extreme examples, hydraulically fractured wells tend to perform better than conventional wells during soil vapor extraction (SVE) operation at the A-14 Outfall. The pancake like geometry associated with hydraulic fractures also leads to a significant increase in zone of influence (ZOI), as compared to conventional wells. The increase in ZOI is due to the radially extending, horizontal, high-permeability conduit nature of the hydraulic fracture, however, air-flow into the fracture is predominately vertical (occurring at right angles to the fracture plane). Flow rates from above and below the fracture will tend to be equivalent when the formation is homogeneous, however, in the case of directionally fining depositional sequences flow rates will be greater from the direction of increasing permeability. The Upland Unit is a fining upward sequence, therefore flow rates (and contaminant mass flow rates) will tend to be higher below the fracture. This suggests that emplacing the fractures slightly above the source zone is an important strategy for accelerating contaminant removal at the A-014 Outfall site and in the Upland Unit at the SRS. However, due to the multitude of previous borings at the A-014 Outfall site, the shallower fractures failed. More than 2500 lbs of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) were removed during approximately 6 months of fractured well SVE operation at the A-014 field site. Plotting total mass removed over this time period shows a roughly linear relationship Figure 7. This occurs because the mass removal rate remains fairly constant with time. When mass removal comes predominately from cVOCs stored in the vapor phase there is a marked decline in mass removal rate over a short period of time due to the limiting nature of diffusion. Constant mass removal rates suggest that a source zone has been directly targeted and, therefore, is providing a constant supply of cVOC that partitions into the vapor phase and is removed through the well. Directly targeting and removing source zones is the most efficient approach to remediating contaminated sites. Results of this study show that utilization of hydraulic fractures during SVE is an effective approach for increasing remediation efficiency at the A-014 Outfall field site and in the Upland Unit at the SRS. Hydraulically fractured wells tend to produce greater flow rates and create larger ZOI's than do conventional wells. These attributes allow fractured wells to effectively treat larger volumes of formation. The unique sand-emplacement geometry associated with hydraulically fractured wells also allows direct targeting of multiple zones located at similar elevations within a fairly large radius of the well. The ability to directly target source zones significantly decreases diffusion pathways, therefore, significantly decreasing the time required to reach remediation goals.

  3. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    compare different working models of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas and oil production. ... and drawbacks of using supercritical CO2 as a working fluid for shale gas production. ...

  4. Use of Tracers to Characterize Fractures in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Measure interwell fracture surface area and fracture spacing using sorbing tracers; measure fracture surface areas adjacent to a single geothermal well using tracers and injection/backflow techniques; design, fabricate and test a downhole instrument for measuring fracture flow following a hydraulic stimulation experiment.

  5. Method of fracturing a geological formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O.

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

  6. Regional Analysis And Characterization Of Fractured Aquifers...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    become an important source of basic data that can be used to help characterize the nature and extent of hydraulic conductivity in fractured rocks. We plan to continue to...

  7. DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Statement of Guido DeHoratiis Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oil and Natural Gas before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittees on Energy and Environment

  8. Hydraulic Fracturing Poster | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - In Depth (poster) More Documents & Publications Carbon Capture and Storage Poster Geothermal Energy: A Geothermal Teacher Guide for Grades 9-12 H2 Educate Teacher Guide

  9. Field fracturing multi-sites project. Annual technical progress report, July 28, 1993--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct experiments to definitively determine hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments will be conducted to provide data which will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fluid fracture rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment, as well as surface facilities and equipment that are conducive to acquiring high-quality data. The goal is to develop a fully characterized, tight reservoir-typical, field-scale hydraulic-fracturing test site.

  10. Strain Measurement of Geological Samples Subjected to Triaxial Stresses Experienced During Hydraulic Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Ke; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius

    2014-01-01

    Understanding stress and strain relationships and having the ability to predict these quantities for known load conditions is crucial to all geomechanical and, in some instances, reservoir flow applications. The constitutive equations governing the deformation of geological materials are typically adequate for bulk or large scale deformation and stress analyses. However, these rules are generally less precise in their ability to make accurate predictions in physical processes where highly localized material heterogeneity exists or where the presence of geometric irregularities such as micro-cracks may be present. This is especially relevant to EGS where hydraulic fracture propagation models are needed to develop optimal reservoir creation strategies and where fracture permeability is significantly influenced by regional stress states and may affect reservoir operation strategies. The deficiencies of the models used to describe these physical processes are a practical reality necessitated by the manner in which rock properties must be obtained. Conventional rock mechanics tests subject samples to controlled load conditions and measure bulk deformations of the sample or more localized deformations only on exposed surfaces of the sample. They are currently unable to comprehensively map the deformation state within the sample. For processes such as fracture, however, the state of a particular region within the rock drives the overall failure behavior of the sample. The authors believe that possessing a means to measure strains within samples subjected to hydraulic fracture loading conditions will provide a useful tool for understanding the localized effects not captured by conventional techniques and may serve as a method for improving hydraulic fracture models. An ongoing effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory endeavors to develop a neutron diffraction based strain measurement capability to interrogate the strain state of a geological sample, at arbitrary internal locations, subjected to a triaxial stress state. The basis of the method and initial results for simple load conditions were reported at last year s Stanford Geothermal Workshop. This work will report results from recent neutron diffraction strain measurement experiments in which marble samples were subjected to load conditions more representative of hydraulic fracturing operations within a pressure cell specially designed for the reported strain measurement technique.

  11. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  12. Field fracturing multi-sites project. Annual report, August 1, 1995--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct experiments to definitively determine hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments are to be conducted to provide data that will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fracture fluid rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment, as well as surface facilities and equipment conducive to acquiring high-quality data. The primary Project goal is to develop a fully characterized, tight reservoir-typical, field-scale hydraulic fracturing test site to diagnose, characterize, and test hydraulic fracturing technology and performance. It is anticipated that the research work being conducted by the multi-disciplinary team of GRI and DOE contractors will lead to the development of a commercial fracture mapping tool/service.

  13. NEW AND NOVEL FRACTURE STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REVITALIZATION OF EXISTING GAS STORAGE WELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    1999-12-01

    Gas storage wells are prone to continued deliverability loss at a reported average rate of 5% per annum (in the U.S.). This is a result of formation damage due to the introduction of foreign materials during gas injection, scale deposition and/or fines mobilization during gas withdrawal, and even the formation and growth of bacteria. As a means to bypass this damage and sustain/enhance well deliverability, several new and novel fracture stimulation technologies were tested in gas storage fields across the U.S. as part of a joint U.S. Department of Energy and Gas Research Institute R&D program. These new technologies include tip-screenout fracturing, hydraulic fracturing with liquid CO{sub 2} and proppant, extreme overbalance fracturing, and high-energy gas fracturing. Each of these technologies in some way address concerns with fracturing on the part of gas storage operators, such as fracture height growth, high permeability formations, and fluid sensitivity. Given the historical operator concerns over hydraulic fracturing in gas storage wells, plus the many other unique characteristics and resulting stimulation requirements of gas storage reservoirs (which are described later), the specific objective of this project was to identify new and novel fracture stimulation technologies that directly address these concerns and requirements, and to demonstrate/test their potential application in gas storage wells in various reservoir settings across the country. To compare these new methods to current industry deliverability enhancement norms in a consistent manner, their application was evaluated on a cost per unit of added deliverability basis, using typical non-fracturing well remediation methods as the benchmark and considering both short-term and long-term deliverability enhancement results. Based on the success (or lack thereof) of the various fracture stimulation technologies investigated, guidelines for their application, design and implementation have been developed. A final research objective was to effectively deploy the knowledge and experience gained from the project to the gas storage industry at-large.

  14. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic ... cement to representing different quality levels of the cementing operation (low ...

  15. Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

  16. Hydraulic Institute Mission and Vision:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Institute Mission and Vision: Vision: To be a global authority on pumps and pumping systems. Mission: To be a value-adding resource to member companies and pump users worldwide by: * Developing and delivering comprehensive industry standards. * Expanding knowledge by providing education and tools for the effective application, testing, installation, operation and maintenance of pumps and pumping systems. * Serving as a forum for the exchange of industry information. The Hydraulic Institute is a

  17. Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warpinski, Norman R.; Steinfort, Terry D.; Branagan, Paul T.; Wilmer, Roy H.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture.

  18. Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warpinski, N.R.; Steinfort, T.D.; Branagan, P.T.; Wilmer, R.H.

    1999-08-10

    An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture. 13 figs.

  19. Estimation of fracture flow parameters through numerical analysis of hydromechanical pressure pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappa, F.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C.-F.; Thoraval, A.

    2008-03-16

    The flow parameters of a natural fracture were estimated by modeling in situ pressure pulses. The pulses were generated in two horizontal boreholes spaced 1 m apart vertically and intersecting a near-vertical highly permeable fracture located within a shallow fractured carbonate reservoir. Fracture hydromechanical response was monitored using specialized fiber-optic borehole equipment that could simultaneously measure fluid pressure and fracture displacements. Measurements indicated a significant time lag between the pressure peak at the injection point and the one at the second measuring point, located 1 m away. The pressure pulse dilated and contracted the fracture. Field data were analyzed through hydraulic and coupled hydromechanical simulations using different governing flow laws. In matching the time lag between the pressure peaks at the two measuring points, our hydraulic models indicated that (1) flow was channeled in the fracture, (2) the hydraulic conductivity tensor was highly anisotropic, and (3) the radius of pulse influence was asymmetric, in that the pulse travelled faster vertically than horizontally. Moreover, our parametric study demonstrated that the fluid pressure diffusion through the fracture was quite sensitive to the spacing and orientation of channels, hydraulic aperture, storativity and hydraulic conductivity. Comparison between hydraulic and hydromechanical models showed that the deformation significantly affected fracture permeability and storativity, and consequently, the fluid pressure propagation, suggesting that the simultaneous measurements of pressure and mechanical displacement signals could substantially improve the interpretation of pulse tests during reservoir characterization.

  20. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  1. Control rod drive hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ose, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

  2. Analysis of fractures in volcanic cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Prothro, L.B.; Roberson, K.E.

    1997-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in Nye County, southern Nevada, was the location of 828 announced underground nuclear tests, conducted between 1951 and 1992. Approximately one-third of these tests were detonated near or below the water table. An unavoidable consequence of these testing activities was introducing radionuclides into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. Groundwater flows beneath the NTS almost exclusively through interconnected natural fractures in carbonate and volcanic rocks. Information about these fractures is necessary to determine hydrologic parameters for future Corrective Action Unit (CAU)-specific flow and transport models which will be used to support risk assessment calculations for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Underground Test Area (UGTA) remedial investigation. Fracture data are critical in reducing the uncertainty of the predictive capabilities of CAU-specific models because of their usefulness in generating hydraulic conductivity values and dispersion characteristics used in transport modeling. Specifically, fracture aperture and density (spacing) are needed to calculate the permeability anisotropy of the formations. Fracture mineralogy information is used qualitatively to evaluate diffusion and radionuclide retardation potential in transport modeling. All these data can best be collected through examination of core samples.

  3. Insights From Laboratory Experiments On Simulated Faults With Application To Fracture Evolution In Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory experiments provide a wealth of information related to mechanics of fracture initiation, fracture propagation processes, factors influencing fault strength, and spatio-temporal evolution of fracture properties. Much of the existing literature reports on laboratory studies involving a coupling of thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and/or chemical processes. As these processes operate within subsurface environments exploited for their energy resource, laboratory results provide insights into factors influencing the mechanical and hydraulic properties of geothermal systems. I report on laboratory observations of strength and fluid transport properties during deformation of simulated faults. The results show systematic trends that vary with stress state, deformation rate, thermal conditions, fluid content, and rock composition. When related to geophysical and geologic measurements obtained from engineered geothermal systems (e.g. microseismicity, wellbore studies, tracer analysis), laboratory results provide a means by which the evolving thermal reservoir can be interpreted in terms of physico-chemical processes. For example, estimates of energy release and microearthquake locations from seismic moment tensor analysis can be related to strength variations observed from friction experiments. Such correlations between laboratory and field data allow for better interpretations about the evolving mechanical and fluid transport properties in the geothermal reservoir ultimately leading to improvements in managing the resource.

  4. Characterization of EGS Fracture Network Lifecycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillian R. Foulger

    2008-03-31

    Geothermal energy is relatively clean, and is an important non-hydrocarbon source of energy. It can potentially reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reduction in carbon emissions. High-temperature geothermal areas can be used for electricity generation if they contain permeable reservoirs of hot water or steam that can be extracted. The biggest challenge to achieving the full potential of the nations resources of this kind is maintaining and creating the fracture networks required for the circulation, heating, and extraction of hot fluids. The fundamental objective of the present research was to understand how fracture networks are created in hydraulic borehole injection experiments, and how they subsequently evolve. When high-pressure fluids are injected into boreholes in geothermal areas, they flow into hot rock at depth inducing thermal cracking and activating critically stressed pre-existing faults. This causes earthquake activity which, if monitored, can provide information on the locations of the cracks formed, their time-development and the type of cracking underway, e.g., whether shear movement on faults occurred or whether cracks opened up. Ultimately it may be possible to monitor the critical earthquake parameters in near-real-time so the information can be used to guide the hydraulic injection while it is in progress, e.g., how to adjust factors such as injectate pressure, volume and temperature. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to mature analysis techniques and software that were, at the start of this project, in an embryonic developmental state. Task 1 of the present project was to develop state-of-the-art techniques and software for calculating highly accurate earthquake locations, earthquake source mechanisms (moment tensors) and temporal changes in reservoir structure. Task 2 was to apply the new techniques to hydrofracturing (Enhanced Geothermal Systems, or EGS) experiments performed at the Coso geothermal field, in order to enhance productivity there. Task 3 was to interpret the results jointly with other geological information in order to provide a consistent physical model. All of the original goals of the project have been achieved. An existing program for calculating accurate relative earthquake locations has been enhanced by a technique to improve the accuracy of earthquake arrival-time measurements using waveform cross-correlation. Error analysis has been added to pre-existing moment tensor software. New seismic tomography software has been written to calculate changes in structure that could be due, for example, to reservoir depletion. Data processing procedures have been streamlined and web tools developed for rapid dissemination of the results, e.g., to on-site operations staff. Application of the new analysis tools to the Coso geothermal field has demonstrated the effective use of the techniques and provided important case histories to guide the style of future applications. Changes in reservoir structure with time are imaged throughout the upper 3 km, identifying the areas where large volumes of fluid are being extracted. EGS hydrofracturing experiments in two wells stimulated a nearby fault to the south that ruptured from south to north. The position of this fault could be precisely mapped and its existence was confirmed by surface mapping and data from a borehole televiewer log. No earthquakes occurred far north of the injection wells, suggesting that the wells lie near the northern boundary of the region of critically stressed faults. Minor en-echelon faults were also activated. Significant across-strike fluid flow occurred. The faults activated had significant crack-opening components, indicating that the hydraulic fracturing created open cavities at depth. The fluid injection changed the local stress field orientation and thus the mode of failure was different from the normal background. Initial indications are that the injections modulated stress release, seismicity and natural fracture system evolution for periods of up to months. The research demon

  5. Hydrologic test system for fracture flow studies in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raber, E; Lord, D.; Burklund, P.

    1982-05-05

    A hydrologic test system has been designed to measure the intrinsic permeabilities of individual fractures in crystalline rock. This system is used to conduct constant pressure-declining flow rate and pressure pulse hydraulic tests. The system is composed of four distinct units: (1) the Packer System, (2) Injection system, (3) Collection System, and (4) Electronic Data Acquisition System. The apparatus is built in modules so it can be easily transported and re-assembled. It is also designed to operate over a wide range of pressures (0 to 300 psig) and flow rates (0.2 to 1.0 gal/min). This system has proved extremely effective and versatile in its use at the Climax Facility, Nevada Test Site.

  6. Introduction to the GRI/DOE Field Fracturing Multi-Site Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, R.E.; Middlebrook, M.L.; Warpinski, N.R.; Cleary, M.P.; Branagan, P.T.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project is to conduct field experiments and analyze data that will result in definitive determinations of hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments will be conducted to provide data that will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fracture fluid rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment, as well as surface facilities and equipment that are conducive to acquiring high-quality data. It is anticipated that the primary benefit of the project experiments will be the development and widespread commercialization of new fracture diagnostics technologies to determine fracture length, height, width and azimuth. Data resulting from these new technologies can then be used to prove and refine the 3D fracture model mechanisms. It is also anticipated that data collected and analyzed in the project will define the correct techniques for determining fracture closure pressure. The overall impact of the research will be to provide a foundation for a fracture diagnostic service industry and hydraulic fracture optimization based on measured fracture response.

  7. Hydraulically operated mine prop with safety valve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koppers, M.; Marr, P.

    1981-02-24

    A mine prop is disclosed that is provided with an overpressure valve of large flowthrough section which opens when excessive forces suddenly act on the prop to discharge pressure fluid from the interior of the prop. The overpressure valve comprises a hollow cylindrical housing forming at one end a valve seat communicating with the fluid-filled inner space of the prop and a valve member axially guided in the housing for movement between a closed position engaging the valve seat and an open position. The fluid-filled space of the prop communicates with channels leading to the outside of the prop. The valve member is normally maintained in the closed position by a gas pillow under high pretension confined in a pressure space delimited peripherally by the wall of the valve housing and at opposite ends respectively by the valve member and a plug fluid tightly mounted in and closing the other end of the housing. The valve member and the plug are both formed from metal and are both provided at facing ends with annular slender sealing lips of triangular cross-section tapering toward each other, the outer surfaces of which are pressed into engagement with the inner peripheral surface of the housing by the pressure of the gas pillow.

  8. EVALUATION OF ENHANCED VOC REMOVAL WITH SOIL FRACTURING IN THE SRS UPLAND UNIT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riha, B

    2005-10-31

    The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a full-scale implementation. The SVE well, monitoring point arrays and four fracturing wells were installed and the well testing has been completed. Four fractures were successfully created the week of July 25, 2005. The fractures were created in an open area at the bottom of steel well casing by using a water jet to create a notch in the soil and then injecting a guar-sand slurry into the formation. The sand-filled fractures increase the effective air permeability of the subsurface formation diffusion path lengths for contaminant removal. The primary metrics for evaluation were an increase in SVE flow rates in the zone of contamination and an increase in the zone of influence. Sufficient testing has been performed to show that fracturing in the Upland Unit accelerates SVE solvent remediation and fracturing can increase flow rates in the Upland Unit by at least one order of magnitude.

  9. Subsurface fracture mapping from geothermal wellbores. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartenbaum, B.A.; Rawson, G.

    1983-08-01

    To advance the state-of-the-art in Hot Dry Rock technology, and evaluation is made of (1) the use of both electromagnetic and acoustic radar to map far-field fractures, (2) the use of more than twenty different conventional well logging tools to map borehole-fracture intercepts, (3) the use of magnetic dipole ranging to determine the relative positions of the injection well and the production well within the fractured zone, (4) the use of passive microseismic methods to determine the orientation and extent of hydraulic fractures, and (5) the application of signal processing techniques to fracture mapping including tomography, holography, synthetic aperture, image reconstruction, and the relative importance of phase and amplitude information. It is found that according to calculations, VHF backscatter radar has the potential for mapping fractures within a distance of 50 +- 20 meters from the wellbore. A new technique for improving fracture identification is presented. The range of acoustic radar is five to seven times greater than that of VHF radar when compared on the basis of equal resolution, i.e., equal wavelengths. Analyses of extant data indicate that when used synergistically the (1) caliper, (2) resistivity dipmeter, (3) televiewer, (4) television, (5) impression packer, and (6) acoustic transmission are useful for mapping borehole-fracture intercepts. A new model of hydraulic fracturing is presented which indicates that a hydraulic fracture is dynamically unstable; consequently, improvements in locating the crack tip may be possible. The importance of phase in signal processing is stressed and those techniques which employ phase data are emphasized for field use.

  10. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, Randall; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Anand; Wavrik, Kathryn

    2001-09-07

    The objectives of this project are: (1) to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas, (2) to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems, and (3) to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs. Work was directed at both injection wells and production wells and at vertical, horizontal, and highly deviated wells.

  11. Modifications of Carbonate Fracture Hydrodynamic Properties by CO{sub 2}-Acidified Brine Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Hang; Ellis, Brian R.; Peters, Catherine A.; Fitts, Jeffrey P.; Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant S.

    2013-08-01

    Acidic reactive flow in fractures is relevant in subsurface activities such as CO{sub 2} geological storage and hydraulic fracturing. Understanding reaction-induced changes in fracture hydrodynamic properties is essential for predicting subsurface flows such as leakage, injectability, and fluid production. In this study, x-ray computed tomography scans of a fractured carbonate caprock were used to create three dimensional reconstructions of the fracture before and after reaction with CO{sub 2}-acidified brine (Ellis et al., 2011, Greenhouse Gases: Sci. Technol., 1:248-260). As expected, mechanical apertures were found to increase substantially, doubling and even tripling in some places. However, the surface geometry evolved in complex ways including comb-tooth structures created from preferential dissolution of calcite in transverse sedimentary bands, and the creation of degraded zones, i.e. porous calcite-depleted areas on reacted fracture surfaces. These geometric alterations resulted in increased fracture roughness, as measured by surface Z{sub 2} parameters and fractal dimensions D{sub f}. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify the changes in hydraulic aperture, fracture transmissivity and permeability. The results show that the effective hydraulic apertures are smaller than the mechanical apertures, and the changes in hydraulic apertures are nonlinear. Overestimation of flow rate by a factor of two or more would be introduced if fracture hydrodynamic properties were based on mechanical apertures, or if hydraulic aperture is assumed to change proportionally with mechanical aperture. The differences can be attributed, in part, to the increase in roughness after reaction, and is likely affected by contiguous transverse sedimentary features. Hydraulic apertures estimated by the 1D statistical model and 2D local cubic law (LCL) model are consistently larger than those calculated from the CFD simulations. In addition, a novel ternary segmentation method was devised to handle the degraded zones, allowing for a bounding analysis of the effects on hydraulic properties. We found that the degraded zones account for less than 15% of the fracture volume, but cover 70% to 80% of the fracture surface. When the degraded zones are treated as part of the fracture, the fracture transmissivities are two to four times larger because the fracture surfaces after reaction are not as rough as they would be if one considers the degraded zone as part of the rock. Therefore, while degraded zones created during geochemical reactions may not significantly increase mechanical aperture, this type of feature cannot be ignored and should be treated with prudence when predicting fracture hydrodynamic properties.

  12. Seismic Studies of a Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Experiment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities Activities (1) Micro-Earthquake At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 2009) Areas (1) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Regions (0) Retrieved from "http:...

  13. Fracture Evolution Following a Hydraulic Stimulation within an EGS

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Material Characterization of Storage Vessels for Fuel Cell Forklifts," presented by Sandia National Laboratories on August 14, 2012. PDF icon Material Characterization of Storage Vessels for Fuel Cell Forklifts Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Compatibility of Materials US DRIVE Hydrogen Codes and Standards Technical Team Roadmap Fuel Cell Technologies Program

  14. Estimation of Fracture Porosity in an Unsaturated Fractured Welded Tuff Using Gas Tracer Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.M. Freifeild

    2001-10-18

    Kinematic fracture porosity is an important hydrologic transport parameter for predicting the potential of rapid contaminant migration through fractured rock. The transport velocity of a solute moving within a fracture network is inversely related to the fracture porosity. Since fracture porosity is often one or two orders of magnitude smaller than matrix porosity, and fracture permeability is often orders of magnitude greater than matrix permeability, solutes may travel significantly faster in the fracture network than in the surrounding matrix. This dissertation introduces a new methodology for conducting gas tracer tests using a field portable mass spectrometer along with analytical tools for estimating fracture porosity using the measured tracer concentration breakthrough curves. Field experiments were conducted at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, consisting of air-permeability transient testing and gas-tracer-transport tests. The experiments were conducted from boreholes drilled within an underground tunnel as part of an investigation of rock mass hydrological behavior. Air-permeability pressure transients, recorded during constant mass flux injections, have been analyzed using a numerical inversion procedure to identify fracture permeability and porosity. Dipole gas tracer tests have also been conducted from the same boreholes used for air-permeability testing. Mass breakthrough data has been analyzed using a random walk particle-tracking model, with a dispersivity that is a function of the advective velocity. The estimated fracture porosity using the tracer test and air-injection test data ranges from .001 to .015. These values are an order of magnitude greater than the values estimated by others using hydraulically estimated fracture apertures. The estimates of porosity made using air-permeability test data are shown to be highly sensitive to formation heterogeneity. Uncertainty analyses performed on the gas tracer test results show high confidence in the parameter estimates made.

  15. NREL: Transportation Research - Miami-Dade County Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Truck Testing Miami-Dade County Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Truck Testing Photo of garbage truck with view of lake and city in background. As part of its overall strategy to reduce emissions and fuel use, Miami-Dade County currently operates 35 hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles, with 29 more on order. Photo courtesy of Parker Hannifin NREL is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation (model year 2015) hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year

  16. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, Randall S.; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Ananad; Wavrik, Kathryn

    2001-10-29

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs. This research project had three objectives. The first objective was to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas. The second objective was to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems. The third objective was to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs.

  17. Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Centrifugal Contactors (Conference) | SciTech Connect Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale Centrifugal Contactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale Centrifugal Contactors Annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) are being evaluated for process-scale solvent extraction operations in support of Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) separations goals. Process-scale annular

  18. computational-hydraulics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Aerodynamics using STAR-CCM+ for CFD Analysis March 21-22, 2012 Argonne, Illinois Dr. Steven Lottes This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. A training course in the use of computational hydraulics and aerodynamics CFD software using CD-adapco's STAR-CCM+ for analysis will be held at TRACC from March 21-22, 2012. The course assumes a basic knowledge of fluid mechanics and will make extensive use of hands on tutorials. CD-adapco will issue

  19. Hydraulic mining method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  20. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

    1999-07-27

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

  1. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morman, James A.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Reifman, Jaques

    1999-01-01

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  2. Fracture of solid state laser slabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, J.E.

    1986-07-01

    Fracture due to thermal stress limits the power output potential of modern, high average power slab lasers. Here the criteria for slab fracture and the nature of the surface flaws which constitute the strength-controlling defects are reviewed. Specific fracture data for gadolinium scandium gallium garnet and LHG-5 phosphate glass with different surface finishes are evaluated in the context of assigning appropriate slab operating parameters using Wiebull statistics. These examples illustrate both the danger of design using brittle components without adequate fracture testing, and the inadequacy of design methods which use a fixed safety factor, for this class of materials. Further consideration reveals that operation of slab lasers in contact with an aqueous coolant may lead to strength degradation with time. Finally, the evolution of the failure process in which a characteristic midplane crack forms is outlined, and the pertinent parameters for avoiding slab fracture are identified.

  3. Acid fracturing of carbonate gas reservoirs in Sichuan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, M.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the geological characteristics of Sinian-furassic carbonate gas reservoirs in the Sichuan basin, China. Based on these characteristics, a mechanism of acid fracturing is proposed for such reservoirs. Included are the results of a research in acid fracturing fluids and field operation conditions for matrix acidizing and acid fracturing in Sichuan. The acid fracturing method is shown to be an effective stimulation technique for the carbonate strata in this area.

  4. Hydraulic Hybrid Parcel Delivery Truck Deployment, Testing & Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallo, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-03-07

    Although hydraulic hybrid systems have shown promise over the last few years, commercial deployment of these systems has primarily been limited to Class 8 refuse trucks. In 2005, the Hybrid Truck Users Forum initiated the Parcel Delivery Working Group including the largest parcel delivery fleets in North America. The goal of the working group was to evaluate and accelerate commercialization of hydraulic hybrid technology for parcel delivery vehicles. FedEx Ground, Purolator and United Parcel Service (UPS) took delivery of the world’s first commercially available hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery trucks in early 2012. The vehicle chassis includes a Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid drive system, integrated and assembled by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corp., with a body installed by Morgan Olson. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, CALSTART and its project partners assessed the performance, reliability, maintainability and fleet acceptance of three pre-production Class 6 hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery vehicles using information and data from in-use data collection and on-road testing. This document reports on the deployment of these vehicles operated by FedEx Ground, Purolator and UPS. The results presented provide a comprehensive overview of the performance of commercial hydraulic hybrid vehicles in parcel delivery applications. This project also informs fleets and manufacturers on the overall performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles, provides insights on how the technology can be both improved and more effectively used. The key findings and recommendations of this project fall into four major categories: -Performance, -Fleet deployment, -Maintenance, -Business case. Hydraulic hybrid technology is relatively new to the market, as commercial vehicles have been introduced only in the past few years in refuse and parcel delivery applications. Successful demonstration could pave the way for additional purchases of hydraulic hybrid vehicles throughout the trucking industry. By providing unbiased, third-party assessment of this “hybrid without batteries” technology, this report offers relevant, timely and valuable information to the industry.

  5. THERMO-HYDRO-MECHANICAL MODELING OF WORKING FLUID INJECTION AND THERMAL ENERGY EXTRACTION IN EGS FRACTURES AND ROCK MATRIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Podgorney; Chuan Lu; Hai Huang

    2012-01-01

    Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing), to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid-heat system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. Reliable performance predictions of EGS reservoirs require accurate and robust modeling for strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes. Conventionally, these types of problems have been solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulators with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. An alternative approach is to solve the system of nonlinear partial differential equations that govern multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, and rock mechanics simultaneously, using a fully coupled, fully implicit solution procedure, in which all solution variables (pressure, enthalpy, and rock displacement fields) are solved simultaneously. This paper describes numerical simulations used to investigate the poro- and thermal- elastic effects of working fluid injection and thermal energy extraction on the properties of the fractures and rock matrix of a hypothetical EGS reservoir, using a novel simulation software FALCON (Podgorney et al., 2011), a finite element based simulator solving fully coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, rock deformation, and fracturing using a global implicit approach. Investigations are also conducted on how these poro- and thermal-elastic effects are related to fracture permeability evolution.

  6. Northwest Hydraulic Consultants | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydraulic Consultants Jump to: navigation, search Hydro | Hydrodynamic Testing Facilities Name Northwest Hydraulic Consultants Address 835 S 192nd, Building C, Suite 1300 Place...

  7. Tidal Hydraulic Generators Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydraulic Generators Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Tidal Hydraulic Generators Ltd Address: 14 Thislesboon Drive Place: Mumbles Zip: SA3 4HY Region: United Kingdom Sector:...

  8. Hydraulic Hybrid Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Systems Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleHydraulicHybridSystems&oldid768560" Categories: Organizations Companies Energy...

  9. Method and tool for contracting tubular members by electro-hydraulic forming before hydroforming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich

    2011-03-15

    A tubular preform is contracted in an electro-hydraulic forming operation. The tubular preform is wrapped with one or more coils of wire and placed in a chamber of an electro-hydraulic forming tool. The electro-hydraulic forming tool is discharged to form a compressed area on a portion of the tube. The tube is then placed in a hydroforming tool that expands the tubular preform to form a part.

  10. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

  11. Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1981-01-01

    Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

  12. OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

    2004-05-01

    A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

  13. Analysis of Fracture in Cores from the Tuff Confining Unit beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lance Prothro

    2008-03-01

    The role fractures play in the movement of groundwater through zeolitic tuffs that form the tuff confining unit (TCU) beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, is poorly known. This is an important uncertainty, because beneath most of Yucca Flat the TCU lies between the sources of radionuclide contaminants produced by historic underground nuclear testing and the regional carbonate aquifer. To gain a better understanding of the role fractures play in the movement of groundwater and radionuclides through the TCU beneath Yucca Flat, a fracture analysis focusing on hydraulic properties was performed on conventional cores from four vertical exploratory holes in Area 7 of Yucca Flat that fully penetrate the TCU. The results of this study indicate that the TCU is poorly fractured. Fracture density for all fractures is 0.27 fractures per vertical meter of core. For open fractures, or those observed to have some aperture, the density is only 0.06 fractures per vertical meter of core. Open fractures are characterized by apertures ranging from 0.1 to 10 millimeter, and averaging 1.1 millimeter. Aperture typically occurs as small isolated openings along the fracture, accounting for only 10 percent of the fracture volume, the rest being completely healed by secondary minerals. Zeolite is the most common secondary mineral occurring in 48 percent of the fractures observed.

  14. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Analysis of Hydraulic Conductivity Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, R.E.

    2003-01-06

    Equations by Marshall and by Millington and Quirk for calculating hydraulic conductivity from pore-size distribution data are dependent on an arbitrary choice of the exponent on the porosity term and a correct estimate of residual water. This study showed that a revised equation, based on the pore-interaction model of Marshall, accurately predicts hydraulic conductivity for glass beads and a loam soil from the pressure-water content relationships of these porous materials.

  16. Laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured Climax granite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Failor, R.; Isherwood, D.; Raber, E.; Vandergraaf, T.

    1982-06-01

    This report documents our laboratory studies of radionuclide transport in fractured granite cores. To simulate natural conditions, our laboratory studies used naturally fractured cores and natural ground water from the Climax Granite Stock at the Nevada Test Site. For comparison, additional tests used artificially fractured granite cores or distilled water. Relative to the flow of tritiated water, {sup 85}Sr and /sup 95m/Tc showed little or no retardation, whereas {sup 137}Cs was retarded. After the transport runs the cores retained varying amounts of the injected radionuclides along the fracture. Autoradiography revealed some correlation between sorption and the fracture fill material. Strontium and cesium retention increased when the change was made from natural ground water to distilled water. Artificial fractures retained less {sup 137}Cs than most natural fractures. Estimated fracture apertures from 18 to 60 {mu}m and hydraulic conductivities from 1.7 to 26 x 10{sup -3} m/s were calculated from the core measurements.

  17. Dewatering of coalbed methane wells with hydraulic gas pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amani, M.; Juvkam-Wold, H.C.

    1995-12-31

    The coalbed methane industry has become an important source of natural gas production. Proper dewatering of coalbed methane (CBM) wells is the key to efficient gas production from these reservoirs. This paper presents the Hydraulic Gas Pump as a new alternative dewatering system for CBM wells. The Hydraulic Gas Pump (HGP) concept offers several operational advantages for CBM wells. Gas interference does not affect its operation. It resists solids damage by eliminating the lift mechanism and reducing the number of moving parts. The HGP has a flexible production rate and is suitable for all production phases of CBM wells. It can also be designed as a wireline retrievable system. We conclude that the Hydraulic Gas Pump is a suitable dewatering system for coalbed methane wells.

  18. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  19. Integrated real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engi, D

    1983-01-01

    The use of an integrated, real-time fracture-diagnostics instrumentation system for the control of the fracturing treatment during massive hydraulic fracturing is proposed. The proposed system consists of four subsystems: an internal-fracture-pressure measurement system, a fluid-flow measurement system, a borehole seismic system, and a surface-electric-potential measurement system. This use of borehole seismic and surface-electric-potential measurements, which are essentially away-from-the-wellbore measurements, in conjunction with the use of the more commonly used types of measurements, i.e., at-the-wellbore pressure and fluid-flow measurements, is a distinctive feature of the composite real-time diagnostics system. Currently, the real-time capabilities of the individual subsystems are being developed, and the problems associated with their integration into a complete, computer-linked instrumentation system are being addressed. 2 figures.

  20. Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2009-10-01

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation/dissolution, as well as the variation in fracture aperture and pressure. Also, a three-dimensional model of injection/extraction has been developed to consider the impact poro- and thermoelastic stresses on fracture slip and injection pressure. These investigations shed light on the processes involved in the observed phenomenon of injection pressure variation (e.g., in Coso), and allow the assessment of the potential of thermal and chemical stimulation strategies.

  1. Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuderman, J F

    1981-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

  2. Method for use of hydraulically or electrically controlled solenoids under failed on conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolenbaugh, Jonathan M.; Naqi, Syed

    2014-07-08

    A method to operate a clutch device in an electro-mechanical transmission mechanically-operatively coupled to an internal combustion engine and at least one electric machine includes, in response to a failure condition detected within a flow control device configured to facilitate flow of hydraulic fluid for operating the clutch device, selectively preventing the flow of hydraulic fluid from entering the flow control device and feeding the clutch device. Synchronization of the clutch device is initiated when the clutch device is intended for activation, and only if the clutch device is synchronized, the flow of hydraulic fluid is selectively permitted to enter the flow control device to activate the clutch device.

  3. Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, Randall S.

    2000-09-20

    This research project has three objectives. The first objective is to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas. The second objective is to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems. The third objective is to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs. This research project consists of three tasks, each of which addresses one of the above objectives. This work is directed at both injection wells and production wells and at vertical, horizontal, and highly deviated wells.

  4. Fracturing And Liquid CONvection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-02-29

    FALCON has been developed to enable simulation of the tightly coupled fluid-rock behavior in hydrothermal and engineered geothermal system (EGS) reservoirs, targeting the dynamics of fracture stimulation, fluid flow, rock deformation, and heat transport in a single integrated code, with the ultimate goal of providing a tool that can be used to test the viability of EGS in the United States and worldwide. Reliable reservoir performance predictions of EGS systems require accurate and robust modelingmore » for the coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical processes. Conventionally, these types of problems are solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulator with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. FALCON eliminates the need for using operator-splitting methods to simulate these systems, and the scalability of the underlying MOOSE architecture allows for simulating these tightly coupled processes at the reservoir scale, allowing for examination of the system as a whole (something the operator-splitting methodologies generally cannot do).« less

  5. Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf

    2009-12-31

    Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown pressures are smaller than the capillary forces in the formation. For this field, the minimum CO{sub 2} gas quality (volume % of gas) recommended is 30% for moderate differences between fracture and reservoir pressures (2900 psi reservoir, 5300 psi fracture). The minimum quality is reduced to 20% when the difference between pressures is larger, resulting in additional gas expansion in the invaded zone. Inlet fluid temperature, flow rate, and base viscosity did not have a large impact on fracture production. Finally, every stage of the fracturing treatment should be energized with a gas component to ensure high gas saturation in the invaded zone. A second, more general, sensitivity study was conducted. Simulations show that CO{sub 2} outperforms N{sub 2} as a fluid component because it has higher solubility in water at fracturing temperatures and pressures. In fact, all gas components with higher solubility in water will increase the fluid's ability to reduce damage in the invaded zone. Adding methanol to the fracturing solution can increase the solubility of CO{sub 2}. N{sub 2} should only be used if the gas leaks-off either during the creation of the fracture or during closure, resulting in gas going into the invaded zone. Experimental data is needed to determine if the gas phase leaks-off during the creation of the fracture. Simulations show that the bubbles in a fluid traveling across the face of a porous medium are not likely to attach to the surface of the rock, the filter cake, or penetrate far into the porous medium. In summary, this research has created the first compositional fracturing simulator, a useful tool to aid in energized fracture design. We have made several important and original conclusions about the best practices when using energized fluids in tight gas sands. The models and tools presented here may be used in the future to predict behavior of any multi-phase or multi-component fracturing fluid system.

  6. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2003-06-03

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based system. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  7. Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.; Arnold, Don W.; Hencken, Kenneth R.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

  8. Hydraulic Institute Mission and Vision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HydraulicInstitute.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydraulic Institute Member Benefits Brochure HI Standards Subscription Options Brochure Hydraulic Institute Standards Overview...

  9. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the Bandelier Tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, D.B.; Gallaher, B.M.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the physical and, unsaturated hydraulic properties of the Bandelier Tuff determined from laboratory measurements made on core samples collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We fit new van Genuchten-type moisture retention curves to this data, which was categorized according to member of the Bandelier Tuff and subunit of the Tshirege Member. Reasonable consistency was observed for hydraulic properties and retention curves within lithologic units, while distinct differences were observed for those properties between units. With the moisture retention data, we constructed vertical profiles of in situ matric suction and hydraulic head. These profiles give an indication of the likely direction of liquid water movement within the unsaturated zone and allow comparison of core-scale and field-scale estimates of water flow and solute transport parameters. Our core-derived transport velocities are much smaller than values estimated from tritium, Cl, and NO{sub 3} contamination found recently in boreholes. The contaminant tracer-derived transport velocities from Los Alamos Canyon are greater than corederived values found for the Otowi Member, and for Mortandad Canyon, greater than core-derived values for that borehole. The significant difference found for Mortandad Canyon suggests that fracture or other fast-path transport may be important there. The relatively small difference between observed and predicted velocities at Los Alamos Canyon may mean that vadose zone transport there occurs by unsaturated matrix flow.

  10. Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

  11. Review of computational thermal-hydraulic modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keefer, R.H.; Keeton, L.W.

    1995-12-31

    Corrosion of heat transfer tubing in nuclear steam generators has been a persistent problem in the power generation industry, assuming many different forms over the years depending on chemistry and operating conditions. Whatever the corrosion mechanism, a fundamental understanding of the process is essential to establish effective management strategies. To gain this fundamental understanding requires an integrated investigative approach that merges technology from many diverse scientific disciplines. An important aspect of an integrated approach is characterization of the corrosive environment at high temperature. This begins with a thorough understanding of local thermal-hydraulic conditions, since they affect deposit formation, chemical concentration, and ultimately corrosion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can and should play an important role in characterizing the thermal-hydraulic environment and in predicting the consequences of that environment,. The evolution of CFD technology now allows accurate calculation of steam generator thermal-hydraulic conditions and the resulting sludge deposit profiles. Similar calculations are also possible for model boilers, so that tests can be designed to be prototypic of the heat exchanger environment they are supposed to simulate. This paper illustrates the utility of CFD technology by way of examples in each of these two areas. This technology can be further extended to produce more detailed local calculations of the chemical environment in support plate crevices, beneath thick deposits on tubes, and deep in tubesheet sludge piles. Knowledge of this local chemical environment will provide the foundation for development of mechanistic corrosion models, which can be used to optimize inspection and cleaning schedules and focus the search for a viable fix.

  12. Fractured rock aquifer tests in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.

    1997-10-01

    A series of multi-zone pumping tests was conducted in a contaminated fractured rock aquifer in the Western Siberian Basin, Ozyorsk, Russia. The tests were conducted adjacent to the Mishelyak River floodplain in fractured Paleozoic porphyrites, tufts, tuff breccia, and lava typical of the Ural mountain complex. Geophysical logs, borehole photography, core samples, and results from previous borehole contamination studies were used to identify the zones to be tested. A network of three uncased wells was tested using a system of inflatable packers, pressure transducers and data loggers. Seven zones were isolated and monitored in two of the uncased wells. A straddle packer assembly was used to isolate individual zones within the pumping well. Eight constant rate pumping tests were conducted. Results of the testing indicate that shallow groundwater migrates primarily in two intervals that are separated by an interval with low lateral conductivity. The water bearing intervals have moderate to high specific capacities (1.3 and 30 L/min/m). Several processes are responsible for fracturing present in the lower interval. The network of compound fractures produced a complex array of fracture intersections yielding a fractured media with hydraulic behavior similar to porous media. Models used for the analysis of pumping tests in porous media provide a good estimation of the hydraulic response of the lower interval to pumping. Future work will include more complex analysis of the data to determine hydraulic conductivity ellipses.

  13. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of a downhole wireline tool to characterize fractures in EGS wells in temperatures up to 300°C and depths up to 10; 000 m.

  14. Fracture detection logging tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benzing, William M.

    1992-06-09

    A method and apparatus by which fractured rock formations are identified and their orientation may be determined includes two orthogonal motion sensors which are used in conjunction with a downhole orbital vibrator. The downhole vibrator includes a device for orienting the sensors. The output of the sensors is displayed as a lissajou figure. The shape of the figure changes when a subsurface fracture is encountered in the borehole. The apparatus and method identifies fractures rock formations and enables the azimuthal orientation of the fractures to be determined.

  15. Induced fractures: well stimulation through fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanold, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Seven fracture stimulation treatments were planned and executed under the Department of Energy-funded Geothermal Well Stimulation Program. The objective of this program is to demonstrate that geothermal well stimulation offers a technical alternative to additional well drilling and redrilling for productivity enhancement which can substantially reduce development costs. Well stimulation treatments have been performed at Raft River, Idaho; East Mesa, California; The Geysers, California; and the Baca Project Area in New Mexico. Six of the seven stimulation experiments were technically successful in stimulating the wells. The two fracture treatments in East Mesa more than doubled the production rate of the previously marginal producer. The two fracture treatments at Raft River and the two at Baca were all successful in obtaining significant production from previously nonproductive intervals. The acid etching treatment in the well at the Geysers did not have any material effect on production rate.

  16. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  17. computational-hydraulics-for-transportation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation Workshop Sept. 23-24, 2009 Argonne TRACC Dr. Steven Lottes This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Announcement pdficon small The Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center at Argonne National Laboratory will hold a workshop on the use of computational hydraulics for transportation applications. The goals of the workshop are: Bring together people who are using or would benefit from the use of high performance cluster

  18. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    2015-02-22

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  19. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  20. Pipe squeezing tools; Lightweight hydraulic units provide quick shutoff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    A line of hydraulic pipe squeezers for steel and plastic pipelines are presented. They provide gas utilities and gathering pipeline operators with a simple, effective method to cut off the flow during maintenance and emergency operations. The line includes models for steel pipe from 3/4 to 8-in. and plastic pipe from 2- to 12-in. Light enough to be carried and operated by one man, the squeezer can effectively shut off 99% to 100% of the flow through the pipe. Applications of the pipe squeezers are discussed.

  1. Natural and Induced Fracture Diagnostics from 4-D VSP Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark E. Willis; Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2008-09-30

    Tight gas sand reservoirs generally contain thick gas-charged intervals that often have low porosity and very low permeability. Natural and induced fractures provide the only means of production. The objective of this work is to locate and characterize natural and induced fractures from analysis of scattered waves recorded on 4-D (time lapse) VSP data in order to optimize well placement and well spacing in these gas reservoirs. Using model data simulating the scattering of seismic energy from hydraulic fractures, we first show that it is possible to characterize the quality of fracturing based upon the amount of scattering. In addition, the picked arrival times of recorded microseismic events provide the velocity moveout for isolating the scattered energy on the 4-D VSP data. This concept is applied to a field dataset from the Jonah Field in Wyoming to characterize the quality of the induced hydraulic fractures. The time lapse (4D) VSP data from this field are imaged using a migration algorithm that utilizes shot travel time tables derived from the first breaks of the 3D VSPs and receiver travel time tables based on the microseismic arrival times and a regional velocity model. Four azimuthally varying shot tables are derived from picks of the first breaks of over 200 VSP records. We create images of the fracture planes through two of the hydraulically fractured wells in the field. The scattered energy shows correlation with the locations of the microseismic events. In addition, the azimuthal scattering is different from the azimuthal reflectivity of the reservoir, giving us more confidence that we have separated the scattered signal from simple formation reflectivity. Variation of the scattered energy along the image planes suggests variability in the quality of the fractures in three distinct zones.

  2. Fracture mechanics: 26. volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, W.G.; Underwood, J.H.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The original objective of these symposia was to promote technical interchange between researchers from the US and worldwide in the field of fracture. This objective was recently expanded to promote technical interchange between researchers in the field of fatigue and fracture. The symposium began with the Swedlow Memorial Lecture entitled ``Patterns and Perspectives in Applied Fracture Mechanics.`` The remaining 42 papers are divided into the following topical sections: Constraint crack initiation; Constraint crack growth; Weldments; Engineered materials; Subcritical crack growth; Dynamic loading; and Applications. Papers within the scope of the Energy Data Base have been processed separately.

  3. Engine including hydraulically actuated valvetrain and method of valve overlap control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowgill, Joel

    2012-05-08

    An exhaust valve control method may include displacing an exhaust valve in communication with the combustion chamber of an engine to an open position using a hydraulic exhaust valve actuation system and returning the exhaust valve to a closed position using the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly. During closing, the exhaust valve may be displaced for a first duration from the open position to an intermediate closing position at a first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a first mode. The exhaust valve may be displaced for a second duration greater than the first duration from the intermediate closing position to a fully closed position at a second velocity at least eighty percent less than the first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a second mode.

  4. Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Seismicity and Reservoir Fracture Characterization.

  5. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkataperumal, Rama R.; Mericle, Gerald E.

    1981-06-02

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle, with the braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  6. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  7. advanced-hydraulic-and-areodynamic-analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Hydraulic and Aerodynamic Analysis Using CFD March 27-28, 2013 Argonne, Illinois And Remote Locations Dr. Steve Lottes Announcement pdficon small This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Free 2 Day Training Course in Advanced Hydraulic and Aerodynamic Analysis Using CFD March 27-28 (Wednesday-Thursday) Learn and practice using STAR-CCM+ CFD software Tutorial based with a variety of hydraulic and aerodynamic problems Instructors guide

  8. Method for selectively orienting induced fractures in subterranean earth formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-02-01

    The orientation of hydraulically-induced fractures in relatively deep subterranean earth formations is normally confined to vertical projections along a plane parallel to the maximum naturally occurring (tectonic) compressive stress field. It was found that this plane of maximum compressive stress may be negated and, in effect, re-oriented in a plane projecting generally orthogonal to the original tectonic stress plane by injecting liquid at a sufficiently high pressure into a wellbore fracture oriented in a plane parallel to the plane of tectonic stress for the purpose of stressing the surrounding earth formation in a plane generally orthogonal to the plane of tectonic stress. With the plane of maximum compressive stress re-oriented due to the presence of the induced compressive stress, liquid under pressure is injected into a second wellbore disposed within the zone influenced by the induced compressive stress but at a location in the earth formation laterally spaced from the fracture in the first wellbore for effecting a fracture in the second wellbore along a plane generally orthogonal to the fracture in the first wellbore.

  9. A New Parameter to Assess Hydromechanical Effect in Single-hole Hydraulic Testing and Grouting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Fransson, A.; Tsang, C.-F.; Rutqvist, J.; Gustafson, G.

    2007-09-01

    Grouting or filling of the open voids in fractured rock is done by introducing a fluid, a grout, through boreholes under pressure. The grout may be either a Newtonian fluid or a Bingham fluid. The penetration of the grout and the resulting pressure profile may give rise to hydromechanical effects, which depends on factors such as the fracture aperture, pressure at the borehole and the rheological properties of the grout. In this paper, we postulate that a new parameter, {angstrom}, which is the integral of the fluid pressure change in the fracture plane, is an appropriate measure to describe the change in fracture aperture volume due to a change in effective stress. In many cases, analytic expressions are available to calculate pressure profiles for relevant input data and the {angstrom} parameter. The approach is verified against a fully coupled hydromechanical simulator for the case of a Newtonian fluid. Results of the verification exercise show that the new approach is reasonable and that the {angstrom}-parameter is a good measure for the fracture volume change: i.e., the larger the {angstrom}-parameter, the larger the fracture volume change, in an almost linear fashion. To demonstrate the application of the approach, short duration hydraulic tests and constant pressure grouting are studied. Concluded is that using analytic expressions for penetration lengths and pressure profiles to calculate the {angstrom} parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss and weigh the impact of hydromechanical couplings for different alternatives. Further, the analyses identify an effect of high-pressure grouting, where uncontrolled grouting of larger fractures and insufficient (or less-than-expected) sealing of finer fractures is a potential result.

  10. Wave-operated power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghesquiere, H.

    1980-08-12

    This wave-operated power plant comprises a perforated caisson breakwater in which propellers, or turbines, are mounted in the perforations or openings and drives hydraulic pumps connected thereto, which in turn drives a hydraulic motor coupled to an electric generator. One-way flap valves are mounted in the openings. Some of said flap valves allow the rushing waves to enter the caisson, while the other flap valves allow the water to flow out of the caisson.

  11. Hydraulic tests of emergency cooling system: L-Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, J H

    1988-01-01

    The delay in L-Area startup provided an opportunity to obtain valuable data on the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) which will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level. ECS flow is a major input to the FLOOD code which calculates reactor ECS power limits. The FLOOD code assesses the effectiveness of the ECS cooling capacity by modeling the core and plenum hydraulics under accident conditions. Presently, reactor power is not limited by the ECS cooling capacity (power limit). However, the manual calculations of ECS flows had been recently updated to include piping changes (debris strainer, valve changes, pressure release systems) and update fitting losses. Both updates resulted in reduced calculated ECS flows. Upon completion of the current program to update, validate, and document, reactor power may be limited under certain situations by ECS cooling capacity for some present reactor charge designs. A series of special hydraulic tests (Reference 1, 3) were conducted in L-Area using all sources of emergency coolant including the ECS pumps (Reference 2). The tests provided empirical hydraulic data on the ECS piping. These data will be used in computer models of the system as well as manual calculations of ECS flows. The improved modeling and accuracy of the flow calculations will permit reactor operation at the highest safe power level with respect to an ECS power limit.

  12. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids PDF icon Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: ...

  13. Technical Review of the UNET2D Hydraulic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-05-18

    The Kansas City District of the US Army Corps of Engineers is engaged in a broad range of river management projects that require knowledge of spatially-varied hydraulic conditions such as velocities and water surface elevations. This information is needed to design new structures, improve existing operations, and assess aquatic habitat. Two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged numerical hydraulic models are a common tool that can be used to provide velocity and depth information. Kansas City District is currently using a speci?c 2D model, UNET2D, that has been developed to meet the needs of their river engineering applications. This report documents a tech- nical review of UNET2D.

  14. Hydraulic impulse generator and frequency sweep mechanism for borehole applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolle, Jack J.; Marvin, Mark H.; Theimer, Kenneth J.

    2006-11-21

    This invention discloses a valve that generates a hydraulic negative pressure pulse and a frequency modulator for the creation of a powerful, broadband swept impulse seismic signal at the drill bit during drilling operations. The signal can be received at monitoring points on the surface or underground locations using geophones. The time required for the seismic signal to travel from the source to the receiver directly and via reflections is used to calculate seismic velocity and other formation properties near the source and between the source and receiver. This information can be used for vertical seismic profiling of formations drilled, to check the location of the bit, or to detect the presence of abnormal pore pressure ahead of the bit. The hydraulic negative pressure pulse can also be used to enhance drilling and production of wells.

  15. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrie, Robert B

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  16. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2007-12-15

    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  17. DEM Particle Fracture Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Boning; Herbold, Eric B.; Homel, Michael A.; Regueiro, Richard A.

    2015-12-01

    An adaptive particle fracture model in poly-ellipsoidal Discrete Element Method is developed. The poly-ellipsoidal particle will break into several sub-poly-ellipsoids by Hoek-Brown fracture criterion based on continuum stress and the maximum tensile stress in contacts. Also Weibull theory is introduced to consider the statistics and size effects on particle strength. Finally, high strain-rate split Hopkinson pressure bar experiment of silica sand is simulated using this newly developed model. Comparisons with experiments show that our particle fracture model can capture the mechanical behavior of this experiment very well, both in stress-strain response and particle size redistribution. The effects of density and packings o the samples are also studied in numerical examples.

  18. Langao County Huiyu Hydraulic Power Generation Co Ltd | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huiyu Hydraulic Power Generation Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Langao County Huiyu Hydraulic Power Generation Co. Ltd. Place: Ankang City, Shaanxi Province, China Zip:...

  19. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Hydraulic ...

  20. Hydraulic Institute Mission and Vision | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon BVision&MissionofHydraulicInstitute.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydraulic Institute Member Benefits Brochure HI Standards Subscription Options Brochure ...

  1. Systems and methods for locating and imaging proppant in an induced fracture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldridge, David F.; Bartel, Lewis C.

    2016-02-02

    Born Scattering Inversion (BSI) systems and methods are disclosed. A BSI system may be incorporated in a well system for accessing natural gas, oil and geothermal reserves in a geologic formation beneath the surface of the Earth. The BSI system may be used to generate a three-dimensional image of a proppant-filled hydraulically-induced fracture in the geologic formation. The BSI system may include computing equipment and sensors for measuring electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of the fracture before and after the fracture is generated, adjusting the parameters of a first Born approximation model of a scattered component of the surface electromagnetic fields using the measured electromagnetic fields, and generating the image of the proppant-filled fracture using the adjusted parameters.

  2. Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Seismic Fracture Characterization Methods for ...

  3. Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization; ...

  4. X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegrist, R.L.; Lowe, K.S.; Murdoch, L.D.; Slack, W.W.; Houk, T.C.

    1998-03-01

    The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

  5. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  6. Injection through fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johns, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    Tracer tests are conducted in geothermal reservoirs as an aid in forecasting thermal breakthrough of reinjection water. To interpret tracer tests, mathematical models have been developed based on the various transport mechanisms in these highly fractured reservoirs. These tracer flow models have been applied to interpret field tests. The resulting matches between the model and field data were excellent and the model parameters were used to estimate reservoir properties. However, model fitting is an indirect process and the model's ability to estimate reservoir properties cannot be judged solely on the quality of the match between field data and model predictions. The model's accuracy in determining reservoir characteristics must be independently verified in a closely controlled environment. In this study, the closely controlled laboratory environment was chosen to test the validity and accuracy of tracer flow models developed specifically for flow in fractured rocks. The laboratory tracer tests were performed by flowing potassium iodide (KI) through artificially fractured core samples. The tracer test results were then analyzed with several models to determine which best fit the measured data. A Matrix Diffusion model was found to provide the best match of the tracer experiments. The core properties, as estimated by the Matrix Diffusion model parameters generated from the indirect matching process, were then determined. These calculated core parameters were compared to the measured core properties and were found to be in agreement. This verifies the use of the Matrix Diffusion flow model in estimating fracture widths from tracer tests.

  7. Steady state method to determine unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at the ambient water potential

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    HUbbell, Joel M.

    2014-08-19

    The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision. The present invention relates to a new laboratory apparatus for measuring the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at a single water potential. One or more embodiments of the invented apparatus can be used over a wide range of water potential values within the tensiometric range, requires minimal laboratory preparation, and operates unattended for extended periods with minimal supervision.

  8. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  9. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, Raymond; Howland, James; Venkiteswaran, Prasad

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  10. Brochure Hydraulic Institute Standards Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    If you specify, select, design, test, install or operate pumps or pumping systems, you will find ANSI/HI Pump Standards to be invaluable tools. 

  11. Thermal Hydraulic Simulations, Error Estimation and Parameter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Hydraulic Simulations, Error Estimation and Parameter Sensitivity Studies in Drekar::CFD Thomas M. Smith, John N. Shadid, Roger P. Pawlowski, Eric C. Cyr and Timothy M. Wildey Sandia National Laboratories September, 2013 CASL-U-2013-0203-001 SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-XXXX Unlimited Release Printed September 2013 Thermal Hydraulic Simulations, Error Estimation and Parameter Sensitivity Studies in Drekar::CFD Thomas M. Smith, John N. Shadid, Roger P. Pawlowski, Eric C. Cyr and Timothy M.

  12. Hydraulic Institute Member Benefits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Member Benefits Hydraulic Institute Member Benefits As the developer of the universally acclaimed ANSI/HI Pump Standards, a key reference for pump knowledge and end-user specifications, the Hydraulic nstitute (HI) provides its members with timely and essential resources for the advancement of their pump industry businesses. PDF icon E_Membership_Benefits_Overview_HI_&_PSM.pdf More Documents & Publications Summary of 2011 Accomplishments HI & PSM Course Overview Pump Systems Matter

  13. Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, M.M.

    1984-02-21

    A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible. 2 figs.

  14. Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, Michael M.

    1984-02-21

    A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible.

  15. Modeling Reactor Coolant Systems Thermal-Hydraulic Transients

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-10-05

    RELAP5/MOD3.2* is used to model reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transients without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal-hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to allow modeling of themore » plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems.« less

  16. Reservoir fracture mapping using microearthquakes: Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and 76 field, Clinton Co., KY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, W.S.; Rutledge, J.T.; Gardner, T.L.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Miller, M.E.; Schuessler, B.K.

    1996-11-01

    Patterns of microearthquakes detected downhole defined fracture orientation and extent in the Austin chalk, Giddings field, TX and the 76 field, Clinton Co., KY. We collected over 480 and 770 microearthquakes during hydraulic stimulation at two sites in the Austin chalk, and over 3200 during primary production in Clinton Co. Data were of high enough quality that 20%, 31% and 53% of the events could be located, respectively. Reflected waves constrained microearthquakes to the stimulated depths at the base of the Austin chalk. In plan view, microearthquakes defined elongate fracture zones extending from the stimulation wells parallel to the regional fracture trend. However, widths of the stimulated zones differed by a factor of five between the two Austin chalk sites, indicating a large difference in the population of ancillary fractures. Post-stimulation production was much higher from the wider zone. At Clinton Co., microearthquakes defined low-angle, reverse-fault fracture zones above and below a producing zone. Associations with depleted production intervals indicated the mapped fractures had been previously drained. Drilling showed that the fractures currently contain brine. The seismic behavior was consistent with poroelastic models that predicted slight increases in compressive stress above and below the drained volume.

  17. Phase Field Fracture Mechanics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, Brett Anthony

    2015-11-01

    For this assignment, a newer technique of fracture mechanics using a phase field approach, will be examined and compared with experimental data for a bend test and a tension test. The software being used is Sierra Solid Mechanics, an implicit/explicit finite element code developed at Sandia National Labs in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The bend test experimental data was also obtained at Sandia Labs while the tension test data was found in a report online from Purdue University.

  18. Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reactive Barrier | Department of Energy Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier PDF icon Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier More Documents & Publications Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello

  19. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrid Pressed into Service in

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Refuse Collection Hydraulic Hybrid Pressed into Service in Refuse Collection to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrid Pressed into Service in Refuse Collection on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrid Pressed into Service in Refuse Collection on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrid Pressed into Service in Refuse Collection on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrid Pressed

  20. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for energy conservation. In mobile hydraulic systems, efficiency gains through low friction would translate into improved fuel economy and fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Stationary hydraulic systems, accordingly, would consume less electrical power. Reduced tooling wear in machining operations would translate to greater operating yields, while lowering the energy consumed during processing. The AlMgB14 nanocoatings technology progressed beyond baseline laboratory tests into measurable energy savings and enhancements to product durability. Three key hydraulic markets were identified over the course of the project that will benefit from implementation: industrial vane pumps, orbiting valve-in-star hydraulic motors, and variable displacement piston pumps. In the vane pump application, the overall product efficiency was improved by as much as 11%. Similar results were observed with the hydraulic motors tested, where efficiency gains of over 10% were noted. For variable displacement piston pumps, overall efficiency was improved by 5%. For cutting tools, the most significant gains in productivity (and, accordingly, the efficiency of the machining process as a whole) were associated with the roughing and finishing of titanium components for aerospace systems. Use of the AlMgB14 nanocoating in customer field tests has shown that the coated tools were able to withstand machining rates as high as 500sfm (limited only by the substrate material), with relatively low flank wear when compared to other industrial offerings. AlMgB14 coated tools exhibited a 60% improvement over similarly applied TiAlN thin films. Furthermore, AlMgB14-based coatings in these particular tests lasted twice as long than their TiAlN counterparts at the 500sfm feed rates. Full implementation of the technology into the industrial hydraulic and cutting tool markets equates to a worldwide energy savings of 46 trillion BTU/year by 2030. U.S.-based GHG emissions associated with the markets identified would fall accordingly, dropping by as much as 50,000 tonnes annually.

  1. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williford, Ralph E.

    1989-01-01

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  2. Toward a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity in climate models: Simulation of rapid groundwater fluctuations in Northern California: HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY IN CLIMATE MODELS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Fung, Inez Y.

    2015-12-01

    Preferential flow through weathered bedrock leads to rapid rise of the water table after the first rainstorms and significant water storage (also known as ‘‘rock moisture’’) in the fractures. We present a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity that captures the preferential flow and is easy to implement in global climate models. To mimic the naturally varying heterogeneity with depth in the subsurface, the model represents the hydraulic conductivity as a product of the effective saturation and a background hydraulic conductivity Kbkg, drawn from a lognormal distribution. The mean of the background Kbkg decreases monotonically with depth, while its variance reducesmore » with the effective saturation. Model parameters are derived by assimilating into Richards’ equation 6 years of 30 min observations of precipitation (mm) and water table depths (m), from seven wells along a steep hillslope in the Eel River watershed in Northern California. The results show that the observed rapid penetration of precipitation and the fast rise of the water table from the well locations, after the first winter rains, are well captured with the new stochastic approach in contrast to the standard van Genuchten model of hydraulic conductivity, which requires significantly higher levels of saturated soils to produce the same results. ‘‘Rock moisture,’’ the moisture between the soil mantle and the water table, comprises 30% of the moisture because of the great depth of the weathered bedrock layer and could be a potential source of moisture to sustain trees through extended dry periods. Furthermore, storage of moisture in the soil mantle is smaller, implying less surface runoff and less evaporation, with the proposed new model.« less

  3. Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture SNL has 40+ years ...

  4. Modeling Single Well Injection-Withdrawal (SWIW) Tests for Characterization of Complex Fracture-Matrix Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotte, F.P.; Doughty, C.; Birkholzer, J.

    2010-11-01

    The ability to reliably predict flow and transport in fractured porous rock is an essential condition for performance evaluation of geologic (underground) nuclear waste repositories. In this report, a suite of programs (TRIPOLY code) for calculating and analyzing flow and transport in two-dimensional fracture-matrix systems is used to model single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests. The SWIW test, a tracer test using one well, is proposed as a useful means of collecting data for site characterization, as well as estimating parameters relevant to tracer diffusion and sorption. After some specific code adaptations, we numerically generated a complex fracture-matrix system for computation of steady-state flow and tracer advection and dispersion in the fracture network, along with solute exchange processes between the fractures and the porous matrix. We then conducted simulations for a hypothetical but workable SWIW test design and completed parameter sensitivity studies on three physical parameters of the rock matrix - namely porosity, diffusion coefficient, and retardation coefficient - in order to investigate their impact on the fracture-matrix solute exchange process. Hydraulic fracturing, or hydrofracking, is also modeled in this study, in two different ways: (1) by increasing the hydraulic aperture for flow in existing fractures and (2) by adding a new set of fractures to the field. The results of all these different tests are analyzed by studying the population of matrix blocks, the tracer spatial distribution, and the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained, while performing mass-balance checks and being careful to avoid some numerical mistakes that could occur. This study clearly demonstrates the importance of matrix effects in the solute transport process, with the sensitivity studies illustrating the increased importance of the matrix in providing a retardation mechanism for radionuclides as matrix porosity, diffusion coefficient, or retardation coefficient increase. Interestingly, model results before and after hydrofracking are insensitive to adding more fractures, while slightly more sensitive to aperture increase, making SWIW tests a possible means of discriminating between these two potential hydrofracking effects. Finally, we investigate the possibility of inferring relevant information regarding the fracture-matrix system physical parameters from the BTCs obtained during SWIW testing.

  5. The Integration of an Electro-hydraulic Manipulator Arm into a Self-contained Mobile Delivery System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borland, Mark Wilson; Berry, Stephen Michael

    1999-04-01

    The Portable Articulated Arm Deployment System (PAADS) is a remotely controlled vehicle for delivering a tele-operated electro-hydraulic manipulator arm to a field deployable location. The self-contained system includes a boom vehicle with long reach capability, an electro-hydraulic manipulator arm, closed circuit television (CCTV) systems, and onboard tools. On board power systems consist of a self contained, propane fired 8 KW generator and an air compressor for pneumatic tools. The generator provides the power to run the air compressor as well as provide power to operate the 110 VAC auxiliary lighting system for the video cameras. The separate control console can be located up to 500 ft from the vehicle. PAADS is a fully integrated system, containing all equipment required to perform complex field operations. Hydraulic integration of the manipulator arm into the vehicle hydraulic drive system was necessary to eliminate the tether management of hoses, which extended vehicle operating range, minimized hydraulic pressure losses, and provided the opportunity to go to a radio frequency (RF) control system in the future, thereby eliminating the control cable. This paper presents the key decision points during system development. Emphasis is placed on ease of operator control and not on an intelligent machine approach. In addition, emphasis is placed on the philosophy of remote operation based on sound principles on integration.

  6. The Integration of an Electro-Hydraulic Manipulator Arm into a Self-Contained Mobile Delivery System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Borland; S. M. Berry

    1999-04-01

    The Portable Articulated Arm Deployment System (PAADS) is a remotely controlled vehicle for delivering a tele-operated electro-hydraulic manipulator arm to a field-deployable location. The self-contained system includes a boom vehicle with long reach capability, an electro-hydraulic manipulator arm, closed circuit television (CCTV) systems, and onboard tools. On board power systems consist of a self-contained, propane-fired 8-KW generator and an air compressor for pneumatic tools. The generator provides the power to run the air compressor as well as power to operate the 110-VAC auxiliary lighting system for the video cameras. The separate control console can be located up to 500 ft from the vehicle. PAADS is a fully integrated system, containing all equipment required to perform complex field operations. Hydraulic integration of the manipulator arm into the vehicle hydraulic drive system was necessary to eliminate the tether management of hoses, which extended vehicle operating range, minimized hydraulic pressure losses, and provided the opportunity to go to a radio frequency (RF) control system in the future, thereby eliminating the control cable. This paper presents the key decision points during system development. Emphasis is placed on ease of operator control and not on an intelligent machine approach. In addition, emphasis is placed on the philosophy of remote operation based on sound principles of integration.

  7. FFTF thermal-hydraulic testing results affecting piping and vessel component design in LMFBR's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stover, R.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Chang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility completed four years of pre-operational testing in April 1982. This paper describes thermal-hydraulic testing results from this period which impact piping and vessel component design in LMFBRs. Data discussed are piping flow oscillations, piping thermal stratification and vessel upper plenum stratification. Results from testing verified that plant design limits were met.

  8. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

  9. Hydraulic servo control spool valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Donald M.

    1983-01-01

    A servo operated spool valve having a fixed sleeve and axially movable spool. The sleeve is machined in two halves to form a long, narrow tapered orifice slot across which a transverse wall of the spool is positioned. The axial position of the spool wall along the slot regulates the open orifice area with extreme precision.

  10. Operation Schedule

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operation Schedule Daily Hours of Operation

  11. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. The HHVs under study - Autocar E3 refuse trucks equipped with Parker Hannifin's RunWise Advanced Series Hybrid Drive systems - can recover as much as 70 percent of the energy typically lost during braking and reuse it to power the vehicle. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs.

  12. INL Experimental Program Roadmap for Thermal Hydraulic Code Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn McCreery; Hugh McIlroy

    2007-09-01

    Advanced computer modeling and simulation tools and protocols will be heavily relied on for a wide variety of system studies, engineering design activities, and other aspects of the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), and light-water reactors. The goal is for all modeling and simulation tools to be demonstrated accurate and reliable through a formal Verification and Validation (V&V) process, especially where such tools are to be used to establish safety margins and support regulatory compliance, or to design a system in a manner that reduces the role of expensive mockups and prototypes. Recent literature identifies specific experimental principles that must be followed in order to insure that experimental data meet the standards required for a “benchmark” database. Even for well conducted experiments, missing experimental details, such as geometrical definition, data reduction procedures, and manufacturing tolerances have led to poor Benchmark calculations. The INL has a long and deep history of research in thermal hydraulics, especially in the 1960s through 1980s when many programs such as LOFT and Semiscle were devoted to light-water reactor safety research, the EBRII fast reactor was in operation, and a strong geothermal energy program was established. The past can serve as a partial guide for reinvigorating thermal hydraulic research at the laboratory. However, new research programs need to fully incorporate modern experimental methods such as measurement techniques using the latest instrumentation, computerized data reduction, and scaling methodology. The path forward for establishing experimental research for code model validation will require benchmark experiments conducted in suitable facilities located at the INL. This document describes thermal hydraulic facility requirements and candidate buildings and presents examples of suitable validation experiments related to VHTRs, sodium-cooled fast reactors, and light-water reactors. These experiments range from relatively low-cost benchtop experiments for investigating individual phenomena to large electrically-heated integral facilities for investigating reactor accidents and transients.

  13. Characterization of Fractures in Geothermal Reservoirs Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract The optimal design of production in fractured geothermal reservoirs requires knowledge of the resource's connectivity, therefore making fracture characterization highly...

  14. WAC - 220-110 - Hydraulic Code Rules | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    0-110 - Hydraulic Code Rules Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: WAC - 220-110 - Hydraulic Code RulesLegal...

  15. A Self-Consistent Approach for Calculating the Effective Hydraulic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conductivity of a 3D medium with a binary distribution of local hydraulic conductivities. ... The method was applied to estimating the effective hydraulic conductivity of a 2D and 3D ...

  16. Massive Hydraulic Fracture of Fenton Hill HDR Well EE-3 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities Activities (1) Micro-Earthquake At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 2009) Areas (1) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Regions (0) Retrieved from "http:...

  17. Predicting the occurrence of mixed mode failure associated with hydraulic fracturing, part 2 water saturated tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Choens, Charles; Barrow, Perry Carl

    2015-09-14

    Seven water-saturated triaxial extension experiments were conducted on four sedimentary rocks. This experimental condition was hypothesized more representative of that existing for downhole hydrofracture and thus it may improve our understanding of the phenomena. In all tests the pore pressure was 10 MPa and confirming pressure was adjusted to achieve tensile and transitional failure mode conditions. Using previous work in this LDRD for comparison, the law of effective stress is demonstrated in extension using this sample geometry. In three of the four lithologies, no apparent chemo-mechanical effect of water is apparent, and in the fourth lithology test results indicate some chemo-mechanical effect of water.

  18. Vehicle hydraulic system that provides heat for passenger compartment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    A vehicle includes a vehicle housing which defines a passenger compartment. Attached to the vehicle housing is a hydraulic system, that includes a hydraulic fluid which flows through at least one passageway within the hydraulic system. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a passenger compartment heating system. The passenger compartment heating system includes a heat exchanger, wherein a portion of the heat exchanger is a segment of the at least one passageway of the hydraulic system.

  19. NREL: Transportation Research - Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would otherwise be lost during braking. This energy drives a pump, which transfers hydraulic fluid from a low-pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure accumulator moves to the lower-pressure reservoir, which drives a motor and provides extra torque. This process can improve the

  20. Coiled tubing isolates zones, fractures wells with single trip service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silverman, S.A.

    1999-04-01

    A system has been devised that combines high pressure coiled tubing (CT) and a selective isolation technique to frac multiple zones in a single operation. Multiple zones in one well can be individually isolated, fractured and flowed back simultaneously which results in reduced exposure to kill fluids and therefore higher retained conductivity for newly created fractures. The technique has been named CoilFRAC{trademark} by Dowell. The key benefits to the entire operation are reduced rig and operations time compared to conventional fracturing processes. Time savings, increased production, and environmental benefits are the economic drivers that result in rapid return on investment for production operators. The single trip concept for perforating and stimulation crews also brings additional benefits over multiple mobilizations. Wells which previously had only major zones perforated and stimulated and which are currently depleted can be revived economically using this system, giving the well a second life. The paper describes the equipment and its safety and contingency features, optimized shallow gas production in Alberta, and results from a South Texas oil well fracturing.

  1. Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cementbasalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-08-01

    Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50 C and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-basalt core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-basalt interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-saturated groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of basalt caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-basalt interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.

  2. Power-efficient hydraulic systems. Volume 2. Hardware demonstration phase. Final report, October 1985-July 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupp, R.V.; Haning, R.K.

    1988-07-01

    Energy-saving concepts for aircraft hydraulic systems were studied in a two-phase program. Task I was an investigation of methods and techniques to reduce overall hydraulic-system power requirements by lowering system demands and increasing component efficiencies. Task II involved hardware demonstration tests on selected concepts. Task I: Study phase. A baseline hydraulic system for an advanced aircraft design was established. Twenty energy-saving techniques were studied as candidates for application to the baseline vehicle. A global systems analysis approach was employed. The candidates were compared on the basis of total fuel consumption and six qualitative factors. Task II: Hardware demonstration phase. Two techniques demonstrated for energy savings were control valves with overlap and dual pressure-level systems. Tests were conducted on control valves, a servo actuator, dual pressure pumps, and a lightweight hydraulic system simulator. Valves with 0.002-in. overlap reduced system energy consumption 18% compared to using valves with zero lap. Operation at 4000 psi reduced system energy consumption 53% compared to operation at 8000 psi. Pressure-level switching was accomplished with excellent results.

  3. Hydromechanical modeling of pulse tests that measure both fluidpressure and fracture-normal displacement of the Coaraze Laboratory site,France

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappa, F.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.; Thoraval, A.

    2006-04-22

    In situ fracture mechanical deformation and fluid flowinteractions are investigated through a series of hydraulic pulseinjection tests, using specialized borehole equipment that cansimultaneously measure fluid pressure and fracture displacements. Thetests were conducted in two horizontal boreholes spaced one meter apartvertically and intersecting a near-vertical highly permeable faultlocated within a shallow fractured carbonate rock. The field data wereevaluated by conducting a series of coupled hydromechanical numericalanalyses, using both distinct-element and finite-element modelingtechniques and both two- and three-dimensional model representations thatcan incorporate various complexities in fracture network geometry. Oneunique feature of these pulse injection experiments is that the entiretest cycle, both the initial pressure increase and subsequent pressurefall-off, is carefully monitored and used for the evaluation of the insitu hydromechanical behavior. Field test data are evaluated by plottingfracture normal displacement as a function of fluid pressure, measured atthe same borehole. The resulting normal displacement-versus-pressurecurves show a characteristic loop, in which the paths for loading(pressure increase) and unloading (pressure decrease) are different. Bymatching this characteristic loop behavior, the fracture normal stiffnessand an equivalent stiffness (Young's modulus) of the surrounding rockmass can be back-calculated. Evaluation of the field tests by couplednumerical hydromechanical modeling shows that initial fracture hydraulicaperture and normal stiffness vary by a factor of 2 to 3 for the twomonitoring points within the same fracture plane. Moreover, the analysesshow that hydraulic aperture and the normal stiffness of the pulse-testedfracture, the stiffness of surrounding rock matrix, and the propertiesand geometry of the surrounding fracture network significantly affectcoupled hydromechanical responses during the pulse injection test. Morespecifically, the pressure-increase path of the normaldisplacement-versus-pressure curve is highly dependent on thehydromechanical parameters of the tested fracture and the stiffness ofthe matrix near the injection point, whereas the pressure-decrease pathis highly influenced by mechanical processes within a larger portion ofthe surrounding fractured rock.

  4. RELATIVE PERMEABILITY OF FRACTURED ROCK

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... This hinders the creation of connected fracture networks even if the rock is subjected to ... Bergosh, J.L., Lord, G.D., 1987: "New Developments in the Analysis of Cores From Naturally ...

  5. Shale gas and non-aqueous fracturing fluids: Opportunities and challenges for supercritical CO₂

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, Richard S.; Carey, James William; Currier, Robert P.; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Kang, Qinjun; Karra, Satish; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Porter, Mark L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-06-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of shale formations in the United States has led to a domestic energy boom. Currently, water is the only fracturing fluid regularly used in commercial shale oil and gas production. Industry and researchers are interested in non-aqueous working fluids due to their potential to increase production, reduce water requirements, and to minimize environmental impacts. Using a combination of new experimental and modeling data at multiple scales, we analyze the benefits and drawbacks of using CO₂ as a working fluid for shale gas production. We theorize and outline potential advantages of CO₂ including enhanced fracturing and fracture propagation, reduction of flow-blocking mechanisms, increased desorption of methane adsorbed in organic-rich parts of the shale, and a reduction or elimination of the deep re-injection of flow-back water that has been linked to induced seismicity and other environmental concerns. We also examine likely disadvantages including costs and safety issues associated with handling large volumes of supercritical CO₂. The advantages could have a significant impact over time leading to substantially increased gas production. In addition, if CO₂ proves to be an effective fracturing fluid, then shale gas formations could become a major utilization option for carbon sequestration.

  6. Hydrothermally altered and fractured granite as an HDR reservoir in the EPS-1 borehole, Alsace,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Genter, A.; Traineau, H.

    1992-01-01

    As part of the European Hot Dry Rocks Project, a second exploration borehole, EPS-1, has been cored to a depth of 2227 m at Soultz-sous-Forets (France). The target was a granite beginning at 1417 m depth, overlain by post-Paleozoic sedimentary cover. Structural analysis and petrographic examination of the 800-m porphyritic granite core, have shown that this rock has undergone several periods of hydrothermal alteration and fracturing. More than 3000 natural structures were recorded, whose distribution pattern shows clusters where low-density fracture zones (less than 1 per meter) alternate with zones of high fracture density (more than 20 per meter). Vein alteration, ascribed to paleohydrothermal systems, developed within the hydrothermally altered and highly fractured zones, transforming primary biotite and plagioclase into clay minerals. One of these zones at 2.2 km depth produced a hot-water outflow during coring, indicating the existence of a hydrothermal reservoir. Its permeability is provided by the fracture network and by secondary porosity of the granitic matrix resulting from vein alteration. This dual porosity in the HDR granite reservoir must be taken into account in the design of the heat exchanger, both for modeling the water-rock interactions and for hydraulic testing.

  7. Shale gas and non-aqueous fracturing fluids: Opportunities and challenges for supercritical CO₂

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Middleton, Richard S.; Carey, James William; Currier, Robert P.; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Kang, Qinjun; Karra, Satish; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Porter, Mark L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-06-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of shale formations in the United States has led to a domestic energy boom. Currently, water is the only fracturing fluid regularly used in commercial shale oil and gas production. Industry and researchers are interested in non-aqueous working fluids due to their potential to increase production, reduce water requirements, and to minimize environmental impacts. Using a combination of new experimental and modeling data at multiple scales, we analyze the benefits and drawbacks of using CO₂ as a working fluid for shale gas production. We theorize and outline potential advantages of CO₂ including enhanced fracturing and fracture propagation, reductionmore » of flow-blocking mechanisms, increased desorption of methane adsorbed in organic-rich parts of the shale, and a reduction or elimination of the deep re-injection of flow-back water that has been linked to induced seismicity and other environmental concerns. We also examine likely disadvantages including costs and safety issues associated with handling large volumes of supercritical CO₂. The advantages could have a significant impact over time leading to substantially increased gas production. In addition, if CO₂ proves to be an effective fracturing fluid, then shale gas formations could become a major utilization option for carbon sequestration.« less

  8. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  9. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting Fractures ...

  10. Proceedings of the OECD/CSNI workshop on transient thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebert, D.

    1997-07-01

    This is a report on the CSNI Workshop on Transient Thermal-Hydraulic and Neutronic Codes Requirements held at Annapolis, Maryland, USA November 5-8, 1996. This experts` meeting consisted of 140 participants from 21 countries; 65 invited papers were presented. The meeting was divided into five areas: (1) current and prospective plans of thermal hydraulic codes development; (2) current and anticipated uses of thermal-hydraulic codes; (3) advances in modeling of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and associated additional experimental needs; (4) numerical methods in multi-phase flows; and (5) programming language, code architectures and user interfaces. The workshop consensus identified the following important action items to be addressed by the international community in order to maintain and improve the calculational capability: (a) preserve current code expertise and institutional memory, (b) preserve the ability to use the existing investment in plant transient analysis codes, (c) maintain essential experimental capabilities, (d) develop advanced measurement capabilities to support future code validation work, (e) integrate existing analytical capabilities so as to improve performance and reduce operating costs, (f) exploit the proven advances in code architecture, numerics, graphical user interfaces, and modularization in order to improve code performance and scrutibility, and (g) more effectively utilize user experience in modifying and improving the codes.

  11. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  12. Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. O'Brien; Andrew C. Klein; William T. Taitano; Justice Gibson; Brian Myers; Steven D. Howe

    2011-02-01

    Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

  13. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Gttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  14. MHK Technologies/Tidal Hydraulic Generators THG | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description The concept of generating energy in this way is made unique by our novel design feature. The generator, devised in 1998, is a hydraulic accumulator system,...

  15. Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control Compact, electro-hydrau...

  16. Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.

    2009-03-01

    Adsorbed water films strongly influence residual water saturations and hydraulic conductivities in porous media at low saturations. Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media were investigated through combining Langmuir's film model with scaling analysis, without use of any adjustable parameters. Diffuse double layer influences are predicted to be important through the strong dependence of adsorbed water film thickness (f) on matric potential ({Psi}) and ion charge (z). Film thickness, film velocity, and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity are predicted to vary with z{sup -1}, z{sup -2}, and z{sup -3}, respectively. In monodisperse granular media, the characteristic grain size ({lambda}) controls film hydraulics through {lambda}{sup -1} scaling of (1) the perimeter length per unit cross sectional area over which films occur, (2) the critical matric potential ({Psi}{sub c}) below which films control flow, and (3) the magnitude of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity when {Psi} < {Psi}{sub c}. While it is recognized that finer textured sediments have higher unsaturated hydraulic conductivities than coarser sands at intermediate {Psi}, the {lambda}{sup -1} scaling of hydraulic conductivity predicted here extends this understanding to very low saturations where all pores are drained. Extremely low unsaturated hydraulic conductivities are predicted under adsorbed film-controlled conditions (generally < 0.1 mm y{sup -1}). On flat surfaces, the film hydraulic diffusivity is shown to be constant (invariant with respect to {Psi}).

  17. Creation of an Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Project objectives: To create an Enhanced Geothermal System on the margin of the Cosofield through the hydraulic, thermal, andor chemical stimulation of one or more tight ...

  18. Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efficiency of Engineering Scale Centrifugal Contactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale ...

  19. Hydraulically refueled battery employing a packed bed metal particle electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siu, Stanley C. (Castro Valley, CA); Evans, James W. (Piedmont, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A secondary zinc air cell, or another selected metal air cell, employing a spouted/packed metal particle bed and an air electrode. More specifically, two embodiments of a cell, one that is capable of being hydraulically recharged, and a second that is capable of being either hydraulically or electrically recharged. Additionally, each cell includes a sloped bottom portion to cause stirring of the electrolyte/metal particulate slurry when the cell is being hydraulically emptied and refilled during hydraulically recharging of the cell.

  20. Development of the helical reaction hydraulic turbine. Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    helical reaction hydraulic turbine. Final technical report, July 1, 1996--June 30, 1998 Gorlov, A. 16 TIDAL AND WAVE POWER; 17 WIND ENERGY; 13 HYDRO ENERGY; PROGRESS REPORT;...

  1. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Turbulent flow coupled with heat transfer is investigated for a High Flux Isotope ...

  2. fe0024292-gti | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resources - Field Labs Hydraulic Fracturing Test Site (HFTS) Last Reviewed 5/11/2016 DE-FE0024292 Goal This project is to conduct a field-based hydraulic fracturing research program for horizontal shale wells with the objectives of reducing and minimizing potential environmental impacts, demonstrating safe and reliable operations, and improving the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. The research will advance our understanding of the hydraulic fracturing process in shale reservoirs, and thus,

  3. Hydrogen fracture toughness tester completion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Michael J.

    2015-09-30

    The Hydrogen Fracture Toughness Tester (HFTT) is a mechanical testing machine designed for conducting fracture mechanics tests on materials in high-pressure hydrogen gas. The tester is needed for evaluating the effects of hydrogen on the cracking properties of tritium reservoir materials. It consists of an Instron Model 8862 Electromechanical Test Frame; an Autoclave Engineering Pressure Vessel, an Electric Potential Drop Crack Length Measurement System, associated computer control and data acquisition systems, and a high-pressure hydrogen gas manifold and handling system.

  4. Coiled tubing; Operations and services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sas-Jaworsky, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Coiled tubing can be used to wash or spot acid across completion intervals in vertical and high-angle wells. This technique allows easy wellbore cleanout, fluid placement flexibility and convenient flowback, and reduces damage from tubular deposits. Better zone coverage and rapid load recovery can improve well productivity. Oil and gas completions are intended to provide for efficient fluid transfer from permeable zones. When fluid inflow is less than optimum, the blockage or restriction is called 'formation damage,' and production or injection can be significantly affected. Damage mitigation treatments range form simple acid soaks to massive hydraulic fracturing, depending on damage type and severity. This article covers planning, designing and implementing treatments using coiled tubing.

  5. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The following are included: review of available data from previous fracturing stimulation operations, stimulation process variables, fracturing fluid design, hydraulic fracture design, stimulation case histories, and selected bibliography. (MHR)

  6. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MCU SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-03-19

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone., Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of MCU (Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit) saltstone relative to two permeating fluids. These fluids included simulated groundwater equilibrated with vault concrete and simulated saltstone pore fluid. Samples of the MCU saltstone were prepared by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and allowed to cure for twenty eight days prior to testing. These samples included two three-inch diameter by six inch long mold samples and three one-inch diameter by twelve inch long mold samples.

  7. Formed Core Sampler Hydraulic Conductivity Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. H.; Reigel, M. M.

    2012-09-25

    A full-scale formed core sampler was designed and functionally tested for use in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to compare properties of the formed core samples and core drilled samples taken from adjacent areas in the full-scale sampler. While several physical properties were evaluated, the primary property of interest was hydraulic conductivity. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the samples from the formed core sampler and those representing the bulk material were noted with respect to the initial handling and storage of the samples. Due to testing conditions, the site port samples were exposed to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions prior to testing whereas the formed core samples were kept in sealed containers with minimal exposure to an uncontrolled environment prior to testing. Based on the results of the testing, no significant differences in porosity or density were found between the formed core samples and those representing the bulk material in the test stand.

  8. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, C.D.; Livingston, R.R.; Toole, W.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A hydraulically operated pump is described for in-ground filtering and monitoring of wells or other fluid sources, including a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of O-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis.

  9. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Charles D.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Toole, Jr., William R.

    1996-01-01

    A hydraulically operated pump for in-ground filtering and monitoring of ws or other fluid sources, including a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of o-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis.

  10. Hydraulic pump with in-ground filtration and monitoring capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, C.D.; Livingston, R.R.; Toole, W.R. Jr.

    1996-10-29

    A hydraulically operated pump is described for in-ground filtering and monitoring of waters or other fluid sources, includes a hollow cylindrical pump housing with an inlet and an outlet, filtering devices positioned in the inlet and the outlet, a piston that fits slidably within the pump housing, and an optical cell in fluid communication with the pump housing. A conduit within the piston allows fluid communication between the exterior and one end of the piston. A pair of o-rings form a seal between the inside of the pump housing and the exterior of the piston. A flow valve positioned within the piston inside the conduit allows fluid to flow in a single direction. In operation, fluid enters the pump housing through the inlet, flows through the conduit and towards an end of the pump housing. The piston then makes a downward stroke closing the valve, thus forcing the fluid out from the pump housing into the optical cell, which then takes spectrophotometric measurements of the fluid. A spring helps return the piston back to its starting position, so that a new supply of fluid may enter the pump housing and the downward stroke can begin again. The pump may be used independently of the optical cell, as a sample pump to transport a sample fluid from a source to a container for later analysis. 5 figs.

  11. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-01

    This highlight describes NREL's evaluation of the in-service performance of 10 next-generation hydraulic hybrid refuse vehicles (HHVs), 8 previous-generation (model year 2013) HHVs, and 8 comparable conventional diesel vehicles operated by Miami-Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in southern Florida. Launched in March 2015, the on-road portion of this 12-month evaluation focuses on collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data - fuel economy, maintenance costs, and drive cycles - from the HHVs and the conventional diesel vehicles. The fuel economy of heavy-duty vehicles, such as refuse trucks, is largely dependent on the load carried and the drive cycles on which they operate. In the right applications, HHVs offer a potential fuel-cost advantage over their conventional counterparts. This advantage is contingent, however, on driving behavior and drive cycles with high kinetic intensity that take advantage of regenerative braking. NREL's evaluation will assess the performance of this technology in commercial operation and help Miami-Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving potential of its HHVs. Based on the field data, NREL will develop a validated vehicle model using the Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator, also known as FASTSim, to study the impacts of route selection and other vehicle parameters. NREL is also analyzing fueling and maintenance data to support total-cost-of-ownership estimations and forecasts. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation compared to similar conventional vehicles and to provide unbiased technical information to interested stakeholders.

  12. Microearthquake Technology for EGS Fracture Characterization...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation Integration of Noise and Coda Correlation Data into Kinematic and Waveform Inversions Newberry EGS...

  13. Characterization of the resistance to PWSCC of hydraulic tube- tubesheet expansions. [Primary water stress corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gold, R.E.; Economy, G.; Jacko, R.J.; Harrod, D.L.

    1992-07-01

    The resistance to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of hydraulically expanded Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, manufactured by the Westinghouse Specialty Metals Division, was evaluated under highly accelerated conditions in a 400{degrees}C steam test environment. These evaluations included microstructural characterizations of all test materials, screening tests with highly stressed reverse U-bends (RUBs), and the testing of internally pressurized hydraulic expansion tube-in-collar mockups. Eighteen heats of archived tubing from an operating nuclear power plant were evaluated; included were heats of Alloy 600 in both the mill annealed (A600 MA) and thermally treated (A600 TT) conditions. Other heats of archived A600 TT tubing, and reference laboratory heats with known corrosion resistance, were also included in various portions of this investigation. Hydraulically expanded mockups of A600 T-F tubing exhibit high resistance to PWSCC in the aggressive steam test environment. Some of the archived A600 MA heats, however, possess low resistance to PWSCC. Shot peening of the ID surfaces of tubes of these latter heats prior to testing was effective in precluding the occurrence of PWSCC. Archived heats of Model F (or F-type replacement) A600 TT steam generator tubing typically exhibit carbide morphologies and distributions consistent with high resistance to PWSCC. These data are in agreement with the performance to date of operating Model F steam generators.

  14. NREL Evaluates Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs) and comparable conven- tional diesel vehicles operated by Miami- Dade County's Public Works and Waste Management Department in Florida. Launched in March 2015, the study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of HHVs in refuse operation. The study was designed to help Miami- Dade County determine the ideal routes for maximizing the fuel-saving

  15. Temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel neutron-irradiated up to 145 dpa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Byun, Thak Sang; Maloy, S; Toloczko, M

    2014-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel irradiated to high doses was investigated using miniature three-point bend (TPB) fracture specimens. These specimens were from the ACO-3 fuel duct wall of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), in which irradiation doses were in the range of 3.2 144.8 dpa and irradiation temperatures in the range of 380.4 502.6 oC. A miniature specimen reuse technique has been established for this investigation: the specimens used were the tested halves of miniature Charpy impact specimens (~13 3 4 mm) with diamond-saw cut in the middle. The fatigue precracking for specimens and fracture resistance (J-R) tests were carried out in a MTS servo-hydraulic testing machine with a vacuum furnace following the standard procedure described in the ASTM Standard E 1820-09. For each of five irradiated and one archive conditions, 7 to 9 J-R tests were performed at selected temperatures ranging from 22 C to 600 C. The fracture toughness of the irradiated HT9 steel was strongly dependent on irradiation temperatures rather than irradiation dose. When the irradiation temperature was below about 430 C, the fracture toughness of irradiated HT9 increased with test temperature, reached an upper shelf of 180 200 MPa m at 350 450 C and then decreased with test temperature. When the irradiation temperature 430 C, the fracture toughness was nearly unchanged until about 450 C and decreased with test temperature in higher temperature range. Similar test temperature dependence was observed for the archive material although the highest toughness values are lower after irradiation. Ductile stable crack growth occurred except for a few cases where both the irradiation temperature and test temperature are relatively low.

  16. Method and apparatus for determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, James B.; Honeycutt, Thomas K.; Hubbell, Joel M.

    1996-01-01

    An earthen material hydraulic conductivity determining apparatus includes, a) a semipermeable membrane having a fore earthen material bearing surface and an opposing rear liquid receiving surface; b) a pump in fluid communication with the semipermeable membrane rear surface, the pump being capable of delivering liquid to the membrane rear surface at a plurality of selected variable flow rates or at a plurality of selected variable pressures; c) a liquid reservoir in fluid communication with the pump, the liquid reservoir retaining a liquid for pumping to the membrane rear surface; and d) a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the membrane rear surface to measure pressure of liquid delivered to the membrane by the pump. Preferably, the pump comprises a pair of longitudinally opposed and aligned syringes which are operable to simultaneously fill one syringe while emptying the other. Methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material are also disclosed.

  17. Method and apparatus for determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisson, J.B.; Honeycutt, T.K.; Hubbell, J.M.

    1996-05-28

    An earthen material hydraulic conductivity determining apparatus includes: (a) a semipermeable membrane having a fore earthen material bearing surface and an opposing rear liquid receiving surface; (b) a pump in fluid communication with the semipermeable membrane rear surface, the pump being capable of delivering liquid to the membrane rear surface at a plurality of selected variable flow rates or at a plurality of selected variable pressures; (c) a liquid reservoir in fluid communication with the pump, the liquid reservoir retaining a liquid for pumping to the membrane rear surface; and (d) a pressure sensor in fluid communication with the membrane rear surface to measure pressure of liquid delivered to the membrane by the pump. Preferably, the pump comprises a pair of longitudinally opposed and aligned syringes which are operable to simultaneously fill one syringe while emptying the other. Methods of determining the hydraulic conductivity of earthen material are also disclosed. 15 figs.

  18. Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.

    2012-11-30

    The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.

  19. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

    2009-09-27

    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  20. Using electrical impedance tomography to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berryman, James G.; Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.; Roberts, Jeffery J.

    2000-01-01

    The use of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to map subsurface hydraulic conductivity. EIT can be used to map hydraulic conductivity in the subsurface where measurements of both amplitude and phase are made. Hydraulic conductivity depends on at least two parameters: porosity and a length scale parameter. Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) measures and maps electrical conductivity (which can be related to porosity) in three dimensions. By introducing phase measurements along with amplitude, the desired additional measurement of a pertinent length scale can be achieved. Hydraulic conductivity controls the ability to flush unwanted fluid contaminants from the surface. Thus inexpensive maps of hydraulic conductivity would improve planning strategies for subsequent remediation efforts. Fluid permeability is also of importance for oil field exploitation and thus detailed knowledge of fluid permeability distribution in three-dimension (3-D) would be a great boon to petroleum reservoir analysts.

  1. RESEARCH PROGRAM ON FRACTURED PETROLEUM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2002-04-12

    Numerical simulation of water injection in discrete fractured media with capillary pressure is a challenge. Dual-porosity models in view of their strength and simplicity can be mainly used for sugar-cube representation of fractured media. In such a representation, the transfer function between the fracture and the matrix block can be readily calculated for water-wet media. For a mixed-wet system, the evaluation of the transfer function becomes complicated due to the effect of gravity. In this work, they use a discrete-fracture model in which the fractures are discretized as one dimensional entities to account for fracture thickness by an integral form of the flow equations. This simple step greatly improves the numerical solution. Then the discrete-fracture model is implemented using a Galerkin finite element method. The robustness and the accuracy of the approach are shown through several examples. First they consider a single fracture in a rock matrix and compare the results of the discrete-fracture model with a single-porosity model. Then, they use the discrete-fracture model in more complex configurations. Numerical simulations are carried out in water-wet media as well as in mixed-wet media to study the effect of matrix and fracture capillary pressures.

  2. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  3. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO? sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  4. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore » the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  5. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrids: A Success in Ann Arbor

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hydraulic Hybrids: A Success in Ann Arbor to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrids: A Success in Ann Arbor on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrids: A Success in Ann Arbor on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrids: A Success in Ann Arbor on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrids: A Success in Ann Arbor on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydraulic Hybrids: A

  6. Permeability Calculation in a Fracture Network - 12197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Cheo Kyung; Kim, Hyo Won [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Laminar flow of a viscous fluid in the pore space of a saturated fractured rock medium is considered to calculate the effective permeability of the medium. The effective permeability is determined from the flow field which is calculated numerically by using the finite element method. The computation of permeability components is carried out with a few different discretizations for a number of fracture arrangements. Various features such as flow field in the fracture channels, the convergence of permeability, and the variation of permeability among different fracture networks are discussed. The longitudinal permeability in general appears greater than the transverse ones. The former shows minor variations with fracture arrangement whereas the latter appears to be more sensitive to the arrangement. From the calculations of the permeability in a rock medium with a fracture network (two parallel fractures aligned in the direction of 45-deg counterclockwise from the horizontal and two connecting fractures(narrowing, parallel and widening) the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium not only depends on the primary orientation of the main fractures but also is noticeably influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The transverse permeability (the permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the externally imposed macro-scale pressure gradient) is only a fraction of the longitudinal one, but is sensitive to the arrangement of the connecting fractures. 3. It is important to figure out the pattern of the fractures that connect (or cross) the main fractures for reliable calculation of the transverse permeability. (authors)

  7. Toward a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity in climate models: Simulation of rapid groundwater fluctuations in Northern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Fung, Inez Y.

    2015-12-31

    Preferential flow through weathered bedrock leads to rapid rise of the water table after the first rainstorms and significant water storage (also known as ‘‘rock moisture’’) in the fractures. We present a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity that captures the preferential flow and is easy to implement in global climate models. To mimic the naturally varying heterogeneity with depth in the subsurface, the model represents the hydraulic conductivity as a product of the effective saturation and a background hydraulic conductivity Kbkg, drawn from a lognormal distribution. The mean of the background Kbkg decreases monotonically with depth, while its variance reduces with the effective saturation. Model parameters are derived by assimilating into Richards’ equation 6 years of 30 min observations of precipitation (mm) and water table depths (m), from seven wells along a steep hillslope in the Eel River watershed in Northern California. The results show that the observed rapid penetration of precipitation and the fast rise of the water table from the well locations, after the first winter rains, are well captured with the new stochastic approach in contrast to the standard van Genuchten model of hydraulic conductivity, which requires significantly higher levels of saturated soils to produce the same results. ‘‘Rock moisture,’’ the moisture between the soil mantle and the water table, comprises 30% of the moisture because of the great depth of the weathered bedrock layer and could be a potential source of moisture to sustain trees through extended dry periods. Moreover, storage of moisture in the soil mantle is smaller, implying less surface runoff and less evaporation, with the proposed new model.

  8. Toward a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity in climate models: Simulation of rapid groundwater fluctuations in Northern California

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vrettas, Michail D.; Fung, Inez Y.

    2015-12-31

    Preferential flow through weathered bedrock leads to rapid rise of the water table after the first rainstorms and significant water storage (also known as ‘‘rock moisture’’) in the fractures. We present a new parameterization of hydraulic conductivity that captures the preferential flow and is easy to implement in global climate models. To mimic the naturally varying heterogeneity with depth in the subsurface, the model represents the hydraulic conductivity as a product of the effective saturation and a background hydraulic conductivity Kbkg, drawn from a lognormal distribution. The mean of the background Kbkg decreases monotonically with depth, while its variance reducesmore » with the effective saturation. Model parameters are derived by assimilating into Richards’ equation 6 years of 30 min observations of precipitation (mm) and water table depths (m), from seven wells along a steep hillslope in the Eel River watershed in Northern California. The results show that the observed rapid penetration of precipitation and the fast rise of the water table from the well locations, after the first winter rains, are well captured with the new stochastic approach in contrast to the standard van Genuchten model of hydraulic conductivity, which requires significantly higher levels of saturated soils to produce the same results. ‘‘Rock moisture,’’ the moisture between the soil mantle and the water table, comprises 30% of the moisture because of the great depth of the weathered bedrock layer and could be a potential source of moisture to sustain trees through extended dry periods. Moreover, storage of moisture in the soil mantle is smaller, implying less surface runoff and less evaporation, with the proposed new model.« less

  9. Method for valve seating control for an electro-hydraulic engine valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Zongxuan

    2011-01-11

    Valve lift in an internal combustion engine is controlled by an electro-hydraulic actuation mechanism including a selectively actuable hydraulic feedback circuit.

  10. HYDRAULICS AND MIXING EVALUATIONS FOR NT-21/41 TANKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.; Barnes, O.

    2014-11-17

    The hydraulic results demonstrate that pump head pressure of 20 psi recirculates about 5.6 liters/min flowrate through the existing 0.131-inch orifice when a valve connected to NT-41 is closed. In case of the valve open to NT-41, the solution flowrates to HB-Line tanks, NT-21 and NT-41, are found to be about 0.5 lpm and 5.2 lpm, respectively. The modeling calculations for the mixing operations of miscible fluids contained in the HB-Line tank NT-21 were performed by taking a three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach. The CFD modeling results were benchmarked against the literature results and the previous SRNL test results to validate the model. Final performance calculations were performed for the nominal case by using the validated model to quantify the mixing time for the HB-Line tank. The results demonstrate that when a pump recirculates a solution volume of 5.7 liters every minute out of the 72-liter tank contents containing two acid solutions of 2.7 M and 0 M concentrations (i.e., water), a minimum mixing time of 1.5 hours is adequate for the tank contents to get the tank contents adequately mixed. In addition, the sensitivity results for the tank contents of 8 M existing solution and 1.5 M incoming species show that the mixing time takes about 2 hours to get the solutions mixed.

  11. Relationship between Anisotropy in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. Fred

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is saturation-dependent. Accurate characterization of soil anisotropy is very important in simulating flow and contaminant (e.g., radioactive nuclides in Hanford) transport. A recently developed tensorial connectivity-tortuosity (TCT) concept describes the hydraulic conductivity tensor of the unsaturated anisotropic soils as the product of a scalar variable, the symmetric connectivity tortuosity tensor, and the hydraulic conductivity tensor at saturation. In this study, the TCT model is used to quantify soil anisotropy in unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The TCT model can describe different types of soil anisotropy; e.g., the anisotropy coefficient, C, can be monotonically increase or decrease with saturation and can vary from greater than unity to less than unity and vice versa. Soil anisotropy is independent of soil water retention properties and can be characterized by the ratio of the saturated hydraulic conductivities and the difference of the tortuosity-connectivity coefficients in two directions. ln(C) is linearly proportional to ln(Se) with Se being the effective saturation. The log-linear relationship between C and Se allows the saturation-dependent anisotropy to be determined using linear regression with the measurements of the directional hydraulic conductivities at a minimum of two water content levels, of which one may be at full saturation. The model was tested using measurements of directional hydraulic conductivities.

  12. Prototype Data Models and Data Dictionaries for Hanford Sediment Physical and Hydraulic Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Last, George V.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2010-09-30

    The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) project, managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), has been compiling physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to support risk analyses and waste management decisions at Hanford. In FY09 the RDS project developed a strategic plan for a physical and hydraulic property database. This report documents prototype data models and dictionaries for these properties and associated parameters. Physical properties and hydraulic parameters and their distributions are required for any type of quantitative assessment of risk and uncertainty associated with predictions of contaminant transport and fate in the subsurface. The central plateau of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State contains most of the contamination at the Site and has up to {approx}100 m of unsaturated and unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sediments overlying the unconfined aquifer. These sediments contain a wide variety of contaminants ranging from organic compounds, such as carbon tetrachloride, to numerous radionuclides including technetium, plutonium, and uranium. Knowledge of the physical and hydraulic properties of the sediments and their distributions is critical for quantitative assessment of the transport of these contaminants in the subsurface, for evaluation of long-term risks and uncertainty associated with model predictions of contaminant transport and fate, and for evaluating, designing, and operating remediation alternatives. One of the goals of PNNL's RDS project is to work with the Hanford Environmental Data Manager (currently with CHPRC) to develop a protocol and schedule for incorporation of physical property and hydraulic parameter datasets currently maintained by PNNL into HEIS. This requires that the data first be reviewed to ensure quality and consistency. New data models must then be developed for HEIS that are approved by the HTAG that oversees HEIS development. After approval, these new data models then need to be implemented in HEIS by the EDM before there is an actual repository for the data. This document summarizes modifications to previously developed data models, and new data models and data dictionaries for physical and hydraulic property data and parameters to be transferred to HEIS. A prototype dataset that conforms to the specifications of these recommended data models has been identified and processed, and is ready for transfer to CHPRC for inclusion in HEIS. Additional datasets are planned for transfer from PNNL to CHPRC in FY11.

  13. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihei, K.T.

    2003-01-08

    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  14. Shale gas and non-aqueous fracturing fluids: Opportunities and challenges for supercritical CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, Richard Stephen; Carey, James William; Currier, Robert Patrick; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Kang, Qinjun; Karra, Satish; Viswanathan, Hari S.; Porter, Mark L.; Martinez, Joaquin Jimenez

    2015-03-23

    In this study, hydraulic fracturing of shale formations in the United States has led to a domestic energy boom. Currently, water is the only fracturing fluid regularly used in commercial shale oil and gas production. Industry and researchers are interested in non-aqueous working fluids due to their potential to increase production, reduce water requirements, and to minimize environmental impacts. Using a combination of new experimental and modeling data at multiple scales, we analyze the benefits and drawbacks of using CO2 as a working fluid for shale gas production. We theorize and outline potential advantages of CO2 including enhanced fracturing and fracture propagation, reduction of flow-blocking mechanisms, increased desorption of methane adsorbed in organic-rich parts of the shale, and a reduction or elimination of the deep re-injection of flow-back water that has been linked to induced seismicity and other environmental concerns. We also examine likely disadvantages including costs and safety issues associated with handling large volumes of supercritical CO2. The advantages could have a significant impact over time leading to substantially increased gas production. In addition, if CO2 proves to be an effective fracturing fluid, then shale gas formations could become a major utilization option for carbon sequestration.

  15. KJRR-FAI Hydraulic Flow Testing Input Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; D.B. Chapman

    2013-12-01

    The INL, in cooperation with the KAERI via Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA), undertook an effort in the latter half of calendar year 2013 to produce a conceptual design for the KJRR-FAI campaign. The outcomes of this effort are documented in further detail elsewhere [5]. The KJRR-FAI was designed to be cooled by the ATRs Primary Coolant System (PCS) with no provision for in-pile measurement or control of the hydraulic conditions in the irradiation assembly. The irradiation assembly was designed to achieve the target hydraulic conditions via engineered hydraulic losses in a throttling orifice at the outlet of the irradiation vehicle.

  16. Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors The objective of the 3-year project was to collect integral effects test (IET) data to validate the RELAP5-3D code and other thermal hydraulics

  17. Microsoft Word - S0212500_HydraulicConductivity-PRB.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update January 2006 DOE-LM/GJ1086-2006 ESL-RPT-2006-01 DOE-LM/GJ1086-2006 ESL-RPT-2006-01 Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier-November 2005 Update January 2006 Work Performed by S.M. Stoller Corporation under DOE Contract No. DE-AC01-02GJ79491 for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Grand Junction, Colorado U.S. Department of Energy Hydraulic Conductivity of

  18. MOSSFRAC: An anisotropic 3D fracture model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, W C; Levatin, J L

    2006-08-14

    Despite the intense effort for nearly half a century to construct detailed numerical models of plastic flow and plastic damage accumulation, models for describing fracture, an equally important damage mechanism still cannot describe basic fracture phenomena. Typical fracture models set the stress tensor to zero for tensile fracture and set the deviatoric stress tensor to zero for compressive fracture. One consequence is that the simple case of the tensile fracture of a cylinder under combined compressive radial and tensile axial loads is not modeled correctly. The experimental result is a cylinder that can support compressive radial loads, but no axial load, whereas, the typical numerical result is a cylinder with all stresses equal to zero. This incorrect modeling of fracture locally also has a global effect, because material that is fracturing produces stress release waves, which propagate from the fracture and influence the surrounding material. Consequently, it would be useful to have a model that can describe the stress relief and the resulting anisotropy due to fracture. MOSSFRAC is a material model that simulates three-dimensional tensile and shear fracture in initially isotropic elastic-plastic materials, although its framework is also amenable to initially anisotropic materials. It differs from other models by accounting for the effects of cracks on the constitutive response of the material, so that the previously described experiment, as well as complicated fracture scenarios are simulated more accurately. The model is implemented currently in the LLNL hydrocodes DYNA3D, PARADYN, and ALE3D. The purpose of this technical note is to present a complete qualitative description of the model and quantitative descriptions of salient features.

  19. Fracture Permeability and in Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. D. Zoback

    1999-03-08

    We have collected and analyzed fracture and fluid flow data from wells both within and outside the producing geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley. Data from wellbore imaging and flow tests in wells outside the producing field that are not sufficiently hydraulically connected to the reservoir to be of commercial value provide both the necessary control group of fracture populations and an opportunity to test the concepts proposed in this study on a regional, whole-reservoir scale. Results of our analysis indicate that fracture zones with high measured permeabilities within the producing segment of the fault are parallel to the local trend of the Stillwater fault and are optimally oriented and critically stressed for frictional failure in the overall east-southeast extensional stress regime measured at the site. In contrast, in the non-producing (i.e., relatively impermeable:) well 66-21 the higher ratio of S{sub hmin} to S{sub v} acts to decrease the shear stress available to drive fault slip. Thus, although many of the fractures at this site (like the Stillwater fault itself) are optimally oriented for normal faulting they are not critically stressed for frictional failure. Although some of the fractures observed in the non-producing well 45-14 are critically stressed for frictional failure, the Stillwater fault zone itself is frictionally stable. Thus, the high horizontal differential stress (i.e., S{sub Hmax}-S{sub hmin}) together with the severe misorientation of the Stillwater fault zone for normal faulting at this location appear to dominate the overall potential for fluid flow.

  20. Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Detecting Fractures Using Technology at High Temperatures and Depths - Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager (GUFI); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal

  1. Hydraulically actuated gas exchange valve assembly and engine using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carroll, Thomas S.; Taylor, Gregory O.

    2002-09-03

    An engine comprises a housing that defines a hollow piston cavity that is separated from a gas passage by a valve seat. The housing further defines a biasing hydraulic cavity and a control hydraulic cavity. A gas valve member is also included in the engine and is movable relative to the valve seat between an open position at which the hollow piston cavity is open to the gas passage and a closed position in which the hollow piston cavity is blocked from the gas passage. The gas valve member includes a ring mounted on a valve piece and a retainer positioned between the ring and the valve piece. A closing hydraulic surface is included on the gas valve member and is exposed to liquid pressure in the biasing hydraulic cavity.

  2. Microsoft Word - S0162200_VariationHydraulicConductivity-PRB...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... row 4: ZVI row 5: ZVI U.S. Department of Energy Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over ... PRB Wells Redupgradient alluvium (row 1) Greengravel + zvi (row 2 and 3) Gray ZVI (row ...

  3. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  4. A compendium of fracture flow models, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diodato, D.M.

    1994-11-01

    The report is designed to be used as a decision-making aid for individuals who need to simulate fluid flow in fractured porous media. Fracture flow codes of varying capability in the public and private domain were identified in a survey of government, academia, and industry. The selection and use of an appropriate code requires conceptualization of the geology, physics, and chemistry (for transport) of the fracture flow problem to be solved. Conceptual models that have been invoked to describe fluid flow in fractured porous media include explicit discrete fracture, dual continuum (porosity and/or permeability), discrete fracture network, multiple interacting continua, multipermeability/multiporosity, and single equivalent continuum. The explicit discrete-fracture model is a ``near-field`` representation, the single equivalent continuum model is a ``far-field`` representation, and the dual-continuum model is intermediate to those end members. Of these, the dual-continuum model is the most widely employed. The concept of multiple interacting continua has been applied in a limited number of examples. Multipermeability/multiporosity provides a unified conceptual model. The ability to accurately describe fracture flow phenomena will continue to improve as a result of advances in fracture flow research and computing technology. This improvement will result in enhanced capability to protect the public environment, safety, and health.

  5. Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Centrifugal Contactors (Conference) | SciTech Connect Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale Centrifugal Contactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydraulic Performance and Mass Transfer Efficiency of Engineering Scale Centrifugal Contactors × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service.

  6. Hydraulic involute cam actuator (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Hydraulic involute cam actuator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydraulic involute cam actuator Mechanical joints are provided in which the angle between a first coupled member and a second coupled member may be varied by mechanical actuators. In some embodiments the angle may be varied around a pivot axis in one plane and in some embodiments the angle may be varied around two pivot axes in two orthogonal planes. The joints typically utilize a cam assembly having two lobes

  7. Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors Reactor Concepts RD&D Dr. Per Peterson University of California, Berkeley Madeline Feltus, Federal POC Richard SChultz, Technical POC Project No. 09-789 Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors Final Report Covering Period of Report: January 1, 2010-Sept. 30, 2012 Date of report: October 30, 2012 Award

  8. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Reactors (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit

  9. Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    requirements (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection requirements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection requirements Tracer studies were performed in bench and pilot scale ozone diffusion contactors to determine actual contact times for the bench and pilot scale units and to characterize the flow pattern through these reactors. It was recognized that the

  10. Computational Analysis of the Thermal-Hydraulic Characteristics of the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Computational Analysis of the Thermal-Hydraulic Characteristics of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Computational Analysis of the Thermal-Hydraulic Characteristics of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source The encapsulated nuclear heat source (ENHS) is a modular reactor that was selected by the 1999 U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Initiative program as a

  11. Integrated hydraulic cooler and return rail in camless cylinder head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D.; Neal, Timothy L.; Swain, Jeff L.; Raimao, Miguel A.

    2011-12-13

    An engine assembly may include a cylinder head defining an engine coolant reservoir, a pressurized fluid supply, a valve actuation assembly, and a hydraulic fluid reservoir. The valve actuation assembly may be in fluid communication with the pressurized fluid supply and may include a valve member displaceable by a force applied by the pressurized fluid supply. The hydraulic fluid reservoir may be in fluid communication with the valve actuation assembly and in a heat exchange relation to the engine coolant reservoir.

  12. Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Reactors (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal Hydraulic Characteristics of Fuel Defects in Plate Type Nuclear Research Reactors Turbulent flow coupled with heat transfer is investigated for a High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel plate. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Models are used for fluid dynamics and the transfer of

  13. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of advanced reactor concepts: The Gas Core Nuclear Rocket

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banjac, V.; Heger, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Gas Core Nuclear Rocket (GCNR), a design first proposed in the 1960s for fast round-trip missions to Mars and the outer planets, is generally considered to be the most advanced, and therefore the most complex, iteration of the fission reactor concept. The GCNR technology involves the extraction of fission energy, by means of thermal radiation, from a high-temperature plasma core to a working fluid. A specific derivative of GCNR technology is the nuclear fight bulb (NLB) rocket engine, first proposed by the then United Aircraft Research Laboratories (UARL) in the early 1960s. The potential operating parameters provided the motivation for a detailed thermal hydraulics analysis.

  14. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 6: failure mode analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streit, R.D.

    1981-09-01

    Material properties and failure criteria were evaluated to assess the requirements for double-ended guillotine break in the primary coolant loop of the Zion Unit 1 pressurized water reactor. The properties of the 316 stainless steel piping materials were obtained from the literature. Statistical distributions of both the tensile and fracture properties at room and operating temperatures were developed. Yield and ultimate strength tensile properties were combined to estimate the material flow strength. The flow strength and fracture properties were used in the various failure models analyzed. Linear-elastic, elastic-plastic, and fully plastic fracture models were compared, and the governing fracture criterion was determined. For the particular case studied, the fully plastic flow requirement was found to be the controlling fracture criterion leading to a double-ended guillotine pipe break.

  15. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Spent Fuel Casks

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-10-08

    COBRA-SFS (Spent Fuel Storage) is a code for thermal-hydraulic analysis of multi-assembly spent fuel storage and transportation systems. It uses a lumped parameter finite difference approach to predict flow and temperature distributions in spent fuel storage systems and fuel assemblies, under forced and natural convection heat transfer conditions. Derived from the COBRA family of codes, which have been extensively evaluated against in-pile and out-of-pile data, COBRA-SFS retains all the important features of the COBRA codesmore » for single phase fluid analysis, and extends the range application to include problems with two-dimensional radiative and three-dimensional conductive heat transfer. COBRA-SFS has been used to analyze various single- and multi-assembly spent fuel storage systems containing unconsolidated and consolidated fuel rods, with a variety of fill media, including air, helium and vacuum. Cycle 0 of COBRA-SFS was released in 1986. Subsequent applications of the code led to development of additional capabilities, which resulted in the release of Cycle 1 in February 1989. Since then, the code has undergone an independent technical review as part of a submittal to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a generic license to apply the code to spent fuel storage system analysis. Modifications and improvements to the code have been combined to form Cycle 2. Cycle 3., the newest version of COBRA-SFS, has been validated and verified for transient applications, such as a storage cask thermal response to a pool fire.« less

  16. Hydraulic flow visualization method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karidis, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus and method for visualizing liquid flow. Pulses of gas bubbles are introduced into a liquid flow stream and a strobe light is operated at a frequency related to the frequency of the gas pulses to shine on the bubbles as they pass through the liquid stream. The gas pulses pass through a probe body having a valve element, and a reciprocating valve stem passes through the probe body to operate the valve element. A stem actuating device comprises a slidable reciprocating member, operated by a crank arm. The actuated member is adjustable to adjust the amount of the valve opening during each pulse.

  17. DFNWorks. A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-08-10

    DFNWorks is a parallalized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using dfnGen, which combines fram (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs on the basis of site specific data with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation, specifically a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computingmore » finite volume solvers, of the DFN in an intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport finite volume code pflotran. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within dfnTrans, which is an extension of the walkabout particle tracking method to determine pathlines through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.« less

  18. dfnWorks: A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-11-01

    DFNWORKS is a parallelized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using DFNGEN, which combines FRAM (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation. The representation produces a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computing finite volume solvers in an intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport#12; finite volume code PFLOTRAN. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within DFNTRANS to determine pathlines and solute transport through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.

  19. dfnWorks: A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-11-01

    DFNWORKS is a parallelized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using DFNGEN, which combines FRAM (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation. The representation produces a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computing finite volume solvers in anmore » intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport#12; finite volume code PFLOTRAN. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within DFNTRANS to determine pathlines and solute transport through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.« less

  20. DFNWorks. A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-08-10

    DFNWorks is a parallalized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using dfnGen, which combines fram (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs on the basis of site specific data with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation, specifically a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computing finite volume solvers, of the DFN in an intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport finite volume code pflotran. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within dfnTrans, which is an extension of the walkabout particle tracking method to determine pathlines through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.

  1. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF SALTSTONE FORMULATED USING 1Q11, 2Q11 AND 3Q11 TANK 50 SLURRY SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reigel, M.; Nichols, R.

    2012-06-27

    As part of the Saltstone formulation work requested by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing Saltstone samples for fresh property analysis and hydraulic conductivity measurements using actual Tank 50 salt solution rather than simulated salt solution. Samples of low level waste salt solution collected from Tank 50H during the first, second, and third quarters of 2011 were used to formulate the Saltstone samples. The salt solution was mixed with premix (45 wt % slag, 45 wt % fly ash, and 10 wt % cement), in a ratio consistent with facility operating conditions during the quarter of interest. The fresh properties (gel, set, bleed) of each mix were evaluated and compared to the recommended acceptance criteria for the Saltstone Production Facility. ASTM D5084-03, Method C was used to measure the hydraulic conductivity of the Saltstone samples. The hydraulic conductivity of Saltstone samples prepared from 1Q11 and 2Q11 samples of Tank 50H is 4.2E-9 cm/sec and 2.6E-9 cm/sec, respectively. Two additional 2Q11 and one 3Q11 sample were not successfully tested due to the inability to achieve stable readings during saturation and testing. The hydraulic conductivity of the samples made from Tank 50H salt solution compare well to samples prepared with simulated salt solution and cured under similar conditions (1.4E-9 - 4.9E-8 cm/sec).

  2. Hydraulic and Clean-in-Place Evaluations for a 12.5-cm Annular Centrifugal Contactor at INL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy G. Garn; David H. Meikrantz; Nick R. Mann; Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-09-01

    Hydraulic and Clean-in-Place Evaluations for a 12.5 cm Annular Centrifugal Contactor at the INL Troy G. Garn, Dave H. Meikrantz, Nick R. Mann, Jack D. Law, Terry A. Todd Idaho National Laboratory Commercially available, Annular Centrifugal Contactors (ACC) are currently being evaluated for processing dissolved nuclear fuel solutions to selectively partition integrated elements using solvent extraction technologies. These evaluations include hydraulic and clean-in-place (CIP) testing of a commercially available 12.5 cm unit. Data from these evaluations is used to support design of future nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. Hydraulic testing provides contactor throughput performance data on two-phase systems for a wide range of operating conditions. Hydraulic testing results on a simple two-phase oil and water system followed by a 30 % Tributyl phosphate in N-dodecane / nitric acid pair are reported. Maximum total throughputs for this size contactor ranged from 20 to 32 liters per minute without significant other phase carryover. A relatively new contactor design enhancement providing Clean-in-Place capability for ACCs was also investigated. Spray nozzles installed into the central rotor shaft allow the rotor internals to be cleaned, offline. Testing of the solids capture of a diatomaceous earth/water slurry feed followed by CIP testing was performed. Solids capture efficiencies of >95% were observed for all tests and short cold water cleaning pulses proved successful at removing solids from the rotor.

  3. Geothermal Well Stimulated Using High Energy Gas Fracturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.Y.; Jacobson, R.D.; Warpinski, N.; Mohaupt, Henry

    1987-01-20

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study of the High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF) technique for geothermal well stimulation. These experiments demonstrated that multiple fractures could be created to link a water-filled borehole with other fractures. The resulting fracture network and fracture interconnections were characterized by flow tests as well as mine back. Commercial oil field fracturing tools were used successfully in these experiments. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Peter Eugene

    2013-04-15

    This report describes a 10-year DOE-funded project to design, characterize and create an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) through a combination of hydraulic, thermal and chemical stimulation techniques. Volume 1 describes a four-year Phase 1 campaign, which focused on the east compartment of the Coso geothermal field. It includes a description of the geomechanical, geophysical, hydraulic, and geochemical studies that were conducted to characterize the reservoir in anticipation of the hydraulic stimulation experiment. Phase 1 ended prematurely when the drill bit intersected a very permeable fault zone during the redrilling of target stimulation well 34-9RD2. A hydraulic stimulation was inadvertently achieved, however, since the flow of drill mud from the well into the formation created an earthquake swarm near the wellbore that was recorded, located, analyzed and interpreted by project seismologists. Upon completion of Phase 1, the project shifted focus to a new target well, which was located within the southwest compartment of the Coso geothermal field. Volume 2 describes the Phase 2 studies on the geomechanical, geophysical, hydraulic, and geochemical aspects of the reservoir in and around target-stimulation well 46A-19RD, which is the deepest and hottest well ever drilled at Coso. Its total measured depth exceeding 12,000 ft. It spite of its great depth, this well is largely impermeable below a depth of about 9,000 ft, thus providing an excellent target for stimulation. In order to prepare 46A-19RD for stimulation, however, it was necessary to pull the slotted liner. This proved to be unachievable under the budget allocated by the Coso Operating Company partners, and this aspect of the project was abandoned, ending the program at Coso. The program then shifted to the EGS project at Desert Peak, which had a goal similar to the one at Coso of creating an EGS on the periphery of an existing geothermal reservoir. Volume 3 describes the activities that the Coso team contributed to the Desert Peak project, focusing largely on a geomechanical investigation of the Desert Peak reservoir, tracer testing between injectors 21-2 and 22-22 and the field’s main producers, and the chemical stimulation of target well 27-15.

  5. Creation of an Enhanced Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal Stimulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Peter Eugene

    2013-04-15

    This report describes a 10-year DOE-funded project to design, characterize and create an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) through a combination of hydraulic, thermal and chemical stimulation techniques. Volume 1 describes a four-year Phase 1 campaign, which focused on the east compartment of the Coso geothermal field. It includes a description of the geomechanical, geophysical, hydraulic, and geochemical studies that were conducted to characterize the reservoir in anticipation of the hydraulic stimulation experiment. Phase 1 ended prematurely when the drill bit intersected a very permeable fault zone during the redrilling of target stimulation well 34-9RD2. A hydraulic stimulation was inadvertently achieved, however, since the flow of drill mud from the well into the formation created an earthquake swarm near the wellbore that was recorded, located, analyzed and interpreted by project seismologists. Upon completion of Phase 1, the project shifted focus to a new target well, which was located within the southwest compartment of the Coso geothermal field. Volume 2 describes the Phase 2 studies on the geomechanical, geophysical, hydraulic, and geochemical aspects of the reservoir in and around target-stimulation well 46A-19RD, which is the deepest and hottest well ever drilled at Coso. Its total measured depth exceeding 12,000 ft. It spite of its great depth, this well is largely impermeable below a depth of about 9,000 ft, thus providing an excellent target for stimulation. In order to prepare 46A-19RD for stimulation, however, it was necessary to pull the slotted liner. This proved to be unachievable under the budget allocated by the Coso Operating Company partners, and this aspect of the project was abandoned, ending the program at Coso. The program then shifted to the EGS project at Desert Peak, which had a goal similar to the one at Coso of creating an EGS on the periphery of an existing geothermal reservoir. Volume 3 describes the activities that the Coso team contributed to the Desert Peak project, focusing largely on a geomechanical investigation of the Desert Peak reservoir, tracer testing between injectors 21-2 and 22-22 and the field’s main producers, and the chemical stimulation of target well 27-15.

  6. Strategic Need for Multi-Purpose Thermal Hydraulic Loop for Support of Advanced Reactor Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien; Piyush Sabharwall; Su-Jong Yoon; Gregory K. Housley

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a conceptual design for a new high-temperature multi fluid, multi loop test facility for the INL to support thermal hydraulic, materials, and thermal energy storage research for nuclear and nuclear-hybrid applications. In its initial configuration, the facility will include a high-temperature helium loop, a liquid salt loop, and a hot water/steam loop. The three loops will be thermally coupled through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and a secondary heat exchanger (SHX). Research topics to be addressed with this facility include the characterization and performance evaluation of candidate compact heat exchangers such as printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) at prototypical operating conditions, flow and heat transfer issues related to core thermal hydraulics in advanced helium-cooled and salt-cooled reactors, and evaluation of corrosion behavior of new cladding materials and accident-tolerant fuels for LWRs at prototypical conditions. Based on its relevance to advanced reactor systems, the new facility has been named the Advanced Reactor Technology Integral System Test (ARTIST) facility. Research performed in this facility will advance the state of the art and technology readiness level of high temperature intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) for nuclear applications while establishing the INL as a center of excellence for the development and certification of this technology. The thermal energy storage capability will support research and demonstration activities related to process heat delivery for a variety of hybrid energy systems and grid stabilization strategies. Experimental results obtained from this research will assist in development of reliable predictive models for thermal hydraulic design and safety codes over the range of expected advanced reactor operating conditions. Proposed/existing IHX heat transfer and friction correlations and criteria will be assessed with information on materials compatibility and instrumentation needs. The experimental database will guide development of appropriate predictive methods and be available for code verification and validation (V&V) related to these systems.

  7. Scale-Dependent Fracture-Matrix Interactions and Their Impact...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... network models with variability in apertures across a network of fractures and within individual fractures. less Authors: Rajaram, Harihar 1 ; Brutz, Michael 1 ; Klein, ...

  8. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda PDF icon BES Report Controlling ...

  9. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Cations in an Unsaturated Fractured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Colloid-facilitated mobilization of cesium and strontium was important at low ionic strength in fractures where slow flow allowed greater exchange of flow between the fractures and ...

  10. Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of silicon mesoscale pillars: roles of ultrathin ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Unusual lithiation and fracture behavior of ...

  11. Images of Fracture Sustainability Test on Stripa Granite

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tim Kneafsey

    2014-05-11

    Images of the Stripa Granite core before and after the fracture sustainability test. Photos of fracture faces of Stripa Granite core.

  12. A Research Park for Studying Processes in Unsaturated Fractured...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Research Park for Studying Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Research Park for Studying Processes in Unsaturated Fractured ...

  13. Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical-mechanical couplings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fractured...

  14. Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study We ...

  15. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs;...

  16. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for ...

  17. Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fracture mechanics based design for radioactive material transport packagings -- Historical review Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fracture mechanics based design for ...

  18. Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro-seismic Data, Using Soft Computing, Fractals, and Shear Wave Anisotropy Characterizing Fractures in the Geysers Geothermal Field...

  19. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic...

  20. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong...

  1. Images of Fracture Sustainability Test on Stripa Granite

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tim Kneafsey

    Images of the Stripa Granite core before and after the fracture sustainability test. Photos of fracture faces of Stripa Granite core.

  2. Preface to the Special Issue on the Sandia Fracture Challenge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Preface to the Special Issue on the Sandia Fracture Challenge. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preface to the Special Issue on the Sandia Fracture ...

  3. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon ...

  4. Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels You are accessing a ...

  5. Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Abstract not provided. Authors: Somerday,...

  6. Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Assisted Fracture of Stainless Steels You are accessing a document from the...

  7. Unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock related to high-level waste repositories; Final report, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, D.D.; Rasmussen, T.C. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources

    1991-01-01

    Research results are summarized for a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contract with the University of Arizona focusing on field and laboratory methods for characterizing unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport related to high-level radioactive waste repositories. Characterization activities are presented for the Apache Leap Tuff field site. The field site is located in unsaturated, fractured tuff in central Arizona. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and thermal characteristics of the tuff are summarized, along with methodologies employed to monitor and sample hydrologic and geochemical processes at the field site. Thermohydrologic experiments are reported which provide laboratory and field data related to the effects conditions and flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. 29 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Inverse problems in heterogeneous and fractured media using peridynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Turner, Daniel Z.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Parks, Michael L.

    2015-12-10

    The following work presents an adjoint-based methodology for solving inverse problems in heterogeneous and fractured media using state-based peridynamics. We show that the inner product involving the peridynamic operators is self-adjoint. The proposed method is illustrated for several numerical examples with constant and spatially varying material parameters as well as in the context of fractures. We also present a framework for obtaining material parameters by integrating digital image correlation (DIC) with inverse analysis. This framework is demonstrated by evaluating the bulk and shear moduli for a sample of nuclear graphite using digital photographs taken during the experiment. The resulting measuredmore » values correspond well with other results reported in the literature. Lastly, we show that this framework can be used to determine the load state given observed measurements of a crack opening. Furthermore, this type of analysis has many applications in characterizing subsurface stress-state conditions given fracture patterns in cores of geologic material.« less

  9. Fracture-resistant lanthanide scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, F. Patrick

    2011-01-04

    Lanthanide halide alloys have recently enabled scintillating gamma ray spectrometers comparable to room temperature semiconductors (<3% FWHM energy resolutions at 662 keV). However brittle fracture of these materials upon cooling hinders the growth of large volume crystals. Efforts to improve the strength through non-lanthanide alloy substitution, while preserving scintillation, have been demonstrated. Isovalent alloys having nominal compositions of comprising Al, Ga, Sc, Y, and In dopants as well as aliovalent alloys comprising Ca, Sr, Zr, Hf, Zn, and Pb dopants were prepared. All of these alloys exhibit bright fluorescence under UV excitation, with varying shifts in the spectral peaks and intensities relative to pure CeBr.sub.3. Further, these alloys scintillate when coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and exposed to .sup.137Cs gamma rays.

  10. High-energy gas-fracturing development. Quarterly report, October-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuderman, J.F.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and optimize the High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF) technique to produce multiple fractures around a wellbore in order to stimulate natural-gas production in Devonian shale. The HEGF technique uses a wellbore charge of a propellant tailored to produce pressure loading in the borehole that avoids crushing yet produces multiple fractures radiating from the wellbore. The multiple-fracture regime has been characterized and releated to parameters such as borehole size, pressure risetime, and surface-wave velocity. Pressure risetimes and peak pressures, measured for different propellants in boreholes to specify a propellant for a desired peak pressure and pressure risetime. Semiempirical models, using results from previous experiments, successfully relate stress, acceleration, and fracture radii in surrounding rock to peak pressure and pressure risetime. A finite-element model also has been developed which predicts fracture type and direction of fractures as a function of pressure loading, in situ stress, and material properties. A full-scale HEGF system has been developed for application in gas-well-stimulation experiments in Devonian shale. During this quarter, a proof test of the full-scale HEGF was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The designed pressure pulse of 0.5 ms risetime was achieved, and the tamp remained in place during the test. The borehole was successfully cleared posttest. Multiple fracturing was verified with a downhole TV camera. The test of the full-scale hardware and its operational capability was successful. As a result, the HEGF system is ready for application in gas-well-stimulation experiments in Devonian shale. Tests were conducted to determine worst-case accident scenarios to establish sensitivity to shock and fire. There appears to be no risk of initiation resulting from shock or breakage of the propellant-canister segments.

  11. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  12. This Week In Petroleum Summary Printer-Friendly Version

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Bakken and other U.S. shale formations. Operators are combining horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing-the same technologies used to significantly boost shale gas...

  13. Laboratory Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laboratory Operations /newsroom/_assets/images/operations-icon.png Laboratory Operations Latest announcements from the Lab on its operations. Community, Events Laboratory Operations Environmental Stewardship Melissa Blueflower-Sanchez and Robert Sanchez, owners of R and M Construction, LLC, of Santa Clara Pueblo. Four regional businesses receive Native American Venture Acceleration Fund grants The grants are designed to help the recipients create jobs, increase their revenue base and help

  14. Summary of three dimensional pump testing of a fractured rock aquifer in the western Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Drozhko, E.G.; Glalolenko, Y.V.; Mokrov, Y.G.; Ivanov, I.A.; Glagolev, A.V.; Vasil`kova, N.A.

    1996-10-30

    A group of scientists from the Savannah River Technology Center and Russia successfully completed a 17 day field investigation of a fractured rock aquifer at the MAYAK PA nuclear production facility in Russia. The test site is located in the western Siberian Basin near the floodplain of the Mishelyak river. The fractured rock aquifer is composed of orphyrites, tuff, tuffbreccia and lava and is overlain by 0.5--12 meters of elluvial and alluvial sediments. A network of 3 uncased wells (176, 1/96, and 2/96) was used to conduct the tests. Wells 176 and 2/96 were used as observation wells and the centrally located well 1/96 was used as the pumping well. Six packers were installed and inflated in each of the observation wells at a depth of up to 85 meters. The use of 6 packers in each well resulted in isolating 7 zones for monitoring. The packers were inflated to different pressures to accommodate the increasing hydrostatic pressure. A straddle packer assembly was installed in the pumping well to allow testing of each of the individual zones isolated in the observation wells. A constant rate pumping test was run on each of the 7 zones. The results of the pumping tests are included in Appendix A. The test provided new information about the nature of the fractured rock aquifers in the vicinity of the Mishelyak river and will be key information in understanding the behavior of contaminants originating from process wastes discharged to Lake Karachi. Results from the tests will be analyzed to determine the hydraulic properties of different zones within the fractured rock aquifer and to determine the most cost effective clean-up approach for the site.

  15. Fracture porosimeter: a new tool for determining fracture conductivity under downhole stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendorff, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    This work describes a procedure for determining fracture conductivity at down-hole stresses. The embedment and crushing of proppant between rock samples from a specific formation are measured at closure stresses. The conductivities of fractures propped with various proppants can be determined rather quickly. As a result, the procedure can supply information useful in determining optimum fracture treatment for a specific well. In the procedure, samples of formation and proppants are placed in an appropriate confinement chamber. Closure stresses are applied and fracture conductivity can be calculated. The study includes examples of permeability and surface areas of conventional proppants. Fracture conductivity determinations, made with a variety of formations and proppants, indicate how this procedure can be useful when making decisions concerning fracture treatment design. An improvement in equipment design also is presented. 11 references.

  16. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.; Basher, A.M.H.

    1996-09-01

    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical results are included.

  17. Infiltration and Seepage Through Fractured Welded Tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Ghezzehei; P.F. Dobson; J.A. Rodriguez; P.J. Cook

    2006-06-20

    The Nopal I mine in Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico, contains a uranium ore deposit within fractured tuff. Previous mining activities exposed a level ground surface 8 m above an excavated mining adit. In this paper, we report results of ongoing research to understand and model percolation through the fractured tuff and seepage into a mined adit both of which are important processes for the performance of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Travel of water plumes was modeled using one-dimensional numerical and analytical approaches. Most of the hydrologic properly estimates were calculated from mean fracture apertures and fracture density. Based on the modeling results, we presented constraints for the arrival time and temporal pattern of seepage at the adit.

  18. Fracture of surface cracks loaded in bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chao, Y.J.; Reuter, W.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical background of the constraint effect in brittle fracture of solids is reviewed. Fracture test data from D6-aC, a high strength steel, using three-point-bend (SE(B)) specimens and surface cracked plate (SC(B)) specimens under bending are presented. It is shown that the SE(B) data has an elevated fracture toughness for increasing a/W, i.e., a crack geometry with a larger T/K corresponds to a higher K{sub c} which is consistent with the theoretical prediction. The fundamental fracture properties, i.e., the critical strain and the critical distance, determined from the SE(B) test data are then applied to the interpretation and prediction of the SC(B) test data. Reasonable agreement is achieved for the crack growth initiation site and the load.

  19. 3-D description of fracture surfaces and stress-sensitivity analysis for naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, S.Q.; Jioa, D.; Meng, Y.F.; Fan, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Three kinds of reservoir cores (limestone, sandstone, and shale with natural fractures) were used to study the effect of morphology of fracture surfaces on stress sensitivity. The cores, obtained from the reservoirs with depths of 2170 to 2300 m, have fractures which are mated on a large scale, but unmated on a fine scale. A specially designed photoelectric scanner with a computer was used to describe the topography of the fracture surfaces. Then, theoretical analysis of the fracture closure was carried out based on the fracture topography generated. The scanning results show that the asperity has almost normal distributions for all three types of samples. For the tested samples, the fracture closure predicted by the elastic-contact theory is different from the laboratory measurements because plastic deformation of the aspirates plays an important role under the testing range of normal stresses. In this work, the traditionally used elastic-contact theory has been modified to better predict the stress sensitivity of reservoir fractures. Analysis shows that the standard deviation of the probability density function of asperity distribution has a great effect on the fracture closure rate.

  20. Unsaturated fractured rock characterization methods and data sets at the Apache Leap Tuff Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.; Sheets, P.J.; Blanford, J.H. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources

    1990-08-01

    Performance assessment of high-level nuclear waste containment feasibility requires representative values of parameters as input, including parameter moments, distributional characteristics, and covariance structures between parameters. To meet this need, characterization methods and data sets for interstitial, hydraulic, pneumatic and thermal parameters for a slightly welded fractured tuff at the Apache Leap Tuff Site situated in central Arizona are reported in this document. The data sets include the influence of matric suction on measured parameters. Spatial variability is investigated by sampling along nine boreholes at regular distances. Laboratory parameter estimates for 105 core segments are provided, as well as field estimates centered on the intervals where the core segments were collected. Measurement uncertainty is estimated by repetitively testing control samples. 31 refs., 10 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. TRITIUM EFFECTS ON WELDMENT FRACTURE TOUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, M; Michael Tosten, M; Scott West, S

    2006-07-17

    The effects of tritium on the fracture toughness properties of Type 304L stainless steel and its weldments were measured. Fracture toughness data are needed for assessing tritium reservoir structural integrity. This report provides data from J-Integral fracture toughness tests on unexposed and tritium-exposed weldments. The effect of tritium on weldment toughness has not been measured until now. The data include tests on tritium-exposed weldments after aging for up to three years to measure the effect of increasing decay helium concentration on toughness. The results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel weldments have high fracture toughness and are resistant to tritium aging effects on toughness. For unexposed alloys, weldment fracture toughness was higher than base metal toughness. Tritium-exposed-and-aged base metals and weldments had lower toughness values than unexposed ones but still retained good toughness properties. In both base metals and weldments there was an initial reduction in fracture toughness after tritium exposure but little change in fracture toughness values with increasing helium content in the range tested. Fracture modes occurred by the dimpled rupture process in unexposed and tritium-exposed steels and welds. This corroborates further the resistance of Type 304L steel to tritium embrittlement. This report fulfills the requirements for the FY06 Level 3 milestone, TSR15.3 ''Issue summary report for tritium reservoir material aging studies'' for the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign (ESC). The milestone was in support of ESC L2-1866 Milestone-''Complete an annual Enhanced Surveillance stockpile aging assessment report to support the annual assessment process''.

  2. Poroelastic response of orthotropic fractured porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-12-01

    An algorithm is presented for inverting either laboratory or field poroelastic data for all the drained constants of an anisotropic (specifically orthotropic) fractured poroelastic system. While fractures normally weaken the system by increasing the mechanical compliance, any liquids present in these fractures are expected to increase the stiffness somewhat, thus negating to some extent the mechanical weakening influence of the fractures themselves. The analysis presented quantifies these effects and shows that the key physical variable needed to account for the pore-fluid effects is a factor of (1 - B), where B is Skempton's second coe#14;fficient and satisfies 0 {<=} #20; B < 1. This scalar factor uniformly reduces the increase in compliance due to the presence of communicating fractures, thereby stiffening the fractured composite medium by a predictable amount. One further goal of the discussion is to determine how many of the poroelastic constants need to be known by other means in order to determine the rest from remote measurements, such as seismic wave propagation data in the field. Quantitative examples arising in the analysis show that, if the fracture aspect ratio a{sub f} ~ 0.1 and the pore fluid is liquid water, then for several cases considered Skempton's B ~ 0:9, so the stiffening effect of the pore-liquid reduces the change in compliance due to the fractures by a factor 1-B ~ 0.1, in these examples. The results do however depend on the actual moduli of the unfractured elastic material, as well as on the pore-liquid bulk modulus, so these quantitative predictions are just examples, and should not be treated as universal results. Attention is also given to two previously unremarked poroelastic identities, both being useful variants of Gassmann's equations for homogeneous -- but anisotropic -- poroelasticity. Relationships to Skempton's analysis of saturated soils are also noted. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternative methods of analyzing and quantifying fluid-substitution behavior in poroelastic systems, especially for those systems having heterogeneous constitution.

  3. Effects of fracture distribution and length scale on the equivalent

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effects of fracture distribution and length scale on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of fracture distribution and length scale on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses Authors: Gutierrez, Marte ; Youn, Dong-Joon Publication Date: 2015-12-01 OSTI Identifier: 1224355 Grant/Contract

  4. NFFLOW: A reservoir simulator incorporating explicit fractures (SPE 153890)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, E.J.; Sams, W.N.

    2012-01-01

    NFFLOW is a research code that quickly and inexpensively simulates flow in moderately fractured reservoirs. It explicitly recognizes fractures separately from rock matrix. In NFFLOW fracture flow is proportional to the pressure gradient along the fracture, and flow in the rock matrix is determined by Darcys Law. The two flow mechanisms are coupled through the pressure gradient between a fracture and its adjacent rock matrix. Presented is a promising change to NFFLOW that allows for flow across a rock matrix block.

  5. Determining Columbia and Snake River Project Tailrace and Forebay Zones of Hydraulic Influence using MASS2 Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.

    2010-12-01

    Although fisheries biology studies are frequently performed at US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) projects along the Columbia and Snake Rivers, there is currently no consistent definition of the ``forebay'' and ``tailrace'' regions for these studies. At this time, each study may use somewhat arbitrary lines (e.g., the Boat Restriction Zone) to define the upstream and downstream limits of the study, which may be significantly different at each project. Fisheries researchers are interested in establishing a consistent definition of project forebay and tailrace regions for the hydroelectric projects on the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The Hydraulic Extent of a project was defined by USACE (Brad Eppard, USACE-CENWP) as follows: The river reach directly upstream (forebay) and downstream (tailrace) of a project that is influenced by the normal range of dam operations. Outside this reach, for a particular river discharge, changes in dam operations cannot be detected by hydraulic measurement. The purpose of this study was to, in consultation with USACE and regional representatives, develop and apply a consistent set of criteria for determining the hydraulic extent of each of the projects in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. A 2D depth-averaged river model, MASS2, was applied to the Snake and Columbia Rivers. New computational meshes were developed most reaches and the underlying bathymetric data updated to the most current survey data. The computational meshes resolved each spillway bay and turbine unit at each project and extended from project to project. MASS2 was run for a range of total river flows and each flow for a range of project operations at each project. The modeled flow was analyzed to determine the range of velocity magnitude differences and the range of flow direction differences at each location in the computational mesh for each total river flow. Maps of the differences in flow direction and velocity magnitude were created. USACE fishery biologists requested data analysis to determine the project hydraulic extent based on the following criteria: 1) For areas where the mean velocities are less than 4 ft/s, the water velocity differences between operations are not greater than 0.5 ft/sec and /or the differences in water flow direction are not greater than 10 degrees, 2) If mean water velocity is 4.0 ft/second or greater the boundary is determined using the differences in water flow direction (i.e., not greater than 10 degrees). Based on these criteria, and excluding areas with a mean velocity of less than 0.1 ft/s (within the error of the model), a final set of graphics were developed that included data from all flows and all operations. Although each hydroelectric project has a different physical setting, there were some common results. The downstream hydraulic extent tended to be greater than the hydraulic extent in the forebay. The hydraulic extent of the projects tended to be larger at the mid-range flows. At higher flows, the channel geometry tends to reduce the impact of project operations.

  6. 2015 NHA Hydraulic Power Committee (HPC) Fall Retreat

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join us for the 2015 Hydraulic Power Committee Fall retreat October 4–7, 2015 in Birmingham, Alabama. The event is open to all NHA member companies and invited guests, including owners and...

  7. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop degradation-resistant nano-coatings of AlMgB14 and AlMgB14 (titanium diboride) TiB2 that result in improved surface hardness and reduced friction for industrial hydraulic and tooling systems.

  8. Hydraulic actuator for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imam, Imdad

    1983-01-01

    This actuator comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit breaker opening operation. The breaker-opening space and the breaker-closing space are connected by an impeded flow passage. A pilot valve opens to allow the pressurized liquid in the breaker-closing space to flow to a back chamber of a normally closed main valve to cause the main valve to be opened during a circuit breaker opening operation to release the pressurized liquid from the breaker-closing space. An impeded passage affords communication between the back chamber and a sump located on the opposite side of the main valve from the back chamber. The pilot valve and impeded passage allow rapid opening of the main valve with pressurized liquid from the breaker closing side of the piston.

  9. Hydraulic actuator for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imam, I.

    1983-05-17

    This actuator comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit breaker opening operation. The breaker-opening space and the breaker-closing space are connected by an impeded flow passage. A pilot valve opens to allow the pressurized liquid in the breaker-closing space to flow to a back chamber of a normally closed main valve to cause the main valve to be opened during a circuit breaker opening operation to release the pressurized liquid from the breaker-closing space. An impeded passage affords communication between the back chamber and a sump located on the opposite side of the main valve from the back chamber. The pilot valve and impeded passage allow rapid opening of the main valve with pressurized liquid from the breaker closing side of the piston. 3 figs.

  10. fwp406-408-409-LANL-1 | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resourses Experimental Study of In Situ Fracture Generation and Fluid Migration in Shale Last Reviewed 12/2/2015 FWP FE 406/408/409 Goal Hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas resources is inefficient with recoveries at less than 15 percent. One of the limitations to improving efficiency is the lack of knowledge of the fundamental properties of the fracture network generated by hydraulic fracturing operations. In the field, the ability to observe fracture and flow consists mostly of

  11. Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

  12. Observation of Cleavage Fracture after Substantial Dimple Rupture in ASTM A710 Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reuter, Walter Graham; Lloyd, Wilson Randolph

    2000-07-01

    A major concern often arising in structural integrity predictions is the possibility that low-energy brittle fracture could result as a consequence of cleavage either under normal operating or design accident conditions. This can be especially troublesome when the leak-before-break (LBB) approach shows an additional safety margin of the design. For LBB to be applicable, the fracture process must remain ductile (dimple rupture), and not change to cleavage. The American Society for Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (Code) provides guidelines for avoiding cleavage fracture for Code-accepted materials. Experimental results for a non-Code steel are provided, and show that cleavage may occur for a thickness under16 mm (where the code suggests it will not) after stable crack growth (?a) of up to 20 mm. This work is still in progress; test results are provided along with possible reasons for the mode transition, but complete explanations are still being developed.

  13. Helium Loop Cooling Channel Hydraulic Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivas, Eric Richard; Morgan, Robert Vaughn; Woloshun, Keith Albert

    2015-07-02

    New methods for generating ??Mo are being explored in an effort to eliminate proliferation issues and provide a domestic supply of ??mTc for medical imaging. Electron accelerating technology is used by sending an electron beam through a series of ??Mo targets. During this process a large amount of heat is created, which directly affects the operating temperature set for the system. In order to maintain the required temperature range, helium gas is used to serve as a cooling agent that flows through narrow channels between the target disks. Currently we are tailoring the cooling channel entrance and exits to decrease the pressure drop through the targets. Currently all hardware has be procured and manufactured to conduct flow measurements and visualization via solid particle seeder. Pressure drop will be studied as a function of mass flow and diffuser angle. The results from these experiments will help in determining target cooling geometry and validate CFD code results.

  14. Engine with hydraulic fuel injection and ABS circuit using a single high pressure pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-01-01

    An engine system comprises a hydraulically actuated fuel injection system and an ABS circuit connected via a fluid flow passage that provides hydraulic fluid to both the fuel injection system and to the ABS circuit. The hydraulically actuated system includes a high pressure pump. The fluid control passage is in fluid communication with an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  15. Fracture porosimeter--a new tool for determining fracture conductivity under downhole stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wedorff, C.L.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes a new, fast, simplified procedure for determining fracture conductivity at downhole stresses. The embedment and crushing of proppant between rock samples from a specific formation are measured at closure stresses. The conductivities of fractures propped with various proppants can be determined rather quickly. As a result, the procedure can supply information useful in determining optimum fracture treatment for a specific well. In the new procedure, samples of formation and proppants are placed in an appropriate confinement chamber. Closure stresses are applied and fracture conductivity can be calculated. A proppant data base obtained using a modified Cooke conductivity test unit includes permeabilities, porosities and fracture widths measured over a range of closure stresses. These properties are dependent upon the type and amount of proppant tested and the stress applied. The paper includes examples of permeability and surface areas of conventional proppants. Fracture conductivity determinations, made with a variety of formations and proppants, indicate how this procedure can be useful when making decisions concerning fracture treatment design. An improvement in equipment design is also presented. The use of a Hoek triaxial cell as a fracture porosimeter allows the application of both closure and confining stresses, thus more closely simulating downhole conditions.

  16. Method for fracturing silicon-carbide coatings on nuclear-fuel particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Lloyd J.; Willey, Melvin G.; Tiegs, Sue M.; Van Cleve, Jr., John E.

    1982-01-01

    This invention is a device for fracturing particles. It is designed especially for use in "hot cells" designed for the handling of radioactive materials. In a typical application, the device is used to fracture a hard silicon-carbide coating present on carbon-matrix microspheres containing nuclear-fuel material, such as uranium or thorium compounds. To promote remote control and facilitate maintenance, the particle breaker is pneumatically operated and contains no moving parts. It includes means for serially entraining the entrained particles on an anvil housed in a leak-tight chamber. The flow rate of the gas is at a value effecting fracture of the particles; preferably, it is at a value fracturing them into product particulates of fluidizable size. The chamber is provided with an outlet passage whose cross-sectional area decreases in the direction away from the chamber. The outlet is connected tangentially to a vertically oriented vortex-flow separator for recovering the product particulates entrained in the gas outflow from the chamber. The invention can be used on a batch or continuous basis to fracture the silicon-carbide coatings on virtually all of the particles fed thereto.

  17. Device for fracturing silicon-carbide coatings on nuclear-fuel particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, L.J.; Willey, M.G.; Tiegs, S.M.; Van Cleve, J.E. Jr.

    This invention is a device for fracturing particles. It is designed especially for use in hot cells designed for the handling of radioactive materials. In a typical application, the device is used to fracture a hard silicon-carbide coating present on carbon-matrix microspheres containing nuclear-fuel materials, such as uranium or thorium compounds. To promote remote control and facilitate maintenance, the particle breaker is pneumatically operated and contains no moving parts. It includes means for serially entraining the entrained particles on an anvil housed in a leak-tight chamber. The flow rate of the gas is at a value effecting fracture of the particles; preferably, it is at a value fracturing them into product particulates of fluidizable size. The chamber is provided with an outlet passage whose cross-sectional area decreases in the direction away from the chamber. The outlet is connected tangentially to a vertically oriented vortex-flow separator for recovering the product particulates entrained in the gas outflow from the chamber. The invention can be used on a batch or continuous basis to fracture the silicon-carbide coatings on virtually all of the particles fed thereto.

  18. Operational Excellence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operational Excellence /about/_assets/images/icon-70th.jpg Operational Excellence The Lab's mission is to develop and apply science and technology to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve other emerging national security and energy challenges. aeiral shot of los alamos, new mexico What Los Alamos gets done as a premier national security science laboratory depends on how we do it The Laboratory's operations and business

  19. Operations Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Research Analysts The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) within the Department of Energy has forged a world-class information program that stresses quality, teamwork, and employee growth. In support of our program, we offer a variety of profes- sional positions, including the Operations Research Analyst, whose work is associated with the development and main- tenance of energy modeling systems. Responsibilities: Operations Research Analysts perform or participate in one or

  20. SPEAR Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interface 1113 N. Kurita J. Langton Vacuum TSP's 1120 J. Corbett A. Terebilo MATLAB Applications - Basics 1121 F. Rafael Booster Kicker Upgrade, Operation Manual 1121...

  1. operations center

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    servers and other critical Operations Center equipment

  2. Independent air supply system filtered to protect against biological and radiological agents (99.7%).
  3. <...

  4. Status Report for Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 1.B Physical and Hydraulic Properties Database and Interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-09-26

    The objective of Activity 1.B of the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the objectives of Activity 1.B of the RDS Project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft Access database files used by SoilVision{reg_sign} into HEIS, which has most recently been maintained by Fluor-Hanford, Inc., (3) develop a Virtual Library module for accessing these data from HEIS, and (4) write a User's Manual for the Virtual Library module. The development of the Virtual Library module was to be performed by a third party under subcontract to Fluor. The intent of these activities is to make the available physical and hydraulic property data more readily accessible and useable by technical staff and operable unit managers involved in waste site assessments and remedial action decisions for Hanford. This status report describes the history of this development effort and progress to date.

  5. Operational Area Monitoring Plan

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    and federal regulatory requirements referenced herein. ... fracturing tight rock formations to increase natural gas flow. ... The only permanent land mammal is the Norway rat. At the ...

  6. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR Plant. Volume 6. Failure mode analysis load combination program. Project I, final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streit, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    Material properties and failure criteria were evaluated to assess the requirements for double-ended guillotine break in the primary coolant loop of the Zion Unit 1 pressurized water reactor. The properties of the 316 stainless steel piping materials were obtained from the literature. Statistical distributions of both the tensile and fracture properties at room and operating temperatures were developed. Yield and ultimate strength tensile properties were combined to estimate the material flow strength. The flow strength and fracture properties were used in the various failure models analyzed. Linear-elastic, elastic-plastic, and fully plastic fracture models were compared, and the governing fracture criterion was determined. For the particular case studied, the fully plastic requirement was found to be the controlling fracture criterion leading to a double-ended guillotine pipe break.

  7. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  8. Hydraulic engine valve actuation system including independent feedback control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D

    2013-06-04

    A hydraulic valve actuation assembly may include a housing, a piston, a supply control valve, a closing control valve, and an opening control valve. The housing may define a first fluid chamber, a second fluid chamber, and a third fluid chamber. The piston may be axially secured to an engine valve and located within the first, second and third fluid chambers. The supply control valve may control a hydraulic fluid supply to the piston. The closing control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the second fluid chamber to the supply control valve. The opening control valve may be located between the supply control valve and the second fluid chamber and may control fluid flow from the supply control valve to the second fluid chamber.

  9. Origin of reservoir fractures in Little Knife field, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narr, W.; Burrus, R.C.

    1984-09-01

    Thin, vertical, planar fractures observed in the Mission Canyon Formation, at the Little Knife field, are naturally occurring and appear to be extension fractures. The predominant east-west trend of the fractures, measured in oriented core from six wells, parallels the contemporary maximum horizontal compressive stress in the Williston basin. The fractures occur only in carbonate units, but within the carbonates their occurrence is not lithology dependent. Fracture density measured in the cores of the reservoir carbonates averages 1 ft (.3 m) of fracture per 2.3 ft (.7 m) of core. The formation and mineralization of reservoir fractures were the most recent diagenetic events in the Mission Canyon Formation at Little Knife. Study of aqueous and hydrocarbon fluid inclusions associated with the fractures reveals: (1) fractures formed after the strata were buried to at least their present depth of 9,800 ft (2,987 m), which indicates their age is post-Mesozoic; (2) the pore-fluid pressure gradient was normal hydrostatic immediately after, if not during, fracture system development; (3) formation-water salinity has remained fairly constant since fracture initiation; (4) migration of hydrocarbons into the reservoir probably preceded fracture genesis; and (5) methane concentration may have decreased since fracture initiation.

  10. Partially penetrating fractures: Pressure transient analysis of an infinite conductivity fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, F.; Cinco-Ley, H.; Horne, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of the partial penetration of an infinite conductivity fracture on the transient pressure behavior of a vertically fractured well is investigated. Analysis of results shows that the pressure behavior of a well intersected by a partially-penetrating infinite conductivity vertical fracture can be divided into three flow periods: 1) the early time flow period which is characterized by a formation linear flow as in the case of a fully-penetrating infinite-conductivity vertical fracture, 2) the infinite-acting flow period and 3) the pseudoradial flow period which develops after the effects of the vertical boundaries of the reservoir are felt in the pressure behavior of the well. A log-log graph of log(h /SUB f/ /h)p /SUB wD/ versus log t /SUB Dxf/ shows a slope of one half during the early time flow period of a well with an infinite-conductivity partially penetrating fracture. The time for the end of the early time flow period is directly related to the square of the dimensionless height of the fracture, h /SUB fD/, which is defined as the ratio between the height of the fracture and its half length.

  11. Tectonic controls on fracture permeability in a geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickman, S.; Zoback, M.

    1998-08-01

    To help determine the nature and origins of permeability variations within a fault-hosted geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley, Nevada, the authors conducted borehole televiewer logging and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in six wells drilled into the Stillwater fault zone at depths of 2--3 km. Televiewer logs from wells penetrating the highly permeable portion of the fault zone revealed extensive drilling-induced tensile fractures. As the Stillwater fault at this location dips S45{degree}E at {approximately} 53{degree} it is nearly at the optimal orientation for normal faulting in the current stress field. Hydraulic fracturing tests from these permeable wells show that the magnitude of S{sub hmin} is very low relative to the vertical stress S{sub v}. Similar measurements conducted in two wells penetrating a relatively impermeable segment of the Stillwater fault zone 8 and 20 km southwest of the producing geothermal reservoir indicate that the orientation of S{sub hmin} is S20{degree}E and S41{degree}E, respectively, with S{sub hmin}/S{sub v} ranging from 0.55--0.64 at depths of 1.9--2.2 km. This stress orientation is near optimal for normal faulting on the Stillwater fault in the northernmost non-producing well, but {approximately} 40{degree} rotated from the optimal orientation for normal faulting in the southernmost well. The observation that borehole breakouts were present in these nonproducing wells, but absent in wells drilled into the permeable main reservoir, indicates a significant increase in the magnitude of maximum horizontal principal stress, S{sub Hmax}, in going from the producing to non-producing segments of the fault. The increase in S{sub Hmaz}, coupled with elevated S{sub hmin}/S{sub v} values and a misorientation of the Stillwater fault zone with respect to the principal stress directions, leads to a decrease in the proximity of the fault zone to Coulomb failure. This suggests that a necessary condition for high reservoir permeability is that the Stillwater fault zone be critically stressed for frictional failure in the current stress field.

  12. Coupled Monte Carlo neutronics and thermal hydraulics for power reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernnat, W.; Buck, M.; Mattes, M.; Zwermann, W.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K.

    2012-07-01

    The availability of high performance computing resources enables more and more the use of detailed Monte Carlo models even for full core power reactors. The detailed structure of the core can be described by lattices, modeled by so-called repeated structures e.g. in Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP5 or MCNPX. For cores with mainly uniform material compositions, fuel and moderator temperatures, there is no problem in constructing core models. However, when the material composition and the temperatures vary strongly a huge number of different material cells must be described which complicate the input and in many cases exceed code or memory limits. The second problem arises with the preparation of corresponding temperature dependent cross sections and thermal scattering laws. Only if these problems can be solved, a realistic coupling of Monte Carlo neutronics with an appropriate thermal-hydraulics model is possible. In this paper a method for the treatment of detailed material and temperature distributions in MCNP5 is described based on user-specified internal functions which assign distinct elements of the core cells to material specifications (e.g. water density) and temperatures from a thermal-hydraulics code. The core grid itself can be described with a uniform material specification. The temperature dependency of cross sections and thermal neutron scattering laws is taken into account by interpolation, requiring only a limited number of data sets generated for different temperatures. Applications will be shown for the stationary part of the Purdue PWR benchmark using ATHLET for thermal- hydraulics and for a generic Modular High Temperature reactor using THERMIX for thermal- hydraulics. (authors)

  13. Creation of an Engineered Geothermal System through Hydraulic and Thermal

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Stimulation | Department of Energy Project objectives: To create an Enhanced Geothermal System on the margin of the Cosofield through the hydraulic, thermal, and/or chemical stimulation of one or more tight injection wells; To increase the productivity of the Cosofield by 10 MWe; To develop and calibrate geomechanical, geochemical, and fluid flow models in order to extend the Coso/EGS concepts to wherever appropriate tectonic and thermal conditions apply. PDF icon

  14. Compartmentalization analysis using discrete fracture network models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Pointe, P.R.; Eiben, T.; Dershowitz, W.; Wadleigh, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper illustrates how Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) technology can serve as a basis for the calculation of reservoir engineering parameters for the development of fractured reservoirs. It describes the development of quantitative techniques for defining the geometry and volume of structurally controlled compartments. These techniques are based on a combination of stochastic geometry, computational geometry, and graph the theory. The parameters addressed are compartment size, matrix block size and tributary drainage volume. The concept of DFN models is explained and methodologies to compute these parameters are demonstrated.

  15. Fracture Toughness Prediction for MWCNT Reinforced Ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development of a micromechanics model to predict fracture toughness of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced ceramic composites to guide future experimental work for this project. The modeling work described in this report includes (i) prediction of elastic properties, (ii) development of a mechanistic damage model accounting for matrix cracking to predict the composite nonlinear stress/strain response to tensile loading to failure, and (iii) application of this damage model in a modified boundary layer (MBL) analysis using ABAQUS to predict fracture toughness and crack resistance behavior (R-curves) for ceramic materials containing MWCNTs at various volume fractions.

  16. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  17. MULTI-PHASE FRACTURE-MATRIX INTERACTIONS UNDER STRESS CHANGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Grader; D. Elsworth; P.M. Halleck; F. Alvarado; A. Alajmi; Z. Karpyn; N. Mohammed; S. Al-Enezi

    2005-06-15

    The main objectives of this project are to quantify the changes in fracture porosity and multiphase transport properties as a function of confining stress. These changes will be integrated into conceptual and numerical models that will improve our ability to predict and optimize fluid transport in fractured system. This report details our progress on: (a) developing the direct experimental measurements of fracture aperture and topology and fluid occupancy using high-resolution x-ray micro-tomography, (b) quantifying the effect of confining stress on the distribution of fracture aperture, and (c) characterization of shear fractures and their impact on multi-phase flow. The three-dimensional surface that describes the large-scale structure of the fracture in the porous medium can be determined using x-ray micro-tomography with significant accuracy. Several fractures have been scanned and the fracture aperture maps have been extracted. The success of the mapping of fracture aperture was followed by measuring the occupancy of the fracture by two immiscible phases, water and decane, and water and kerosene. The distribution of fracture aperture depends on the effective confining stress on the nature of the rock and the type and distribution of the asperities that keep the fracture open. Fracture apertures at different confining stresses were obtained by micro-tomography covering a range of about two thousand psig. Initial analysis of the data shows a significant aperture closure with increase in effective confining stress. Visual descriptions of the process are shown in the report while detailed analysis of the behavior of the distribution of fracture aperture is in progress. Both extensional and shear fractures are being considered. The initial multi-phase flow tests were done in extensional fractures. Several rock samples with induced shear fracture are being studied, and some of the new results are presented in this report. These samples are being scanned in order to quantify the distribution of apertures and the nature of the asperities. Low resolution images of fluids in a sample with a shear fracture were performed and they provide the confidence that flow patterns and saturations could be determined in the future. A series of water imbibition tests were conducted in which water was injected into a fracture and its migration into the matrix was monitored with CT and DR x-ray techniques. The objective is to understand the impact of the fracture, its topology and occupancy on the nature of mass transfer between the matrix and the fracture. Counter-current imbibition next to the fracture was observed and quantified, including the influence of formation layering.

  18. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Designing reliable MEMS structures presents numerous challenges. Polycrystalline silicon fractures in a brittle manner with considerable variability in measured strength. ...

  19. Modification of fracture surfaces by dissolution. Part II (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 58 GEOSCIENCES; 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; QUARTZ; DISSOLUTION; QUARTZITES; ROCK-FLUID INTERACTIONS; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; FRACTURES; SODIUM CARBONATES; ...

  20. Experimental and Analytical Research on Fracture Processes in ROck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert H.. Einstein; Jay Miller; Bruno Silva

    2009-02-27

    Experimental studies on fracture propagation and coalescence were conducted which together with previous tests by this group on gypsum and marble, provide information on fracturing. Specifically, different fracture geometries wsere tested, which together with the different material properties will provide the basis for analytical/numerical modeling. INitial steps on the models were made as were initial investigations on the effect of pressurized water on fracture coalescence.

  21. Method for describing fractures in subterranean earth formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-01-01

    The configuration and directional orientation of natural or induced fractures in subterranean earth formations are described by introducing a liquid explosive into the fracture, detonating the explosive, and then monitoring the resulting acoustic emissions with strategically placed acoustic sensors as the explosion propagates through the fracture at a known rate.

  22. Aligned vertical fractures, HTI reservoir symmetry, and Thomsenseismic anisotropy parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, James G.

    2007-06-27

    The Sayers and Kachanov (1991) crack-influence parametersare shown to be directly related to Thomsen (1986) weak-anisotropyseismic parameters for fractured reservoirs when the crack density issmall enough. These results are then applied to seismic wave propagationin reservoirs having HTI symmetry due to aligned vertical fractures. Theapproach suggests a method of inverting for fracture density from wavespeed data.

  1. San Juan Fracture Characterization Project: Status and current results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, E.L.; Daley, T.M.; Myer, L.R.; Nihei, K.; Queen, J.; Sinton, J.; Murphy, J.; Fortuna, M.; Lynn, H.B.; Imhoff, M.A.; Wilson, R.

    2001-02-26

    The overall objectives of this report are to extend current state-of-the-art 3-D imaging to extract the optimal information for fracture quantification and to develop next generation capability in fracture imaging for true 3-D imaging of the static and dynamic fracture properties.

  2. Transient Non Lin Deformation in Fractured Rock

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-10-14

    MATLOC is a nonlinear, transient, two-dimensional (planer and axisymmetric), thermal stress, finite-element code designed to determine the deformation within a fractured rock mass. The mass is modeled as a nonlinear anistropic elastic material which can exhibit stress-dependent bi-linear locking behavior.

  3. Analytical modeling of a hydraulically-compensated compressed-air energy-storage system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMonagle, C.A.; Rowe, D.S.

    1982-12-01

    A computer program was developed to calculate the dynamic response of a hydraulically-compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) system, including the compressor, air pipe, cavern, and hydraulic compensation pipe. The model is theoretically based on the two-fluid model in which the dynamics of each phase are presented by its set of conservation equations for mass and momentum. The conservation equations define the space and time distribution of pressure, void fraction, air saturation, and phase velocities. The phases are coupled by two interface equations. The first defines the rate of generation (or dissolution) of gaseous air in water and can include the effects of supersaturation. The second defines the frictional shear coupling (drag) between the gaseous air and water as they move relative to each other. The relative motion of the air and water is, therefore, calculated and not specified by a slip or drift-velocity correlation. The total CASE system is represented by a nodal arrangement. The conservation equations are written for each nodal volume and are solved numerically. System boundary conditions include the air flow rate, atmospheric pressure at the top of the compensation pipe, and air saturation in the reservoir. Initial conditions are selected for velocity and air saturation. Uniform and constant temperature (60/sup 0/F) is assumed. The analytical model was used to investigate the dynamic response of a proposed system.Investigative calculations considered high and low water levels, and a variety of charging and operating conditions. For all cases investigated, the cavern response to air-charging, was a damped oscillation of pressure and flow. Detailed results are presented. These calculations indicate that the Champagne Effect is unlikely to cause blowout for a properly designed CAES system.

  4. Internal hydraulic analysis of impeller rounding in centrifugal pumps as turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Punit; Nestmann, Franz [Institute of Water and River Basin Management (IWG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiser Str. 12, D 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The use of pumps as turbines in different applications has been gaining importance in the recent years, but the subject of hydraulic optimization still remains an open research problem. One of these optimization techniques that include rounding of the sharp edges at the impeller periphery (or turbine inlet) has shown tendencies of performance enhancement. In order to understand the effect of this hydraulic optimization, the paper introduces an analytical model in the pump as turbine control volume and brings out the functionalities of the internal variables classified under control variables consisting of the system loss coefficient and exit relative flow direction and under dependent variables consisting of net tangential flow velocity, net head and efficiency. The paper studies the effects of impeller rounding on a combination of radial flow and mixed flow pumps as turbines using experimental data. The impeller rounding is seen to have positive impact on the overall efficiency in different operating regions with an improvement in the range of 1-3%. The behaviour of the two control variables have been elaborately studied in which it is found that the system loss coefficient has reduced drastically due to rounding effects, while the extent of changes to the exit relative flow direction seems to be limited in comparison. The reasons for changes to these control variables have been physically interpreted and attributed to the behaviour of the wake zone at the turbine inlet and circulation within the impeller control volume. The larger picture of impeller rounding has been discussed in comparison with performance prediction models in pumps as turbines. The possible limitations of the analytical model as well as the test setup are also presented. The paper concludes that the impeller rounding technique is very important for performance optimization and recommends its application on all pump as turbine projects. It also recommends the standardization of the rounding effects over wide range of pump shapes including axial pumps. (author)

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF VADOSE-ZONE HYDRAULIC PARAMETER VALUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ROGERS PM

    2008-01-21

    Several approaches have been developed to establish a relation between the soil-moisture retention curve and readily available soil properties. Those relationships are referred to as pedotransfer functions. Described in this paper are the rationale, approach, and corroboration for use of a nonparametric pedotransfer function for the estimation of soil hydraulic-parameter values at the yucca Mountain area in Nevada for simulations of net infiltration. This approach, shown to be applicable for use at Yucca Mountain, is also applicable for use at the Hanford Site where the underlying data were collected.

  6. Thermo-hydraulic Simulation of Pressurizer in Transient Cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardeshir, A.T.; Nematollahi, M.; Sepanloo, K.; Daneshvari, F.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a simulation of the pressure adjustment in the primary loop of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). A mathematical model is developed for the thermo-hydraulic behavior of pressurizer in transient cases (surge in or out) on the basis of concept of conservation of mass and energy in two phases. No restrictive assumptions have been made. A comparison with RELAP5/Mod3.2 data indicates good overall agreement. The model can be used as a good design verification tool for pressurizer vessels and associated pressure control devices. (authors)

  7. Upgrading the HFIR Thermal-Hydraulic Legacy Code Using COMSOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodey, Isaac T [ORNL] [ORNL; Arimilli, Rao V [ORNL] [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Modernization of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) thermal-hydraulic (TH) design and safety analysis capability is an important step in preparation for the conversion of the HFIR core from a high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Currently, an important part of the HFIR TH analysis is based on the legacy Steady State Heat Transfer Code (SSHTC), which adds much conservatism to the safety analysis. The multi-dimensional multi-physics capabilities of the COMSOL environment allow the analyst to relax the number and magnitude of conservatisms, imposed by the SSHTC, to present a more physical model of the TH aspect of the HFIR.

  8. Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Henry

    1982-01-01

    An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

  9. Advance plant severe accident/thermal hydraulic issues for ACRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kress, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    The ACRS has been reviewing various advance plant designs for certification. The most active reviews have been for the ABWR, AP600, and System 80+. We have completed the reviews for ABWR and System 80+ and are presently concentrating on AP600. The ACRS gave essentially unqualified certification approval for the two completed reviews, yet,,during the process of review a number of issues arose and the plant designs changed somewhat to accommodate some of the ACRS concerns. In this talk, I will describe some of the severe accident and thermal hydraulic related issues we discussed in our reviews.

  10. Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2009-03-31

    This report documents the requirements for transferring physical and hydraulic property data compiled by PNNL into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and one of their current site contractors - CH2M-Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library.1 These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft Access database files used by SoilVision{reg_sign} into HEIS, which is currently being maintained by CHRPC, (3) develop a Virtual Library module for accessing these data from HEIS, and (4) write a User's Manual for the Virtual Library module. The intent of these activities is to make the available physical and hydraulic property data more readily accessible and useable by technical staff and operable unit managers involved in waste site assessments and remedial action decisions for Hanford. In FY08 communications were established between PNNL and staff from Fluor-Hanford Co. (who formerly managed HEIS) to outline the design of a Virtual Library module that could be used to access the physical and hydraulic property data that are to be transferred into HEIS. Data dictionaries used by SoilVision{reg_sign} were also provided to Fluor-Hanford personnel (who are now with CHPRC). During ongoing work to ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data that currently reside in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database, it was recognized that further work would be required in this effort before the data were actually ported into HEIS. Therefore work on the Virtual Library module development and an accompanying User's Guide was deferred until an unspecified later date. In FY09 efforts have continued to verify the traceability and defensibility of the physical and hydraulic property datasets that are currently being maintained by PNNL. Although this is a work in progress, several of these datasets should be ready for transfer to HEIS in the very near future. This document outlines a plan for the migration of these datasets into HEIS.

  11. Operating Strategies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operating Strategies and Design Recommendations for Mitigating Local Damage Effects in Offshore Turbine Blades Phillip W. Richards phillip@gatech.edu Graduate Research Assistant Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering Atlanta, Georgia, USA D. Todd Griffith dgriffi@sandia.gov Principal Member of the Technical Staff Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA Dewey H. Hodges dhodges@gatech.edu Professor Daniel Guggenheim School of Aerospace Engineering Atlanta, Georgia, USA

  12. CASL-U-2015-0055-000 CTF - A Thermal- Hydraulic ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5-000 CTF - A Thermal- Hydraulic Subchannel Code for LWRs Transient Analyses Users' Manual, Revision 0 Maria N. Avramova, Robert K. Salko Pennsylvania State University March 10,...

  13. Maximum allowable hydraulic ram force for heel jet removal Tank 241-C-106

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAULSEN, S.S.

    2003-01-10

    This document contains an evaluation of the maximum force that can be used to actuate the hydraulic ram assembly without causing permanent damage to the riser or pit.

  14. Joint Hydraulic Institute/ASAP Letter of March 30th - Clarification...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Point 2 Joint Hydraulic InstituteASAP Letter of March 30th - ... PDF icon AJointASAPHILtrDOE430 2012Final.pdf More Documents & Publications Energy ...

  15. Selection of stirling engine parameter and modes of joint operation with the Topaz II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirillov, E.Y.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Shalaev, A.I.

    1996-03-01

    In addition to a high-temperature thermionic conversion cycle, application of a low-temperature machine cycle, such as the Stirling engine, is being considered. To select the optimum mode for joint operation of the Topaz II system and Stirling engine, output electric parameters are obtained as a function of thermal power released in the TFE fuel cores. The hydraulic diagram used for joint operation of the Topaz II and the Stirling engine is considered. Requirements to hydraulic characteristics of the Stirling engine heat exchanges are formulated. Scope of necessary modifications to mount the Stirling Engine on the Topaz II is estimated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. 3D neutronic/thermal-hydraulic coupled analysis of MYRRHA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vazquez, M.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2012-07-01

    The current tendency in multiphysics calculations applied to reactor physics is the use of already validated computer codes, coupled by means of an iterative approach. In this paper such an approach is explained concerning neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupled analysis with MCNPX and COBRA-IV codes using a driver program and file exchange between codes. MCNPX provides the neutronic analysis of heterogeneous nuclear systems, both in critical and subcritical states, while COBRA-IV is a subchannel code that can be used for rod bundles or core thermal-hydraulics analysis. In our model, the MCNP temperature dependence of nuclear data is handled via pseudo-material approach, mixing pre-generated cross section data set to obtain the material with the desired cross section temperature. On the other hand, COBRA-IV has been updated to allow for the simulation of liquid metal cooled reactors. The coupled computational tool can be applied to any geometry and coolant, as it is the case of single fuel assembly, at pin-by-pin level, or full core simulation with the average pin of each fuel-assembly. The coupling tool has been applied to the critical core layout of the SCK-CEN MYRRHA concept, an experimental LBE cooled fast reactor presently in engineering design stage. (authors)

  17. Evolution of the sensor fish device for measuring physical conditions in sever hydraulic environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, J. P.

    2003-03-01

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new fish-friendly turbines, and spillway designs and operations, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. This report discusses the development and field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River, which have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  18. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  19. Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility thermal hydraulic analysis for Title II design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cramer, E.R.

    1994-11-10

    The purpose of this work was to provide the thermal hydraulic analysis for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Title II design. Temperature distributions throughout the tank structure were calculated for subsequent use in the structural analysis and in the safety evaluation. Calculated temperatures of critical areas were compared to design allowables. Expected operating parameters were calculated for use in the ventilation system design and in the environmental impact documentation. The design requirements were obtained from the MWTF Functional Design Criteria (FDC). The most restrictive temperature limit given in the FDC is the 200 limit for the haunch and dome steel and concrete. The temperature limit for the rest of the primary and secondary tanks and concrete base mat and supporting pad is 250 F. Also, the waste should not be allowed to boil. The tank geometry was taken from ICF Kaiser Engineers Hanford drawing ES-W236A-Z1, Revision 1, included here in Appendix B. Heat removal rates by evaporation from the waste surface were obtained from experimental data. It is concluded that the MWTF tank cooling system will meet the design temperature limits for the design heat load of 700,000 Btu/h, even if cooling flow is lost to the annulus region, and temperatures change very slowly during transients due to the high heat capacity of the tank structure and the waste. Accordingly, transients will not be a significant operational problem from the viewpoint of meeting the specified temperature limits.

  20. The shear fracture toughness, KIIc, of graphite

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Erdman, III, Donald L.

    2015-11-05

    In this study, the critical shear stress intensity factor, KIIc, here-in referred to as the shear fracture toughness, KIIc (MPa m), of two grades of graphite are reported. The range of specimen volumes was selected to elucidate any specimen size effect, but smaller volume specimen tests were largely unsuccessful, shear failure did not occur between the notches as expected. This was probably due to the specimen geometry causing the shear fracture stress to exceed the compressive failure stress. In subsequent testing the specimen geometry was altered to reduce the compressive footprint and the notches (slits) made deeper to reduce themore » specimen's ligament length. Additionally, we added the collection of Acoustic Emission (AE) during testing to assist with the identification of the shear fracture load. The means of KIIc from large specimens for PCEA and NBG-18 are 2.26 MPa m with an SD of 0.37 MPa m and 2.20 MPa m with an SD of 0.53 MPa m, respectively. The value of KIIc for both graphite grades was similar, although the scatter was large. In this work we found the ratio of KIIc/KIc ≈ 1.6. .« less

  1. FRACTURE FAILURE CRITERIA OF SOFC PEN STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Qu, Jianmin

    2007-04-30

    Thermal stresses and warpage of the PEN are unavoidable due to the temperature changes from the stress-free sintering temperature to room temperature and mismatch of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of various layers in the PEN structures of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) during the PEN manufacturing process. In the meantime, additional mechanical stresses will also be created by mechanical flattening during the stack assembly process. The porous nature of anode and cathode in the PEN structures determines presence of the initial flaws and crack on the interfaces of anode/electrolyte/cathode and in the interior of the materials. The sintering/assembling induced stresses may cause the fracture failure of PEN structure. Therefore, fracture failure criteria for SOFC PEN structures is developed in order to ensure the structural integrity of the cell and stack of SOFC. In this paper, the fracture criteria based on the relationship between the critical energy release rate and critical curvature and maximum displacement of the warped cells caused by the temperature changes as well as mechanical flattening process is established so that possible failure of SOFC PEN structures may be predicted deterministically by the measurement of the curvature and displacement of the warped cells.

  2. Operations Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (~ii~,Richland Operations Office ~Z4TESO~Richland, Washington 99352 SEP 2 2009 CERTIFIED MAIL Ms. Sarah Washburn Heart of America Northwest 1314 N.E. 5 6 th Street Suite 100 Seattle, Washington 98105 Dear Ms. Washburn: FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REQUEST (FOI 2009-0067) You requested, pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act (FOJA), the following documents relating to: 1 . "The authorization, decision to use, and actual use of any and all pesticides and herbicides anywhere within the

  3. Thermochemically Driven Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TDGF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Goodwin

    2008-12-31

    This report concerns efforts to increase oil well productivity and efficiency via a method of heating the oil-bearing rock of the well, a technique known as Thermochemical Gas-Dynamic Fracturing (TGDF). The technique uses either a chemical reaction or a combustion event to raise the temperature of the rock of the well, thereby increasing oil velocity, and oil pumping rate. Such technology has shown promise for future application to both older wellheads and also new sites. The need for such technologies in the oil extraction field, along with the merits of the TGDF technology is examined in Chapter 1. The theoretical basis underpinning applications of TGDF is explained in Chapter 2. It is shown that productivity of depleted well can be increased by one order of magnitude after heating a reservoir region of radius 15-20 m around the well by 100 degrees 1-2 times per year. Two variants of thermal stimulation are considered: uniform heating and optimal temperature distribution in the formation region around the perforation zone. It is demonstrated that the well productivity attained by using equal amounts of thermal energy is higher by a factor of 3 to 4 in the case of optimal temperature distribution as compared to uniform distribution. Following this theoretical basis, two practical approaches to applying TDGF are considered. Chapter 3 looks at the use of chemical intiators to raise the rock temperature in the well via an exothermic chemical reaction. The requirements for such a delivery device are discussed, and several novel fuel-oxidizing mixtures (FOM) are investigated in conditions simulating those at oil-extracting depths. Such FOM mixtures, particularly ones containing nitric acid and a chemical initiator, are shown to dramatically increase the temperature of the oil-bearing rock, and thus the productivity of the well. Such tests are substantiated by preliminary fieldwork in Russian oil fields. A second, more cost effective approach to TGDF is considered in Chapter 4: use of diesel-fuel to raise the rock temperature by a combustion process in the well. The requirements for such a Gas-Vapor Generator are laid out, and the development of a prototype machine is explained. This is backed up with laboratory experiments showing that the fuel-water mixture used does significantly increase the viscosity of the oil samples. The prototype Gas-Vapor Generator is shown to be able to operate at temperatures of 240 C and pressures of 200 atm. Unfortunately, geopolitical and economic factors outside of our control led to the cancellation of the project before the field testing phase of the generator could be commenced. Nevertheless, it is to be hoped that this report demonstrates both the feasibility and desirability of the Gas-Vapor Generator approach to the application of TDGF technology in both existing and new wells, and provides a foundation for further research in the future.

  4. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Part 2, Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-12-31

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990--1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization -- Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. These results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. (VSP) Vertical-Seismic Profile data was used to use shear-wave splitting concepts to estimate fracture orientations. Several programs were to be written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the (EOR) Enhanced Oil Recovery Imbibition Process -- Laboratory displacement as well as MRI and CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery of an oil saturated, low permeability core material, when compared to that of a normal brine imbibition displacement process. A study of oil recovery by the application of a cyclic carbonated water imbibition process, followed by reducing the pressure below the bubble point of the CO{sub 2}-water solution, indicated the possibility of alternate and new enhanced recovery method. The installation of an artificial solution gas drive significantly increased oil recovery. The extent and arrangement of micro-fractures in Austin Chalk horizontal cores was mapped with CT scanning techniques. The degree of interconnection of the micro-fractures was easily visualized.

  5. Design and Construction of Experiment for Direct Electron Irradiation of Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chemerisov, Sergey; Gromov, Roman; Makarashvili, Vakho; Heltemes, Thad; Sun, Zaijing; Wardle, Kent E.; Bailey, James; Quigley, Kevin; Stepinski, Dominique; Vandegrift, George

    2014-10-01

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies in developing SHINE, a system for producing fission-product 99Mo using a D/T-accelerator to produce fission in a non-critical target solution of aqueous uranyl sulfate. We have developed an experimental setup for studying thermal-hydraulics and bubble formation in the uranyl sulfate solution to simulate conditions expected in the SHINE target solution during irradiation. A direct electron beam from the linac accelerator will be used to irradiate a 20 L solution (sector of the solution vessel). Because the solution will undergo radiolytic decomposition, we will be able to study bubble formation and dynamics and effects of convection and temperature on bubble behavior. These experiments will serve as a verification/ validation tool for the thermal-hydraulic model. Utilization of the direct electron beam for irradiation allows homogeneous heating of a large solution volume and simplifies observation of the bubble dynamics simultaneously with thermal-hydraulic data collection, which will complement data collected during operation of the miniSHINE experiment. Irradiation will be conducted using a 30-40 MeV electron beam from the high-power linac accelerator. The total electron-beam power will be 20 kW, which will yield a power density on the order of 1 kW/L. The solution volume will be cooled on the front and back surfaces and central tube to mimic the geometry of the proposed SHINE solution vessel. Also, multiple thermocouples will be inserted into the solution vessel to map thermal profiles. The experimental design is now complete, and installation and testing are in progress.

  6. Field-Derived Hydraulic Properties for Perched-Water Aquifer Wells 299-E33-350 and 299-E33-351, Hanford Site B-Complex Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2014-07-01

    During February and March 2014, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted hydraulic (slug) tests at 200-DV-1 Operable Unit wells 299-E33-350 (C8914) and 299-E33-351 (C8915) as part of B-Complex Area Perched-Water characterization activities at the Hanford Site 200-East Area. During the construction/completion phase of each well, two overlapping depth intervals were tested within the unconfined perched-water aquifer contained in the silty-sand subunit of the Cold Creek Unit. The purpose of the slug-test characterization was to provide estimates of transmissivity and hydraulic conductivity for the perched-water aquifer at these selected well locations.

  7. Engine having a high pressure hydraulic system and low pressure lubricating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine includes a high pressure hydraulic system having a high pressure pump and at least one hydraulically-actuated device attached to an engine housing. A low pressure engine lubricating system is attached to the engine housing and includes a circulation conduit fluidly connected to an outlet from the high pressure pump.

  8. Proceedings of the Joint IAEA/CSNI Specialists` Meeting on Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large-Scale Testing held at Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, C.E.; Bass, B.R.; Keeney, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report contains 40 papers that were presented at the Joint IAEA/CSNI Specialists` Meeting Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large-Scale Testing held at the Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during the week of October 26--29, 1992. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe recent large-scale fracture (brittle and/or ductile) experiments, analyses of these experiments, and comparisons between predictions and experimental results. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to examine the fracture behavior of various materials and structures under conditions relevant to nuclear reactor components and operating environments. The emphasis was on the ability of various fracture models and analysis methods to predict the wide range of experimental data now available. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  9. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda PDF icon BES Report Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow.pdf More Documents & Publications AGU SubTER Town Hall Presentation 2015 SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and Geochemical Signals in the Subsurface SubTER Crosscut White Paper

  10. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  11. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  12. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  13. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  14. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Wednesday, 28 July 2010 00:00 Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or

  15. Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    structures. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predicting fracture in micron-scale polycrystalline silicon MEMS structures. Designing reliable MEMS structures presents numerous challenges. Polycrystalline silicon fractures in a brittle manner with considerable variability in measured strength. Furthermore, it is not clear how to use a measured tensile

  16. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  17. Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irradiation Effects on Human Cortical Bone Fracture Behavior Print Human bone is strong but still fallible. To better predict fracturing in bone, researchers need a mechanistic framework to understand the changes taking place on different size scales within bone, as well as the role of sustained irradiation damage. Combining in situ mechanical testing with synchrotron x-ray diffraction imaging and/or tomography, is a popular method of investigating micrometer deformation and fracture behavior in

  18. Orbital apex fractures: the contribution of computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unger, J.M.

    1984-03-01

    The conventional radiographs, computed tomograms, and clinical course of 17 patients with 23 orbital apex fractures were reviewed. The type of fracture was identified, and the presence of optic nerve damage, the superior orbital fissure syndrome, or the orbital apex syndrome was noted. It was concluded that fractures of the orbital apex may frequently be unsuspected clinically and are not as rare as the literature indicates. Computed tomography provides an excellent means of radiologic diagnosis in the acutely traumatized patient.

  19. Hydraulically-assisted compression molding material and process development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collister, J.E.; Butler, K.I.; Rinz, J.E. [Premix, Inc., North Kingsville, OH (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) industry has recently seen an introduction of novel materials which are claimed to allow molders of SMC parts to alter their process to mold at substantially lower molding pressures. Although this is viewed as a major advantage for SMC molders, little description of molding processes has been given which take full advantage of these novel materials. The work reported in this paper describes one possible alternative process which will enable molders to capture the low-cost potential of reducing the required molding pressures. This process involves the use of low-cost mold construction, and the use of a novel method of applying molding pressure that obviates the need for a high-cost compression press, which causes the authors to apply a new name to this process; Hydraulic-Assisted Compression Molding. Molding results are presented for SMC which was designed to be molded at reduced pressures and temperatures (6.9 bar and 100 C).

  20. n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-09-12

    nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) is a comprehensive well test analysis software package. It provides a user-interface, a well test analysis model and many tools to analyze both field and simulated data. The well test analysis model simulates a single-phase, one-dimensional, radial/non-radial flow regime, with a borehole at the center of the modeled flow system. nSIGHTS solves the radially symmetric n-dimensional forward flow problem using a solver based on a graph-theoretic approach.more » The results of the forward simulation are pressure, and flow rate, given all the input parameters. The parameter estimation portion of nSIGHTS uses a perturbation-based approach to interpret the best-fit well and reservoir parameters, given an observed dataset of pressure and flow rate.« less

  1. Hydraulic accumulator-compressor for geopressured enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L.

    1988-01-01

    A hydraulic accumulator-compressor vessel using geothermal brine under pressure as a piston to compress waste (CO.sub.2 rich) gas is used in a system having a plurality of gas separators in tandem to recover pipeline quality gas from geothermal brine. A first high pressure separator feeds gas to a membrance separator which separates low pressure waste gas from high pressure quality gas. A second separator produces low pressure waste gas. Waste gas from both separators is combined and fed into the vessel through a port at the top as the vessel is drained for another compression cycle. High pressure brine is then admitted into the vessel through a port at the bottom of the vessel. Check valves control the flow of low pressure waste gas into the vessel and high pressure waste gas out of the vessel.

  2. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in EGS reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single ...

  3. Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Microseismicity,...

  4. Characterizing Fractures in Geysers Geothermal Field by Micro...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cooling shrinkage. The stimulated, existing fractures thus enhance the permeability of the hot rock formations, hence enabling better circulation of water for the...

  5. Intrusion Margins and Associated Fractures | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rim Margins Lithologically Controlled Fractures caused by igneous activity creates permeability, allowing water to circulate deep beneath the surface thus becoming heated in the...

  6. Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  7. Dispersed Fluid Flow in Fractured Reservoirs- an Analysis of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoirs- an Analysis of Tracer-Determined Residence Time Distributions Abstract A methodology for analyzing the internal flow characteristics of a fractured geothermal reservoir...

  8. Characterization Of Fracture Patterns In The Geysers Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Also, graphical fracture characterizations in the form of equal-area projections and rose diagrams were created to depict the results. The main crack orientations within the...

  9. Fracture orientation analysis by the solid earth tidal strain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    method has been successfully demonstrated at a naturally fractured geothermal field (Raft River) in Southeastern Idaho and at an oil field in Western Canada. Both case studies...

  10. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Stimulation in Enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS); 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Stimulation in Enhanced...

  11. Fracture Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization in Enhanced Geothermal Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Fracture Characterization in Enhanced ...

  12. A Shallow Attenuating Anomaly Inside The Ring Fracture Of The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Roberts,Keiiti Aki,Michael C. Fehler. 1995. A Shallow Attenuating Anomaly Inside The Ring Fracture Of The Valles Caldera, New Mexico. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  13. Interaction and Coalescence of Nanovoids and Dynamic Fracture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Nanovoids and Dynamic Fracture in Silica Glass: Multimiilion-to-Billion Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Interaction and...

  14. A Simple, Fast Method of Estimating Fractured Reservoir Geometry...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fractured Reservoir Geometry from Tracer Tests Abstract A simple method of estimating flow geometry and pore geometry from conservative tracer tests in single phase geothermal...

  15. Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from ...

  16. International Collaborations on Fluid Flows in Fractured Crystalline...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    International Collaborations on Fluid Flows in Fractured Crystalline Rocks: FY14 Progress Report. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: International Collaborations on Fluid ...

  17. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Enhanced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 ... Systems by Wellbore and Reservoir Analysis; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer ...

  18. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (LANL) Sponsoring Org: DOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 58 GEOSCIENCES; BEHAVIOR; FRACTURES; GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS; MEETINGS

  19. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  20. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  1. Pressure Testing of a High Temperature Naturally Fractured Reservoir...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and flow-through tests at the Hot Dry rock (HDR) test site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. ... FRACTURING; FRESH WATER; GRANITES; NEW MEXICO; PERMEABILITY; POROSITY; PUMPING; ...

  2. Studies of Transport Properties of Fractures: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen R. Brown

    2006-06-30

    We proposed to study several key factors controlling the character and evolution of fracture system permeability and transport processes. We suggest that due to surface roughness and the consequent channeling in single fractures and in fracture intersections, the tendency of a fracture system to plug up, remain permeable, or for permeability to increase due to chemical dissolution/precipitation conditions will depend strongly on the instantaneous flow channel geometry. This geometry will change as chemical interaction occurs, thus changing the permeability through time. To test this hypothesis and advance further understanding toward a predictive capability, we endeavored to physically model and analyze several configurations of flow and transport of inert and chemically active fluids through channels in single fractures and through fracture intersections. This was an integrated program utilizing quantitative observations of fractures and veins in drill core, quantitative and visual observations of flow and chemical dissolution and precipitation within replicas of real rough-walled fractures and fracture intersections, and numerical modeling via lattice Boltzmann methods.

  3. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey DOE ...

  4. Analysis Of Macroscopic Fractures In Granite In The Hdr Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    natural fractures at low pressures, and to create a geothermal reservoir. Authors Albert Genter and Herve Traineau Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal...

  5. Comparison of Laboratory and Field Methods for Determining the Quasi-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory and field ponded infiltration tests in quasi-saturated soils (containing entrapped air) exhibit the same three-stage temporal variability for the flow rate and hydraulic conductivity. However, the values for the hydraulic conductivity may differ by as much as two orders of magnitude due to differences in the geometry and physics of flow when different laboratory and field methods are applied. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this variability using a comparison of results of ponded infiltration tests conducted under laboratory conditions using confined cores, with results of field tests conducted using partially isolated cores and double-ring infiltrometers. Under laboratory conditions in confined cores, during the firs stage, the water flux decreases over time because entrapped air plugs the largest pores in the soils; during the second stage, the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity increases by one to two orders of magnitude, essentially reaching the saturated hydraulic conductivity, when entrapped air is discharged from the soils; during the third stage, the hydraulic conductivity decreases to minimum values due to sealing of the soil surface and the effect of biofilms sealing the pores within the wetted zone. Under field conditions, the second stage is only partially developed, and when the surface sealing process begins, the hydraulic pressure drops below the air entry value, thereby causing atmospheric air to enter the soils. As a result, the soils become unsaturated with a low hydraulic conductivity, and the infiltration rate consequently decreases. Contrary to the laboratory experiments in confined cores, the saturated hydraulic conductivity cannot be reached under field conditions. In computations of infiltration one has to take into account the variations in the quasi-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, moisture and entrapped air content, and the hydraulic gradient in the quasi-saturated or unsaturated soils.

  6. Calutron Operations | Y-12 National Security Complex

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Calutron Operations

  7. Geomechanical Fracturing with Flow and Heat

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The GeoFracFH model is a particle-based discrete element model (DEM) that has been coupled with fluid flow and heat conduction/convection. In this model, the rock matrix material is represented by a network of DEM particles connected by mechanical bonds (elastic beams in this case, see Figure 1, gray particles connected by beams). During the simulation process, the mechanical bonds that have been stretched or bent beyond a critical strain (both tensile and shear failures aremore » simulated) are broken and removed from the network in a progressive manner. Bonds can be removed from the network with rates or probabilities that depend on their stress or strain, or the properties of the discrete elements and bonds can be varied continuously to represent phenomena such as creep, strain hardening, and chemical degradation. The coupling of a DEM geomechanical model with models for Darcy flow and heat transport is also illustrated in Figure 1. Darcy flow and heat transport equations are solved on an underlying fixed finite difference grid with evolving porosity and permeability for each grid cell that depends on the local structure of the discrete element network (such as the DEM particle density). The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which then deforms and fractures the rock matrix. The deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, coupling the two phenomena. The intimate coupling between fracturing, fluid flow, and thermal transport makes the GeoFracFH model, rather than conventional continuum mechanical models, necessary for coupled hydro-thermal-mechanical problems in the subsurface.« less

  8. Statistical analysis of surface lineaments and fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Genliang; George, S.A.; Lindsey, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Thirty-six sets of surface lineaments and fractures mapped from satellite images and/or aerial photos from parts of the Mid-continent and Colorado Plateau regions were collected, digitized, and statistically analyzed in order to obtain the probability distribution functions of natural fractures for characterizing naturally fractured reservoirs. The orientations and lengths of the surface linear features were calculated using the digitized coordinates of the two end points of each individual linear feature. The spacing data of the surface linear features within an individual set were, obtained using a new analytical sampling technique. Statistical analyses were then performed to find the best-fit probability distribution functions for the orientation, length, and spacing of each data set. Twenty-five hypothesized probability distribution functions were used to fit each data set. A chi-square goodness-of-fit test was used to rank the significance of each fit. A distribution which provides the lowest chi-square goodness-of-fit value was considered the best-fit distribution. The orientations of surface linear features were best-fitted by triangular, normal, or logistic distributions; the lengths were best-fitted by PearsonVI, PearsonV, lognormal2, or extreme-value distributions; and the spacing data were best-fitted by lognormal2, PearsonVI, or lognormal distributions. These probability functions can be used to stochastically characterize naturally fractured reservoirs.

  9. A Catalog of Vadose Zone Hydraulic Properties for the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Eugene J.; Khaleel, Raziuddin; Heller, Paula R.

    2002-09-30

    To predict contaminant release to the groundwater, it is necessary to understand the hydraulic properties of the material between the release point and the water table. Measurements of the hydraulic properties of the Hanford unsaturated sediments that buffer the water table are available from many areas of the site; however, the documentation is not well cataloged nor is it easily accessible. The purpose of this report is to identify what data is available for characterization of the unsaturated hydraulic properties at Hanford and Where these data can be found.

  10. Upgrading the HFIR Thermal-Hydraulic Legacy Code Using COMSOL (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Upgrading the HFIR Thermal-Hydraulic Legacy Code Using COMSOL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Upgrading the HFIR Thermal-Hydraulic Legacy Code Using COMSOL Modernization of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) thermal-hydraulic (TH) design and safety analysis capability is an important step in preparation for the conversion of the HFIR core from a high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to a low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. Currently, an important part of the HFIR TH

  11. Simulation of the passive condensation cooling tank of the PASCAL test facility using the component thermal-hydraulic analysis code CUPID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, H. K.; Lee, S. J.; Kang, K. H.; Yoon, H. Y.

    2012-07-01

    For the analysis of transient two-phase flows in nuclear reactor components, a three-dimensional thermal hydraulics code, named CUPID, has been being developed. In the present study, the CUPID code was applied for the simulation of the PASCAL (PAFS Condensing Heat Removal Assessment Loop) test facility constructed with an aim of validating the cooling and operational performance of the PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System). The PAFS is one of the advanced safety features adopted in the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor +), which is intended to completely replace the conventional active auxiliary feedwater system. This paper presents the preliminary simulation results of the PASCAL facility performed with the CUPID code in order to verify its applicability to the thermal-hydraulic phenomena inside the system. A standalone calculation for the passive condensation cooling tank was performed by imposing a heat source boundary condition and the transient thermal-hydraulic behaviors inside the system, such as the water level, temperature and velocity, were qualitatively investigated. The simulation results verified that the natural circulation and boiling phenomena in the water pool can be well reproduced by the CUPID code. (authors)

  12. APT target/blanket design and thermal hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    1999-04-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Target/Blanket (T/B) system is comprised of an assembly of tritium producing modules supported by control, heat removal, shielding and retargeting systems. The T/B assembly produces tritium using a high-energy proton beam, a tungsten/lead spallation neutron source and {sup 3}He gas as the tritium producing feedstock. For the nominal production mode, protons are accelerated to an energy of 1030 MeV at a current of 100 mA and are directed onto the T/B assembly. The protons are expanded using a raster/expansion system to illuminate a 0.19m by 1.9m beam spot on the front face of a centrally located tungsten neutron source. A surrounding lead blanket produces additional neutrons from scattered high-energy particles. The tungsten neutron source consists of nested, Inconel-718 clad tungsten cylinders assembled in horizontal Inconel-718 tubes. Each tube contains up to 6 cylinders with annular flow channel gaps of 0.102 cm. These horizontal tubes are manifolded into larger diameter vertical inlet and outlet pipes, which provide coolant. The horizontal and vertical tubes make up a structure similar to that of rungs on a ladder. The entire tungsten neutron source consists of 11 such ladders separated into two modules, one containing five ladders and the other six. Ladders are separated by a 0.3 m void region to increase nucleon leakage. The peak thermal-hydraulic conditions in the tungsten neutron source occur in the second ladder from the front. Because tungsten neutron source design has a significant number of parallel flow channels, the limiting thermal-hydraulic parameter is the onset of significant void (OSV) rather than critical heat flux (CHF). A blanket region surrounds the tungsten neutron source. The lateral blanket region is approximately 120 cm thick and 400 cm high. Blanket material consists of lead, {sup 3}He gas, aluminum, and light-water coolant. The blanket region is subdivided into rows based on the local power density in the lead. The rows immediately surrounding the tungsten neutron source receive the highest particle fluxes, and therefore experience the highest power densities. Moving outward from the tungsten neutron source, the lead power density drops steeply. To accommodate this variation, the amount of lead and coolant is tailored to the power density to maximize tritium production.

  13. Laser notching ceramics for reliable fracture toughness testing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Barth, Holly D.; Elmer, John W.; Freeman, Dennis C.; Schaefer, Ronald D.; Derkach, Oleg; Gallegos, Gilbert F.

    2015-09-19

    A new method for notching ceramics was developed using a picosecond laser for fracture toughness testing of alumina samples. The test geometry incorporated a single-edge-V-notch that was notched using picosecond laser micromachining. This method has been used in the past for cutting ceramics, and is known to remove material with little to no thermal effect on the surrounding material matrix. This study showed that laser-assisted-machining for fracture toughness testing of ceramics was reliable, quick, and cost effective. In order to assess the laser notched single-edge-V-notch beam method, fracture toughness results were compared to results from other more traditional methods, specificallymore » surface-crack in flexure and the chevron notch bend tests. Lastly, the results showed that picosecond laser notching produced precise notches in post-failure measurements, and that the measured fracture toughness results showed improved consistency compared to traditional fracture toughness methods.« less

  14. Laser notching ceramics for reliable fracture toughness testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Holly D.; Elmer, John W.; Freeman, Dennis C.; Schaefer, Ronald D.; Derkach, Oleg; Gallegos, Gilbert F.

    2015-09-19

    A new method for notching ceramics was developed using a picosecond laser for fracture toughness testing of alumina samples. The test geometry incorporated a single-edge-V-notch that was notched using picosecond laser micromachining. This method has been used in the past for cutting ceramics, and is known to remove material with little to no thermal effect on the surrounding material matrix. This study showed that laser-assisted-machining for fracture toughness testing of ceramics was reliable, quick, and cost effective. In order to assess the laser notched single-edge-V-notch beam method, fracture toughness results were compared to results from other more traditional methods, specifically surface-crack in flexure and the chevron notch bend tests. Lastly, the results showed that picosecond laser notching produced precise notches in post-failure measurements, and that the measured fracture toughness results showed improved consistency compared to traditional fracture toughness methods.

  15. Evaluation and significance of fracture toughness in ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mutoh, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Fracture toughness tests of several ceramic materials were carried out according to the various test methods, that is the Bridge indentation (BI, SEPB), Fatigue precrack (FP), Controlled surface flaw (CSF), Chevron notch (CN) and Indentation fracture (IF) methods. Mutual comparison of the test results was made to discuss the validity and applicability of each test method. Significance of the apparent fracture toughness with stable crack growth was discussed. The intrinsic fracture toughness can be obtained by the CSF method, in which a small surface crack is used. At high temperatures, since nonlinear deformation due to softening of glass phase and stable crack growth occur, nonlinear fracture mechanics approach should be applied. J{sub IC}-value is successfully evaluated according to the R-curve method.

  16. Fracture toughness of austenitic stainless steel weld metal at 4 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodwin, G.M.

    1984-08-01

    Selection of the welding processess and weld filler metals for fabrication of a large toroidal superconducting magnet is described. Data available in the literature are collected and compared with data generated in this study for three welding processes, shielded metal arc (SMA), gas tungsten arc (GTA), and flux cored arc (FCA) welds had the highest fracture toughness as measured by K/sub Ic/ estimated from J/sub Ic/. The SMA and FCA welds had about the same toughness, below the GTA values but above the average from the literature. The fracture mode for all three processes was typified by ductile dimples. The fracture morphology of the FCA weld specimens was influenced by the solidification substructure, and small particles were found to be nucleation sites for void formation, especially for the GTA welds. All three welding processes were deemed adequate for the intended service and were used to fabricate the large magnet. A trunnion-type turning fixture eliminated the need for welding in the vertical and overhead positions. The GTA process was used for all root passes, and the horizontal welds were filled by the SMA process. Over 80% of the welds were done in the flat position with the FCA process, and its high deposition rate and ease of operation are credited with contributing greatly to the success of the effort.

  17. Fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and EN52 weld in air and water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.; Mills, W.J.

    1999-06-01

    The effect of low and high temperature water with high hydrogen on the fracture toughness of Alloy 690 and its weld, EN52, was characterized using elastic-plastic J{sub IC} methodology. While both materials display excellent fracture resistance in air and elevated temperature (>93 C) water, a dramatic degradation in toughness is observed in 54 C water. The loss of toughness is associated with a hydrogen-induced intergranular cracking mechanism where hydrogen is picked up from the water. Comparison of the cracking behavior in low temperature water with that for hydrogen-precharged specimens tested in air indicates that the critical local hydrogen content required to cause low temperature embrittlement is on the order of 120 to 160 ppm. Loading rate studies show that the cracking resistance is significantly improved at rates above ca. 1000 MPa{radical}m/h because there is insufficient time to produce grain boundary embrittlement. Electron fractographic examinations were performed to correlate cracking behavior with microstructural features and operative fracture mechanics.

  18. The plane strain shear fracture of the advanced high strength steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Li

    2013-12-16

    The “shear fracture” which occurs at the high-curvature die radii in the sheet metal forming has been reported to remarkably limit the application of the advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in the automobile industry. However, this unusual fracture behavior generally cannot be predicted by the traditional forming limit diagram (FLD). In this research, a new experimental system was developed in order to simulate the shear fracture, especially at the plane strain state which is the most common state in the auto-industry and difficult to achieve in the lab due to sample size. Furthermore, the system has the capability to operate in a strain rate range from quasi-static state to the industrial forming state. One kinds of AHSS, Quenching-Partitioning (QP) steels have been performed in this test and the results show that the limiting fracture strain is related to the bending ratio and strain rate. The experimental data support that deformation-induced heating is an important cause of “shear fracture” phenomena for AHSS: a deformation-induced quasi-heating caused by smaller bending ratio and high strain rate produce a smaller limiting plane strain and lead a “shear fracture” in the component.

  19. Correlation of fracture toughness with impurity components. Final contract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramanian, K.; Smith, F.W.

    1992-03-23

    This investigation was sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in an effort to understand better the phenomenon of stress assisted diffusion in cracked structures operating in corrosive environments. Work done on the extension of the existing ``Coupled Thermomechanical Diffusion`` theory to enable the prediction of diffusion of a solute species in stressed solids in the presence of cracks is presented here. Mathematical formalism is provided to support the intuitive notion that a singular solution for the concentration field can exist in crack tip neighborhoods driven by singular solutions for stresses that have been obtained within the framework of classical Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics. It has been shown that under certain limiting assumptions, a singular solution for the concentration profile of the kind 1/{radical}r emerges from the governing equations. Both steady state and transient solutions were obtained. A numerical simulation using quarter point finite elements was carried out and the results obtained also indicated the presence of this singularity. A singular solution for the concentration profiles of diffusing species in crack tip neighborhoods was obtained by Gdoutos and Aifantis. The order of the singularity obtained in their investigation was different from that discovered in the present work as were the governing differential equations and the underlying assumptions of their model. In order to determine the reasons for the differences, a detailed study was undertaken comparing the two theories and their underlying assumptions, methodology and results. These comparisons also form part of the present work.

  20. Ozone contactor hydraulic considerations in meeting CT disinfection...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Optimization of ozone dose and contact time for CT calculations was performed in the pilot plant. Operational guidelines for the application of ozone in Union Hills pilot plant ...

  1. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    custom cycles that best represent Miami-Dade's residential operation. NREL will use the Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation (DRIVE) analysis tool to...

  2. Feed-Pump Hydraulic Performance and Design Improvement, Phase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Variable speed, yesno Pximp Normal Mini- Design & Operat- mum Guarantee ing Oper- Point ... and wrote design handbooks and computer programs for use by Industrial organizations. ...

  3. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, K.C.; Kullberg, M.L.

    1993-04-13

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal ZrO[sub 2] particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub x] (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K[sub IC]). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y[sub 2]BaCuO[sub 5] (211) on the ZrO[sub 2] particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO[sub 2] coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K[sub IC] of 4.5 MPa(m)[sup 0.5].

  4. Fracture toughness for copper oxide superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goretta, Kenneth C.; Kullberg, Marc L.

    1993-01-01

    An oxide-based strengthening and toughening agent, such as tetragonal Zro.sub.2 particles, has been added to copper oxide superconductors, such as superconducting YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (123) to improve its fracture toughness (K.sub.IC). A sol-gel coating which is non-reactive with the superconductor, such as Y.sub.2 BaCuO.sub.5 (211) on the ZrO.sub.2 particles minimized the deleterious reactions between the superconductor and the toughening agent dispersed therethrough. Addition of 20 mole percent ZrO.sub.2 coated with 211 yielded a 123 composite with a K.sub.IC of 4.5 MPa(m).sup.0.5.

  5. Results of fracture mechanics analyses of the ederer cranes in the device assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalder, E.

    1996-08-01

    Fracture mechanics analyses were conducted on three critical locations on the lower flange of the load-beam of the Ederer 5 ton and 4 ton cranes in the D.A.F. Facility. Based on these results, it appears that: 1. Propagation of a 5 mm long flaw, previously undetected by non-destructive examination (NDE), to a length sufficient to cause structural failure of either flange, should not occur in at least 100 times the postulated operating scenarios for each crane; 2. Should each crane undergo annual inspection, any surface flaw with a length greater that 20 mm should be removed and repaired by qualified and approved repair procedures.

  6. CASL-U-2015-0054-000 COBRA-TF Subchannel Thermal-Hydraulics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays-Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a Thermal Hydraulic (TH) ... sponsorship of the NRC 68, began as a TH rod-bundle analysis code, but has been ...

  7. Control method and system for hydraulic machines employing a dynamic joint motion model

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Danko, George

    2011-11-22

    A control method and system for controlling a hydraulically actuated mechanical arm to perform a task, the mechanical arm optionally being a hydraulically actuated excavator arm. The method can include determining a dynamic model of the motion of the hydraulic arm for each hydraulic arm link by relating the input signal vector for each respective link to the output signal vector for the same link. Also the method can include determining an error signal for each link as the weighted sum of the differences between a measured position and a reference position and between the time derivatives of the measured position and the time derivatives of the reference position for each respective link. The weights used in the determination of the error signal can be determined from the constant coefficients of the dynamic model. The error signal can be applied in a closed negative feedback control loop to diminish or eliminate the error signal for each respective link.

  8. Evaluation of operational safety at Babcock and Wilcox Plants: Volume 1, Results overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, D.J.; Meyer, O.R.; Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.; Hallbert, B.P.

    1987-10-01

    A methodology was developed to assess the operational performance of nuclear power plants through an integration of thermal-hydraulic and human factors analysis techniques together with inputs from information used in the assessment of risk. This methodology was applied to evaluate the extent to which plant systems and/or operator actions are effective in lessening the severity of selected transients for Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) plants. Comparisons were also performed to assess differences in operational performance capabilities and limitations between selected Combustion Engineering, Westinghouse, and B and W plants. Detailed results from the methodology application are presented in two volumes. This report Volume 1, presents an overview of the results with emphasis on the systems and operator performance. Volume 2 presents detailed results from thermal-hydraulic calculations. 22 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. 2D Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Benchmark in Support of HFIR LEU

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conversion using COMSOL (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: 2D Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Benchmark in Support of HFIR LEU Conversion using COMSOL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2D Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Benchmark in Support of HFIR LEU Conversion using COMSOL The research documented herein was funded by a research contract between the Research Reactors Division (RRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Tennessee, Knoxville

  10. training=course-in-3d-advanced-hydraulic-and-aerodynamic-analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free 2 Day Training Course in 3D Advanced Hydraulic and Aerodynamic Analysis Using CFD March 25-26, 2014 (Tuesday - Wednesday) Learn and practice using STAR-CCM+ CFD software Tutorial based with a variety of hydraulic and aerodynamic problems Instructors guide the class through problem setup, analysis, and visualization of results Participants can come to Argonne or take the course remotely over the internet Both remote and on site participants will have access to STAR-CCM+ to do the problems

  11. Seismic waves in rocks with fluids and fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2007-05-14

    Seismic wave propagation through the earth is often stronglyaffected by the presence of fractures. When these fractures are filledwith fluids (oil, gas, water, CO2, etc.), the type and state of the fluid(liquid or gas) can make a large difference in the response of theseismic waves. This paper summarizes recent work on methods ofdeconstructing the effects of fractures, and any fluids within thesefractures, on seismic wave propagation as observed in reflection seismicdata. One method explored here is Thomsen's weak anisotropy approximationfor wave moveout (since fractures often induce elastic anisotropy due tononuniform crack-orientation statistics). Another method makes use ofsome very convenient fracture parameters introduced previously thatpermit a relatively simple deconstruction of the elastic and wavepropagation behavior in terms of a small number of fracture parameters(whenever this is appropriate, as is certainly the case for small crackdensities). Then, the quantitative effects of fluids on thesecrack-influence parameters are shown to be directly related to Skempton scoefficient B of undrained poroelasticity (where B typically ranges from0 to 1). In particular, the rigorous result obtained for the low crackdensity limit is that the crack-influence parameters are multiplied by afactor (1 ? B) for undrained systems. It is also shown how fractureanisotropy affects Rayleigh wave speed, and how measured Rayleigh wavespeeds can be used to infer shear wave speed of the fractured medium.Higher crack density results are also presented by incorporating recentsimulation data on such cracked systems.

  12. ARM - AMF2 Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Contacts Management and Operations Operations Overview ARM Links BCR | ECR ECO, EWO Extraview PIF, CAR, DQR & DQPR Operations Status System i.arm.gov AMF2 Deployment...

  13. Thermal Hydraulics of the Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Oh; Eung Kim; Richard Schultz; Mike Patterson; Davie Petti

    2009-10-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core will be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during reactor core-accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, perform research and development (R&D) that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. This paper presents current R&D work that addresses fundamental thermal hydraulics issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs.

  14. Simulation studies to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the performance of naturally fractured reservoirs. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The first of a three-year research program to evaluate the effect of fracture closure on the recovery of oil and gas from naturally fractured reservoirs has been completed. The objectives of the study are to (1) evaluate the reservoir conditions where fracture closure is significant, and (2) evaluate innovative fluid injection techniques capable of maintaining pressure within the reservoir. Simulation studies were conducted with a dual porosity simulator capable of simulating the performance of vertical and horizontal wells. Each simulator was initialized using properties typical of the Austin Chalk reservoir in Pearsall Field, Texas. Simulations of both vertical and horizontal well performance were made assuming that fracture permeability was insensitive to pressure change. Sensitivity runs indicate that the simulator is predicting the effects of critical reservoir parameters in a logical and consistent manner. The results to-date confirm that horizontal wells can increase both oil recovery rate and total oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs. The year one simulation results will provide the baseline for the ongoing study which will evaluate the performance degradation caused by the sensitivity of fracture permeability to pressure change, and investigate fluid injection pressure maintenance as a means to improve oil recovery performance. The study is likely to conclude that fracture closure decreases oil recovery and that pressure support achieved through fluid injection could be beneficial in improving recovery.

  15. The Role of Geochemistry and Stress on Fracture Development and Proppant Behavior in EGS Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Develop Improved Methods For Maintaining Permeable Fracture Volumes In EGS Reservoirs.

  16. Operating Experience Committee Charter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Operating Experience Committee (OEC) charter provides a description of the OEC's purpose, background, membership, functions, and operations.

  17. In situ experiments of geothermal well stimulation using gas fracturing technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.Y.; Warpinski, N.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1988-07-01

    The results of an experimental study of gas fracturing technology for geothermal well stimulation demonstrated that multiple fractures could be created to link water-filled boreholes with existing fractures. The resulting fracture network and fracture interconnections were characterized by mineback as well as flow tests. Commercial oil field fracturing tools were used successfully in these experiments. Simple scaling laws for gas fracturing and a brief discussion of the application of this technique to actual geothermal well stimulation are presented. 10 refs., 42 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: to develop a 3-D numerical model for simulating mode I; II; and III (tensile; shear; and tearing propagation of multiple fractures using the virtual multi-dimensional internal bond (VMIB); to predict geothermal reservoir stimulation.

  19. IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    affects the wall rock at distances of 5 to 10 feet beyond the fracture. Authors Dilley, L.M.; Newman, D.L. ; McCulloch and J.; Published PROCEEDINGS, Thirtieth Workshop on...

  20. Fracture and thermal aging of resin-filled silicone elastomers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Fracture and thermal aging of resin-filled ... Publication Date: 2016-03-24 OSTI Identifier: 1236865 Resource Type: Journal Article ...

  1. A Comprehensive Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    specific knowledge of these in the Geysers area. (2)By locating zones of high fracture density it will be possible to reduce the cost of geothermal power development with the...

  2. Simple Model Representations of Transport in a Complex Fracture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    It is common, however, to represent the complex fracture by much simpler models consisting ... Simple-model properties are often inferred from the analysis of short-term (one to a few ...

  3. Simple Model Representations of Transport in a Complex Fracture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects on Long-Term Predictions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simple Model Representations of Transport in a Complex Fracture and Their Effects on Long-Term ...

  4. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR, and Kinematic Analysis Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using A Three-Component Long-Off...

  5. Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs; II: Full-Waveform Inversion of 3D-9C VSP data from Bradys EGS Site and Update of the ...

  6. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnectionmore » of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is much lower than that of CO2-saturated brine. The study suggests that in deep geological reservoirs the geochemical and geomechanical processes have coupled effects on the wellbore cement fracture evolution and fluid flow along the fracture surfaces.« less

  7. Geochemical and Geomechanical Effects on Wellbore Cement Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-12-31

    Experimental studies were conducted using batch reactors, X-ray microtomograpy (XMT), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to determine changes in cement fracture surfaces, fluid flow pathways, and permeability with geochemical and geomechanical processes. Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock core with artificial fractures was prepared and reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50°C and 10 MPa for 3 to 3.5 months under static conditions to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores containing defects. Cement-basalt interface samples were subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. XMT provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. After the CO2 reaction, XMT images revealed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along fractures located at the cement-basalt interface. The permeability calculated based on CFD simulation was in agreement with the experimentally measured permeability. The experimental results imply that the wellbore cement with fractures is likely to be healed during exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater under static conditions, whereas fractures along the cement-caprock interface are still likely to remain vulnerable to the leakage of CO2. CFD simulation for the flow of different fluids (CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2) using a pressure difference of 20 kPa and 200 kPa along ~2 cm-long cement fractures showed that a pressure gradient increase resulted in an increase of CO2 fluids flux by a factor of only ~3-9 because the friction of CO2 fluids on cement fracture surfaces increased with higher flow rate as well. At the same pressure gradient, the simulated flow rate was higher for supercritical CO2 than CO2-saturated brine by a factor of only ~2-3, because the viscosity of supercritical CO2 is much lower than that of CO2-saturated brine. The study suggests that in deep geological reservoirs the geochemical and geomechanical processes have coupled effects on the wellbore cement fracture evolution and fluid flow along the fracture surfaces.

  8. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid The Laboratory team used a combination of experiments and modeling for the investigation. June 25, 2015 Simulation of a selection of the particle trajectories toward the well. Simulation of a selection of the particle trajectories toward the well. Communications Office (505) 667-7000 The Laboratory research is part of an ongoing project to make the necessary measurements and develop

  9. Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Enhanced Geothermal

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Tracer Methods for Characterizing Fracture Creation in Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report DOE 2010 Geothermal Technologies Program Peer Review PDF icon reservoir_033_rose.pdf More Documents & Publications Tracer Methods

  10. A Research Park for Studying Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Media

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A Research Park for Studying Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Research Park for Studying Processes in Unsaturated Fractured Media A field research site has been developed to explore the combined use of physical experiments and mathematical modeling to analyze large-scale infiltration and chemical transport through the unsaturated media overlying the Snake River Plain Aquifer in southeastern Idaho. This

  11. Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in EGS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reservoirs (Conference) | SciTech Connect Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in EGS reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermal-hydrologic-mechanical behavior of single fractures in EGS reservoirs No abstract prepared. Authors: Zyvoloski, George [1] ; Kelkar, Sharad [1] ; Rapaka, Saikiran [1] ; Yoshinka, Keita [2] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory CHEVRON Publication Date: 2010-12-08 OSTI Identifier: 1043472 Report Number(s):

  12. Uncertainty quantification for evaluating the impacts of fracture zone on

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    pressure build-up and ground surface uplift during geological CO₂ sequestration (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Uncertainty quantification for evaluating the impacts of fracture zone on pressure build-up and ground surface uplift during geological CO₂ sequestration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty quantification for evaluating the impacts of fracture zone on pressure build-up and ground surface uplift during geological CO₂ sequestration A series of numerical

  13. Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure | Department of Energy Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon wannamaker_imaging_egs_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Fracture Network and Fluid Flow Imaging for EGS Applications from Multi-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Structure FRAC-STIM: A Physics-Based Fracture

  14. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP) Conferences. This work is also relevant to the ongoing efforts of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, Section XI, Working Group on Operating Plant Criteria (WGOPC) efforts to incorporate nozzle fracture mechanics solutions into a revision to ASME B&PV Code, Section XI, Nonmandatory Appendix G.

  15. Electric shovels meet the demands for mining operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-03-15

    Rugged, intelligent shovels offer better productivity and help mine operators avoid costly downtime in a very tight market. In 2007 P & H Mining Equipment began to produce a new breed of electric mining shovels designed to help reduce operating cost in coal and other mining operations. These were designated the P & H C-Series. All have an advanced communication, command and control system called the Centurion system. Coal mining applications for this series include 4100XPCs in Australia, China and Wyoming, USA. The Centurion system provides information on shovel performance and systems health which is communicated via graphic user interface terminals to the operators cab. Bucyrus International is developing a hydraulic crowd mechanism for its electric shovels and is now field testing one for its 495 series shovel. The company has also added greater capability in the primary software in the drive system for troubleshooting and fault identification to quickly diagnose problems onboard or remotely. 4 photos.

  16. Peri-prosthetic fracture vibration testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cruce, Jesse R; Erwin, Jenny R; Remick, Kevin R; Cornwell, Phillip J; Menegini, R. Michael; Racanelli, Joe

    2010-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to establish a test setup and vibration analysis method to predict femoral stem seating and prevent bone fracture using accelerometer and force response data from an instrumented stem and impactor. This study builds upon earlier studies to identify a means to supplement a surgeon's tactile and auditory senses by using damage identification techniques normally used for civil and mechanical structures. Testing was conducted using foam cortical shell sawbones prepared for stems of different geometries. Each stem was instrumented with an accelerometer. Two impactor designs were compared: a monolithic impactor and a two-piece impactor, each with an integrated load cell and accelerometer. Acceleration and force measurements were taken in the direction of impaction. Comparisons between different methods of applying an impacting force were made, including a drop tower and a surgical hammer. The effect of varying compliance on the data was also investigated. The ultimate goal of this study was to assist in the design of an integrated portable data acquisition system capable of being used in future cadaveric testing. This paper will discuss the experimental setup and the subsequent results of the comparisons made between impactors, prosthetic geometries, compliances, and impact methods. The results of this study can be used for both future replicate testing as well as in a cadaveric environment.

  17. FIELD TESTING & OPTIMIZATION OF CO2/SAND FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond L. Mazza

    2004-11-30

    These contract efforts involved the demonstration of a unique liquid free stimulation technology which was, at the beginning of these efforts, in 1993 unavailable in the US. The process had been developed, and patented in Canada in 1981, and held promise for stimulating liquid sensitive reservoirs in the US. The technology differs from that conventionally used in that liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), instead of water is the base fluid. The CO{sub 2} is pumped as a liquid and then vaporizes at reservoir conditions, and because no other liquids or chemicals are used, a liquid free fracture is created. The process requires a specialized closed system blender to mix the liquid CO{sub 2} with proppant under pressure. These efforts were funded to consist of up to 21 cost-shared stimulation events. Because of the vagaries of CO{sub 2} supplies, service company support and operator interest only 19 stimulation events were performed in Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Final reports have been prepared for each of the four demonstration groups, and the specifics of those demonstrations are summarized. A summary of the demonstrations of a novel liquid-free stimulation process which was performed in four groups of ''Candidate Wells'' situated in Crockett Co., TX; San Juan Co., NM; Phillips Co., MT; and Blaine Co., MT. The stimulation process which employs CO{sub 2} as the working fluid and the production responses were compared with those from wells treated with conventional stimulation technologies, primarily N{sub 2} foam, excepting those in Blaine Co., MT where the reservoir pressure is too low to clean up spent stimulation liquids. A total of 19 liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were performed in 16 wells and the production improvements were generally uneconomic.

  18. NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Development Challenges -

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fracture Fluids Key Points: * Shale fracture fluid, or "slickwater," is largely composed of water (99%); but a number of additives are mixed in with it to increase the effectiveness of the fracturing operation. These additives vary as a function of the well type and the preferences of the operator. * Hydraulic fracturing fluids can contain hazardous chemicals and, if mismanaged, spills could leak harmful substances into ground or surface water. However, good field practice, governed by

  19. Status Report on Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2009-06-30

    This document provides a status report on efforts to transfer physical and hydraulic property data from PNNL to CHPRC for incorporation into HEIS. The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and their contractors. The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library. These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft Access database files used by SoilVision{reg_sign} into HEIS, which is currently being maintained by CH2M-Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHRPC), (3) develop a Virtual Library module for accessing these data from HEIS, and (4) write a User's Manual for the Virtual Library module. The intent of these activities is to make the available physical and hydraulic property data more readily accessible and useable by technical staff and operable unit managers involved in waste site assessments and remedial action decisions for Hanford. In FY08 communications were established between PNNL and staff from Fluor-Hanford Co. (who formerly managed HEIS) to outline the design of a Virtual Library module that could be used to access the physical and hydraulic property data that are to be transferred into HEIS. Data dictionaries used by SoilVision{reg_sign} were also provided to Fluor-Hanford personnel who are now with CHPRC. During ongoing work to ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data that currently reside in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database, it was recognized that further work would be required in this effort before the data were actually ported into HEIS. Therefore work on the Virtual Library module development and an accompanying User's Guide was deferred until an unspecified later date. In FY09 efforts have continued to verify the traceability and defensibility of the physical and hydraulic property datasets that are currently being maintained by PNNL. Although this is a work in progress, several of these datasets are now ready for transfer to CHRPC for inclusion in HEIS. The actual loading of data into HEIS is performed by CHPRC staff, so after the data are transferred from PNNL to CHPRC, it will be the responsibility of CHPRC to ensure that these data are loaded and made accessible. This document provides a status report on efforts to transfer physical and hydraulic property data from PNNL to CHPRC for incorporation into HEIS.

  20. Computational Modeling of Fluid Flow through a Fracture in Permeable Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H

    2010-01-01

    Laminar, single-phase, finite-volume solutions to the NavierStokes equations of fluid flow through a fracture within permeable media have been obtained. The fracture geometry was acquired from computed tomography scans of a fracture in Berea sandstone, capturing the small-scale roughness of these natural fluid conduits. First, the roughness of the two-dimensional fracture profiles was analyzed and shown to be similar to Brownian fractal structures. The permeability and tortuosity of each fracture profile was determined from simulations of fluid flow through these geometries with impermeable fracture walls. A surrounding permeable medium, assumed to obey Darcys Law with permeabilities from 0.2 to 2,000 millidarcies, was then included in the analysis. A series of simulations for flows in fractured permeable rocks was performed, and the results were used to develop a relationship between the flow rate and pressure loss for fractures in porous rocks. The resulting frictionfactor, which accounts for the fracture geometric properties, is similar to the cubic law; it has the potential to be of use in discrete fracture reservoir-scale simulations of fluid flow through highly fractured geologic formations with appreciable matrix permeability. The observed fluid flow from the surrounding permeable medium to the fracture was significant when the resistance within the fracture and the medium were of the same order. An increase in the volumetric flow rate within the fracture profile increased by more than 5% was observed for flows within high permeability-fractured porous media.