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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING In addition to the recovery processes featured in this series of drawings, hydraulic fracturing is included as an example of technologies that contribute to...

2

Hydraulic Fracturing (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Vermont prohibits hydraulic fracturing or the collection, storage, or treatment of wastewater from hydraulic fracturing

3

Corporation Commission Hydraulic FracturingHydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Corporation Commission Hydraulic FracturingHydraulic Fracturing Joint Committee on Energy Commission What is Hydraulic Fracturing d H D It W k?and How Does It Work? · Stimulates a well to increase by Stanolind Oil Company. 2 #12;Kansas Corporation Commission Are Hydraulic Fracture Jobs Performed in Kansas

Peterson, Blake R.

4

Hydraulic fracturing-1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This book contains papers on hydraulic fracturing. Topics covered include: An overview of recent advances in hydraulic fracturing technology; Containment of massive hydraulic fracture; and Fracturing with a high-strength proppant.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Hydraulic Fracturing in Particulate Materials .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??For more than five decades, hydraulic fracturing has been widely used to enhance oil and gas production. Hydraulic fracturing in solid materials (e.g., rock) has… (more)

Chang, Hong

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterMonitoring during hydraulic fracturing using the TG-2 well,fracture processes in hydraulic fracturing, Quarterly Report

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Suspensions in hydraulic fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Suspensions or slurries are widely used in well stimulation and hydraulic fracturing processes to enhance the production of oil and gas from the underground hydrocarbon-bearing formation. The success of these processes depends significantly upon having a thorough understanding of the behavior of suspensions used. Therefore, the characterization of suspensions under realistic conditions, for their rheological and hydraulic properties, is very important. This chapter deals with the state-of-the-art hydraulic fracturing suspension technology. Specifically it deals with various types of suspensions used in well stimulation and fracturing processes, their rheological characterization and hydraulic properties, behavior of suspensions in horizontal wells, review of proppant settling velocity and proppant transport in the fracture, and presently available measurement techniques for suspensions and their merits. Future industry needs for better understanding of the complex behavior of suspensions are also addressed. 74 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

Shah, S.N. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

8

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

potential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterSP response during hydraulic fracturing. Citation: Moore, J.observations during hydraulic fracturing, J. Geophys. Res. ,

Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Hydraulic Fracturing Poster | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Fracturing Poster Hydraulic Fracturing Poster Educational poster graphically displaying the key components of hydraulic fracturing. Teachers: If you would like hard...

10

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and T. W. Keech (1977), Hydraulic fracture mapping usingpotential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of BunterSP Monitoring during hydraulic fracturing using the TG-2

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Hydraulic Fracturing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydraulic Fracturing Hydraulic Fracturing Jump to: navigation, search More info on OpenEI Oil and Gas Gateway Federal Environmental Statues Federal Oil and Gas Statutes Oil and Gas Companies United States Oil and Gas Boards International Oil and Gas Boards Other Information Fracking Regulations by State Wells by State Fracking Chemicals Groundwater Protection Related Reports A Perspective on Health and Natural Gas Operations: A Report for Denton City Council Just the Fracking Facts The Politics of 'Fracking': Regulating Natural Gas Drilling Practices in Colorado and Texas Addressing the Environmental Risks from Shale Gas Development Water Management Technologies Used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers Methane contamination of drinking wateraccompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing

12

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and T. W. Keech (1977), Hydraulic fracture mapping usingpotential measurements during hydraulic fracturing of Bunterbetween electrical and hydraulic flow patterns from rock

Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Some Fundamental Mechanisms of Hydraulic Fracturing .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This dissertation focuses mainly on three topics: (1) mixed-mode branching and segmentation of hydraulic fractures in brittle materials, (2) hydraulic fracture propagation in particulate materials,… (more)

Wu, Ruiting

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Hydraulic fracturing of jointed formations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Measured by volume, North America's largest hydraulic fracturing operations have been conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico to create geothermal energy reservoirs. In the largest operation 21,000 m/sup 3/ of water were injected into jointed granitic rock at a depth of 3.5 km. Microearthquakes induced by this injection were measured with geophones placed in five wells drilled into, or very close, to the reservoir, as well as 11 surface seismometers. The large volume of rock over which the microearthquakes were distributed indicates a mechanism of hydraulic stimulation which is at odds with conventional fracturing theory, which predicts failure along a plane which is perpendicular to the least compressive earth stress. A coupled rock mechanics/fluid flow model provides much of the explanation. Shear slippage along pre-existing joints in the rock is more easily induced than conventional tensile failure, particularly when the difference between minimum and maximum earth stresses is large and the joints are oriented at angles between 30 and 60 degrees to the principal earth stresses, and a low viscosity fluid like water is injected. Shear slippage results in local redistribution of stresses, which allows a branching, or dendritic, stimulation pattern to evolve, in agreement with the patterns of microearthquake locations. These results are qualitatively similar to the controversial process known as ''Kiel'' fracturing, in which sequential injections and shut-ins are repeated to create dendritic fractures for enhanced oil and gas recovery. However, we believe that the explanation is shear slippage of pre-existing joints and stress redistribution, not proppant bridging and fluid blocking as suggested by Kiel. 15 refs., 10 figs.

Murphy, H.D.; Fehler, M.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Method for directional hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for directional hydraulic fracturing using borehole seals to confine pressurized fluid in planar permeable regions, comprising: placing a sealant in the hole of a structure selected from geologic or cemented formations to fill the space between a permeable planar component and the geologic or cemented formation in the vicinity of the permeable planar component; making a hydraulic connection between the permeable planar component and a pump; permitting the sealant to cure and thereby provide both mechanical and hydraulic confinement to the permeable planar component; and pumping a fluid from the pump into the permeable planar component to internally pressurize the permeable planar component to initiate a fracture in the formation, the fracture being disposed in the same orientation as the permeable planar component.

Swanson, David E. (West St. Paul, MN); Daly, Daniel W. (Crystal, MN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Uncertainty in the maximum principal stress estimated from hydraulic fracturing Measurements due to the presence of the induced fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Laboratory study of hydraulic fracturing pressure data?Howevaluation of hydraulic fracturing stress measurementreopening during hydraulic fracturing stress determinations.

Rutqvist, Jonny; Tsang, Chin-fu; Stephansson, Ove

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Monitoring hydraulic fracture growth: Laboratory experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors carry out small-scale hydraulic fracture experiments to investigate the physics of hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory experiments are combined with time-lapse ultrasonic measurements with active sources using both compressional and shear-wave transducers. For the time-lapse measurements they focus on ultrasonic measurement changes during fracture growth. As a consequence they can detect the hydraulic fracture and characterize its shape and geometry during growth. Hence, this paper deals with fracture characterization using time-lapse acoustic data. Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to stimulate reservoir production.

Groenenboom, J.; Dam, D.B. van

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a method by which microseismic events can be discriminated/detected that correspond to only the portion of the hydraulic fracture that contains the proppant material and can be expected to be conductive to the flow of oil and gas. July 3, 2013 Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Figure 1: A graph of ionic conductivity as a function of temperature for the anti-perovskite Li3OCl. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing Applications: Oil and gas production Geophysical exploration Benefits: Tracks the disposition of material in a hydraulic fracturing

19

Fold Catastrophe Model of Fracture Propagation of Hydraulic Fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to energy conservation from the destruction of rock catastrophe, a new calculation method of the length of fracture propagation in hydraulic fracturing is proposed, and assuming the crack extends to approximate ellipse, the width calculation ... Keywords: hydraulic fracture, fold catastrophe, fracture parameters

Zhaowan Chun; Wan Tingting; Ai Chi; Ju Guoshuai

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Prediction of effects of hydraulic fracturing using reservoir and well flow simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a method to predict and evaluate effects of hydraulic fracturing jobs by using reservoir and well flow numerical simulation. The concept of the method i5 that steam production rate at the operating well head pressure is predicted with different fracture conditions which would be attained by the hydraulic fracturing jobs. Then, the effects of the hydraulic fracturing is evaluated by comparing the predicted steam production rate and that before the hydraulic fracturing. This course of analysis will suggest how large fracture should be created by the fracturing job to attain large enough increase in steam production at the operating condition and the best scheme of the hydraulic fracturing job.

Mineyuki Hanano; Tayuki Kondo

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Hydraulic fracturing and propping tests at Yakedake field in Japan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing experiments have been conducted at Yakedake field in Gifu prefecture, Japan. From the data obtained during the fracturing operation, the open-hole section permeability was estimated of the wellbore, the minimum pressure required to propagate the fracture, the impedances before and after the propping, and the earth stress normal to the fracture plane. The final fracture plane was also mapped with the microseismic events.

Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Seo, Kunio; Suga, Shoto; Itoh, Toshinobu; Kuriyagawa, Michio

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Hydraulic fracture optimization using hydraulic fracture and reservoir modeling in the Piceance Basin, Colorado.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydraulic fracturing is an important stimulation method for producing unconventional gas reserves. Natural fractures are present in many low-permeability gas environments and often provide important… (more)

Reynolds, Harris Allen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Hydraulic fracturing and shale gas extraction.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In the past decade the technique of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has been improved so much that it has become a cost effective method… (more)

Klein, Michael

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Hydraulic fracturing: insights...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing: insights from field, lab, and numerical studies Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search...

25

Hydraulic fractures traced by monitoring microseismic events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Summary: The trend toward production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs (tight gas, shale oilgas) has caused a large increase in the use of hydraulic fracture...

26

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The trend toward production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs (tight gas, shale oilgas) has caused a large increase in the use of hydraulic fracture stimulation of...

27

Acoustic Character Of Hydraulic Fractures In Granite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fractures in homogeneous granitic rocks were logged with conventional acoustic-transit-time, acoustic-waveform, and acoustic-televiewer logging systems. Fractured intervals ranged in depth from 45 to 570m. and ...

Paillet, Frederick I.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Hydraulic Fracturing Technology | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oil & Gas » Shale Gas » Hydraulic Oil & Gas » Shale Gas » Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Image taken from "Shale Gas: Applying Technology to Solve America's Energy Challenges," NETL, 2011. Image taken from "Shale Gas: Applying Technology to Solve America's Energy Challenges," NETL, 2011. Hydraulic fracturing is a technique in which large volumes of water and sand, and small volumes of chemical additives are injected into low-permeability subsurface formations to increase oil or natural gas flow. The injection pressure of the pumped fluid creates fractures that enhance gas and fluid flow, and the sand or other coarse material holds the fractures open. Most of the injected fluid flows back to the wellbore and is pumped to the surface.

29

A PKN Hydraulic Fracture Model Study and Formation Permeability Determination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is an important method used to enhance the recovery of oil and gas from reservoirs, especially for low permeability formations. The distribution of pressure in fractures and fracture geometry are needed to design conventional and unconventional hydraulic fracturing operations, fracturing during water-flooding of petroleum reservoirs, shale gas, and injection/extraction operation in a geothermal reservoir. Designing a hydraulic fracturing job requires an understanding of fracture growth as a function of treatment parameters. There are various models used to approximately define the development of fracture geometry, which can be broadly classified into 2D and 3D categories. 2D models include, the Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) fracture model, and the Khristianovic-Geertsma-de. Klerk (KGD) fracture model, and the radial model. 3D models include fully 3D models and pseudo-three-dimensional (P-3D) models. The P-3D model is used in the oil industry due to its simplification of height growth at the wellbore and along the fracture length in multi-layered formations. In this research, the Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) fracture model is adopted to simulate hydraulic fracture propagation and recession, and the pressure changing history. Two different approaches to fluid leak-off are considered, which are the classical Carter's leak-off theory with a constant leak-off coefficient, and Pressure-dependent leak-off theory. Existence of poroelastic effect in the reservoir is also considered. By examining the impact of leak-off models and poroelastic effects on fracture geometry, the influence of fracturing fluid and rock properties, and the leak-off rate on the fracture geometry and fracturing pressure are described. A short and wide fracture will be created when we use the high viscosity fracturing fluid or the formation has low shear modulus. While, the fracture length, width, fracturing pressure, and the fracture closure time increase as the fluid leak-off coefficient is decreased. In addition, an algorithm is developed for the post-fracture pressure-transient analysis to calculate formation permeability. The impulse fracture pressure transient model is applied to calculate the formation permeability both for the radial flow and linear fracture flow assumption. Results show a good agreement between this study and published work.

Xiang, Jing

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Acoustic Emission in a Fluid Saturated Hetergeneous Porous Layer with Application to Hydraulic Fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

responses during hydraulic fracturing, and aid developmentFracture Monitoring Hydraulic fracturing is a method forfluids" used for hydraulic fracturing, the above frequencies

Nelson, J.T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting, Monitoring, Protection Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting, Monitoring, Protection April 18, 2013 - 12:03pm Addthis Washington, DC -Two data collection tools specifically developed for hydraulic fracturing are available to help regulatory agencies monitor drilling and completion operations and enhance environmental protection. Developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (FE), the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) and FracFocus chemical disclosure registry provide a way for industry professionals, regulatory agencies and the general public to more easily access information on oil and natural gas activities. These reporting and

32

Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting,  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting, Monitoring, Protection Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting, Monitoring, Protection April 18, 2013 - 12:03pm Addthis Washington, DC -Two data collection tools specifically developed for hydraulic fracturing are available to help regulatory agencies monitor drilling and completion operations and enhance environmental protection. Developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (FE), the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) and FracFocus chemical disclosure registry provide a way for industry professionals, regulatory agencies and the general public to more easily access information on oil and natural gas activities. These reporting and

33

Investigation of Created Fracture Geometry through Hydraulic Fracture Treatment Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Successful development of shale gas reservoirs is highly dependent on hydraulic fracture treatments. Many questions remain in regards to the geometry of the created fractures. Production data analysis from some shale gas wells quantifies a much smaller stimulated pore volume than what would be expected from microseismic evidence and reports of fracturing fluids reaching distant wells. In addition, claims that hydraulic fracturing may open or reopen a network of natural fractures is of particular interest. This study examines hydraulic fracturing of shale gas formations with specific interest in fracture geometry. Several field cases are analyzed using microseismic analysis as well as net pressure analysis of the fracture treatment. Fracture half lengths implied by microseismic events for some of the stages are several thousand feet in length. The resulting dimensions from microseismic analysis are used for calibration of the treatment model. The fracture profile showing created and propped fracture geometry illustrates that it is not possible to reach the full fracture geometry implied by microseismic given the finite amount of fluid and proppant that was pumped. The model does show however that the created geometry appears to be much larger than half the well spacing. From a productivity standpoint, the fracture will not drain a volume more than that contained in half of the well spacing. This suggests that for the case of closely spaced wells, the treatment size should be reduced to a maximum of half the well spacing. This study will provide a framework for understanding hydraulic fracture treatments in shale formations. In addition, the results from this study can be used to optimize hydraulic fracture treatment design. Excessively large treatments may represent a less than optimal approach for developing these resources.

Ahmed, Ibraheem 1987-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Geomechanical review of hydraulic fracturing technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing as a method for recovering unconventional shale gas has been around for several decades. Significant research and improvement in field methods have been documented in literature on the subject. The ...

Arop, Julius Bankong

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Definition: Hydraulic Fracturing | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Hydraulic Fracturing The process used in the Oil and Gas industry of drilling deep into the ground and injecting water, sand, and other...

36

Interaction between Injection Points during Hydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a model of the hydraulic fracturing of heterogeneous poroelastic media. The formalism is an effective continuum model that captures the coupled dynamics of the fluid pressure and the fractured rock matrix and models both the tensile and shear failure of the rock. As an application of the formalism, we study the geomechanical stress interaction between two injection points during hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking) and how this interaction influences the fracturing process. For injection points that are separated by less than a critical correlation length, we find that the fracturing process around each point is strongly correlated with the position of the neighboring point. The magnitude of the correlation length depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the rock and is on the order of 30-45 m for rocks with low permeabilities. In the strongly correlated regime, we predict a novel effective fracture-force that attracts the fractures toward the neighboring injection point.

Hals, Kjetil M D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

SciTech Connect

The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2007-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

38

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESS MEASUREMENTS IN A DEEP BOREHOLE AT THE STRIPA TEST MINE, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

u l y 2 , 1 9 8 1 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESSI nun LBL-12478 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESSthe calculated stress. n HYDRAULIC FRACTURING EQUIPMENT AND

Doe, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Numerical Investigation of Interaction Between Hydraulic Fractures and Natural Fractures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing of a naturally-fractured reservoir is a challenge for industry, as fractures can have complex growth patterns when propagating in systems of natural fractures in the reservoir. Fracture propagation near a natural fracture (NF) considering interaction between a hydraulic fracture (HF) and a pre-existing NF, has been investigated comprehensively using a two dimensional Displacement Discontinuity Method (DDM) Model in this thesis. The rock is first considered as an elastic impermeable medium (with no leakoff), and then the effects of pore pressure change as a result of leakoff of fracturing fluid are considered. A uniform pressure fluid model and a Newtonian fluid flow model are used to calculate the fluid flow, fluid pressure and width distribution along the fracture. Joint elements are implemented to describe different NF contact modes (stick, slip, and open mode). The structural criterion is used for predicting the direction and mode of fracture propagation. The numerical model was used to first examine the mechanical response of the NF to predict potential reactivation of the NF and the resultant probable location for fracture re-initiation. Results demonstrate that: 1) Before the HF reaches a NF, the possibility of fracture re-initiation across the NF and with an offset is enhanced when the NF has weaker interfaces; 2) During the stage of fluid infiltration along the NF, a maximum tensile stress peak can be generated at the end of the opening zone along the NF ahead of the fluid front; 3) Poroelastic effects, arising from fluid diffusion into the rock deformation can induce closure and compressive stress at the center of the NF ahead of the HF tip before HF arrival. Upon coalescence when fluid flows along the NF, the poroelastic effects tend to reduce the value of the HF aperture and this decreases the tension peak and the possibility of fracture re-initiation with time. Next, HF trajectories near a NF were examined prior to coalesce with the NF using different joint, rock and fluid properties. Our analysis shows that: 1) Hydraulic fracture trajectories near a NF may bend and deviate from the direction of the maximum horizontal stress when using a joint model that includes initial joint deformation; 2) Hydraulic fractures propagating with higher injection rate or fracturing fluid of higher viscosity propagate longer distance when turning to the direction of maximum horizontal stress; 3) Fracture trajectories are less dependent on injection rate or fluid viscosity when using a joint model that includes initial joint deformation; whereas, they are more dominated by injection rate and fluid viscosity when using a joint model that excludes initial joint deformation.

Xue, Wenxu

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

A finite element model for three dimensional hydraulic fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is devoted to the development of a model for the numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing processes with 3d fracture propagation. It takes into account the effects of fluid flow inside the fracture, fluid leak-off through fracture walls ... Keywords: boundary elements, finite elements, hydraulic fracturing, petroleum recovery

Philippe R. B. Devloo; Paulo Dore Fernandes; Sônia M. Gomes; Cedric Marcelo Augusto Ayala Bravo; Renato Gomes Damas

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND INDUCED SEISMICITY IN KANSAS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For some time the public has asked questions about seismic activity related to hydraulic fracturing and other oil-field related activities. In particular, there is concern that the energy that goes into the subsurface during hydraulic fracturing is sufficient to cause felt earthquakes. The following is a response to those questions. 1) Seismic activity that is related to human activities is generally referred to as “induced seismicity ” or “triggered seismicity. ” Induced seismicity is defined as “seismic events attributable to human activities ” (National Research Council, 2012). The term “triggered seismicity ” is also used to describe situations in which human activities “could potentially ‘trigger ’ large and potentially damaging earthquakes ” (Shemeta et al., 2012). The following discussion uses only the term “induced seismicity ” to refer to seismic activity in which human activity plays a role. 2) Because it uses energy to fracture rocks to release oil or natural gas, hydraulic fracturing does create microseismic events (of a magnitude less than 2.0). Felt earthquake activity (generally greater than a magnitude 3.0) resulting from hydraulic fracturing has been confirmed from only one location in the world (National Research Council, 2012). In the

unknown authors

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Modeling Of Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation In Shale Gas Reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The most effective method for stimulating shale gas reservoirs is massive hydraulic fracture treatments. Recent fracture diagnostic technologies such as microseismic technology have shown that… (more)

Ahn, Chong

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research April 26, 2013 - 11:05am Addthis Statement of Guido DeHoratiis Acting Deputy...

44

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production Company. The well was producing from a gas condensate reservoir. Questions were raised about whether flowing bottomhole pressure below dewpoint would be appropriate. Condensate damage in the hydraulic fracture was expected to be of significant effect. In the most recent work done by Adedeji Ayoola Adeyeye, this subject was studied when the effects of reservoir depletion were minimized by introduction of an injector well with fluid composition the same as the original reservoir fluid. He also used an infinite conductivity hydraulic fracture along with a linear model as an adequate analogy. He concluded that the skin due to liquid build-up is not enough to prevent lower flowing bottomhole pressures from producing more gas. This current study investigated the condensate damage at the face of the hydraulic fracture in transient and boundary dominated periods when the effects of reservoir depletion are taken into account. As a first step, simulation of liquid flow into the fracture was performed using a 2D 1-phase simulator in order to help us to better understand the results of gas condensate simulation. Then during the research, gas condensate models with various gas compositions were simulated using a commercial simulator (CMG). The results of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas into the hydraulic fracture.

Reza, Rostami Ravari

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Regulation of Hydraulic Fracturing (or lack thereof)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: "subsurface emplacement of fluids by well injection." 42 U.S.C. § 300h(d)(1). #12;UIC Program Requirements, EPA has concluded that the injection of hydraulic fracturing fluids into [coalbed methane] wells poses Water Act The federal Safe Drinking Water Act prohibits "underground injection" that is not authorized

Boufadel, Michel

46

Hydrodynamics of a vertical hydraulic fracture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed a numerical algorithm, HUBBERT, to simulate the hydrodynamics of a propagating vertical, rectangular fracture in an elastic porous medium. Based on the IFD method, this algorithm assumes fracture geometry to be prescribed. The breakdown and the creation of the incipient fracture is carried out according to the Hubbert-Willis theory. The propagation of the fracture is based on the criterion provided by Griffith, based on energy considerations. The deformation properties of the open fracture are based on simple elasticity solutions. The fracture is assumed to have an elliptical shape to a distance equal to the fracture height, beyond which the shape is assumed to be parallel plate. A consequence of Griffith's criterion is that the fracture must propagate in discrete steps. The parametric studies carried out suggest that for a clear understanding of the hydrodynamics of the hydraulic fracture many hitherto unrecognized parameters must be better understood. Among these parameters one might mention, efficiency, aperture of the newly formed fracture, stiffness of the newly formed fracture, relation between fracture aperture and permeability, and well bore compliance. The results of the studies indicate that the patterns of pressure transients and the magnitudes of fracture length appear to conform to field observations. In particular, the discrete nature of fracture propagation as well as the relevant time scales of interest inferred from the present work seem to be corroborated by seismic monitoring in the field. The results suggest that the estimation of least principal stress can be reliably made either with shut in data or with reinjection data provided that injection rates are very small.

Narasimhan, T.N.

1987-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

47

Hydraulic fracturing of a moderate permeability reservoir, Kuparuk River Unit  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-five percent of the proven reserves in one of the United States' largest oil fields, the Kuparuk River Unit, are contained in the lower of two producing horizons. This zone, commonly referred to as the ''A'' sand, has a permeability of between 30 and 100 md. Unfortunately this interval is easily damaged during drilling and completion operations. Low initial flow efficiencies have been confirmed by numerous pressure transient tests. A program of hydraulic fracturing was initiated in March 1984 to overcome near wellbore damage and provide stimulation to more efficiently tap ''A'' sand reserves. More than 300 fracture stimulations have been completed to date in the arctic setting of the Kuparuk River Unit. These jobs have used a variety of fluids, proppants, and pumping schedules. The current hydraulic fracture design was evolved by continual interpretation of field results and related data from these previous stimulations. Success of the overall program has been impressive. Average post-fracture flow efficiency has been in excess of 100%. Post-fracture rate increase has averaged approximately 300%, accounting for a total rate increase of over 125,000 BOPD (19,900 m/sup 3//d). Based on these results, fracturing will continue to play an important part in future field development. This paper is the first review of the Kuparuk River Unit fracture program. It provides a case history of the development of a standard fracture design. In addition, the findings of this study would be applicable to reservoirs elsewhere with similar characteristics.

Niemeyer, B.L.; Reinart, M.R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers by Tom Myers Abstract Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale beds to develop natural gas has caused concern regarding the potential and preferential flow through fractures--could allow the transport of contaminants from the fractured shale

49

OBSERVATIONS OF A POTENTIAL SIZE-EFFECT IN EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF FRACTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DETERMINATION OF THE HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF FRACTURES P. A.cell 5. Variation of hydraulic conductivity in a fracturecceleratior of gravity hydraulic head fracture intrinsic

Witherspoon, P.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Massive hydraulic fracture of Fenton Hill HDR Well EE-3  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Subsequent to a 5.6 million gallon massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) experiment in Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Well EE-2, a 2 million gallon MHF was planned for Well EE-3. Although hydraulic communication between wells EE-2 and EE-3 was not established during the initial MHF, a large reservoir was created around EE-2 which seemed to be in proximity with EE-3. The objective of this 2nd MHF was two-fold, to test the reservoir and seismic characteristics of the EE-3 openhole region from 11,390 to 11,770 ft and to drive fractures into the fractured region created earlier by the EE-2 MHF experiment. This paper discusses well repairs to prepare EE-3 for the MHF, the pumping operations, and injection parameters and briefly summarizes seismic results. 2 refs., 6 figs.

Dash, Z.V.; Dreesen, D.S.; Walter, F.; House, L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Location of hydraulic fractures using microseismic techniques  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microearthquakes with magnitudes ranging between -6 and -2 have been observed in three successive massive injections of water at the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy demonstration site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The injection was part of a program to increase the heat transfer area of hydraulic fractures and to decrease the flow-through impedance between wells. The microearthquakes were used in mapping the location of the extended hydraulic fractures. A downhole triaxial system positioned approximately 200 m vertically above the injection point in a shut-in production well was used for detection. The microearthquakes occurred in a north-northwest striking zone 400 m in length passing through the injection point. During a third substantially larger injection, microearthquakes occurred in a dispersed volume at distances as great as 800 m from the zone active in the first two injections.

Albright, J.A.; Pearson, C.F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This project is a research into the effect of gas condensate damage in hydraulically fractured wells. It is the result of a problem encountered in producing a low permeability formation from a well in South Texas owned by the El Paso Production Company. The well was producing a gas condensate reservoir and questions were raised about how much drop in flowing bottomhole pressure below dewpoint would be appropriate. Condensate damage in the hydraulic fracture was expected to be of significant effect. Previous attempts to answer these questions have been from the perspective of a radial model. Condensate builds up in the reservoir as the reservoir pressure drops below the dewpoint pressure. As a result, the gas moving to the wellbore becomes leaner. With respect to the study by El-Banbi and McCain, the gas production rate may stabilize, or possibly increase, after the period of initial decline. This is controlled primarily by the condensate saturation near the wellbore. This current work has a totally different approach. The effects of reservoir depletion are minimized by introduction of an injector well with fluid composition the same as the original reservoir fluid. It also assumes an infinite conductivity hydraulic fracture and uses a linear model. During the research, gas condensate simulations were performed using a commercial simulator (CMG). The results of this research are a step forward in helping to improve the management of gas condensate reservoirs by understanding the mechanics of liquid build-up. It also provides methodology for quantifying the condensate damage that impairs linear flow of gas into the hydraulic fracture.

Adeyeye, Adedeji Ayoola

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Method for enhancement of sequential hydraulic fracturing using control pulse fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described for creating multiple sequential hydraulic fractures via hydraulic fracturing combined with controlled pulse fracturing where two wells are utilized comprising: (a) drilling and completing a first and second well so that the wells will be in fluid communication with each other after subsequent fracturing in each well; (b) creating more than two simultaneous multiple vertical fractures via a controlled pulse fracturing method in the second well; (c) thereafter hydraulically fracturing the reservoir via the first well thereby creating fractures in the reservoir and afterwards shutting-in the first well without any induced pressure; (d) applying thereafter hydraulic pressure to the reservoir via the second well in an amount sufficient to fracture the reservoir thereby forming a first hydraulic fracture perpendicular to the least principal in-situ stress; (e) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the reservoir while pumping via the second well alternate slugs of a thin-fluid spacer and a temporary blocking agent having a proppant therein whereupon a second hydraulic fracture is initiated; (f) maintaining the hydraulic pressure on the second well while pumping alternate slugs of spacer and blocking agent into the second hydraulic fracture thereby causing the second hydraulic fracture to propagate away from the first hydraulic fracture in step (e) in a curved trajectory which intersects a fracture created in the first well; (g) maintaining the hydraulic pressure while pumping as in step (f) whereupon another hydraulic fracture initiates causing another curved fracture trajectory to form and intersect the fracture created in the first well; and (h) repeated steps (f) and (g) until a desired number of hydraulic fractures are created which allows a substantial improvement in removing a natural resource from the reservoir.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Strubhar, M.K.

1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

54

Hydraulic Fracturing and Water Use in Dallas, Texas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Dallas, Texas is located in North Texas and sits above the eastern portion of the Barnett Shale natural gas formation. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, was… (more)

Yates, Sarah

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Application of the directional hydraulic fracturing at Berezovskaya Mine  

SciTech Connect

The paper analyzes the experimental research of the directional hydraulic fracturing applied for weakening of rocks at Berezovskaya Mine (Kuznetsk Coal Basin) in 2005-2006.

Lekontsev, Y.M.; Sazhin, P.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Institute for Mining

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

56

Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8, 2013 8, 2013 Hydraulic Fracturing Data Collection Tools Improve Environmental Reporting, Monitoring, Protection Washington, D.C. -Two data collection tools specifically developed for hydraulic fracturing are available to help regulatory agencies monitor drilling and completion operations and enhance environmental protection. Developed with support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (FE), the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) and FracFocus chemical disclosure registry (http://fracfocus.org/) provide a way for industry professionals, regulatory agencies and the general public to more easily access information on oil and natural gas activities. These reporting and data collection tools have been developed by the Groundwater Protection Council (GWPC) and various states.

57

Acoustic Emission in a Fluid Saturated Hetergeneous Porous Layer with Application to Hydraulic Fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motion for a New Model of Hydraulic Fracture With an Induced1987. Hydrodynamics of a Vertical Hydraulic Fracture, Earthand Fluid Flow in the Hydraulic Fracture Pmess, (PhD.

Nelson, J.T.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A New Parameter Identification Method for Hydraulic Fractured Gas Wells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relaxation search algorithm to identify the parameters of hydraulic fractured gas wells is developed in this paper based on the inductive matrix. According to the optimization theory and parallel computation method, the parameters to be identified ... Keywords: Gas Wells, hydraulic fracturing, formation parameters, parameter identification, historic fitting

Li Tiejun; Guo Dali; Min Chao

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

On equivalence of thinning fluids used for hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper aims to answer the question: if and how non-Newtonian fluids may be compared in their mechanical action when used for hydraulic fracturing? By employing the modified formulation of the PKN problem we obtain its simple analytical solutions in the cases of perfectly plastic and Newtonian fluids. Since the results for shear thinning fluids are intermediate between those for these cases, the obtained equation for the fracture length suggests a criterion of the equivalence of various shear thinning fluids for the problem of hydraulic fractures. We assume fluids equivalent in their hydrofracturing action, when at a reference time they produce fractures of the same length. The equation for the fracture length translates the equivalence in terms of the hydraulic fracture length and treatment time into the equivalence in terms of the properties of a fracturing fluid (behavior and consistency indices). Analysis shows that the influence of the consistency and behavior indices on the fracture length, particle v...

Linkov, Alexander

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Surrogate-based optimization of hydraulic fracturing in pre-existing fracture networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing has been used widely to stimulate production of oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy in formations with low natural permeability. Numerical optimization of fracture stimulation often requires a large number of evaluations of objective ... Keywords: Fractal dimension, Global sensitivity, Hydraulic fracturing, Optimization, Surrogate model

Mingjie Chen, Yunwei Sun, Pengcheng Fu, Charles R. Carrigan, Zhiming Lu, Charles H. Tong, Thomas A. Buscheck

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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61

Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed.

Murdoch, L. [FRX Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Siegrist, B.; Meiggs, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

62

Microearthquakes induced during hydraulic fracturing at the Fenton Hill HDR site: the 1982 experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The on-site real-time processing of microearthquake signals that occur during massive hydraulic fracturing provides a notion of the location and growth of the fracture system being created. This enables quick decisions to be made in regard to the ongoing operations. The analytical results and impact of the hypocenter mapping during the 1982 fracturing experiments in the Fenton Hill Phase II Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir are reported.

Keppler, H.; Pearson, C.F.; Potter, R.M.; Albright, J.N.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

A new method for determining dominant fluid flow paths during hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although hydraulic fracturing is a method that has been applied for many years to increase fracture permeability of reservoirs, there is no direct way other than drilling additional boreholes to determine where the injected fluid has gone and thus what direction fractures have propagated. Information about fluid flow paths is important for designing subsequent fracturing operations for nearby wells or for choosing a trajectory for a second well to drill through the fracture system, and thus create a hot dry rock geothermal energy reservoir. A method has been developed for determining the orientations and locations of fractures along which fluid flows during hydraulic fracturing. The method is based on accurate determination of the locations of microseismic events, or microearthquakes, that accompany the hydraulic injection. The method has been applied to data collected during a massive hydraulic fracturing experiment carried out as part of the hot dry rock project. Planes with five different orientations were found in the data. The planes determined using the method intersect the injection borehole and a second, nearby borehole, in regions where other data indicate that fractures are present.

Fehler, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Monitoring the Width of Hydraulic Fractures With Ultrasonic Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction During hydraulic fracturing experiments in the laboratory the opening of hydraulic fractures is monitored with ultrasonic transducers. The experiment closely resembles seismic monitoring surveys in the field [MEADOWS AND WIN- TERSTEIN 1994, WILLS ET AL. 1992]. The extraction of information out of these experiments is critically dependent on the understanding of the elastodynamic behaviour of the thin fluid filled fractures. The laboratory experiments provide useful information on what determines the seismic visibility of these fractures, both for compressional and shear waves. The role of the fracture thickness or width on the elastodynamic response and a new method for monitoring fracture opening is investigated. Most theoretical approaches postulate the use of the classical boundary conditions. The void boundary condition assumes a stress free surface. The "fluid-filled" fracture boundary condition

J. Groenenboom; A.J.W. Duijndam; J.T. Fokkema

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

A new method for determining fluid flow paths during hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Although hydraulic fracturing is a popular method for increasing the productivity of oil and gas wells, there is no direct way other than drilling additional boreholes to determine where the injected fluid has gone and thus what direction a fracture has propagated. Information about fluid flow paths is important for designing subsequent fracturing operations for nearby wells. Determining the locations and orientations of permeable fractures is also important in studies of potential toxic waste repositories where it is critical to understand fluid flow paths. We have developed a method for determining the orientations and locations of fractures along which fluid flows during hydraulic fracturing. The method is based on accurate determination of the locations of microseismic events, or microearthquakes, that accompany the hydraulic injection. By applying a pattern recognition technique to the locations of events from one hydraulic fracturing operation we find planes in the data along which we presume that the fluid has traveled. The planes determined using our method intersect the injection borehole and a second, nearby borehole, in regions where other data indicate that fractures are present.

Fehler, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Fracturing operations in a dry geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracturing operations at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Test Site initiated unique developments necessary to solve problems caused by an extremely harsh downhole environment. Two deep wells were drilled to approximately 15,000 ft (4.6 km); formation temperatures are in excess of 600/sup 0/F (315/sup 0/C). The wells were drilled during 1979 to 1981, inclined at 35 degrees, one above the other, and directionally drilled in an azimuthal direction orthogonal to the least principal in-situ crustal stress field. Hydraulic fracturing experiments to connect the two wells have used openhole packers, hydraulic jet notching of the borehole wall, cemented-in insolation liners and casing packers. Problems were encountered with hole drag, high fracture gradients, H/sub 2/S in vent back fluids, stress corrosion cracking of tubulars, and the complex nature of three-dimensional fracture growth that requires very large volumes of injected water. Two fractured zones have been formed by hydraulic fracturing and defined by close-in, borehole deployed, microseismic detectors. Initial operations were focused in the injection wellbore near total depth, where water injection treatments totalling 51,000 bbls (8100 m/sup 3/) were accomplished by pumping through a cemented-in 4-1/2 in. liner/PBR assembly. Retrievable casing packers were used to inject 26,000 bbls (4100 m/sup 3/) in the upper section of the open hole. Surface injection pressures (ISIP) varied from 4000 to 5900 psi (27 to 41 MPa) and the fracture gradient ranged from 0.7 to 0.96 psi/ft.

Rowley, J.C.; Pettitt, R.A.; Hendron, R.H.; Sinclair, A.R.; Nicholson, R.W.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

The Modeling of Slurry Friction Loss of Hydraulic Fracturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, the research on theoretical model of hydraulic fracturing has experienced development. But there is little progress in the research on slurry friction loss in the fracturing string, which is the key to guide the design and construction ... Keywords: slurry, friction loss, momentum transfer

Yongming Li; Hu Mao; Fengsheng Yao; Song Wang; Jinzhou Zhao

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are defined from the numerical solution of a complex hypersingular integral equation written for a given fracture configuration and loading. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures with existing discontinuities such as faults and joints. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two- and three-dimensional heat extraction solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate heat extraction and the variations of the reservoir stress with cooling. The numerical models have been developed in a user-friendly environment to create a tool for improving fracture design and investigating single or multiple fracture propagation in rock.

Ahmad Ghassemi

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

69

Fully Coupled Geomechanics and Discrete Flow Network Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing for Geothermal Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of our current research is to develop a computational test bed for evaluating borehole techniques to enhance fluid flow and heat transfer in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Simulating processes resulting in hydraulic fracturing and/or the remobilization of existing fractures, especially the interaction between propagating fractures and existing fractures, represents a critical goal of our project. To this end, we are continuing to develop a hydraulic fracturing simulation capability within the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC), a combined FEM/DEM analysis code with explicit solid-fluid mechanics coupling. LDEC simulations start from an initial fracture distribution which can be stochastically generated or upscaled from the statistics of an actual fracture distribution. During the hydraulic stimulation process, LDEC tracks the propagation of fractures and other modifications to the fracture system. The output is transferred to the Non-isothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code to capture heat transfer and flow at the reservoir scale. This approach is intended to offer flexibility in the types of analyses we can perform, including evaluating the effects of different system heterogeneities on the heat extraction rate as well as seismicity associated with geothermal operations. This paper details the basic methodology of our approach. Two numerical examples showing the capability and effectiveness of our simulator are also presented.

Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Hao, Y; Carrigan, C R

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

70

A Study of Hydraulic Fracturing Initiation in Transversely Isotropic Rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing of transverse isotropic reservoirs is of major interest for reservoir stimulation and in-situ stress estimation. Rock fabric anisotropy not only causes in-situ stress anisotropy, but also affects fracture initiation from the wellbore. In this study a semi-analytical method is used to investigate these effects with particular reference to shale stimulation. Using simplifying assumptions, equations are derived for stress distribution around the wellbore's walls. The model is then used to study the fracture initiation pressure variations with anisotropy. A sensitivity analysis is carried out on the impact of Young's modulus and Poisson's ration, on the fracture initiation pressure. The results are useful in designing hydraulic fractures and also can be used to develop information about in-situ rock properties using failure pressure values observed in the field. Finally, mechanical and permeability anisotropy are measured using Pulse Permeameter and triaxial tests on Pierre shale.

Serajian, Vahid

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Investigation of the effect of gel residue on hydraulic fracture conductivity using dynamic fracture conductivity test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The key to producing gas from tight gas reservoirs is to create a long, highly conductive flow path, via the placement of a hydraulic fracture, to stimulate flow from the reservoir to the wellbore. Viscous fluid is used to transport proppant into the fracture. However, these same viscous fluids need to break to a thin fluid after the treatment is over so that the fracture fluid can be cleaned up. In shallower, lower temperature (less than 250°F) reservoirs, the choice of a fracture fluid is very critical to the success of the treatment. Current hydraulic fracturing methods in unconventional tight gas reservoirs have been developed largely through ad-hoc application of low-cost water fracs, with little optimization of the process. It seems clear that some of the standard tests and models are missing some of the physics of the fracturing process in low-permeability environments. A series of the extensive laboratory "dynamic fracture conductivity" tests have been conducted. Dynamic fracture conductivity is created when proppant slurry is pumped into a hydraulic fracture in low permeability rock. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially, we pump proppant/ fracturing fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. Test results indicate that increasing gel concentration decreases retained fracture conductivity for a constant gas flow rate and decreasing gas flow rate decreases retained fracture conductivity. Without breaker, the damaging effect of viscous hydraulic fracturing fluids on the conductivity of proppant packs is significant at temperature of 150°F. Static conductivity testing results in higher retained fracture conductivity when compared to dynamic conductivity testing.

Marpaung, Fivman

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Investigation of the effect of gel residue on hydraulic fracture conductivity using dynamic fracture conductivity test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The key to producing gas from tight gas reservoirs is to create a long, highly conductive flow path, via the placement of a hydraulic fracture, to stimulate flow from the reservoir to the wellbore. Viscous fluid is used to transport proppant into the fracture. However, these same viscous fluids need to break to a thin fluid after the treatment is over so that the fracture fluid can be cleaned up. In shallower, lower temperature (less than 250oF) reservoirs, the choice of a fracture fluid is very critical to the success of the treatment. Current hydraulic fracturing methods in unconventional tight gas reservoirs have been developed largely through ad-hoc application of low-cost water fracs, with little optimization of the process. It seems clear that some of the standard tests and models are missing some of the physics of the fracturing process in low-permeability environments. A series of the extensive laboratory “dynamic fracture conductivity” tests have been conducted. Dynamic fracture conductivity is created when proppant slurry is pumped into a hydraulic fracture in low permeability rock. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially, we pump proppant/ fracturing fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. Test results indicate that increasing gel concentration decreases retained fracture conductivity for a constant gas flow rate and decreasing gas flow rate decreases retained fracture conductivity. Without breaker, the damaging effect of viscous hydraulic fracturing fluids on the conductivity of proppant packs is significant at temperature of 150oF. Static conductivity testing results in higher retained fracture conductivity when compared to dynamic conductivity testing.

Marpaung, Fivman

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Using seismic tomography to characterize fracture systems induced by hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microearthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing have been studied by many investigators to characterize fracture systems created by the fracturing process and to better understand the locations of energy resources in the earth`s subsurface. The pattern of the locations often contains a great deal of information about the fracture system stimulated during the hydraulic fracturing. Seismic tomography has found applications in many areas for characterizing the subsurface of the earth. It is well known that fractures in rock influence both the P and S velocities of the rock. The influence of the fractures is a function of the geometry of the fractures, the apertures and number of fractures, and the presence of fluids in the fractures. In addition, the temporal evolution of the created fracture system can be inferred from the temporal changes in seismic velocity and the pattern of microearthquake locations. Seismic tomography has been used to infer the spatial location of a fracture system in a reservoir that was created by hydraulic fracturing.

Fehler, M.; Rutledge, J.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Estimating fracture apertures from hydraulic data and comparison with theory  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Estimates of fracture openings, or apertures, were made for massive hydraulic fracture experiments at the Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The basis of these estimates is that if the injection rate is suddenly increased during fracturing, and the subsequent pressure increase to sustain this additional flow is measured, then the pressure increase must be related to the fracture aperture. More detailed considerations indicate that the fracture aperture estimated in this manner is affected by the nature of the fracture geometry, its propagation distance, and its viscous characteristics, but these effects are surprisingly unimportant. The result is a reasonably accurate aperture estimate, which considering the elusive nature of this measurement by other means, is quite satisfactory. These estimates are in good agreement with the fracturing theory of Geertsma and de Klerk. 10 refs., 6 figs.

Dash, Z.V.; Murphy, H.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical issues in tight gas fracturing, in particular the roles of gel damage, polymer loading (water-frac versus gel frac), and proppant concentration on the created fracture conductivity. To achieve this objective, we have designed the experimental apparatus to conduct the dynamic fracture conductivity tests. The experimental apparatus has been built and some preliminary tests have been conducted to test the apparatus.

Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

76

DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research DOE's Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing Research April 26, 2013 - 11:05am Addthis Statement of Guido DeHoratiis Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oil and Natural Gas before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology Subcommittees on Energy and Environment. I want to thank the Chairs, Ranking Members and Members of the Subcommittees for inviting me to appear before you today to discuss the critical role that the Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy, in collaboration with the Department of the Interior (DOI) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is playing to improve the safety and environmental performance of developing our Nation's unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) resources.

77

Does hydraulic-fracturing theory work in jointed rock masses  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hypocenter locations of micro-earthquakes (acoustic emissions) generated during fracturing typically are distributed three-dimensionally suggesting that fracturing stimulates a volumetric region, rather than the planar fracture theoretically expected. The hypocenter maps generated at six operating, or potential, HDR reservoirs in the US, Europe and Japan are examined in detail and the fracture dimensions are correlated with fracture injection volumes and formation permeability. Depsite the volumetric appearance of the maps we infer that the induced fractures are mainly planar and may propagate aseismically. The induced seismicity stems from nearby joints, which are not opened significantly by fracturing, but are caused to shear-slip because of local pore pressure.

Murphy, H.D.; Keppler, H.; Dash, Z.V.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Discussion of comparison study of hydraulic fracturing models -- Test case: GRI Staged Field Experiment No. 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides comments to a companion journal paper on predictive modeling of hydraulic fracturing patterns (N.R. Warpinski et. al., 1994). The former paper was designed to compare various modeling methods to demonstrate the most accurate methods under various geologic constraints. The comments of this paper are centered around potential deficiencies in the former authors paper which include: limited actual comparisons offered between models, the issues of matching predictive data with that from related field operations was lacking or undocumented, and the relevance/impact of accurate modeling on the overall hydraulic fracturing cost and production.

Cleary, M.P.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

INTERPRETATION OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING PRESSURE IN LOW-PERMEABILITY GAS RESERVOIRS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydraulic fracturing has been used in most oil and gas wells to increase production by creating fractures that extend from the wellbore into the formation.… (more)

Kim, Gun Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Hydraulic fracture experiments in GT-1 and GT-2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing experiments were conducted in granite rock, at temperatures near 100 and 150/sup 0/C, in two wells 0.785 km (2575 ft) and 1.98 km (6500 ft) deep near Los Alamos, New Mexico. No unusual difficulty was observed in fracturing crystalline rock hydraulically. The apparent surface energy (energy required to create new fracture surface by breaking the rock) was measured as 100 J/m/sup 2/. Orientation of the deeper fracture was measured as N35/sup 0/E (+-5/sup 0/). The fraction of fluid injected into the rock that could be recovered at hydrostatic surface pressure was measured. The efficiency of recovery was as high as 92 percent after the fracture impedance was lowered by ''propping'' the fracture with sand. Permeability of the rock over the face of the fracture was compatible with laboratory measurements (10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -8/ darcys). Downhole pressures required to extend the fractures were about 150 and 340 bars (2175 and 4900 psi), respectively.

Aamodt, R.L.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Automatic hydraulic fracturing design for low permeability reservoirs using artificial intelligence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydraulic fracturing technique is one of the major developments in petroleum engineering in the last two decades. Today, nearly all the wells completed in low permeability gas reservoirs require a hydraulic fracturing treatment in order to produce ...

Andrei Sergiu Popa / Shahab Mohaghegh

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Interwell tracer analyses of a hydraulically fractured granitic geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field experiments using fluorescent dye and radioactive tracers (Br{sup 82} and I{sup 131}) have been employed to characterize a hot, low-matrix permeability, hydraulically-fractured granitic reservoir at depths of 2440 to 2960 m (8000 to 9700 ft). Tracer profiles and residence time distributions have been used to delineate changes in the fracture system, particularly in diagnosing pathological flow patterns and in identifying new injection and production zones. The effectiveness of one- and two-dimensional theoretical dispersion models utilizing single and multiple porous, fractured zones with velocity and formation dependent effects are discussed with respect to actual field data.

Tester, J.W.; Potter, R.M.; Bivins, R.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Marcellus Shale Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing; Technicalities and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Marcellus Shale Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing; Technicalities and Controversies Kyle J Ferrar;UNITED STATES SHALE BASINS Modern Shale Gas Development in the U.S.: A Primer, (2009) U.S. Dept of Energy Development http://www.secinfo.com/DB/SEC/2007 #12;Where to Drill? Harper, John A. (2008). The Marcellus Shale

Sibille, Etienne

84

Numerical Simulation Research on Proppant Transport in Hydraulic Fracture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among the mathematical models of describing the prop pant settling or transport process, the particle settling velocity primarily takes the gravity, buoyancy and other conventional forces into consideration under the equilibrium condition of forces, ... Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, solid-liquid two phaes flow, proppant transport, numerical simulation, predictor-corrector method

Yongming Li; Song Wang; Jinzhou Zhao; Zhang Jiyao; Xiangzeng Wang; Ruimin Gao

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Evidence of Reopened Microfractures in Production Data of Hydraulically Fractured Shale Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Frequently a discrepancy is found between the stimulated shale volume (SSV) estimated from production data and the SSV expected from injected water and proppant volume. One possible explanation is the presence of a fracture network, often termed fracture complexity, that may have been opened or reopened during the hydraulic fracturing operation. The main objective of this work is to investigate the role of fracture complexity in resolving the apparent SSV discrepancy and to illustrate whether the presence of reopened natural fracture network can be observed in pressure and production data of shale gas wells producing from two shale formations with different well and reservoir properties. Homogeneous, dual porosity and triple porosity models are investigated. Sensitivity runs based on typical parameters of the Barnett and the Horn River shale are performed. Then the field data from the two shales are matched. Homogeneous models for the two shale formations indicate effective infinite conductivity fractures in the Barnett well and only moderate conductivity fractures in the Horn River shale. Dual porosity models can support effectively infinite conductivity fractures in both shale formations. Dual porosity models indicate that the behavior of the Barnett and Horn River shale formations are different. Even though both shales exhibit apparent bilinear flow behavior the flow behaviors during this trend are different. Evidence of this difference comes from comparing the storativity ratio observed in each case to the storativity ratio estimated from injected fluid volumes during hydraulic fracturing. In the Barnett shale case similar storativity ratios suggest fracture complexity can account for the dual porosity behavior. In the Horn River case, the model based storativity ratio is too large to represent only fluids from hydraulic fracturing and suggests presence of existing shale formation microfractures.

Apiwathanasorn, Sippakorn

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Hydraulic fracturing method employing a fines control technique  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for controlling fines or sand in an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated formation or reservoir penetrated by at least one wellbore where hydraulic fracturing is used in combination with control of the critical salinity rate and the critical fluid flow velocity. The method comprises: (a) placing at least one wellbore in the reservoir; (b) hydraulically fracturing the formation via the wellbore with a fracturing fluid which creates at least one fracture; (c) placing a proppant comprising a gravel pack into the fracture; (d) determining the critical salinity rate and the critical fluid flow velocity of the formation or reservoir surrounding the wellbore; (e) injecting a saline solution into the formation or reservoir at a velocity exceeding the critical fluid flow velocity and at a saline concentration sufficient to cause the fines or particles to be transferred and fixed deep wihtin the formation or reservoir without plugging the formation, fracture, or wellbore; and (f) producing a hydrocarbonaceous fluid from the formation or reservoir at a velocity such that the critical flow velocity is not exceeded deep within the formation, fracture, or wellbore.

Stowe, L.R.

1986-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

87

a review of 2 Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing June 2012 #12;2 Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing This document can be viewed online at: royalsociety.org/policy/projects/shale-gas-extraction and raeng.org.uk/shale Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing Issued: June 2012

Rambaut, Andrew

88

Imaging Hydraulic Fractures: Source Location Uncertainty Analysis At The UPRC Carthage Test Site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing gas and oil production. High-resolution seismic imaging of the fracture geometry and fracture growth process is the key in determining optimal spacing and location of ...

Li, Yingping

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Correlating laboratory observations of fracture mechanical properties to hydraulically-induced microseismicity in geothermal reservoirs.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To date, microseismicity has provided an invaluable tool for delineating the fracture network produced by hydraulic stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. While the locations of microseismic events are of fundamental importance, there is a wealth of information that can be gleaned from the induced seismicity (e.g. fault plane solutions, seismic moment tensors, source characteristics). Closer scrutiny of the spatial and temporal evolution of seismic moment tensors can shed light on systematic characteristics of fractures in the geothermal reservoir. When related to observations from laboratory experiments, these systematic trends can be interpreted in terms of mechanical processes that most likely operate in the fracture network. This paper reports on mechanical properties that can be inferred from observations of microseismicity in geothermal systems. These properties lead to interpretations about fracture initiation, seismicity induced after hydraulic shut-in, spatial evolution of linked fractures, and temporal evolution of fracture strength. The correlations highlight the fact that a combination of temperature, stressing rate, time, and fluid-rock interactions can alter the mechanical and fluid transport properties of fractures in geothermal systems.

Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Hydraulic fracturing with a refractory proppant combined with salinity control  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for controlling fines or sand in an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated formation, or reservoir which method additionally improves heat transfer. It comprises: placing at least one wellbore in the formation; hydraulically fracturing the formation via the wellbore via a fracturing fluid which creates at least one fracture; placing a fused refractory proppant consisting essentially of silicon carbide or silicon nitride into the fracture which proppant gravel packs the fracture while providing for increased heat transfer into the formation; determining the critical salinity rate and the critical fluid flow velocity of the formation or reservoir surrounding the wellbore; injecting a saline solution into the formation or reservoir at a velocity exceeding the critical fluid flow velocity and at a saline concentration sufficient to cause the fines or clay particles to be transferred and fixed deep within the formation or reservoir without plugging the formation, fracture or wellbore; and producing via a thermal oil recovery method a hydrocarbonaceous fluid from the formation or reservoir at a velocity such that the critical flow velocity is not exceeded deep within the formation, fracture or wellbore.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Stowe, L.R.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Mathematical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in coal seams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing of coal seam is considered as a process of development of discontinuities in rock mass elements due to change in hydrogeomechanical situation on filtration of fluid under pressure. Failure is associated with excess of the effective stresses over the rock tension strength. The problem on filtration and failure of massif is solved by the finite-element method using the procedure of fictitious nodal forces.

Olovyanny, A.G. [All Russian Science Research Institute for Mine Surveying, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Evaluation of rock/fracture interactions during steam injection through vertical hydraulic fractures  

SciTech Connect

The design, results, and analysis of a steamdrive pilot in the South Belridge diatomite, Kern County, California, are reviewed. Pilot results demonstrate that steam can be injected across a 1,000-ft-tall diatomite column using hydraulically fractured wells and that significant oil is produced in response to steaming. A computationally simple numerical model is proposed and used to analyze reservoir heating and volumetric sweep by steam. Results from the analysis show that hydraulic fractures undergoing steam injection can be dynamic and asymmetrical.

Kovscek, A.R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Johnston, R.M. [CalResources LLC, Bakersfield, CA (United States); Patzek, T.W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORING STRESS MEASUREMENTS IN A DEEP BOREHOLE AT THE STRIPA TEST MINE, SWEDEN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9 - J u l y 2 , 1 9 8 1 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORINGPfft IKS I nun LBL-12478 HYDRAULIC FRACTURING AND OVERCORINGs u r e s t r a i n s . Hydraulic f r a c t u r i n g , t h

Doe, T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Hydraulic fracturing with a refractory proppant for sand control  

SciTech Connect

A sand control and heat transfer method is described for use in a borehole having an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated oil or gas reservoir which is otherwise likely to introduce substantial amounts of sand into the borehole, comprising: (a) providing a borehole casing through the reservoir; (b) perforating the casing at preselected intervals therealong to form at least one of longitudinal, in-line perforations; (c) hydraulically fracturing the reservoir by injecting a fracturing fluid containing a fine grain fused refractory material which comprises substantially silicon carbide or silicon nitride, and a clay stabilizing agent; (d) injecting a proppant comprising a gravel packing fused refractory material comprised substantially of silicon carbide or silicon nitride into the fracture, whereby a first layer of fine grain fused refractory material is held in place along the entire face of the fracture by a second layer of gravel packing fused refractory material also extending along the entire length of the fracture thereby excluding fines; and (e) producing oil or gas from the reservoir through the fracture into the borehole casing via a thermal oil recovery method which proppant and layers provide for increased heat transfer into the formation.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Stowe, L.R.

1989-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

95

Application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator for design of acid-fracturing treatments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field experience during 1989--90 shows that application of a 3D hydraulic-fracturing simulator increases success of acid-fracturing well treatments. Fracture extension can be limited to the oil-bearing pay, maximum lateral extension can be realized within the height constraint, and acid/rock contact time can be increased by a factor of between 3 and 30. Oil-production response can be improved over other stimulation designs while water-production response can be limited. These methods have been applied in mature waterfloods of the Permian Basin and Cedar Creek anticline.

Morgenthaler, L.N. (Shell Development Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Hydraulic fracture productivity performance in tight gas sands, a numerical simulation approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydraulically fractured tight gas reservoirs are one of the most common unconventional sources being produced today, and look to be a regular source of gas… (more)

Ostojic, Jakov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Automatic hydraulic fracturing design for low permeability reservoirs using artificial intelligence.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The hydraulic fracturing technique is one of the major developments in petroleum engineering in the last two decades. Today, nearly all the wells completed in… (more)

Popa, Sergui Andrei, 1970-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Seismic studies of a massive hydraulic fracturing experiment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During a massive hydraulic fracturing experiment carried out at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, 850 microearthquakes, ranging in magnitudes from -3 to 0, were located reliably using arrival times recorded at a set of 5 downhole geophone stations. A subset of these events were located using an upgraded hodogram technique. The seismicity defines a tabular zone with horizontal extent of 900 m, vertical extent of 800 m, and thickness of 150 m. This zone strikes N340/sup 0/E, and dips 75/sup 0/ to the east; its position indicates that no hydraulic connection between the two predrilled wells could be achieved by the fracturing. The distribution of locations obtained from arrival times shows good agreement with those derived from hodograms. Well constrained fault plane solutions were determined for 26 of the larger microearthquakes observed at a surface seismic net. Most solutions display one nearly vertical nodal plane that strikes close to N - S, and a T axis that trends roughly E - W, in agreement with regional indicators of the least principal stress direction. 9 refs., 6 figs.

House, L.; Keppler, H.; Kaieda, H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The Effect of Proppant Size and Concentration on Hydraulic Fracture Conductivity in Shale Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracture conductivity in ultra-low permeability shale reservoirs is directly related to well productivity. The main goal of hydraulic fracturing in shale formations is to create a network of conductive pathways in the rock which increase the surface area of the formation that is connected to the wellbore. These highly conductive fractures significantly increase the production rates of petroleum fluids. During the process of hydraulic fracturing proppant is pumped and distributed in the fractures to keep them open after closure. Economic considerations have driven the industry to find ways to determine the optimal type, size and concentration of proppant that would enhance fracture conductivity and improve well performance. Therefore, direct laboratory conductivity measurements using real shale samples under realistic experimental conditions are needed for reliable hydraulic fracturing design optimization. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted to measure the conductivity of propped and unpropped fractures of Barnett shale using a modified API conductivity cell at room temperature for both natural fractures and induced fractures. The induced fractures were artificially created along the bedding plane to account for the effect of fracture face roughness on conductivity. The cementing material present on the surface of the natural fractures was preserved only for the initial unpropped conductivity tests. Natural proppants of difference sizes were manually placed and evenly distributed along the fracture face. The effect of proppant monolayer was also studied.

Kamenov, Anton

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Coordinated studies in support of hydraulic fracturing of coalbed methane. Final report, July 1990-May 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project is to provide laboratory data that is pertinent to designing hydraulic fracturing treatments for coalbed methane. Coal fluid interactions studies, fracture conductivity, fluid leak-off through cleats, rheology, and proppant transport are designed to respresent Black Warrior and San Juan treatments. A second objective is to apply the information learned in laboratory testing to actual hydraulic fracturing treatments in order to improve results. A final objective is to review methods currently used to catalog well performance following hydraulic fracturing for the purpose of placing the data in a useable database that can be accessed by users to determine the success of various treatment scenarios.

Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Development of a Neutron Diffraction Based Experiemental Capability for Investigating Hydraulic Fracturing for EGS-like Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing to enhance formation permeability is an established practice in the Oil & Gas (O&G) industry and is expected to be an enabler for EGS. However, it is rarely employed in conventional geothermal systems and there are significant questions regarding the translation of practice from O&G to both conventional geothermal and EGS applications. Lithological differences(sedimentary versus crystalline rocks, significantly greater formation temperatures and different desired fracture characteristics are among a number of factors that are likely to result in a gap of understanding of how to manage hydraulic fracturing practice for geothermal. Whereas the O&G community has had both the capital and the opportunity to develop its understanding of hydraulic fracturing operations empirically in the field as well through extensive R&D efforts, field testing opportunities for EGS are likely to be minimal due to the high expense of hydraulic fracturing field trials. A significant portion of the knowledge needed to guide the management of geothermal/EGS hydraulic fracturing operations will therefore likely have to come from experimental efforts and simulation. This paper describes ongoing efforts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop an experimental capability to map the internal stresses/strains in core samples subjected to triaxial stress states and temperatures representative of EGS-like conditions using neutron diffraction based strain mapping techniques. This capability is being developed at ORNL\\'s Spallation Neutron Source, the world\\'s most powerful pulsed neutron source and is still in a proof of concept phase. A specialized pressure cell has been developed that permits independent radial and axial fluid pressurization of core samples, with axial flow through capability and a temperature rating up to 300 degrees C. This cell will ultimately be used to hydraulically pressurize EGS-representative core samples to conditions of imminent fracture and map the associated internal strain states of the sample. This will hopefully enable a more precise mapping of the rock material failure envelope, facilitate a more refined understanding of the mechanism of hydraulically induced rock fracture, particularly in crystalline rocks, and serve as a platform for validating and improving fracture simulation codes. The elements of the research program and preliminary strain mapping results of a Sierra White granite sample subjected only to compressive loading will be discussed in this paper.

Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Dessieux Jr, Luc Lucius [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Transient and Pseudosteady-State Productivity of Hydraulically Fractured Well  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical simulation method is used in this work to solve the problem of transient and pseudosteady-state flow of fluid in a rectangular reservoir with impermeable boundaries. Development and validation of the numerical solution for various well-fracture configurations are the main objectives of this research. The specific case of horizontal well intersected by multiple transverse fractures is the focus of the investigation. The solutions for different operating conditions, constant rate and constant pressure, are represented in the form of transient – peudosteady-state productivity indices. The numerical simulator is validated by comparing results to known analytical solution for radial flow, existing models of productivity for vertical well intersected by vertical fracture, and also with published tables of shape factors. Numerical simulation is a powerful tool to predict well performance. The complexities of well-fracture configurations can be modeled in a truly 3-dimensional system and the pressure and productivity responses for all of the flow regimes can be computed efficiently, enabling optimization of the well-fracture system.

Lumban Gaol, Ardhi

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Application of microseismic technology to hydraulic fracture diagnostics: GRI/DOE Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct field experiments and analyze data that will result in definitive determinations of hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments will be conducted to provide data that will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fracture fluid rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment as well as surface facilities and equipment conducive to acquiring high-quality data. It is anticipated that the project`s research advancements will provide a foundation for a fracture diagnostic service industry and hydraulic fracture optimization based on measured fracture response. The M-Site Project is jointly sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The site developed for M-Site hydraulic fracture experimentation is the former DOE Multiwell Experiment (MWX) site located near Rifle, Colorado. The MWX project drilled three closely-spaced wells (MWX-1, MWX-2 and MWX-3) which were the basis for extensive reservoir analyses and tight gas sand characterizations in the blanket and lenticular sandstone bodies of the Mesaverde Group. The research results and background knowledge gained from the MWX project are directly applicable to research in the current M-Site Project.

Wilmer, R. [CER Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Wright, T.B. [Resources Engineering Systems (United States); Branagan, P.T. [Branagan & Associates (United States); Fix, J.E. [Fix & Associates (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Economic recovery of oil trapped at fan margins using high angle wells and multiple hydraulic fractures. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well. The long radius, near horizontal well has been drilled. After pumping a remedial cement squeeze, all pay behind the 5 in. liner was perforated and stimulated. Once wellwork is complete for the existing perforations, a hydraulic fracture treatment will be pumped through a short interval of clustered perforations in the 7 in. liner. Following this frac, all pay behind the 7 in. liner will be perforated and completion operations will be final.

Laue, M.L.

1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using Hig Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Yowlumne field is a giant field in the southern San Joaquin basin, Kern County, California. It is a deep (13,000 ft) waterflood operation that produces from the Miocene- aged Stevens Sand. The reservoir is interpreted as a layered, fan-shaped, prograding turbidite complex containing several lobe-shaped sand bodies that represent distinct flow units. A high ultimate recovery factor is expected, yet significant quantities of undrained oil remain at the fan margins. The fan margins are not economic to develop using vertical wells because of thinning pay, deteriorating rock quality, and depth. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the northeast distal fan margin through the use of a high- angle well completed with multiple hydraulic- fracture treatments. A high-angle well offers greater pay exposure than can be achieved with a vertical well. Hydraulic-fracture treatments will establish vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at a cost of approximately two vertical wells. The near-horizontal well penetrated the Yowlumne sand; a Stevens sand equivalent, in the distal fan margin in the northeast area of the field. The well was drilled in a predominately westerly direction towards the interior of the field, in the direction of improving rock quality. Drilling and completion operations proved to be very challenging, leading to a number of adjustments to original plans. Hole conditions resulted in obtaining less core material than desired and setting intermediate casing 1200 ft too high. The 7 in. production liner stuck 1000 ft off bottom, requiring a 5 in. liner to be run the rest of the way. The cement job on the 5 in. liner resulted in a very poor bond, which precluded one of three hydraulic fracture treatments originally planned for the well. Openhole logs confirmed most expectations going into the project about basic rock properties: the formation was shaly with low porosities, and water saturations were in line with expectations, including the presence of some intervals swept out by the waterflood. High water saturations at the bottom of the well eliminated one of the originally planned hydraulic fracture treatments. Although porosities proved to be low, they were more uniform across the formation than expected. Permeabilities of the various intervals continue to be evaluated, but appear to be better than expected from the porosity log model derived in Budget Period One. The well was perforated in all pay sections behind the 5 in. liner. Production rates and phases agree nicely with log calculations, fractional flow calculations, and an analytical technique used to predict the rate performance of the well.

Laue, M.L.

1997-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

106

Real-time and post-frac' 3-D analysis of hydraulic fracture treatments in geothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Economic power production from Hot Dry Rock (HDR) requires the establishment of an efficient circulation system between wellbores in reservoir rock with extremely low matrix permeability. Hydraulic fracturing is employed to establish the necessary circulation system. Hydraulic fracturing has also been performed to increase production from hydrothermal reservoirs by enhancing the communication with the reservoir's natural fracture system. Optimal implementation of these hydraulic fracturing applications, as with any engineering application, requires the use of credible physical models and the reconciliation of the physical models with treatment data gathered in the field. Analysis of the collected data has shown that 2-D models and 'conventional' 3-D models of the hydraulic fracturing process apply very poorly to hydraulic fracturing in geothermal reservoirs. Engineering decisions based on these more 'conventional' fracture modeling techniques lead to serious errors in predicting the performance of hydraulic fracture treatments. These errors can lead to inappropriate fracture treatment design as well as grave errors in well placement for hydrothermal reservoirs or HDR reservoirs. This paper outlines the reasons why conventional modeling approaches fall short, and what types of physical models are needed to credibly estimate created hydraulic fracture geometry. The methodology of analyzing actual measured fracture treatment data and matching the observed net fracturing pressure (in realtime as well as after the treatment) is demonstrated at two separate field sites. Results from an extensive Acoustic Emission (AE) fracture diagnostic survey are also presented for the first case study aS an independent measure of the actual created hydraulic fracture geometry.

Wright, C.A.; Tanigawa, J.J.; Hyodo, Masami; Takasugi, Shinji

1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

Risk assessment of groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing fluid spills in Pennsylvania  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast-paced growth in natural gas production in the Marcellus Shale has fueled intense debate over the risk of groundwater contamination from hydraulic fracturing and the shale gas extraction process at large. While several ...

Fletcher, Sarah Marie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the work performed during the fourth year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificially fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT scanner to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in hydraulically fractured reservoirs (HFR) and naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. In Chapter 1, we worked with DOE-RMOTC to investigate fracture properties in the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome Naval Reserve as part of their CO{sub 2} sequestration project. In Chapter 2, we continue our investigation to determine the primary oil recovery mechanism in a short vertically fractured core. Finally in Chapter 3, we report our numerical modeling efforts to develop compositional simulator with irregular grid blocks.

David S. Schechter

2005-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

109

Development of an Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Mapping System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The project to develop an advanced hydraulic fracture mapping system consisted of both hardware and analysis components in an effort to build, field, and analyze combined data from tiltmeter and microseismic arrays. The hardware sections of the project included: (1) the building of new tiltmeter housings with feedthroughs for use in conjunction with a microseismic array, (2) the development of a means to use separate telemetry systems for the tilt and microseismic arrays, and (3) the selection and fabrication of an accelerometer sensor system to improve signal-to-noise ratios. The analysis sections of the project included a joint inversion for analysis and interpretation of combined tiltmeter and microseismic data and improved methods for extracting slippage planes and other reservoir information from the microseisms. In addition, testing was performed at various steps in the process to assess the data quality and problems/issues that arose during various parts of the project. A prototype array was successfully tested and a full array is now being fabricated for industrial use.

Norm Warpinski; Steve Wolhart; Larry Griffin; Eric Davis

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

110

Computer simulation of effective viscosity of fluid-proppant mixture used in hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents results of numerical experiments performed to evaluate the effective viscosity of a fluid-proppant mixture, used in hydraulic fracturing. The results, obtained by two complimenting methods (the particle dynamics and the smoothed particle hydrodynamics), coincide to the accuracy of standard deviation. They provide an analytical equation for the dependence of effective viscosity on the proppant concentration, needed for numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracture propagation.

Kuzkin, Vitaly A; Linkov, Aleksandr M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Characterisation of hydraulic fractures in limestones using X-ray microtomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic tension fractures were produced in porous limestones using a specially designed hydraulic cell. The 3D geometry of the samples was imaged using X-ray computed microtomography before and after fracturation. Using these data, it was possible to estimate the permeability tensor of the core samples, extract the path of the rupture and compare it to the heterogeneities initially present in the rock.

Renard, Francois; Desrues, Jacques; Plougonven, Erwan; Ougier-Simonin, Audrey

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a propagating turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically-fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angled well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thininterbedded layers and the well bore.

Mike L. Laue

1997-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

113

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low energy deposits at the distal end of a protruding turbidite complex through use of hydraulically fractured horizontal of high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the well bore.

Mike L. Laue

1998-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

114

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore.

Laue, M.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Measurement Research of Borehole-to-Surface Electric Potential Gradient Method in Monitoring Hydraulic Fracture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the main measures to improve oil and gas production, hydraulic fracturing has been widely applied in modern oil industry. By means of lower resistance properties of fracturing fluid, borehole-to-surface electric potential gradient method analyses ... Keywords: borehole-to-surface electric method, Ab normal depth, launch current, polar distance, electric potential gradient

Tingting Li; Kaiguang Zhu; Jia Wang; Chunling Qiu; Jun Lin

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

An extended finite element method for hydraulic fracture propagation in deformable porous media with the cohesive crack model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a fully coupled numerical model is developed for the modeling of the hydraulic fracture propagation in porous media using the extended finite element method in conjunction with the cohesive crack model. The governing equations, which account ... Keywords: Cohesive crack propagation, Fluid flow, Fracturing porous media, Fully coupled model, Hydraulic fracturing, XFEM

T. Mohammadnejad, A. R. Khoei

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Sizing of a hot dry rock reservoir from a hydraulic fracturing experiment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hot dry rock (HDR) reservoirs do not lend themselves to the standard methods of reservoir sizing developed in the petroleum industry such as the buildup/drawdown test. In a HDR reservoir the reservoir is created by the injection of fluid. This process of hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock usually involves injection of a large volume (5 million gallons) at high rates (40BPM). A methodology is presented for sizing the HDR reservoir created during the hydraulic fracturing process. The reservoir created during a recent fracturing experiment is sized using the techniques presented. This reservoir is then investigated for commercial potential by simulation of long term power production. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Zyvoloski, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Coordinated studies in support of hydraulic fracturing of coalbed methane. Annual report, January 1993-April 1994  

SciTech Connect

The production of natural gas from coal typically requires stimulation in the form of hydraulic fracturing and, more recently, cavity completions. The results of hydraulic fracturing treatments have ranged from extremely successful to less than satisfactory. The purpose of this work is to characterize common and potential fracturing fluids in terms of coal-fluid interactions to identify reasons for less than satisfactory performance and to ultimately devise alternative fluids and treatment procedures to optimize production following hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory data reported herein has proven helpful in designing improved hydraulic fracturing treatments and remedial treatments in the Black Warrior Basin. Acid inhibitors, scale inhibitors, additives to improve coal relative permeability to gas, and non-damaging polymer systems for hydraulic fracturing have been screened in coal damage tests. The optimum conditions for creating field-like foams in the laboratory have been explored. Tests have been run to identify minimum polymer and surfactant concentrations for applications of foam in coal. The roll of 100 mesh sand in controlling leakoff and impairing conductivity in coal has been investigated. The leakoff and proppant transport of fluids with breaker has been investigated and recommendations have been made for breaker application to minimize damage potential in coal. A data base called COAL`S has been created in Paradox (trademark) for Windows to catalogue coalbed methane activities in the Black Warrior and San Juan Basins.

Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Coordinated studies in support of hydraulic fracturing of coalbed methane. Annual report, November 1991-December 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the work is to characterize common and potential fracturing fluids in terms of coal-fluid interactions to identify reasons for less than satisfactory performance and to ultimately devise alternative fluids and treatment procedures to optimize production following hydraulic fracturing. The laboratory data reported herein has proven helpful in designing improved hydraulic fracturing treatments and remedial treatments in the Black Warrior Basin. Acid inhibitors, scale inhibitors, additives to improve coal relative permeability to gas, and non-damaging polymer systems for hydraulic fracturing have been screened in coal damage tests. The optimum conditions for creating field-like foams in the laboratory have been explored. Tests have been run to identify minimum polymer and surfactant concentrations for applications of foam in coal. The roll of 100 mesh sand in controlling leakoff and impairing conductivity in coal has been investigated.

Not Available

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells Multiple Hydraulic Fractures  

SciTech Connect

This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well.

Mike L. Laue

1997-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

ECONOMIC RECOVERY OF OIL TRAPPED AT FAN MARGINS USING HIGH ANGLE WELLS AND MULTIPLE HYDRAULIC FRACTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well.

Mike L. Laue

1998-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

122

Hydraulic Fracture Optimization with a Pseudo-3D Model in Multi-layered Lithology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic Fracturing is a technique to accelerate production and enhance ultimate recovery of oil and gas while fracture geometry is an important aspect in hydraulic fracturing design and optimization. Systematic design procedures are available based on the so-called two-dimensional models (2D) focus on the optimization of fracture length and width, assuming one can estimate a value for fracture height, while so-called pseudo three dimensional (p-3D) models suitable for multi-layered reservoirs aim to maximize well production by optimizing fracture geometry, including fracture height, half-length and width at the end of the stimulation treatment. The proposed p-3D approach to design integrates four parts: 1) containment layers discretization to allow for a range of plausible fracture heights, 2) the Unified Fracture Design (UFD) model to calculate the fracture half-length and width, 3) the PKN or KGD models to predict hydraulic fracture geometry and the associated net pressure and other treatment parameters, and, finally, 4) Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM) to calculate fracture height. The aim is to find convergence of fracture height and net pressure. Net pressure distribution plays an important role when the fracture is propagating in the reservoir. In multi-layered reservoirs, the net pressure of each layer varies as a result of different rock properties. This study considers the contributions of all layers to the stress intensity factor at the fracture tips to find the final equilibrium height defined by the condition where the fracture toughness equals the calculated stress intensity factor based on LEFM. Other than maximizing production, another obvious application of this research is to prevent the fracture from propagating into unintended layers (i.e. gas cap and/or aquifer). Therefore, this study can aid fracture design by pointing out: (1) Treating pressure needed to optimize fracture geometry, (2) The containment top and bottom layers of a multi-layered reservoir, (3) The upwards and downwards growth of the fracture tip from the crack center.

Yang, Mei

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Development, setup and testing of a dynamic hydraulic fracture conductivity apparatus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most critical parameters in the success of a hydraulic fracturing treatment is to have sufficiently high fracture conductivity. Unbroken polymers can cause permeability impairment in the proppant pack and/or in the matrix along the fracture face. The objectives of this research project were to design and set up an experimental apparatus for dynamic fracture conductivity testing and to create a fracture conductivity test workflow standard. This entirely new dynamic fracture conductivity measurement will be used to perform extensive experiments to study fracturing fluid cleanup characteristics and investigate damage resulting from unbroken polymer gel in the proppant pack. The dynamic fracture conductivity experiment comprises two parts: pumping fracturing fluid into the cell and measuring proppant pack conductivity. I carefully designed the hydraulic fracturing laboratory to provide appropriate scaling of the field conditions experimentally. The specifications for each apparatus were carefully considered with flexibility for further studies and the capability of each apparatus was defined. I generated comprehensive experimental procedures for each experiment stage. By following the procedure, the experiment can run smoothly. Most of dry runs and experiments performed with sandstone were successful.

Pongthunya, Potcharaporn

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Active and passive seismic imaging of a hydraulic fracture in diatomite  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a comprehensive set of experiments including remote- and treatment-well microseismic monitoring, interwell shear-wave shadowing, and surface tiltmeter arrays, that was used to monitor the growth of a hydraulic fracture in the Belridge diatomite. To obtain accurate measurements, and extensive subsurface network of geophones was cemented spanning the diatomite formation in three closely spaced observation wells around the well to be fracture treated. Data analysis indicates that the minifracture and main hydraulic fracture stimulations resulted in a nearly vertical fracture zone (striking N26{degrees}E) vertically segregated into two separate elements, the uppermost of which grew 60 ft above the perforated interval. The interwell seismic effects are consistent with a side process zone of reduced shear velocity, which remote-well microseismic data independently suggest may be as wide as 40 ft. The experiments indicate complicated processes occurring during hydraulic fracturing that have significant implications for stimulation, waterflooding, in fill drilling, and EOR. These processes are neither well understood nor included in current hydraulic fracture models.

Vinegar, H.J.; Wills, P.B.; De Martini, D.C. (Shell Development Co. (US))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

ECONOMIC RECOVERY OF OIL TRAPPED AT FAN MARGINS USING HIGH ANGLE WELLS AND MULTIPLE HYDRAULIC FRACTURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting thin-layered, low-energy deposits at the distal margin of a prograding turbidite complex through the use of hydraulically fractured horizontal or high-angle wells. The combination of a horizontal or high-angle well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. A high-angle well will be drilled in the fan-margin portion of a slope-basin clastic reservoir and will be completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. Geologic modeling, reservoir characterization, and fine-grid reservoir simulation will be used to select the well location and orientation. Design parameters for the hydraulic-fracture treatments will be determined, in part, by fracturing an existing test well. Fracture azimuth will be predicted by passive seismic monitoring of a fracture-stimulation treatment in the test well using logging tools in an offset well. The long radius, near horizontal well was drilled during the first quarter of 1996. Well conditions resulted in the 7 in. production liner sticking approximately 900 ft off bottom. Therefore, a 5 in. production liner was necessary to case this portion of the target formation. Swept-out sand intervals and a poor cement bond behind the 5 in. liner precluded two of the three originally planned hydraulic fracture treatments. As a result, all pay intervals behind the 5 in. liner were perforated and stimulated with a non-acid reactive fluid. Following a short production period, the remaining pay intervals in the well (behind the 7 in. liner) were perforated. The well was returned to production to observe production trends and pressure behavior and assess the need to stimulate the new perforations.

Mike L. Laue

2001-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

126

Mapping acoustic emissions from hydraulic fracture treatments using coherent array processing: Concept  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is a widely-used well completion technique for enhancing the recovery of gas and oil in low-permeability formations. Hydraulic fracturing consists of pumping fluids into a well under high pressure (1000--5000 psi) to wedge-open and extend a fracture into the producing formation. The fracture acts as a conduit for gas and oil to flow back to the well, significantly increasing communication with larger volumes of the producing formation. A considerable amount of research has been conducted on the use of acoustic (microseismic) emission to delineate fracture growth. The use of transient signals to map the location of discrete sites of emission along fractures has been the focus of most research on methods for delineating fractures. These methods depend upon timing the arrival of compressional (P) or shear (S) waves from discrete fracturing events at one or more clamped geophones in the treatment well or in adjacent monitoring wells. Using a propagation model, the arrival times are used to estimate the distance from each sensor to the fracturing event. Coherent processing methods appear to have sufficient resolution in the 75 to 200 Hz band to delineate the extent of fractures induced by hydraulic fracturing. The medium velocity structure must be known with a 10% accuracy or better and no major discontinuities should be undetected. For best results, the receiving array must be positioned directly opposite the perforations (same depths) at a horizontal range of 200 to 400 feet from the region to be imaged. Sources of acoustic emission may be detectable down to a single-sensor SNR of 0.25 or somewhat less. These conclusions are limited by the assumptions of this study: good coupling to the formation, acoustic propagation, and accurate knowledge of the velocity structure.

Harris, D.B.; Sherwood, R.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Harben, P.E.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Hydraulically actuated fuel injector including a pilot operated spool valve assembly and hydraulic system using same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to hydraulic systems including hydraulically actuated fuel injectors that have a pilot operated spool valve assembly. One class of hydraulically actuated fuel injectors includes a solenoid driven pilot valve that controls the initiation of the injection event. However, during cold start conditions, hydraulic fluid, typically engine lubricating oil, is particularly viscous and is often difficult to displace through the relatively small drain path that is defined past the pilot valve member. Because the spool valve typically responds slower than expected during cold start due to the difficulty in displacing the relatively viscous oil, accurate start of injection timing can be difficult to achieve. There also exists a greater difficulty in reaching the higher end of the cold operating speed range. Therefore, the present invention utilizes a fluid evacuation valve to aid in displacement of the relatively viscous oil during cold start conditions.

Shafer, Scott F. (Morton, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project attempts to demonstrate the effectivensss of exploiting thin-layered, low energy deposits at the distal margin of a propagating turbinite complex through u se of hydraulically fractgured horizontal of high-angle wells. TGhe combinaton of a horizontal or high-angle weoo and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore.

Mike L. Laue

1998-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

129

The importance of in-situ-stress profiles in hydraulic-fracturing applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-situ stresses define the local forces acting on lithologic layers in the subsurface. Knowledge of these stresses is important in drilling, wellbore-stability, and, especially, hydraulic-fracturing applications. The measurement of in-situ stress is not straightforward and, therefore, often goes unmeasured. As such, one often assumes values of in-situ stress or estimate in-situ stresses from logging parameters. This article illustrates the importance of in-situ-stress estimates as they relate to hydraulic fracturing and outlines several techniques for estimating in-situ-stress magnitudes.

Hopkins, C.W. [S.A. Holditch and Associates, Inc., Houston, TX (United States). Houston Div.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Dynamic fluid loss in hydraulic fracturing under realistic shear conditions in high-permeability rocks  

SciTech Connect

A study of the dynamic fluid loss of hydraulic fracturing fluids under realistic shear conditions is presented. During a hydraulic fracturing treatment, a polymeric solution is pumped under pressure down the well to create and propagate a fracture. Part of the fluid leaks into the rock formation, leaving a skin layer of polymer or polymer filter cake, at the rock surface or in the pore space. This study focuses on the effects of shear rate and permeability on dynamic fluid-loss behavior of crosslinked and linear fracturing gels. Previous studies of dynamic fluid loss have mainly been with low-permeability cores and constant shear rates. Here, the effect of shear history and fluid-loss additive on the dynamic leakoff of high-permeability cores is examined.

Navarrete, R.C.; Cawiezel, K.E.; Constien, V.G. [Dowell Schlumberger, Tulsa, OK (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Determination of permeability of granitic rocks in GT-2 from hydraulic fracturing data  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is currently conducting a study to determine the feasibility to extract geothermal energy from dry hot rock. The investigated concept calls for the creation of a hydraulic fracture in hot, impermeable rock. Heat will be exchanged subsequently at the fracture surface between the rock and a circulating fluid. The successful creation of hydraulic fractures in the granitic section of exploratory holes GT-1 and GT-2 yielded sufficient data to calculate the average permeability of the rock next to a fracture by means of the mathematical model. The calculated permeabilities were found to be in the microdarcy range and proved the granitic rock penetrated by GT-1 and GT-2 to be sufficiently impermeable to test the above concept. (auth)

Delisle, G.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Hydraulic fracture stimulation treatment of Well Baca 23. Geothermal Reservoir Well-Stimulation Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Well Stimulation Experiment No. 5 of the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) was performed on March 22, 1981 in Baca 23, located in Union's Redondo Creek Project Area in Sandoval County, New Mexico. The treatment selected was a large hydraulic fracture job designed specifically for, and utilizing frac materials chosen for, the high temperature geothermal environment. The well selection, fracture treatment, experiment evaluation, and summary of the job costs are presented herein.

Not Available

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Hydraulic-fracture diagnostic research. Final report, December 1989-December 1990  

SciTech Connect

The results of the research in microseismic methods to determine hydraulic fracture dimensions during the contract were significant. The GRI Hydraulic Fracture Test Site (HFTS) development planning was a major effort. Ten meetings of the Planning Team were coordinated and hosted. A statement of the HFTS mission, scope, objectives, and requirements was created. The primary objectives were to provide for interdisciplinary experiments on fracture modeling and fracture diagnostics. A Conceptual Plan for the HFTS was compiled by Teledyne Geotech and distributed at the Project Advisors Group meeting. An experiment at the Shell South Belridge Field in California was a direct analog of the HFTS. Multiple fracture stimulations were monitored from 3 wells with cemented-in geophones. Methods of handling and processing large data volumes in real time were established. The final fracture geometry did not fit the circular model. Fracture diagnostics were monitored at two GRI cooperative wells: the Enron S. Hogsback No. 13-8A and the Phillips Ward C No. 11. Theoretical studies indicate that crack waves might be used as an estimate of fracture length. After applying advanced signal enhancement techniques to low-frequency signals from 14 surveys, it was concluded that the data from presently available sondes is contaminated by sonde resonances.

Fix, J.E.; Adair, R.G.; Clawson, G.E.; Lawhorn, W.S.; Mahrer, K.D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Angle of crack propagation for a vertical hydraulic fracture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using the strain-energy-density-factor (S) theory, the positive fracture angle +theta/sub o/ (the initial fracture angle of crack propagation) of a near-vertical crack is predicted by using the opening- and sliding-mode stress-intensity factors in the presence of the overburden pressure, the least in situ horizontal principal stress, and the borehole fluid pressure. The crack spreads in the positive theta/sub o/ direction (counter-clockwise) in the plane for which S is a minimum, S/sub min/. It was verified that S/sub min/ is greater than or equal to S/sub c/. The quantity S/sub c/ is defined as the critical value of S, and remains essentially constant. Of interest is the numerical example for calculating fracture angle and the critical uniform borehole fluid pressure required to initiate fracture at such an angle for the present LASL Dry Hot Rock Geothermal Energy Program. (auth)

Sarda, J.P.; Hsu, Y.C.

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Methodologies and new user interfaces to optimize hydraulic fracturing design and evaluate fracturing performance for gas wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents and develops efficient and effective methodologies for optimal hydraulic fracture design and fracture performance evaluation. These methods incorporate algorithms that simultaneously optimize all of the treatment parameters while accounting for required constraints. Damage effects, such as closure stress, gel damage and non-Darcy flow, are also considered in the optimal design and evaluation algorithms. Two user-friendly program modules, which are active server page (ASP) based, were developed to implement the utility of the methodologies. Case analysis was executed to demonstrate the workflow of the two modules. Finally, to validate the results from the two modules, results were compared to those from a 3D simulation program. The main contributions of this work are: An optimal fracture design methodology called unified fracture design (UFD) is presented and damage effects are considered in the optimal design calculation. As a by-product of UFD, a fracture evaluation methodology is proposed to conduct well stimulation performance evaluation. The approach is based on calculating and comparing the actual dimensionless productivity index of fractured wells with the benchmark which has been developed for optimized production. To implement the fracture design and evaluation methods, two web ASP based user interfaces were developed; one is called Frac Design (Screening), and the other is Frac Evaluation. Both modules are built to hold the following features. o Friendly web ASP based user interface o Minimum user input o Proppant type and mesh size selection o Damage effects consideration options o Convenient on-line help.

Wang, Wenxin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on investigating the effect of CO{sub 2} injection rates in homogeneous and fractured cores on oil recovery and a strategy to mitigate CO{sub 2} bypassing in a fractured core.

David S. Schechter

2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

137

Mechanisms and impact of damage resulting from hydraulic fracturing. Topical report, May 1995-July 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This topical report documents the mechanisms of formation damage following hydraulic fracturing and their impact upon gas well productivity. The categories of damage reviewed include absolute or matrix permeability damage, relative permeability alterations, the damage of natural fracture permeability mechanisms and proppant conductivity impairment. Case studies are reviewed in which attempts are made to mitigate each of the damage types. Industry surveys have been conducted to determine the perceptions of the industry on the topic of formation damage following hydraulic fracturing and to identify key formations in which formation damage is a problem. From this information, technical hurdles and new technology needs are identified and estimates are made of the benefits of developing and applying minimum formation damage technology.

Penny, G.S.; Conway, M.W.; Almond, S.W.; Himes, R.; Nick, K.E.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Hydraulic-fracture stimulation treatments at East Mesa, Well 58-30. Geothermal-reservoir well-stimulation program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

East Mesa Well 58-30 was selected for two stimulation treatments: a conventional hydraulic fracture in a deep, low permeability interval, and a dendritic fracture in a shallow, high permeability interval of completion. The well selection, pre-stimulation evaluation, fracture treatment design, and post-stimulation evaluation are presented.

Not Available

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Numerical evaluation of effective unsaturated hydraulic properties for fractured rocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To represent a heterogeneous unsaturated fractured rock by its homogeneous equivalent, Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain upscaled (effective) flow properties. In this study, we present a numerical procedure for upscaling the van Genuchten parameters of unsaturated fractured rocks by conducting Monte Carlo simulations of the unsaturated flow in a domain under gravity-dominated regime. The simulation domain can be chosen as the scale of block size in the field-scale modeling. The effective conductivity is computed from the steady-state flux at the lower boundary and plotted as a function of the averaging pressure head or saturation over the domain. The scatter plot is then fitted using van Genuchten model and three parameters, i.e., the saturated conductivity K{sub s}, the air-entry parameter {alpha}, the pore-size distribution parameter n, corresponding to this model are considered as the effective K{sub s}, effective {alpha}, and effective n, respectively.

Lu, Zhiming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwicklis, Edward M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

UNPERMITTED INJECTION OF DIESEL FUELS THROUGH HYDRAULIC FRACTURING IS A VIOLATION...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thank you for the opportunity to provide comments on the Environmental Protection Agency’s (“EPA”) development of UIC Class II permitting guidance for hydraulic fracturing activities that use diesel fuels in fracturing fluids. The Natural Resources Defense Council (“NRDC”) is a national, non-profit legal and scientific organization with 1.3 million members and activists worldwide. Since its founding in 1970, NRDC has been active on a wide range of environmental issues, including fossil fuel extraction and drinking water protection. NRDC is actively engaged in issues surrounding oil and gas development and hydraulic fracturing, particularly in the Rocky Mountain West and Marcellus Shale regions. Earthjustice is a non-profit public interest law firm originally founded in 1971. Earthjustice works to protect natural resources and the environment, and to defend the right of all people to a healthy environment. Earthjustice is actively addressing threats to air, water, public health and wildlife from oil and gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the Marcellus Shale and Rocky Mountain regions. Founded in 1892, the Sierra Club works to protect communities, wild places, and the planet itself. With 1.4 million members and activists worldwide, the Club works to provide healthy communities in which to live, smart energy solutions to combat global warming, and an enduring legacy of for America’s wild

Ariel Rios Building

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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141

Correlations to predict frictional pressure loss of hydraulic-fracturing slurry in coiled tubing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Compared with conventional-tubing fracturing, coiled-tubing (CT) fracturing has several advantages. CT fracturing has become an effective stimulation technique for multizone oil and gas wells. It is also an attractive production-enhancement method for multiseam coalbed-methane wells, and wells with bypassed zones. The excessive frictional pressure loss through CT has been a concern in fracturing. The small diameter of the string limits the cross-sectional area open to flow. Furthermore, the tubing curvature causes secondary flow and results in extra flow resistance. This increased frictional pressure loss results in high surface pumping pressure. The maximum possible pump rate and sand concentration, therefore, have to be reduced. To design a CT fracturing job properly, it is essential to predict the frictional pressure loss through the tubing accurately. This paper presents correlations for the prediction of frictional pressure loss of fracturing slurries in straight tubing and CT. They are developed on the basis of full-scale slurry-flow tests with 11/2-in. CT and slurries prepared with 35 lbm/1,000 gal of guar gel. The extensive experiments were conducted at the full-scale CT-flow test facility. The proposed correlations have been verified with the experimental data and actual field CT-fracturing data. Case studies of wells recently fractured are provided to demonstrate the application of the correlations. The correlations will be useful to the CT engineers in their hydraulics design calculations.

Shah, S.; Zhoi, Y.X.; Bailey, M.; Hernandez, J. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

142

Combined seismic and hydraulic method of modeling flow in fractured low permeability rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Modeling flow of ground water in hard rocks where a network of fractures provides the dominant flow paths is a major problem. This paper summarizes a program of investigations currently underway in this laboratory to characterize the geometry of fractured rocks and develop methods of handling flow in such systems. Numerical models have been developed to investigate flow behavior in two- and three-dimensional fracture networks. The results demonstrate the insights that can be gained from modeling studies of fractured rocks. A key problem is gathering the necessary data on fracture geometry. Investigations have been started to determine how vertical seismic profiling (VSP) might be improved and applied to this problem. A VSP experiment in The Geysers geothermal field in northern California, where fracture orientation is known, produced shear wave splitting and velocity anisotropy in agreement with theory. The results suggest the potential application of 3-component, multi-source VSP data in determining fracture orientation and average spacing. We believe a combination of seismic and hydraulic methods can greatly enhance an understanding of fluid flow and transport in low permeability rock systems where fractures provide the dominant paths. 40 refs, 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Witherspoon, P.A.; Long, J.C.S.; Majer, E.L.; Myer, L.R.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Sand control method employing special hydraulic fracturing technique  

SciTech Connect

A novel sand control method is disclosed wherein high viscosity, high sand concentration, fracturing fluids are pumped through sets of vertically oriented perforations in borehole casings located in unconsolidated or loosely consolidated pay zones. Various techniques are utilized to insure that sand fills disposed on either side of the borehole casing cover and substantially overlap each borehole casing perforation set. Procedures are then followed to bring the well into production without washing out the sand fills in these areas, whereby the resulting perforation-sand fill configurations effectively control sand production from the treated zone.

Medlin, W.L.; Mullins, L.D.; Zumwalt, G.L.

1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

144

Discrete element modeling of rock deformation, fracture network development and permeability evolution under hydraulic stimulation  

SciTech Connect

Key challenges associated with the EGS reservoir development include the ability to reliably predict hydraulic fracturing and the deformation of natural fractures as well as estimating permeability evolution of the fracture network with time. We have developed a physics-based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by coupling a discrete element model (DEM) for fracturing with a network flow model. In DEM model, solid rock is represented by a network of discrete elements (often referred as particles) connected by various types of mechanical bonds such as springs, elastic beams or bonds that have more complex properties (such as stress-dependent elastic constants). Fracturing is represented explicitly as broken bonds (microcracks), which form and coalesce into macroscopic fractures when external and internal load is applied. The natural fractures are represented by a series of connected line segments. Mechanical bonds that intersect with such line segments are removed from the DEM model. A network flow model using conjugate lattice to the DEM network is developed and coupled with the DEM. The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which therefore deforms the mechanical bonds and breaks them if the deformation reaches a prescribed threshold value. Such deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability of the flow network, which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, intimately coupling the two processes. The intimate coupling between fracturing/deformation of fracture networks and fluid flow makes the meso-scale DEM- network flow simulations necessary in order to accurately evaluate the permeability evolution, as these methods have substantial advantages over conventional continuum mechanical models of elastic rock deformation. The challenges that must be overcome to simulate EGS reservoir stimulation, preliminary results, progress to date and near future research directions and opportunities will be discussed. Methodology for coupling the DEM model with continuum flow and heat transport models will also be discussed.

Shouchun Deng; Robert Podgorney; Hai Huang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

A nonlocal model for fluid-structure interaction with applications in hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling important engineering problems related to flow-induced damage (in the context of hydraulic fracturing among others) depends critically on characterizing the interaction of porous media and interstitial fluid flow. This work presents a new formulation for incorporating the effects of pore pressure in a nonlocal representation of solid mechanics. The result is a framework for modeling fluid-structure interaction problems with the discontinuity capturing advantages of an integral based formulation. A number of numerical examples are used to show that the proposed formulation can be applied to measure the effect of leak-off during hydraulic fracturing as well as modeling consolidation of fluid saturated rock and surface subsidence caused by fluid extraction from a geologic reservoir. The formulation incorporates the effect of pore pressure in the constitutive description of the porous material in a way that is appropriate for nonlinear materials, easily implemented in existing codes, straightforward in i...

Turner, Daniel Z

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Downhole microseismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing: a full-waveform approach for complete moment tensor inversion and stress estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Downhole microseismics has gained in popularity in recent years as a way to characterize hydraulic fracturing sources and to estimate in-situ stress state. Conventional approaches only utilize part of the information ...

Song, Fuxian

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

An agent-based soft computing society with application in the management of establishment of hydraulic fracture in oil field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Establishment of Hydraulic Fracture in Oil field is a complicated system. The process of establishment of project involves many departments, which frequently interact each other. In general, The Orient-Object technology is not suitable to construct this ...

Fu hua Shang; Xiao feng Li; Jian Xu

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

The Implications and Flow Behavior of the Hydraulically Fractured Wells in Shale Gas Formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale gas formations are known to have low permeability. This low permeability can be as low as 100 nano darcies. Without stimulating wells drilled in the shale gas formations, it is hard to produce them at an economic rate. One of the stimulating approaches is by drilling horizontal wells and hydraulically fracturing the formation. Once the formation is fractured, different flow patterns will occur. The dominant flow regime observed in the shale gas formation is the linear flow or the transient drainage from the formation matrix toward the hydraulic fracture. This flow could extend up to years of production and it can be identified by half slop on the log-log plot of the gas rate against time. It could be utilized to evaluate the hydraulic fracture surface area and eventually evaluate the effectiveness of the completion job. Different models from the literature can be used to evaluate the completion job. One of the models used in this work assumes a rectangular reservoir with a slab shaped matrix between each two hydraulic fractures. From this model, there are at least five flow regions and the two regions discussed are the Region 2 in which bilinear flow occurs as a result of simultaneous drainage form the matrix and hydraulic fracture. The other is Region 4 which results from transient matrix drainage which could extend up to many years. The Barnett shale production data will be utilized throughout this work to show sample of the calculations. This first part of this work will evaluate the field data used in this study following a systematic procedure explained in Chapter III. This part reviews the historical production, reservoir and fluid data and well completion records available for the wells being analyzed. It will also check for data correlations from the data available and explain abnormal flow behaviors that might occur utilizing the field production data. It will explain why some wells might not fit into each model. This will be followed by a preliminary diagnosis, in which flow regimes will be identified, unclear data will be filtered, and interference and liquid loading data will be pointed. After completing the data evaluation, this work will evaluate and compare the different methods available in the literature in order to decide which method will best fit to analyze the production data from the Barnett shale. Formation properties and the original gas in place will be evaluated and compared for different methods.

Almarzooq, Anas Mohammadali S.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Preliminary assessment of a geothermal energy reservoir formed by hydraulic fracturing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two, 3-km-deep boreholes have been drilled into hot (approximately 200/sup 0/C) graphite in northern New Mexico in order to extract geothermal energy from hot dry rock. Both boreholes were hydraulically fractured to establish a flow connection. Presently this connection has a large flow impedance which may be improved with further stimulation. Fracture-to-borehole intersection locations and in situ thermal conductivity were determined from flowing temperature logs. In situ measurements of permeability show an extremely strong dependence upon pore pressure--the permeability increased by a factor of 80 as the pressure was increased 83 bars (1200 psi). An estimate of the minimum horizontal earth stress was derived from fracture extension pressures and found to be one-half the overburden stress.

Murphy, H.D.; Lawton, R.G.; Tester, J.W.; Potter, R.M.; Brown, D.W.; Aamodt, R.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

preprint HLRZ../94 SIMULATIONS OF PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS AND ACOUSTIC EMISSION IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a two dimensional lattice model to describe the opening of a crack in hydraulic fracturing. In particular we consider that the material only breaks under tension and the fluid has no pressure drop inside the crack. For the case in which the material is completely homogeneous (no disorder) we present results for pressure and elastic energy as a function of time and compare our findings with some analytic results from continuum fracture mechanics. Then we investigate fracture processes in strongly heterogeneous cohesive environments. We determine the cummulative probability distribution for breaking events of a given energetical magnitude (acoustic emission). Further we estimate the probabilty distribution of emission free time intervals. Finally we determine the fractal dimension(s) of the cracks. PACS numbers: 46.30, 91.60.-x, 05.70 1

F. Tzschichholz; H. J. Herrmann

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Imaging of reservoirs and fracture systems using microearthquakes induced by hydraulic injections  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Predicting the future performance of a geothermal reservoir and planning a strategy for increasing productivity from the reservoir require an intimate knowledge of the fracture system through which geothermal fluids permeate. Microearthquakes often accompany hydraulic fracturing as well as normal production activities in geothermal fields. The waveforms from the se microearthquakes provide valuable information that can be used to infer the three-dimensional structure of the fracture system in the reservoir. The locations of the microearthquakes can be used to infer the presence of large fractures along which shear slip has occurred. Tomographic imaging using arrival times of the seismic waves, provides a three-dimensional image of the P and S wave velocity structure of the reservoir. These velocities yield information about the presence of microfractures in the rock. Waveform stacking methods can be used to both corroborate seismic velocities and image seismic scatters in the reservoir. The most prominent seismic scatters are likely to be fluid-filled fractures. Thus, seismic data provide information about a fractures over a large scale range which can be of use in reservoir engineering. 32 refs., 4 figs.

Fehler, M.; House, L.; Phillips, W.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Block, L.; Cheng, C.H. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA). Earth Resources Lab.)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Identification of Parameters Influencing the Response of Gas Storage Wells to Hydraulic Fracturing with the Aid of a Neural Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

located in Northeastern Ohio. The formation is a tight gas sandstone called the Clinton Sand. All was trained with existing data to identify influential parameters in hydraulic fracturing of the Clinton Sand Characteristics The Clinton reservoir is a tight gas sandstone. Natural fracturing is thought to account

Mohaghegh, Shahab

153

Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Using Thermo-hydro-mechanical Analysis with Brittle Damage Model by Finite Element Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Better understanding and control of crack growth direction during hydraulic fracturing are essential for enhancing productivity of geothermal and petroleum reservoirs. Structural analysis of fracture propagation and impact on fluid flow is a challenging issue because of the complexity of rock properties and physical aspects of rock failure and fracture growth. Realistic interpretation of the complex interactions between rock deformation, fluid flow, heat transfer, and fracture propagation induced by fluid injection is important for fracture network design. In this work, numerical models are developed to simulate rock failure and hydraulic fracture propagation. The influences of rock deformation, fluid flow, and heat transfer on fracturing processes are studied using a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) analysis. The models are used to simulate microscopic and macroscopic fracture behaviors of laboratory-scale uniaxial and triaxial experiments on rock using an elastic/brittle damage model considering a stochastic heterogeneity distribution. The constitutive modeling by the energy release rate-based damage evolution allows characterizing brittle rock failure and strength degradation. This approach is then used to simulate the sequential process of heterogeneous rock failures from the initiation of microcracks to the growth of macrocracks. The hydraulic fracturing path, especially for fractures emanating from inclined wellbores and closed natural fractures, often involves mixed mode fracture propagation. Especially, when the fracture is inclined in a 3D stress field, the propagation cannot be modeled using 2D fracture models. Hence, 2D/3D mixed-modes fracture growth from an initially embedded circular crack is studied using the damage mechanics approach implemented in a finite element method. As a practical problem, hydraulic fracturing stimulation often involves fluid pressure change caused by injected fracturing fluid, fluid leakoff, and fracture propagation with brittle rock behavior and stress heterogeneities. In this dissertation, hydraulic fracture propagation is simulated using a coupled fluid flow/diffusion and rock deformation analysis. Later THM analysis is also carried out. The hydraulic forces in extended fractures are solved using a lubrication equation. Using a new moving-boundary element partition methodology (EPM), fracture propagation through heterogeneous media is predicted simply and efficiently. The method allows coupling fluid flow and rock deformation, and fracture propagation using the lubrication equation to solve for the fluid pressure through newly propagating crack paths. Using the proposed model, the 2D/3D hydraulic fracturing simulations are performed to investigate the role of material and rock heterogeneity. Furthermore, in geothermal and petroleum reservoir design, engineers can take advantage of thermal fracturing that occurs when heat transfers between injected flow and the rock matrix to create reservoir permeability. These thermal stresses are calculated using coupled THM analysis and their influence on crack propagation during reservoir stimulation are investigated using damage mechanics and thermal loading algorithms for newly fractured surfaces.

Min, Kyoung

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Multicomponent seismic monitoring of the effective stimulated volume associated with hydraulic fracture stimulations in a shale reservoir, Pouce Coupe field, Alberta, Canada.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Reservoir Characterization Project in conjunction with Talisman Energy Inc., have been investigating a time-lapse data set acquired during hydraulic fracture stimulations of two horizontal… (more)

Steinhoff, Christopher

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A vent is located hydraulically between the actuating space and the valve for affording communication between said actuating space and a low pressure region. Flow control means is provided for restricting leakage through said vent to a rate that prevents said leakage from substantially detracting from the development of pressure within said actuatng space during the period from initial opening of the valve to the time when said piston has moved through most of its opening stroke. Following such period and while the valve is still open, said flow control means allows effective leakage through said vent. The accumulator has a limited capacity that results in the pressure within said actuating space decaying promptly to a low value as a result of effective leakage through said vent after the piston has moved through a circuit-breaker opening stroke and while the valve is in its open state. Means is provided for resetting the valve to its closed state in response to said pressure decay in the actuating space.

Barkan, Philip (Media, PA); Imam, Imdad (Secane, PA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Massive hydraulic fracturing experiment No. 1 Home Federal well, Uintah County, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Two massive hydraulic fracturing experiments were performed on two separate gas-bearing intervals of Mesaverde sandstones in the No. 1 Home Federal well located in Uintah County, Utah. Water-base gel carrying sand proppant was used as the frac medium and the limited entry technique was used for injection. The first experiment was carried out on an interval containing 112 ft of net pay between 10,014 and 10,202 ft. Pre-frac production capacity was estimated to be 60+ MCF/D. Post-frac production capacity was significantly less, presumably attributable to a limited lateral extent of inherent formation permeability. The second experiment was carried out on an interval containing 85 ft of net pay between 7826 and 9437 ft. Pre-frac production capacity of 33 MCF/D was increased by MHF to an initial 500 MCF/D and to a relatively stabilized 155 MCF/D within four months following the treatment.

Boardman, C.R.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Shallow hydraulic fracturing measurements in Korea support tectonic and seismic indicators of regional stress.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have conducted five hydraulic fracturing stress measurement campaigns in Korea, involving 13 test holes ranging in depth from 30 to 250 m, at locations from North Seoul to the southern coast of the peninsula. The measurements reveal consistent crustal stress magnitudes and directions that suggest persistence throughout western and southern Korea. The maximum horizontal stress {sigma}{sub H} is oriented between ENE-WSW and E-W, in accord with plate movement and deformation, and with directions indicated by both focal mechanism solutions from earthquakes inland and offshore as well as borehole breakouts in mainland China close to its eastern coast. With respect to magnitudes, the vertical stress is the overall minimum stress at all tested locations, suggesting a thrust faulting regime within the relatively shallow depths reached by our tests. Typically, such a stress regime becomes one favoring strike-slip at greater depths, as is also indicated by the focal mechanism solutions around Korea.

Haimson, Bezalel Cecil (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Lee, Moo Yul; Song, I. (Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany)

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Hydraulic fracture model and diagnostics verification at GRI/DOE multi-site projects and tight gas sand program support. Final report, July 28, 1993--February 28, 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over twenty years. Early production experiments included nuclear stimulations and massive hydraulic fracture treatments. This work culminated in the US Department of Energy (DOE)`s Multiwell Experiment (MWX), a field laboratory designed to study the reservoir and production characteristics of low permeability sands. A key feature of MWX was an infrastructure which included several closely spaced wells that allowed detailed characterization of the reservoir through log and core analysis, and well testing. Interference and tracer tests, as well as the use of fracture diagnostics gave further information on stimulation and production characteristics. Thus, the Multiwell Experiment provided a unique opportunity for identifying the factors affecting production from tight gas sand reservoirs. The purpose of this operation was to support the gathering of field data that may be used to resolve the number of unknowns associated with measuring and modeling the dimensions of hydraulic fractures. Using the close-well infrastructure at the Multiwell Site near Rifle, Colorado, this operation focused primarily on the field design and execution of experiments. The data derived from the experiments were gathered and analyzed by DOE team contractors.

Schroeder, J.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Identification of MHF (massive hydraulic fracturing) fracture planes and flow paths: A correlation of well log data with patterns in locations of induced seismicity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the critical steps in developing a hot dry rock geothermal system is the creation of flow paths through the rock between two wellbores. To date, circulation systems have only been created by drilling one wellbore, hydraulically fracturing the well (which induces microearthquakes), locating the microearthquakes and then drilling a second wellbore through the zone of seismicity. A technique for analyzing the pattern of seismicity to determine where fracture planes are located in the seismically active region has recently been developed. This allows us to distinguish portions of the seismically active volume which are most likely to contain significant flow paths. We applied this technique to seismic data collected during a massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) treatment and found that the fracture planes determined by the seismic method are confirmed by borehole temperature and caliper logs which indicate where permeable fractures and/or zones of weakness intersect the wellbores. A geometric model based on these planes and well log data has enhanced our understanding of the reservoir flow paths created by fracturing and is consistent with results obtained during production testing of the reservoir.

Dreesen, D.; Malzahn, M.; Fehler, M.; Dash, Z.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Acoustic emission in a fluid saturated heterogeneous porous layer with application to hydraulic fracture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A theoretical model for acoustic emission in a vertically heterogeneous porous layer bounded by semi-infinite solid regions is developed using linearized equations of motion for a fluid/solid mixture and a reflectivity method. Green's functions are derived for both point loads and moments. Numerically integrated propagators represent solutions for intermediate heterogeneous layers in the porous region. These are substituted into a global matrix for solution by Gaussian elimination and back-substitution. Fluid partial stress and seismic responses to dislocations associated with fracturing of a layer of rock with a hydraulically conductive fracture network are computed with the model. A constitutive model is developed for representing the fractured rock layer as a porous material, using commonly accepted relationships for moduli. Derivations of density, tortuosity, and sinuosity are provided. The main results of the model application are the prediction of a substantial fluid partial stress response related to a second mode wave for the porous material. The response is observable for relatively large distances, on the order of several tens of meters. The visco-dynamic transition frequency associated with parabolic versus planar fluid velocity distributions across micro-crack apertures is in the low audio or seismic range, in contrast to materials with small pore size, such as porous rocks, for which the transition frequency is ultrasonic. Seismic responses are predicted for receiver locations both in the layer and in the outlying solid regions. In the porous region, the seismic response includes both shear and dilatational wave arrivals and a second-mode arrival. The second-mode arrival is not observable outside of the layer because of its low velocity relative to the dilatational and shear wave propagation velocities of the solid region.

Nelson, J.T. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Rock-Fluid Chemistry Impacts on Shale Hydraulic Fracture and Microfracture Growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of surface chemical effects in hydraulic fracturing of shale is studied using the results of unconfined compression tests and Brazilian tests on Mancos shale- cored at depths of 20-60 ft. The rock mineralogy, total organic carbon and cation exchange capacity were determined in order to characterize the shale. Adsorption tests to study the interaction of the shale and aqueous fluid mixture were also carried out using surface tension measurements. The uniaxial compressive strengths and tensile strengths of individual shale samples after four hours exposure to water, 2.85 x 10^-3 M cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide-DTAB) and 2.81 x 10^-3 M anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate-SDBS) were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. These mechanical strengths were largely reduced on exposure to the aqueous environments studied, despite the relatively low clay and low swelling clay content of the Mancos shale. Further comparison of the uniaxial compressive strengths and tensile strengths of the shale on exposure to water, to the strengths when exposed to the surfactant solutions showed that their difference was not statistically significant indicating that exposure to water had the greatest effect on strength loss. The surface tension measurement of 2.85 x 10^-4 M DTAB and 2.81 x 10^-4 M SDBS solutions before and after equilibration with shale showed about 80% increase in surface tension in the DTAB solution and 10% increase in surface tension in the SDBS solution. The probable sorption mechanism is electrostatic attraction with negatively charged sites of the shale as shown by significant loss of the cationic surfactant (DTAB) to the shale surface, and the relatively minor adsorption capacity of the anionic surfactant (SDBS). Although these adsorption tests indicate interaction between the shale and surfactant solutions, within the number of tests carried out and the surfactant concentration used, the interaction does not translate into a significant statistical difference for impacts of surfactants on mechanical strength of this shale compared to the impact of water alone. The relevance of this work is to facilitate the understanding of how the strength of rock can be reduced by the composition of hydraulic fracturing fluids, to achieve improved fracture performance and higher recovery of natural gas from shale reservoirs.

Aderibigbe, Aderonke

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS ON THE HYDRAULIC AND THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FRACTURED CRYSTALLINE ROCKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE HYDRAULIC AND THERMOMECHANICALdetermination of the hydraulic p r o p e r t i e s of f r ainfluence of thermal and hydraulic stresses. The success of

Witherspoon, P.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Determination of in-situ stress to predict direction of hydraulically created fractures for development of hot dry rock geothermal reservoir in Japan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is very important to know the underground stress state to design and complete a Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir because the direction of the hydraulic fractures depends on the earth stress. The hydraulic mini fracturing technique was introduced to determine the in-situ stress state without assuming the borehole axis to be parallel to one of the principal stresses. Small scale hydraulic fracturing tests were conducted to verify this technique at an underground power plant and microseismic activities were monitored for fracture mapping. The direction of the fracture propagation was estimated from the in-situ stress state and compared with the fracture plane mapped by microseismic activities. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Kuriyagawa, Michio; Kobayashi, Hideo; Matsunaga, Isao; Kosugi, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Shunji; Hori, Yoshinao

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Coupled thermohydromechanical analysis of a heater test in unsaturated clay and fractured rock at Kamaishi Mine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

injection and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements inlevel measured with hydraulic fracturing (reproduced from

Rutqvist, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Magnetic induction technique for mapping vertical conductive fractures: theory of operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Utilization of a hot dry rock geothermal resource requires circulation of a fluid (water) through fractures in the rock. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is presently investigating the feasibility and economics of tapping this energy resource. Presently, the fractures in the rock are created by conventional hydraulic fracturing techniques. Accurate determination of the geometry of the fracture system is required so that boreholes may be drilled to complete the circulation system. The theory of a technique designed to map vertical conductive fractures located in resistive rock is presented. The technique is based on magnetic induction. Fracture thickness and strike can be determined from measurements made in a single borehole.

Not Available

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Transient gas or liquid flow along a preexisting or hydraulically-induced fracture in a permeable medium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Similarity solutions are derived for the trasient two-dimensional flow of a gas or liquid along an isolated fracture in a permeable medium. The driving pressure at the fracture inlet is constant, and the confining stress is uniform. Two different cases are considered, pre-existing fractures with uniform aperture as well as hydraulic fractures with a variable aperture proportional to the local overpressure (fluid pressure less confining stress). The evolution of the pressure distribution is described by a set of four asymptotic solutions, each having a self-similar form. At early times the flow in the fracture is turbulent, and Darcian seepage losses into the porous surroundings are negligible. At late times the flow in the fracture is laminar, and seepage losses become a dominant consideration. At intermediate times there are two alternative asymptotes, depending upon physical parameters. The mathematical model also describe the flow along a fracture which is fulled with high-permeability porous material as well as the flow in an assemblage of porous blocks. 19 refs., 10 figs.

Nilson, R.H.; Morrison, F.A. Jr.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Characteristics of microearthquakes accompanying hydraulic fracturing as determined from studies of spectra of seismic waveforms  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the spectral properties of the waveforms recorded during hydraulic fracturing earthquakes has been carried out to obtain information about the physical dimensions of the earthquakes. We find two types of events. The first type has waveforms with clear P and S arrivals and spectra that are very similar to earthquakes occurring in tectonic regions. These events are interpreted as being due to shear slip along fault planes. The second type of event has waveforms that are similar in many ways to long period earthquakes observed at volcanoes and is called long period. Many waveforms of these events are identical, which implies that these events represent repeated activation of a given source. We propose that the source of these long period events is the sudden opening of a channel that connects two cracks filled with fluid at different pressures. The sizes of the two cracks differ, which causes two or more peaks to appear in the spectra, each peak being associated with one physical dimension of the crack. From the frequencies at which spectral peaks occur, we estimate crack dimensions of between 3 and 22m. 13 refs., 8 figs.

Fehler, M.; Bame, D.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Dynamics of Fluids in Fractured Rock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

new fracture surface by hydraulic fracturing. Termination ofwas impossible until hydraulic fracturing was applied. ForFor conventional hydraulic fracturing, this is not crucial

Faybishenko, Boris; Witherspoon, Paul A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

THE STATE OF THE ART OF NUMERICAL MODELING OF THERMOHYDROLOGIC FLOW IN FRACTURED ROCK MASSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improving production by hydraulic fracturing 8 the focus otfor fractures. (d) Hydraulic Fracturing: The model has been

Wang, J.S.Y.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Hydraulic fracturing and wellbore completion of coalbed methane wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming: Implications for water and gas production  

SciTech Connect

Excessive water production (more than 7000 bbl/month per well) from many coalbed methane (CBM) wells in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming is also associated with significant delays in the time it takes for gas production to begin. Analysis of about 550 water-enhancement activities carried out during well completion demonstrates that such activities result in hydraulic fracturing of the coal. Water-enhancement activities, consists of pumping 60 bbl of water/min into the coal seam during approximately 15 min. This is done to clean the well-bore and to enhance CBM production. Hydraulic fracturing is of concern because vertical hydraulic fracture growth could extend into adjacent formations and potentially result in excess CBM water production and inefficient depressurization of coals. Analysis of the pressure-time records of the water-enhancement tests enabled us to determine the magnitude of the least principal stress (S{sub 3}) in the coal seams of 372 wells. These data reveal that because S{sub 3} switches between the minimum horizontal stress and the overburden at different locations, both vertical and horizontal hydraulic fracture growth is inferred to occur in the basin, depending on the exact location and coal layer. Relatively low water production is observed for wells with inferred horizontal fractures, whereas all of the wells associated with excessive water production are characterized by inferred vertical hydraulic fractures. The reason wells with exceptionally high water production show delays in gas production appears to be inefficient depressurization of the coal caused by water production from the formations outside the coal. To minimize CBM water production, we recommend that in areas of known vertical fracture propagation, the injection rate during the water-enhancement tests should be reduced to prevent the propagation of induced fractures into adjacent water-bearing formations.

Colmenares, L.B.; Zoback, M.D. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States). Dept. of Geophysics

2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

Extended analysis of constant-height hydraulic fractures for the estimation of in-situ crack-opening modulus from bottomhole pressure records  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Hydraulic fractures created in oil and gas bearing rock formations can be made to propagate for a limited time at approximately constant height if favorable stress, deformation modulus or fracture toughness barriers to height growth exist and if the fracture design is suitably optimized to exploit these favorable conditions and reduce height growth. In this report, a unified theoretical formulation for the Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) and Christianovitch-Geertsma-De Klerk-Daneshy (CGDD) constant height fracture models is first presented. For a fracture fluid injection rate that varies as an arbitrary power of time, growth laws for fracturing fluid pressure, fracture width, and flow rate are rigorously derived for PKN and CGDD types of fractures. These similarity solutions account for non-Newtonian power-law fluid flow, transient fluid storage and generalized power-law fluid leak-off to the rock formation. They include and extend the results currently available in the literature for PKN and CGDD fractures. The results for PKN and CGDD fractures are then generalized to obtain an approximate hybrid CGDD-PKN fracture model that can be applied to constant height fractures of arbitrary length/height aspect ratio and arbitrary cross-sectional shape. Characteristic times for fracture extension are identified and estimates are given for the transition times when the fracture evolves from a CGDD-type fracture at small aspect ratio to a PKN-type fracture at large aspect ratio. These results are useful for interpreting fracturing data and for designing fractures for crack-opening modulus measurements.

Wijesinghe, A.M.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Page 1 of 5 Narrative Description of Hydraulic Fracturing Draft Regulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. California oil and natural gas is almost always associated with "produced water" ­ that is, brackish water, making separation of the fracturing fluids from the produced water impossible. The fracturing fluid is then co- disposed with the produced water. Current regulations specify the disposal requirements

173

Estimation of deformation and stiffness of fractures close to tunnels using data from single-hole hydraulic testing and grouting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

normal stiffness and hydraulic conductivity of a major sheareffect in single-hole hydraulic testing and grouting. Int JRutqvist J. Determination of hydraulic normal stiffness of

Fransson, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

High speed hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a breaker-opening piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A dashpotting mechanism operating separately from the hydraulic actuating system is provided, thereby reducing flow restriction interference with breaker opening.

Iman, Imdad (Colonie, NY)

1983-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

175

High speed hydraulically-actuated operating system for an electric circuit breaker  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This hydraulically-actuated operating system comprises a cylinder, a piston movable therein in an opening direction to open a circuit breaker, and an accumulator for supplying pressurized liquid to a breaker-opening piston-actuating space within the cylinder. A normally-closed valve between the accumulator and the actuating space is openable to allow pressurized liquid from the accumulator to flow through the valve into the actuating space to drive the piston in an opening direction. A dashpotting mechanism operating separately from the hydraulic actuating system is provided, thereby reducing flow restriction interference with breaker opening. 3 figs.

Iman, I.

1983-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

176

Investigation of the Effect of Non-Darcy Flow and Multi-Phase Flow on the Productivity of Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing has recently been the completion of choice for most tight gas bearing formations. It has proven successful to produce these formations in a commercial manner. However, some considerations have to be taken into account to design an optimum stimulation treatment that leads to the maximum possible productivity. These considerations include, but not limited to, non-Darcy flow and multiphase flow effects inside the fracture. These effects reduce the fracture conductivity significantly. Failing to account for that results in overestimating the deliverability of the well and, consequently, to designing a fracture treatment that is not optimum. In this work a thorough investigation of non-Darcy flow and multi-phase flow effects on the productivity of hydraulically fractured wells is conducted and an optimum fracture design is proposed for a tight gas formation in south Texas using the Unified Fracture Design (UFD) Technique to compensate for the mentioned effects by calculating the effective fracture permeability in an iterative way. Incorporating non-Darcy effects results in an optimum fracture that is shorter and wider than the fracture when only Darcy calculations are considered. That leads to a loss of production of 5, 18 percent due to dry and multiphase non-Darcy flow effects respectively. A comparison between the UFD and 3D simulators is also done to point out the differences in terms of methodology and results. Since UFD incorporated the maximum dimensionless productivity index in the fracture dimensions design, unlike 3D simulators, it can be concluded that using UFD to design the fracture treatment and then use the most important fracture parameters outputs (half length and CfDopt) as inputs in the simulators is a recommended approach.

Alarbi, Nasraldin Abdulslam A.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Pressure analysis of the hydromechanical fracture behaviour in stimulated tight sedimentary geothermal reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Zimmermann, G. , 2005. Hydraulic fracturing in a sedimentaryare described in the hydraulic fracturing context, in whichoverview. However, hydraulic fracturing theories and related

Wessling, S.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

A STATISTICAL FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH TO THE STRENGTH OF BRITTLE ROCK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carlsson, H. , "Hydraulic fracturing and overcoring stress1949). Haimson, B.C. , "Hydraulic fracturing in porous andc.B. , "Laboratory hydraulic fracturing experiments in

Ratigan, J.L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Field study of tracer and geochemistry behavior during hydraulic fracturing of a hot dry rock geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study presents tracer and geochemistry data from several hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill, NM, HDR geothermal reservoir. Tracers have been injected at various times during these tests: (1) initially, before any flow communication existed between the wells; (2) shortly after a flow connection was established; and (3) after the outlet flow had increased to its steady state value. An idealized flow model consisting of a combination of main fracture flow paths and fluid leakoff into secondary permeability explains the different tracer response curves for these cases, and allows us to predict the fracture volume of the main paths. The geochemistry during these experiments supports our previously developed models postulating the existence of a high concentration indigenous ''pore fluid.'' Also, the quartz and Na-K-Ca geothermometers have been used successfully to identify the temperatures and depths at which fluid traveled while in the reservoir. The quartz geothermometer is somewhat more reliable because at these high temperatures (about 250/sup 0/C) the injected fluid can come to equilibrium with quartz in the reservoir. The Na-K-Ca geothermometer relies on obtaining a sample of the indigenous pore fluid, and thus is somewhat susceptible to problems of dilution with the injection fluid. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Robinson, B.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Hydraulically-activated operating system for an electric circuit breaker  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This operating system comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit-breaker opening operation. A normally-closed valve located on the breaker-closing-side of the piston is openable to release liquid from the breaker-closing space so that pressurized liquid in the breaker-opening space can drive the piston in an opening direction. Means is provided for restoring the valve to its closed position following the circuit-breaker opening operation. An impeded passage affords communication between the accumulator and the breaker-closing space to allow pressurized liquid to flow from the accumulator to the breaker-closing space and develop a pressure therein substantially equal to accumulator pressure when the valve is restored to closed position following breaker-opening. This passage is so impeded that the flow therethrough from the accumulator into the breaker-closing space is sufficiently low during initial opening motion of the piston through a substantial portion of its opening stroke as to avoid interference with said initial opening motion of the piston.

Imam, Imdad (Secane, PA); Barkan, Philip (Stanford, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, we divided the report into two chapters. The first chapter was to image and perform experimental investigation of transfer mechanisms during CO{sub 2} flooding in NFR and HFR using X-ray CT scanner. In this chapter, we emphasized our work on understanding the connection between fracture properties and fundamentals of transfer mechanism from matrix to fractures and fluid flow through fracture systems. We started our work by investigating the effect of different overburden pressures and stress-state conditions on rock properties and fluid flow. Since the fracture aperture is one of important parameter that governs the fluid flow through the fracture systems, the average fracture aperture from the fluid flow experiments and fracture aperture distribution derived from X-ray CT scan were estimated for our modeling purposes. The fracture properties and fluid flow have significant changes in response to different overburden pressures and stress-state conditions. The fracture aperture distribution follows lognormal distribution even at elevated stress conditions. Later, we also investigated the fluid transfers between matrix and fracture that control imbibition process. We evaluated dimensionless time for validating the scheme of upscaling laboratory experiments to field dimensions. In CO{sub 2} injection experiments, the use of X-ray CT has allowed us to understand the mechanisms of CO{sub 2} flooding process in fractured system and to take important steps in reducing oil bypassed. When CO{sub 2} flooding experiments were performed on a short core with a fracture at the center of the core, the gravity plays an important role in the recovery of oil even in a short matrix block. This results are contrary with the previous believes that gravity drainage has always been associated with tall matrix blocks. In order to reduce oil bypassed, we injected water that has been viscosified with a polymer into the fracture to divert CO{sub 2} flow into matrix and delay CO{sub 2} breakthrough. Although the breakthrough time reduced considerably, water ''leak off'' into the matrix was very high. A cross-linked gel was used in the fracture to avoid this problem. The gel was found to overcome ''leak off'' problems and effectively divert CO{sub 2} flow into the matrix. As part of our technology transfer activity, we investigated the natural fracture aperture distribution of Tensleep formation cores. We found that the measured apertures distributions follow log normal distribution as expected. The second chapter deals with analysis and modeling the laboratory experiments and fluid flow through fractured networks. We derived a new equation to determine the average fracture aperture and the amount of each flow through fracture and matrix system. The results of this study were used as the observed data and for validating the simulation model. The idea behind this study is to validate the use of a set of smooth parallel plates that is common in modeling fracture system. The results suggest that fracture apertures need to be distributed to accurately model the experimental results. In order to study the imbibition process in details, we developed imbibition simulator. We validated our model with X-ray CT experimental data from different imbibition experiments. We found that the proper simulation model requires matching both weight gain and CT water saturation simultaneously as oppose to common practices in matching imbibition process with weight gain only because of lack information from CT scan. The work was continued by developing dual porosity simulation using empirical transfer function (ETF) derived from imbibition experiments. This allows reduction of uncertainty parameter in modeling transfer of fluids from matrix to the fra

David S. Schechter

2005-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

Hydraulic up-down well jar and method of operating same  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulic jar connected in a string of components for use in a wellbore. It comprises an inner mandrel assembly; an outer housing assembly; means respectively connecting a fluid chamber; means for forming a restricted flow passage; one of the assemblies being movable; means responsive to the one assembly moving relative to the other assembly; means for providing a high impact load. This patent also describes a method for operating a hydraulic jar connected in a string of components in a wellbore.

Pleasants, C.W.; Scott, K.W.

1991-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

183

A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-precision location technique to improve the image resolution of a hydraulic fracture treatment in a tight gas sand, another thick (~ 450-600 m) interval of productive, tight-gas sands interbedded with mudstones (Dutton in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of east Texas. Gas is produced from multiple, low-permeability sands

184

Hydraulic transmissivity and heat exchange efficiency of open fractures: a model based on lowpass filtered apertures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural open joints in rocks commonly present multi-scale self-affine apertures. This geometrical complexity affects fluid transport and heat exchange between the flow- ing fluid and the surrounding rock. In particular, long range correlations of self-affine apertures induce strong channeling of the flow which influences both mass and heat advection. A key question is to find a geometrical model of the complex aperture that describes at best the macroscopic properties (hydraulic conductivity, heat exchange) with the smallest number of parameters. Solving numerically the Stokes and heat equa- tions with a lubrication approximation, we show that a low pass filtering of the aperture geometry provides efficient estimates of the effective hydraulic and thermal properties (apertures). A detailed study of the influence of the bandwidth of the lowpass filtering on these transport properties is also performed. For instance, keeping the information of amplitude only of the largest Fourier length scales allows us to rea...

Neuville, Amélie; Schmittbuhl, Jean; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2011.05126.x

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Free-surface flow simulations for discharge-based operation of hydraulic structure gates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We combine non-hydrostatic flow simulations of the free surface with a discharge model based on elementary gate flow equations for decision support in operation of hydraulic structure gates. A water level-based gate control used in most of today's general practice does not take into account the fact that gate operation scenarios producing similar total discharged volumes and similar water levels may have different local flow characteristics. Accurate and timely prediction of local flow conditions around hydraulic gates is important for several aspects of structure management: ecology, scour, flow-induced gate vibrations and waterway navigation. The modelling approach is described and tested for a multi-gate sluice structure regulating discharge from a river to the sea. The number of opened gates is varied and the discharge is stabilized with automated control by varying gate openings. The free-surface model was validated for discharge showing a correlation coefficient of 0.994 compared to experimental data. A...

Erdbrink, C D; Sloot, P M A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

HYDRAULIC SERVO  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

Wiegand, D.E.

1962-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

In-situ remediation of naturally occurring radioactive materials with high-permeability hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis addresses the problem of removal of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials, NORM, and describes an effective alternative to the current treatment method for their removal. High-pen-meability fracturing, recently established in the petroleum industry, is the recommended technique. NORM are found throughout subterranean formations. Whenever fluids from petroleum or water reservoirs are produced NORM are present in varying quantities. NORM can only be sensed with radiation detectors. However, they have proven carcinogens, and the US Environmental Protection Agency has set a limit on the maximum contaminated level of any stream. Until now, the preferred method of treatment was to remove NORM from contaminated waters with specially designed filters, which in turn create a new problem. The same filters that are used to treat the water themselves become highly radioactive with a considerable disposal problem. In the petroleum industry, NORM become concentrated in the scale that is deposited inside the well or surface pipes. When scale is removed, it can be so radioactive that it can only be stored in toxic sites. Additionally, as water is produced along with oil, so are NORM. Until now, for the Gulf of Mexico at least, produced water has been released into the ocean, but the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is threatening to change this. In the North Sea the regulations are already stricter. There is then a compelling motivation to remove NORM before they are produced, and thus, eliminate the disposal problem. A high-permeability fracture design is presented which modifies existing petroleum practices by introducing within the proppant pack highly selective radionuclide sorbents. These sorbents, at calculated concentrations, can remove NORM readily for several years from typical flow rates containing typical NORM concentrations.

Demarchos, Andronikos Stavros

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

DETERMINATION OF MECHANICAL AND HYDRAULIC BEHAVIOR OF TENSILE FRACTURES UNDER MULTIPHASE FLOW USING X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Understanding fracture morphology in terms of a porous media is necessary for accurate simulation of multiphase transport in fractured rocks. Although ambient-stress methods for obtaining… (more)

Alvarado, Freddy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on the following: interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Site, interpretation of 3-D velocity anomalies in the western US with special attention to geothermal areas, theoretical and observational studies of scattering and attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves, theoretical and observational studies of volcanic tremors in relation to magma transport mechanisms, and deployment and maintenance of 9 event-recorders around Mt. St. Helens. Abstracts of papers submitted for publication are included. (MHR)

Aki, K.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

LLNL-PROC-491799 Hydraulic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PROC-491799 Hydraulic fracturing: insights from field, lab, and numerical studies S. Johnson, P. Fu, R. Settgast, S. Walsh August 3, 2011 Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical...

191

A Self-Consistent Approach for Calculating the Effective Hydraulic Conductivity of a Bimodal, Heterogeneous Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Snow, D.T. , Anisotropic Hydraulic conductivity of FracturedComparison of the effective hydraulic conductivity near theestimation of effective hydraulic conductivity in sand-shale

Pozdniakov, Sergey; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

Subhash Shah

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Potential Contaminant Pathways from Hydraulically Fractured Shale to Aquifers. Ground Water. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.2012.00933.x New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). 2010. “Well Development by Hydrofracturing.” http://des.nh.gov/o  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing of deep shale beds to develop natural gas has caused concern regarding the potential for various forms of water pollution. Two potential pathways—advective transport through bulk media and preferential flow through fractures—could allow the transport of contaminants from the fractured shale to aquifers. There is substantial geologic evidence that natural vertical flow drives contaminants, mostly brine, to near the surface from deep evaporite sources. Interpretative modeling shows that advective transport could require up to tens of thousands of years to move contaminants to the surface, but also that fracking the shale could reduce that transport time to tens or hundreds of years. Conductive faults or fracture zones, as found throughout the Marcellus shale region, could reduce the travel time further. Injection of up to 15,000,000 L of fluid into the shale generates high pressure at the well, which decreases with distance from the well and with time after injection as the fluid advects through the shale. The advection displaces native fluids, mostly brine, and fractures the bulk media widening existing fractures. Simulated pressure returns to pre-injection levels in about 300 d. The overall system requires from 3 to 6 years to reach a new equilibrium reflecting the significant changes caused by fracking the shale, which could allow advective transport to aquifers in less than 10 years. The rapid expansion of hydraulic fracturing requires that monitoring systems be employed to track the movement of contaminants and that gas wells have a reasonable offset from faults.

Tom Myers

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Stress control of seismicity patterns observed during hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill hot dry rock geothermal energy site, New Mexico  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seismicity accompanying hydraulic injections into granitic rock is often diffuse rather than falling along a single plane. This diffuse zone of seismicity cannot be attributed to systematic errors in locations of the events. It has often been asserted that seismicity occurs along preexisting joints in the rock that are favorably aligned with the stress field so that slip can occur along them when effective stress is reduced by increasing pore fluid pressure. A new scheme for determining orientations and locations of planes along which the microearthquakes occurred was recently developed. The basic assumption of the method, called the three point method, is that many of the events fall along well defined planes; these planes are often difficult to identify visually in the data because planes of many orientations are present. The method has been applied to four hydraulic fracturing experiments conducted at Fenton Hill as part of a hot dry rock geothermal energy project. While multiple planes are found for each experiment; one plane is common to all experiments. The ratio of shear to normal stress along planes of all orientations is calculated using a best estimate of the current stress state at Fenton Hill. The plane common to all experiments has the highest ratio of shear to normal stress acting along it, so it is the plane most likely to slip. The other planes found by the three point method all have orientations with respect to current principal stresses that are favorable for slip to occur along preexisting planes of weakness. These results are consistent with the assertion that the rock contains pre-existing joints which slip when the effective stress is reduced by the increased pore fluid pressure accompanying the hydraulic injection. Microearthquakes occur along those planes that are favorably aligned with respect to the current stress field.

Fehler, M.C.

1987-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

195

Proceedings of the Workshop on Numerical Modeling of Thermohydrological Flow in Fractured Rock Masses, Feb. 19-20, 1980, Berkeley, CA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and fluid flow in the hydraulic fracturing process." Ph.D.depth by means of hydraulic fracturing." in Rock Mechanics:production by hydraulic fracturing, the focus of fracture

Witherspoon, P.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Steam Turbine Mechanical Hydraulic Control System - Operation, Inspection, Setup, Troubleshooting, and Maintenance Guide, Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the components of General Electric and Westinghouse steam turbine mechanical hydraulic control systems and provides typical drawings. It focuses on systems located on the front standards and valve enclosures of utility-sized fossil and nuclear steam turbines manufactured by General Electric and Westinghouse. The report is intended to assist in maintaining, calibrating, and troubleshooting these systems.

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

197

Optimization of Construction Discharge Rate and Proppant Slugs for Preventing Complex Fractures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For volcanic rock and fracture type reservoir, etc, steering fractures, branching fractures and their combined herringbone fractures are usually caused by hydraulic fracturing. The generation of these complex fractures is one of the crucial factors that ... Keywords: hydraulic fracturing, construction discharge rate, complex fractures, proppant slug, optimization

Dali Guo; Yang Lin; Yong Ji; Jiangwen Xu; Guobin Wang

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Interferometric hydrofracture microseism localization using neighboring fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is the process of injecting high-pressure fluids into a reservoir to induce fractures and thus improve reservoir productivity. Microseismic event localization is used to locate created fractures. ...

Poliannikov, Oleg V.

199

A New Parameter to Assess Hydromechanical Effect in Single-hole Hydraulic Testing and Grouting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of rock joints from hydraulic field testing. Ph.D. thesis,R W, Bodvarsson G S. Hydraulic conductivity of rockFractures as Derived From Hydraulic and Tracer Tests. Water

Fransson, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Optimization of the Cooling Process of a Heavy Hydraulic Turbine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydraulic turbine lower band castings, of the matensitic stainless steel (Cr13% ... Effect of Si Content on Fracture Behaviour Change by Strain Rate in Si Steels.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Downhole hydraulic seismic generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

Gregory, Danny L. (Corrales, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Downhole hydraulic seismic generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole. 4 figs.

Gregory, D.L.; Hardee, H.C.; Smallwood, D.O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Downhole hydraulic seismic generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole. 4 figs.

Gregory, D.L.; Hardee, H.C.; Smallwood, D.O.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

204

Fracturing fluid characterization: State-of-the-art facility and advanced technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The petroleum industry has used hydraulic fracturing technique to stimulate low and high permeability oil and gas reservoirs to enhance their potential recoveries. Nevertheless, the design and implementation of a scientifically and economically sound fracturing job, due to the lack of knowledge of theological behavior of hydraulic fracturing fluids under field conditions, remains a challenge. Furthermore, as often the case, the current level of technical knowledge with research institutes, service companies, and operators does not translate to field applications. One of the principal reasons for this technology gap, is the lack of understanding of the theological behavior of hydraulic fracturing fluids under field conditions, which primarily relates to the limitations in scaling down the field conditions to the laboratory. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) project was therefore, proposed with the intent of providing the industry with a better understanding of the behavior of these fracturing fluids and their proppant transport characteristics under downhole fracture condition. At the FFCF, a fully operational High Pressure Simulator (HPS), as seen in Figure 1, constitutes a vertical, variable width, parallel plate flow apparatus and is capable of operating at elevated temperatures (up to 2500F) and pressures (up to 1200 psi). The HPS simulates, to the maximum degree practical, all conditions experienced by a fracturing fluid from its formulation on the surface, its flow down the wellbore, through perforations, its injection into the fracture, and its leakage into the rock formation (Figure 1). Together with the onsite auxiliary equipment (Figure 2), such as Mixing and Pumping System, Pre-conditioning System, Data Acquisition System, and Rheology Measuring System (Figure 2), the HPS is the most advanced fracture simulator available to conduct research, mimicking field conditions, in the following areas: Rheology Characterization of Fracturing Fluids, Proppant Transport Simulations, Proppant Transport Measurements, Perforation Pressure Loss, Coiled Tubing Friction Loss, Dynamic Fluid Loss, and Heat Transfer Characterizations of Polymer Solutions.

Shah, S., Asadi, M.,

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Analysis of well test data---Application of probabilistic models to infer hydraulic properties of fractures. [Contains list of standardized terminology or nomenclatue used in statistical models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical and probabilistic methods for estimating the probability that a fracture is nonconductive (or equivalently, the conductive-fracture frequency) and the distribution of the transmissivities of conductive fractures from transmissivity measurements made in single-hole injection (well) tests were developed. These methods were applied to a database consisting of over 1,000 measurements made in nearly 25 km of borehole at five sites in Sweden. The depths of the measurements ranged from near the surface to over 600-m deep, and packer spacings of 20- and 25-m were used. A probabilistic model that describes the distribution of a series of transmissivity measurements was derived. When the parameters of this model were estimated using maximum likelihood estimators, the resulting estimated distributions generally fit the cumulative histograms of the transmissivity measurements very well. Further, estimates of the mean transmissivity of conductive fractures based on the maximum likelihood estimates of the model's parameters were reasonable, both in magnitude and in trend, with respect to depth. The estimates of the conductive fracture probability were generated in the range of 0.5--5.0 percent, with the higher values at shallow depths and with increasingly smaller values as depth increased. An estimation procedure based on the probabilistic model and the maximum likelihood estimators of its parameters was recommended. Some guidelines regarding the design of injection test programs were drawn from the recommended estimation procedure and the parameter estimates based on the Swedish data. 24 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

Osnes, J.D. (RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)); Winberg, A.; Andersson, J.E.; Larsson, N.A. (Sveriges Geologiska AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

1991-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

206

Selection of fracture fluid for stimulating tight gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Essentially all producing wells drilled in tight gas sands and shales are stimulated using hydraulic fracture treatments. The development of optimal fracturing procedures, therefore, has a large impact on the long-term economic viability of the wells. The industry has been working on stimulation technology for more than 50 years, yet practices that are currently used may not always be optimum. Using information from the petroleum engineering literature, numerical and analytical simulators, surveys from fracturing experts, and statistical analysis of production data, this research provides guidelines for selection of the appropriate stimulation treatment fluid in most gas shale and tight gas reservoirs. This study takes into account various parameters such as the type of formation, the presence of natural fractures, reservoir properties, economics, and the experience of experts we have surveyed. This work provides a guide to operators concerning the selection of an appropriate type of fracture fluid for a specific set of conditions for a tight gas reservoir.

Malpani, Rajgopal Vijaykumar

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Hydraulic frac sets Rockies depth record  

SciTech Connect

A depth record for massive hydraulic fracture in the Rocky Mt. region was set April 22 with the treatment of a central Wyoming gas well. The No. 1-29 Moneta Hills Well was treated through perforations at 19,838 to 19,874 ft and 20,064 to 20,100 ft. Soon after, another well in the Madden Deep Field was subject to hydraulic fracture through perforations a

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Fracture characterization of multilayered reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracture treatment optimization techniques have been developed using Long-Spaced-Digital-Sonic (LSDS) log, pumpin-flowback, mini-frac, and downhole treating pressure data. These analysis techniques have been successfully applied in massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) of ''tight gas'' wells. Massive hydraulic fracture stimulations have been used to make many tight gas reservoirs commercially attractive. However, studies have shown that short highly conductive fractures are optimum for the successful stimulation of wells in moderate permeability reservoirs. As a result, the ability to design and place optimal fractures in these reservoirs is critical. This paper illustrates the application of fracture analysis techniques to a moderate permeability multi-layered reservoir. These techniques were used to identify large zonal variations in rock properties and pore pressure which result from the complex geology. The inclusion of geologic factors in fracture treatment design allowed the placement of short highly conductive fractures which were used to improve injectivity and vertical sweep, and therefore, ultimate recovery.

Britt, L.K.; Larsen, M.J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Definition: Hydraulic Conductivity | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Conductivity Conductivity Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Hydraulic Conductivity Hydraulic conductivity is a physical property which measures the ability of the material to transmit fluid through pore spaces and fractures in the presence of an applied hydraulic gradient. Darcy's Law defines the hydraulic conductivity as the ratio of the average velocity of a fluid through a cross-sectional area (Darcy's velocity) to the applied hydraulic gradient.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Hydraulic conductivity, symbolically represented as, is a property of vascular plants, soil or rock, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability of the material and on the degree of

210

Study on the feasibility of using electromagnetic methods for fracture diagnostics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis explores two ways of developing a fracture diagnostics tool capable of estimating hydraulic fracture propped length and orientation. Both approaches make use of… (more)

Saliés, Natália Gastão

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Thickness Measurement of Fracture Fluid Gel Filter Cake after Static Build Up and Shear Erosion.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The hydraulic fracturing treatment is an essential tight sand gas reservoir stimulation that employs viscous fluid to break the formation rock to create a fracture… (more)

Xu, Ben

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Application of new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells  

SciTech Connect

Based on the information presented in this report, our conclusions regarding the potential for new and novel fracture stimulation technologies to enhance the deliverability of gas storage wells are as follows: New and improved gas storage well revitalization methods have the potential to save industry on the order of $20-25 million per year by mitigating deliverability decline and reducing the need for costly infill wells Fracturing technologies have the potential to fill this role, however operators have historically been reluctant to utilize this approach due to concerns with reservoir seal integrity. With advanced treatment design tools and methods, however, this risk can be minimized. Of the three major fracturing classifications, namely hydraulic, pulse and explosive, two are believed to hold potential to gas storage applications (hydraulic and pulse). Five particular fracturing technologies, namely tip-screenout fracturing, fracturing with liquid carbon dioxide, and fracturing with gaseous nitrogen, which are each hydraulic methods, and propellant and nitrogen pulse fracturing, which are both pulse methods, are believed to hold potential for gas storage applications and will possibly be tested as part of this project. Field evidence suggests that, while traditional well remediation methods such as blowing/washing, mechanical cleaning, etc. do improve well deliverability, wells are still left damaged afterwards, suggesting that considerable room for further deliverability enhancement exists. Limited recent trials of hydraulic fracturing imply that this approach does in fact provide superior deliverability results, but further RD&D work is needed to fully evaluate and demonstrate the benefits and safe application of this as well as other fracture stimulation technologies.

NONE

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

1963-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

214

Optimizing fracture stimulation using treatment-well tiltmeters and integrated fracture modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper covers the optimization of hydraulic fracture treatments in a new coalbed methane (CBM) reservoir in Wyoming. A multiwell pilot project was conducted in the Copper Ridge (CR) field to assess future development potential. Hydraulic fracture mapping was successfully performed with treatment-well tiltmeters on six wells including the first-ever used on propped treatments. The mapped fracture height was then used to calibrate the fracture model, perform on-site fracture-design changes, and optimize future fracture treatments. This paper shows how early use of fracture diagnostics can assist in the development of a new reservoir.

Mayerhofer, M.; Stutz, L.; Davis, E.; Wolhart, S. [Pinnacle Technology Houston, Houston, TX (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

ADVANCED FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR TIGHT GAS: AN EAST TEXAS FIELD DEMONSTRATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective of this research was to improve completion and fracturing practices in gas reservoirs in marginal plays in the continental United States. The Bossier Play in East Texas, a very active tight gas play, was chosen as the site to develop and test the new strategies for completion and fracturing. Figure 1 provides a general location map for the Dowdy Ranch Field, where the wells involved in this study are located. The Bossier and other tight gas formations in the continental Unites States are marginal plays in that they become uneconomical at gas prices below $2.00 MCF. It was, therefore, imperative that completion and fracturing practices be optimized so that these gas wells remain economically attractive. The economic viability of this play is strongly dependent on the cost and effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing used in its well completions. Water-fracs consisting of proppant pumped with un-gelled fluid is the type of stimulation used in many low permeability reservoirs in East Texas and throughout the United States. The use of low viscosity Newtonian fluids allows the creation of long narrow fractures in the reservoir, without the excessive height growth that is often seen with cross-linked fluids. These low viscosity fluids have poor proppant transport properties. Pressure transient tests run on several wells that have been water-fractured indicate a long effective fracture length with very low fracture conductivity even when large amounts of proppant are placed in the formation. A modification to the water-frac stimulation design was needed to transport proppant farther out into the fracture. This requires suspending the proppant until the fracture closes without generating excessive fracture height. A review of fracture diagnostic data collected from various wells in different areas (for conventional gel and water-fracs) suggests that effective propped lengths for the fracture treatments are sometimes significantly shorter than those predicted by fracture models. There was no accepted optimal method for conducting hydraulic fracturing in the Bossier. Each operator used a different approach. Anadarko, the most active operator in the play, had tested at least four different kinds of fracture treatments. The ability to arrive at an optimal fracturing program was constrained by the lack of adequate fracture models to simulate the fracturing treatment, and an inability to completely understand the results obtained in previous fracturing programs. This research aimed at a combined theoretical, experimental and field-testing program to improve fracturing practices in the Bossier and other tight gas plays.

Mukul M. Sharma

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Fracturing fluids -- then and now  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fracturing fluid provides the means by which the hydraulic fracturing process can take place. All applications of well stimulation by fracturing must include selection of fracturing fluid in the initial phases of fracture design and treatment planning. Fracturing fluid has two important purposes: (1) to provide sufficient viscosity to suspend and transport proppant deep into the created fracture system and (2) to decompose, or break, chemically to a low viscosity to allow flowback of a major part of the fluid to the surface for fracture cleanup after the treatment is completed. Because of the importance of its rheological properties and behavior in the fracture under reservoir conditions during (and immediately after) the treatment, service company research laboratories have spent millions of dollars on R and D of fracturing fluids.

Jennings, A.R. Jr. [Enhanced Well Stimulation Inc., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about hydraulic fluids. For more information, call the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. This fact sheet is one in a series of summaries about hazardous substances and their health effects. This information is important because this substance may harm you. The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits and habits, and whether other chemicals are present. HIGHLIGHTS: Exposure to hydraulic fluids occurs mainly in the workplace. Drinking certain types of hydraulic fluids can cause death in humans, and swallowing or inhaling certain types of hydraulic fluids has caused nerve damage in animals. Contact with some types of hydraulic fluids can irritate your skin or eyes. These substances have been found in at least 10 of the 1,428 National Priorities List sites identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). What are hydraulic fluids? (Pronounced ?????ô????????????) Hydraulic fluids are a large group of liquids made of many kinds of chemicals. They are used in automobile automatic

unknown authors

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The Performance of Fractured Horizontal Well in Tight Gas Reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Horizontal wells have been used to increase reservoir recovery, especially in unconventional reservoirs, and hydraulic fracturing has been applied to further extend the contact with the reservoir to increase the efficiency of development. In the past, many models, analytical or numerical, were developed to describe the flow behavior in horizontal wells with fractures. Source solution is one of the analytical/semi-analytical approaches. To solve fractured well problems, source methods were advanced from point sources to volumetric source, and pressure change inside fractures was considered in the volumetric source method. This study aims at developing a method that can predict horizontal well performance and the model can also be applied to horizontal wells with multiple fractures in complex natural fracture networks. The method solves the problem by superposing a series of slab sources under transient or pseudosteady-state flow conditions. The principle of the method comprises the calculation of semi-analytical response of a rectilinear reservoir with closed outer boundaries. A statistically assigned fracture network is used in the study to represent natural fractures based on the spacing between fractures and fracture geometry. The multiple dominating hydraulic fractures are then added to the natural fracture system to build the physical model of the problem. Each of the hydraulic fractures is connected to the horizontal wellbore, and the natural fractures are connected to the hydraulic fractures through the network description. Each fracture, natural or hydraulically induced, is treated as a series of slab sources. The analytical solution of superposed slab sources provides the base of the approach, and the overall flow from each fracture and the effect between the fractures are modeled by applying superposition principle to all of the fractures. It is assumed that hydraulic fractures are the main fractures that connect with the wellbore and the natural fractures are branching fractures which only connect with the main fractures. The fluid inside of the branch fractures flows into the main fractures, and the fluid of the main fracture from both the reservoir and the branch fractures flows to the wellbore. Predicting well performance in a complex fracture network system is extremely challenged. The statistical nature of natural fracture networks changes the flow characteristic from that of a single linear fracture. Simply using the single fracture model for individual fracture, and then adding the flow from each fracture for the network could introduce significant error. This study provides a semi-analytical approach to estimate well performance in a complex fracture network system.

Lin, Jiajing

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Fracture Permeability and In Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reservoir Abstract Borehole televiewer, temperature and flowmeter logs and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements conducted in six wells penetrating a geothermal reservoir...

220

Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

response method with conventional pump tests in order to independently calculate the hydraulic parameters of the fracture-formation system is discussed. How advanced spectral...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Analysis Of Macroscopic Fractures In Granite In The Hdr Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

nearly parallel to the maximum horizontal stress. In this favorable situation, hydraulic injections will tend both to reactivate natural fractures at low pressures, and to...

222

Fractured Geothermal Growth Induced by Heat Extraction  

SciTech Connect

Field testing of a hydraulically stimulated, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal system at the Fenton Hill site in northern New Mexico indicated that significant reservoir growth occurred as energy was extracted. Tracer, microseismic, and geochemical measurements provided the primary quantitative evidence for the increases in accessible reservoir volume and fractured rock surface area that were observed during energy extraction operations that caused substantial thermal drawdown in portions of the reservoir. These temporal increases suggest that augmentation of reservoir hear-production capacity in an HDR system may be possible. [DJE 2005

Tester, J.W.; Murphy, H.D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Potter, R.M.; Robinson, B.A.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

How can we use one fracture to locate another?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is an important tool that helps extract fluids from the subsurface. It is critical in applications ranging from enhanced oil recovery to geothermal energy pro-duction. As the goal of fracturing is to ...

Poliannikov, Oleg V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Evaluation of the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, and effective fracture length  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-permeability gas wells often produce less than predicted after a fracture treatment. One of the reasons for this is that fracture lengths calculated after stimulation are often less than designed lengths. While actual fracture lengths may be shorter due to fracture growth out of zone, improper proppant settling, or proppant flowback, short calculated fracture lengths can also result from incorrect analysis techniques. It is known that fracturing fluid that remains in the fracture and formation after a hydraulic fracture treatment can decrease the productivity of a gas well by reducing the relative permeability to gas in the region invaded by this fluid. However, the relationships between fracture fluid cleanup, effective fracture length, and well productivity are not fully understood. In this work I used reservoir simulation to determine the relationship between fracture conductivity, fracture fluid production, effective fracture length, and well productivity. I simulated water saturation and pressure profiles around a propped fracture, tracked gas production along the length of the propped fracture, and quantified the effective fracture length (i.e., the fracture length under single-phase flow conditions that gives similar performance as for multiphase flow conditions), the "cleanup" fracture length (i.e., the fracture length corresponding to 90% cumulative gas flow rate into the fracture), and the "apparent" fracture length (i.e., the fracture length where the ratio of multiphase to single-phase gas entry rate profiles is unity). This study shows that the proppant pack is generally cleaned up and the cleanup lengths are close to designed lengths in relatively short times. Although gas is entering along entire fracture, fracturing fluid remains in the formation near the fracture. The water saturation distribution affects the gas entry rate profile, which determines the effective fracture length. Subtle changes in the gas rate entry profile can result in significant changes in effective fracture length. The results I derived from this work are consistent with prior work, namely that greater fracture conductivity results in more effective well cleanup and longer effective fracture lengths versus time. This study provides better explanation of mechanisms that affect fracturing fluid cleanup, effective fracture length, and well productivity than previous work.

Lolon, Elyezer P.

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Energy extraction operations: some preliminary results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental project being conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has extracted thermal energy from Precambrian granitic rock by injection and circulating water through fractured zones or reservoirs. Two boreholes were drilled to depths of about 3 km (10,000 ft) in a location selected for high heat flow and an apparent lack of faulting. Bottom-hole temperature was 205/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F). The holes were connected at depth by hydraulic fracturing to form a flow path and heat extraction surface. Energy has been extracted at rates exceeding 5 MW(t) in three operations totaling 2847 h. These operations are summarized.

Hendron, R.H.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported in the following research areas: a synthesis of seismic experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot-Dry-Rock System; attenuation of high-frequency shear waves in the lithosphere; a new kinematic source model for deep volcanic tremors; ground motion in the near-field of a fluid-driven crack and its interpretation in the study of shallow volcanic tremor; low-velocity bodies under geothermal areas; and operation of event recorders in Mt. St. Helens and Newberry Peak with preliminary results from them. (MHR)

Aki, K.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Method of fracturing a geological formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method of fracturing a geological formation surrounding a well bore is disclosed. A relatively small explosive charge is emplaced in a well bore and the bore is subsequently hydraulically pressurized to a pressure less than the formation breakdown pressure and preferably greater than the fracture propagation pressure of the formation. The charge is denoted while the bore is so pressurized, resulting in the formation of multiple fractures in the surrounding formation with little or no accompanying formation damage. Subsequent hydraulic pressurization can be used to propagate and extend the fractures in a conventional manner. The method is useful for stimulating production of oil, gas and possibly water from suitable geologic formations.

Johnson, James O. (2679-B Walnut, Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Interpretation of pre- and post-fracturing well tests in a geothermal reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Pre- and post-fracturing well tests in TG-2 well drilled next to the Matsukawa field are interpreted for evaluating effects of a massive hydraulic fracturing treatment. The interpreted data include multiple-step rate tests, a two-step rate test, and falloff tests. Pressure behaviors of massive hydraulic fracturing are matched by a simulator of dynamic fracture option. Fracture parting pressures can be evaluated from the multiple-step rate test data. The multiple-step rates during the massive hydraulic fracturing treatment show that multiple fractures have been induced in sequence. Although the pre-fracturing falloff tests are too short, fracture propagation can be evaluated qualitatively from the falloff data. Interpretation of the falloff test immediately after the MHF suggests that extensive fractures have been created by the MHF, which is verified by simulation. The post-fracturing falloff tests show that the fractures created by the MHF have closed to a great degree.

Arihara, Norio; Fukagawa, Hiroshi; Hyodo, Masami; Abbaszadeh, Maghsood

1995-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

229

Characterizing the Mechanics of Fracturing from Earthquake Source Parameter and Multiplet Analyses: Application to the Soultz-sous-Forêts Hot Dry Rock site  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2000 and 2003, two massive hydraulic fracturing experiments were carried out at the European Geothermal Hot

Michelet, Sophie

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Production Hydraulic Packer Field Test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In October 1999, the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and Halliburton Energy Services cooperated on a field test of Halliburton's new Production Hydraulic Packer technology on Well 46-TPX-10 at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 near Casper, WY. Performance of the packer was evaluated in set and unset operations. The packer's ability to seal the annulus between the casing and tubing was hydraulically tested and the results were recorded.

Schneller, Tricia; Salas, Jose

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

231

Hydraulic characterization of Midnite Mine, Wellpinit, WA: Summary of 1994 field season. Report of investigations/1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Midnite Mine is an inactive uranium mine on the Spokane Indian Reservation in Wasington State. Preliminary results of hydraulic stress tests performed in the bedrock at the site are described. Slug tests and pumping tests were conducted using preexisting USBM monitoring wells. Slug test results were used to generate hydraulic conductivity estimates for fractured and unfractured intrusives. The pumping tests demonstrated varying degrees of spatial continuity. Hydraulically continuous fractured zones along north-south planes were demonstrated in two cases for distances of 90 and 116 m (300 and 380 ft). The short-term pumping tests provided no evidence of east-west hydraulic continuity in fractured zones.

Williams, B.C.; Riley, J.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Hydraulic fractur ing--also called hy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reported four species of pollinators (Riley, 1892; Davis, 1967; Frack, 1982; Powell, 1984), including three

Goodman, Robert M.

233

Hydraulic Fracturing on Drinking Water Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Disclaimer Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

EPA's Natural Gas Extraction -- Hydraulic Fracturing Website...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

enabling greater access to gas in shale formations. Responsible development of America's shale gas resources offers important economic, energy security, and environmental...

235

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Orange (1968), Electrical resistivity changes in saturatedpressure on the electrical resistivity of water- saturatedR. Goodman (1978), Electrical resistivity changes in rocks

Moore, J R; Glaser, Steven D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Orange (1968), Electrical resistivity changes in saturatedof pressure on the electrical resistivity of water-saturatedR. Goodman (1978), Electrical resistivity changes in rocks

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Microseismic Tracer Particles for Hydraulic Fracturing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Complements existing methods Summary: The trend toward production of hydrocarbons from unconventional reservoirs (tight gas, shale oilgas) has caused a large increase in the...

238

Improvement of tubulars used for fracturing in hot dry rock wells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Completion of hot dry rock wells as it is currently envisioned, requires that hydraulic fracturing be used to develop a heat extraction reservoir and to provide low impedance flow paths between the designated water injection and production wells. Recent fracturing operations at measured depths from 11,400 ft to 15,300 ft at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Test Site have resulted in numerous failures of tubulars caused by the high fracturing pressures, corrosive environment and large treatment volumes at high flow rates. Two new fracturing strings were designed and purchased. Physical and chemical properties exceeding API specifications were demanded and supplied by the manufacturers. These tubulars have performed to design specifications.

Nicholson, R.W.; Dreesen, D.S.; Turner, W.C.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Haptic Control of Hydraulic Machinery Using Proportional Valves .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Supplying haptic or force feedback to operators using hydraulic machinery such as excavators has the potential to increase operator capabilities. Haptic, robotic, human-machine interfaces enable… (more)

Kontz, Matthew Edward

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Development of the T+M coupled flow-geomechanical simulator to describe fracture propagation and coupled flow-thermal-geomechanical processes in tight/shale gas systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed a hydraulic fracturing simulator by coupling a flow simulator to a geomechanics code, namely T+M simulator. Modeling of the vertical fracture development involves continuous updating of the boundary conditions and of the data connectivity, ... Keywords: Double porosity, Fracture propagation, Hydraulic fracturing, Poromechanics, Shale gas, Tensile failure

Jihoon Kim, George J. Moridis

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

242

Fracture and Impact Properties of HT-9 Steel Irradiated to High Dose ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fracture and Impact Properties of HT-9 Steel Irradiated to High ... 250, and the irradiation temperature in a servo-hydraulic testing machine.

243

Fractured geothermal reservoir growth induced by heat extraction  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Field testing of a hydraulically-stimulated, hot dry rock geothermal system at the Fenton Hill site in northern New Mexico has indicated that significant reservoir growth occurred as energy was extracted. Tracer, microseismic, and geochemical measurements provided the primary quantitative evidence for documenting the increases in accessible reservoir volume and fractured rock surface area that were observed during energy extraction operations which caused substantial thermal drawdown in portions of the reservoir. These temporal increases suggest that augmentation of reservoir heat production capacity in hot dry rock systems may be possible.

Tester, J.W.; Murphy, H.D.; Grigsby, C.O.; Robinson, B.A.; Potter, R.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Field fracturing multi-sites project. Annual report, August 1, 1995--July 31, 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the Field Fracturing Multi-Sites Project (M-Site) is to conduct experiments to definitively determine hydraulic fracture dimensions using remote well and treatment well diagnostic techniques. In addition, experiments are to be conducted to provide data that will resolve significant unknowns with regard to hydraulic fracture modeling, fracture fluid rheology and fracture treatment design. These experiments will be supported by a well-characterized subsurface environment, as well as surface facilities and equipment conducive to acquiring high-quality data. The primary Project goal is to develop a fully characterized, tight reservoir-typical, field-scale hydraulic fracturing test site to diagnose, characterize, and test hydraulic fracturing technology and performance. It is anticipated that the research work being conducted by the multi-disciplinary team of GRI and DOE contractors will lead to the development of a commercial fracture mapping tool/service.

NONE

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

245

Evaluation and Effect of Fracturing Fluids on Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using Dynamic Fracture Conductivity Test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unconventional gas has become an important resource to help meet our future energy demands. Although plentiful, it is difficult to produce this resource, when locked in a massive sedimentary formation. Among all unconventional gas resources, tight gas sands represent a big fraction and are often characterized by very low porosity and permeability associated with their producing formations, resulting in extremely low production rate. The low flow properties and the recovery factors of these sands make necessary continuous efforts to reduce costs and improve efficiency in all aspects of drilling, completion and production techniques. Many of the recent improvements have been in well completions and hydraulic fracturing. Thus, the main goal of a hydraulic fracture is to create a long, highly conductive fracture to facilitate the gas flow from the reservoir to the wellbore to obtain commercial production rates. Fracture conductivity depends on several factors, such as like the damage created by the gel during the treatment and the gel clean-up after the treatment. This research is focused on predicting more accurately the fracture conductivity, the gel damage created in fractures, and the fracture cleanup after a hydraulic fracture treatment under certain pressure and temperature conditions. Parameters that alter fracture conductivity, such as polymer concentration, breaker concentration and gas flow rate, are also examined in this study. A series of experiments, using a procedure of “dynamical fracture conductivity test”, were carried out. This procedure simulates the proppant/frac fluid slurries flow into the fractures in a low-permeability rock, as it occurs in the field, using different combinations of polymer and breaker concentrations under reservoirs conditions. The result of this study provides the basis to optimize the fracturing fluids and the polymer loading at different reservoir conditions, which may result in a clean and conductive fracture. Success in improving this process will help to decrease capital expenditures and increase the production in unconventional tight gas reservoirs.

Correa Castro, Juan

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Downhole mud properties complicate drilling hydraulics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explains that wellsite parameters such as penetration rate, hole cleaning, hole erosion and overall wellbore stability are directly related to the hydraulic conditions occurring while drilling. Drilling hydraulics, in turn, are largely a function of the drilling mud's properties, primarily viscosity and density. Accurate pressure loss calculations are necessary to maximize bit horse-power and penetration rates. Also, annular pressure loss measurements are important to record equivalent circulating densities, particularly when drilling near balanced formation pressures or when approaching formation fracture pressures. Determination of the laminar, transitional or turbulent flow regimes will help ensure the mud will remove drill cuttings from the wellbore and minimize hole erosion.

Leyendecker, E.A.; Bruton, J.R.

1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

NEW AND NOVEL FRACTURE STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE REVITALIZATION OF EXISTING GAS STORAGE WELLS  

SciTech Connect

Gas storage wells are prone to continued deliverability loss at a reported average rate of 5% per annum (in the U.S.). This is a result of formation damage due to the introduction of foreign materials during gas injection, scale deposition and/or fines mobilization during gas withdrawal, and even the formation and growth of bacteria. As a means to bypass this damage and sustain/enhance well deliverability, several new and novel fracture stimulation technologies were tested in gas storage fields across the U.S. as part of a joint U.S. Department of Energy and Gas Research Institute R&D program. These new technologies include tip-screenout fracturing, hydraulic fracturing with liquid CO{sub 2} and proppant, extreme overbalance fracturing, and high-energy gas fracturing. Each of these technologies in some way address concerns with fracturing on the part of gas storage operators, such as fracture height growth, high permeability formations, and fluid sensitivity. Given the historical operator concerns over hydraulic fracturing in gas storage wells, plus the many other unique characteristics and resulting stimulation requirements of gas storage reservoirs (which are described later), the specific objective of this project was to identify new and novel fracture stimulation technologies that directly address these concerns and requirements, and to demonstrate/test their potential application in gas storage wells in various reservoir settings across the country. To compare these new methods to current industry deliverability enhancement norms in a consistent manner, their application was evaluated on a cost per unit of added deliverability basis, using typical non-fracturing well remediation methods as the benchmark and considering both short-term and long-term deliverability enhancement results. Based on the success (or lack thereof) of the various fracture stimulation technologies investigated, guidelines for their application, design and implementation have been developed. A final research objective was to effectively deploy the knowledge and experience gained from the project to the gas storage industry at-large.

Unknown

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Why hydraulic fracturing is used Lessons from over 60 years of hydraulic fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(commonly referred to as "fracking," "fracing," or "hydrofracking") is the process of pumping a mixture

Peterson, Blake R.

250

Constructing Hydraulic Barriers in Deep Geologic Formations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many construction methods have been developed to create hydraulic barriers to depths of 30 to 50 meters, but few have been proposed for depths on the order of 500 meters. For these deep hydraulic barriers, most methods are potentially feasible for soil but not for hard rock. In the course of researching methods of isolating large subterranean blocks of oil shale, the authors have developed a wax thermal permeation method for constructing hydraulic barriers in rock to depths of over 500 meters in competent or even fractured rock as well as soil. The technology is similar to freeze wall methods, but produces a permanent barrier; and is potentially applicable in both dry and water saturated formations. Like freeze wall barriers, the wax thermal permeation method utilizes a large number of vertical or horizontal boreholes around the perimeter to be contained. However, instead of cooling the boreholes, they are heated. After heating these boreholes, a specially formulated molten wax based grout is pumped into the boreholes where it seals fractures and also permeates radially outward to form a series of columns of wax-impregnated rock. Rows of overlapping columns can then form a durable hydraulic barrier. These barriers can also be angled above a geologic repository to help prevent influx of water due to atypical rainfall events. Applications of the technique to constructing containment structures around existing shallow waste burial sites and water shutoff for mining are also described. (authors)

Carter, E.E.; Carter, P.E. [Technologies Co, Texas (United States); Cooper, D.C. [Ph.D. Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Hydraulic impact end effector final test report. Automation and robotics section, ER/WM-AT Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One tool being developed for dislodging and fragmenting the hard salt cake waste in the single-shell nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, is the hydraulic impact end effector (HIEE). This total operates by discharging 11-in. slugs of water at ultrahigh pressures. The HIEE was designed, built, and initially tested in 1992. Work in 1993 included advanced developments of the HIEE to further investigate its fragmentation abilities and to determine more effective operating procedures. These tests showed that more fragmentation can be achieved by increasing the charge pressure of 40 kpsi to 55 kpsi and by the use of different operating procedures. The size of the material and the impact energy of the water slug fired from the HIEE are believed to be major factors in material fragmentation. The material`s ability to fracture also appears to depend on the distance a fracture or crack line must travel to a free surface. Thus, larger material is more difficult to fracture than smaller material. Discharge pressures of 40 kpsi resulted in little penetration or fracturing of the material. At 55 kpsi, however, the size and depth of the fractures increased. Nozzle geometry had a significant effect on fragment size and quantity. Fragmentation was about an order of magnitude greater when the HIEE was discharged into drilled holes rather than onto the material surface. Since surface shots tend to create craters, a multi-shot procedure, coupled with an advanced nozzle design, was used to drill (crater) deep holes into large material. With this procedure, a 600-lb block was reduced to smaller pieces without the use of any additional equipment. Through this advanced development program, the HIEE has demonstrated that it can quickly fragment salt cake material into small, easily removable fragments. The HIEE`s material fragmentation ability can be substantially increased through the use of different nozzle geometries and operating procedures.

Couture, S.

1994-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

252

MICRO-SEISMICITY, FAULT STRUCTURE AND HYDRAULIC COMPARTMENTALIZATION WITHIN  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MICRO-SEISMICITY, FAULT STRUCTURE AND HYDRAULIC COMPARTMENTALIZATION WITHIN MICRO-SEISMICITY, FAULT STRUCTURE AND HYDRAULIC COMPARTMENTALIZATION WITHIN THE COSO GETHERMAL FIELD, CALIFORNIA Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: MICRO-SEISMICITY, FAULT STRUCTURE AND HYDRAULIC COMPARTMENTALIZATION WITHIN THE COSO GETHERMAL FIELD, CALIFORNIA Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: High precision earthquake locations and subsurface velocity structure provide potential insights into fracture system geometry, fluid conduits and fluid compartmentalization critical to geothermal reservoir management. We analyze 16 years of seismicity to improve hypocentral locations and simultaneously invert for the seismic velocity structure within the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF). The CGF has been continuously

253

Predicting proppant flowback from fracture-stimulated wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, the usefulness and benefits of predicting proppant flowback in the design stage of hydraulic fracturing treatments are evidenced. A new prediction model, as well as a methodology, is proposed in this work. These tools will help companies handle this phenomenon and consequently conduct more efficient fracturing treatments. Currently, proppant flowback is responsible for creating operational complications, increasing expenses and decreasing the productivity of fracture stimulated wells. So far, there have been some empirical approaches that have tried to explain this phenomenon and have helped identify the most important factors that influence it. However, all previous models have drawbacks and do not extend to all practical applications. In this work, the most relevant studies in the area were analyzed in order to clarify the mechanisms that govern the proppant flowback phenomenon. After doing this, the most consistent available features were included in a proposed semi-mechanistic model. This model is considered to be the most rigorous available approach to predict proppant flowback in future treatments. As part of this study, field cases that reported back-production of proppant were analyzed. From this analysis, it was demonstrated that proppant flowback was possible to anticipate. In addition, it was suggested the inclusion of a "Stability Criterion" in the design of future optimum fracturing treatments.

Canon Moreno, Javier Mauricio

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Hot dry rock fracture propagation and reservoir characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

North America's largest hydraulic fracturing opeations have been conducted at Fenton hill, New mexico to creae hot dry rock geothermal reservoirs. Microearthquakes induced by these fracturing operations were measured with geophones. The large volume of rock over which the microearthquakes were distributed indicates a mechanism of hydraulic stimulation which is at odds with conventional fracturing theory, which predicts failure along a plane which is perpendicular to the least compressive earth stress. Shear slippage along pre-existing joints in the rock is more easily induced than conventional tensile failure, particularly when the difference between minimum and maximum earth stresses is large and the pre-existing joints are oriented at angles between 30 and 60)degree) to the principal earth stresses, and a low viscosity fluid like water is injected. Shear slippage results in local redistribution of stresses, which allows a branching, or dendritic, stimulation pattern to evolve, in agreement with the patterns of microearthquake locations. Field testing of HDR reservoirs at the Fenton Hill site shows that significant reservoir growth occurred as energy was extracted. Tracer, microseismic, and geochemical measurements provided the primary quantitative evidence for the increases in accessible reservoir volume and fractured rock surface area. These temporal increases indicate that augmentation of reservoir heat production capacity in hot dry rock system occurred. For future reservoir testing, Los Alamos is developing tracer techniques using reactive chemicals to track thermal fronts. Recent studies have focused on the kinetics of hydrolysis of derivatives of bromobenzene, which can be used in reservoirs as hot as 275)degree)C.

Murphy, H.; Fehler, M.; Robinson, B.; Tester, J.; Potter, R.; Birdsell, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Optimizing Fracture Treatments in a Mississippian "Chat" Reservoir, South-Central Kansas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project is a collaboration of Woolsey Petroleum Corporation (a small independent operator) and the Kansas Geological Survey. The project will investigate geologic and engineering factors critical for designing hydraulic fracture treatments in Mississippian ''chat'' reservoirs. Mississippian reservoirs, including the chat, account for 159 million m3 (1 billion barrels) of the cumulative oil produced in Kansas. Mississippian reservoirs presently represent {approx}40% of the state's 5.6*106m3 (35 million barrels) annual production. Although geographically widespread, the ''chat'' is a heterogeneous reservoir composed of chert, cherty dolomite, and argillaceous limestone. Fractured chert with micro-moldic porosity is the best reservoir in this 18- to 30-m-thick (60- to 100-ft) unit. The chat will be cored in an infill well in the Medicine Lodge North field (417,638 m3 [2,626,858 bbls] oil; 217,811,000 m3 [7,692,010 mcf] gas cumulative production; discovered 1954). The core and modern wireline logs will provide geological and petrophysical data for designing a fracture treatment. Optimum hydraulic fracturing design is poorly defined in the chat, with poor correlation of treatment size to production increase. To establish new geologic and petrophysical guidelines for these treatments, data from core petrophysics, wireline logs, and oil-field maps will be input to a fracture-treatment simulation program. Parameters will be established for optimal size of the treatment and geologic characteristics of the predicted fracturing. The fracturing will be performed and subsequent wellsite tests will ascertain the results for comparison to predictions. A reservoir simulation program will then predict the rate and volumetric increase in production. Comparison of the predicted increase in production with that of reality, and the hypothetical fracturing behavior of the reservoir with that of its actual behavior, will serve as tests of the geologic and petrophysical characterization of the oil field. After this feedback, a second well will be cored and logged, and procedure will be repeated to test characteristics determined to be critical for designing cost-effective fracture treatments. Most oil and gas production in Kansas, and that of the Midcontinent oil industry, is dominated by small companies. The overwhelming majority of these independent operators employ less than 20 people. These companies have limited scientific and engineering expertise and they are increasingly needing guidelines and technical examples that will help them to not be wasteful of their limited financial resources and petroleum reserves. To aid these operators, the technology transfer capabilities of the Kansas Geological Survey will disseminate the results of this study to the local, regional, and national oil industry. Internet access, seminars, presentations, and publications by Woolsey Petroleum Company and Kansas Geological Survey geologists and engineers are anticipated.

K. David Newell; Saibal Bhattacharya; Alan Byrnes; W. Lynn Watney; Willard Guy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Anomalous fracture-extension pressure in granitic rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fracture-extension pressures appreciably higher than the least principal earth-stress were observed in hydraulic fractures formed in a pair of 3 km (9600 ft) deep boreholes drilled near the Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Pressurization of open wellbores in rock containing preexisting fractures may open these fractures, instead of creating new fractures at right angles to the least principal stress. The pressure necessary to flow into these fractures may be appreciably higher than the least principal stress. Upon sand-propping one such pre-existing fracture, a lower fracture extension pressure was observed. A second fracture in a parallel well-bore 92 m (300 ft) away, at the same depth of 2 km (6500 ft) exhibited the lower fracture extension pressure without propping, but with about 90/sup 0/ difference in fracture direction. Fractures created through perforations at a depth of 3 km (9600 ft) not only exhibited breakdown pressures upon initial pressurization, but sometimes even higher ''breakdown'' pressures upon repressurization. These phenomena may be of interest in the interpretation of earth stress measurements made by hydraulic fracturing.

Aamodt, R.L.; Potter, R.M.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture. 13 figs.

Warpinski, N.R.; Steinfort, T.D.; Branagan, P.T.; Wilmer, R.H.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

258

Apparatus and method for monitoring underground fracturing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring deformation of a rock mass around the vicinity of a fracture, commonly induced by hydraulic fracturing is provided. To this end, a well is drilled offset from the proposed fracture region, if no existing well is present. Once the well is formed to a depth approximately equal or exceeding the depth of the proposed fracture, a plurality of inclinometers, for example tiltmeters, are inserted downhole in the well. The inclinometers are located both above and below the approximate depth of the proposed fracture. The plurality of inclinometers may be arranged on a wireline that may be retrieved from the downhole portion of the well and used again or, alternatively, the inclinometers may be cemented in place. In either event, the inclinometers are used to measure the deformation of the rock around the induced fracture.

Warpinski, Norman R. (Albuquerque, NM); Steinfort, Terry D. (Tijeras, NM); Branagan, Paul T. (Las Vegas, NV); Wilmer, Roy H. (Las Vegas, NV)

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

259

Well completion and operations for MHF of Fenton Hill HDR Well EE-2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Previous attempts to connect Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Site Wells EE-2 and EE-3 by pumping 150 thousand to 1.3 million gallons of water had not achieved a detectable hydraulic fracture connection. Therefore, preparations were made to conduct, in December 1983, a 4 to 6 million gallon, 50 BPM water injection in EE-2. The objective was to enlarge the previously created reservoir in EE-2 using massive hydraulic facturing (MHF). The planning, preparations, operations and results of the MHF are presented here. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Dreesen, D.S.; Nicholson, R.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Estimation of fracture flow parameters through numerical analysis of hydromechanical pressure pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow parameters of a natural fracture were estimated by modeling in situ pressure pulses. The pulses were generated in two horizontal boreholes spaced 1 m apart vertically and intersecting a near-vertical highly permeable fracture located within a shallow fractured carbonate reservoir. Fracture hydromechanical response was monitored using specialized fiber-optic borehole equipment that could simultaneously measure fluid pressure and fracture displacements. Measurements indicated a significant time lag between the pressure peak at the injection point and the one at the second measuring point, located 1 m away. The pressure pulse dilated and contracted the fracture. Field data were analyzed through hydraulic and coupled hydromechanical simulations using different governing flow laws. In matching the time lag between the pressure peaks at the two measuring points, our hydraulic models indicated that (1) flow was channeled in the fracture, (2) the hydraulic conductivity tensor was highly anisotropic, and (3) the radius of pulse influence was asymmetric, in that the pulse travelled faster vertically than horizontally. Moreover, our parametric study demonstrated that the fluid pressure diffusion through the fracture was quite sensitive to the spacing and orientation of channels, hydraulic aperture, storativity and hydraulic conductivity. Comparison between hydraulic and hydromechanical models showed that the deformation significantly affected fracture permeability and storativity, and consequently, the fluid pressure propagation, suggesting that the simultaneous measurements of pressure and mechanical displacement signals could substantially improve the interpretation of pulse tests during reservoir characterization.

Cappa, F.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C.-F.; Thoraval, A.

2008-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

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261

Incorporating Rigorous Height Determination into Unified Fracture Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing plays an important role in increasing production rate in tight reservoirs. The performance of the reservoir after fracturing can be observed from the productivity index. This parameter is dependent on the fracture geometry; height, length and width. Unified fracture design (UFD) offers a method to determine the fracture dimensions providing the maximum productivity index for a specific proppant amount. Then, in order to achieve the maximum productivity index, the treatment schedules including the amount of liquid and proppant used for each stage must be determined according to the fracture dimensions obtained from the UFD. The proppant number is necessary for determining the fracture geometry using the UFD. This number is used to find the maximum productivity index for a given proppant amount. Then, the dimensionless fracture conductivity index corresponding to the maximum productivity index can be computed. The penetration ration, the fracture length, and the propped fracture width can be computed from the dimensionless fracture conductivity. However, calculating the proppant number used in UFD requires the fracture height as an input. The most convenient way to estimate fracture height to input to the UFD is to assume that the fracture height is restricted by stress contrast between the pay zone and over and under-lying layers. In other words, the fracture height is assumed to be constant, independent of net pressure and equal to the thickness of the layer which has the least minimum principal stress. However, in reality, the fracture may grow out from the target formation and the height of fracture is dependent on the net pressure during the treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to couple determination of the fracture height with determination of the other fracture parameters. In this research, equilibrium height theory is applied to rigorously determine the height of fracture. Solving the problem iteratively, it is possible to incorporate the rigorous fracture height determination into the unified fracture design.

Pitakbunkate, Termpan

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF ESSENTIALLY SATURATED PEAT  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory measured the hydraulic conductivity of peat samples using method ASTM D4511-00. Four samples of peat were packed into 73mm diameter plastic tubes and saturated from the bottom up with water. The columns were packed with Premier ProMoss III TBK peat to a dry density of approximately 0.16 gm/cc (10 lb/ft3). One column was packed using oven dried peat and the other 3 were packed using as delivered peat. The oven dried sample was the most difficult to saturate. All of the peat samples expanded during saturation resulting in a sample length (L) that was longer than when the sample was initially packed. Table 1 contains information related to the column packing. After saturation the hydraulic conductivity test was conducted using the apparatus shown in Figure 1. Three of the samples were tested at 2 different flow conductions, 1 high and 1 low. Table 2 and Figure 2 contain the results of the hydraulic conductivity testing. Each test was run for a minimum of 40 minutes to allow the test conditions to stabilize. The hydraulic conductivity at the end of each test is reported as the hydraulic conductivity for that test. The hydraulic conductivity of the 4 peat samples is 0.0052 {+-} 0.0009 cm/sec. This result compares well with the hydraulic conductivity measured in the pilot scale peat bed after approximately 2 months of operation. The similarity in results between the dry pack sample and moist pack samples shows the moisture content at the time of packing had a minimal effect on the hydraulic conductivity. Additionally, similarity between the results shows the test is reproducible. The hydraulic conductivity results are similar to those reported by other tests of peat samples reported in the literature.

Nichols, R

2008-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

263

Evaluation of fracture treatment type on the recovery of gas from the cotton valley formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Every tight gas well needs to be stimulated with a hydraulic fracture treatment to produce natural gas at economic flow rates and recover a volume of gas that provides an acceptable return on investment. Over the past few decades, many different types of fracture fluids, propping agents and treatment sizes have been tried in the Cotton Valley formation. The treatment design engineer has to choose the optimum fluid, optimum proppant, optimum treatment size and make sure the optimum treatment is mixed and pumped in the field. These optimum values also depend on drilling costs, fracturing costs and other economic parameters; such as gas prices, operating costs and taxes. Using information from the petroleum literature, numerical and analytical simulators, and statistical analysis of production data, this research provides a detailed economic evaluation of the Cotton Valley wells drilled in the Elm Grove field operated by Matador Resources to determine not only the optimum treatment type, but also the optimum treatment volume as a function of drilling costs, completion costs, operating costs and gas prices. This work also provides an evaluation of well performance as a function of the fracture treatment type by reviewing production data from the Carthage and Oak Hill Cotton Valley fields in Texas and the Elm Grove field in Louisiana.

Yalavarthi, Ramakrishna

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Control rod drive hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydraulic system for a control rod drive (CRD) includes a variable output-pressure CR pump operable in a charging mode for providing pressurized fluid at a charging pressure, and in a normal mode for providing the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure, less than the charging pressure. Charging and purge lines are disposed in parallel flow between the CRD pump and the CRD. A hydraulic control unit is disposed in flow communication in the charging line and includes a scram accumulator. An isolation valve is provided in the charging line between the CRD pump and the scram accumulator. A controller is operatively connected to the CRD pump and the isolation valve and is effective for opening the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a charging mode for charging the scram accumulator, and closing the isolation valve and operating the CRD pump in a normal mode for providing to the CRD through the purge line the pressurized fluid at a purge pressure lower than the charging pressure.

Ose, Richard A. (San Jose, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Analysis of fractures in volcanic cores from Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The Nevada Test Site (NTS), located in Nye County, southern Nevada, was the location of 828 announced underground nuclear tests, conducted between 1951 and 1992. Approximately one-third of these tests were detonated near or below the water table. An unavoidable consequence of these testing activities was introducing radionuclides into the subsurface environment, impacting groundwater. Groundwater flows beneath the NTS almost exclusively through interconnected natural fractures in carbonate and volcanic rocks. Information about these fractures is necessary to determine hydrologic parameters for future Corrective Action Unit (CAU)-specific flow and transport models which will be used to support risk assessment calculations for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Underground Test Area (UGTA) remedial investigation. Fracture data are critical in reducing the uncertainty of the predictive capabilities of CAU-specific models because of their usefulness in generating hydraulic conductivity values and dispersion characteristics used in transport modeling. Specifically, fracture aperture and density (spacing) are needed to calculate the permeability anisotropy of the formations. Fracture mineralogy information is used qualitatively to evaluate diffusion and radionuclide retardation potential in transport modeling. All these data can best be collected through examination of core samples.

Drellack, S.L. Jr.; Prothro, L.B.; Roberson, K.E. [and others

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Insights From Laboratory Experiments On Simulated Faults With Application To Fracture Evolution In Geothermal Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments provide a wealth of information related to mechanics of fracture initiation, fracture propagation processes, factors influencing fault strength, and spatio-temporal evolution of fracture properties. Much of the existing literature reports on laboratory studies involving a coupling of thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and/or chemical processes. As these processes operate within subsurface environments exploited for their energy resource, laboratory results provide insights into factors influencing the mechanical and hydraulic properties of geothermal systems. I report on laboratory observations of strength and fluid transport properties during deformation of simulated faults. The results show systematic trends that vary with stress state, deformation rate, thermal conditions, fluid content, and rock composition. When related to geophysical and geologic measurements obtained from engineered geothermal systems (e.g. microseismicity, wellbore studies, tracer analysis), laboratory results provide a means by which the evolving thermal reservoir can be interpreted in terms of physico-chemical processes. For example, estimates of energy release and microearthquake locations from seismic moment tensor analysis can be related to strength variations observed from friction experiments. Such correlations between laboratory and field data allow for better interpretations about the evolving mechanical and fluid transport properties in the geothermal reservoir – ultimately leading to improvements in managing the resource.

Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Evaluation of fracture treatments using a layered-reservoir description: Field examples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a practical analysis technique to determine actual fracture geometry and proppant profile using a three-dimensional (3D) hydraulic-fracturing simulator. The hydraulic-fracturing model used in this study considers the variation of in-situ stress, Young`s modulus, Poisson`s ratio, and net pay thickness in the productive interval. When the method is applied, the results from the fracture propagation model conform well with the results the authors obtain from pressure-buildup and production-data analyses. This study analyzed hydraulic-fracturing treatments from several wells in the Vicksburg formation of the McAllen Ranch area in south Texas. The authors have provided guidelines to properly describe the treatment interval, how to use this information in the analysis of such fracture treatments, and how to confirm the results using pressure-transient tests and production-data analyses. This paper presents examples illustrating that a detailed description of the reservoir layers is essential to properly evaluate hydraulic-fracture treatments. For the example wells presented in this paper, post-fracture-production and pressure-transient data were available. The authors have analyzed production and pressure-transient data to estimate permeability and fracture half-length. The values of fracture half-length used to analyze the production data matched closely with those predicted by the fracture model.

Rahim, Z.; Holditch, S.A.; Zuber, M.D. [Holditch and Associates Inc., College Station, TX (United States); Buehring, D.R.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Hydraulic Institute Member Benefits  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

As the developer of the universally acclaimed ANSI/HI Pump Standards, a key reference for pump knowledge and end-user specifications, the Hydraulic  nstitute (HI) provides its members with timely...

269

Breakthrough in fracture mechanics  

SciTech Connect

Fracture mechanics, the science of calculating material characteristics, stress, and flaws in plant equipment to evaluate structural integrity, usually spares the owners of nuclear power plants unnecessary expense. Instead of replacing equipment prematurely or waiting for costly, unscheduled materials failures that can take months to repair and cost thousands of dollars a day for replacement power, utilities use fracture mechanics techniques to carefully consider their options. If analyses show repair is unnecessary, plant operation can confidently be resumed. If repair is required, it can either be done immediately or, if deferrable, be scheduled for a later, more convenient outage.

Lihach, N.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Simulating the Effect of Water on the Fracture System of Shale Gas Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It was observed that many hydraulically fractured horizontal shale gas wells exhibit transient linear flow behavior. A half-slope on a type curve represents this transient linear flow behavior. Shale gas wells show a significant skin effect which is uncommon in tight gas wells and masks early time linear behavior. Usually 70-85 percent of frac water is lost in the formation after the hydraulic fracturing job. In this research, a shale gas well was studied and simulated post hydraulic fracturing was modeled to relate the effect of frac water to the early significant skin effect observed in shale gas wells. The hydraulically fractured horizontal shale gas well was described in this work by a linear dual porosity model. The reservoir in this study consisted of a bounded rectangular reservoir with slab matrix blocks draining into neighboring hydraulic fractures and then the hydraulic fractures feed into the horizontal well that fully penetrates the entire rectangular reservoir. Numerical and analytical solutions were acquired before building a 3D 19x19x10 simulation model to verify accuracy. Many tests were conducted on the 3D model to match field water production since initial gas production was matching the analytical solutions before building the 3D simulation model. While some of the scenarios tested were artificial, they were conducted in order to reach a better conceptual understanding of the field. Increasing the water saturation in the formation resulted in increasing water production while lowering gas production. Adding a fractured bottom water layer that leaked into the hydraulic fracture allowed the model to have a good match of water and gas production rates. Modeling trapped frac water around the fracture produced approximately the same amount of water produced by field data, but the gas production was lower. Totally surrounding the fracture with frac water blocked all gas production until some of the water was produced and gas was able to pass through. Finally, trapped frac water around the fracture as combined with bottom water showed the best results match. It was shown that frac water could invade the formation surrounding the hydraulic fracture and could cause formation damage by blocking gas flow. It was also demonstrated that frac water could partially block off gas flow from the reservoir to the wellbore and thus lower the efficiency of the hydraulic fracturing job. It was also demonstrated that frac water affects the square root of time plot. It was proven by simulation that the huge skin at early time could be caused by frac water that invades and gets trapped near the hydraulic fractures due to capillary pressure.

Hamam, Hassan Hasan H.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Representative element modeling of fracture systems based on stochastic analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An important task associated with reservoir simulation is the development of a technique to model a large number of fractures with a single description. Representative elements must be developed before reservoir scale simulations can adequately address the effects of intersecting fracture systems on fluid migration. An effective element model will sharply reduce the cost and complexity of large scale simulations to bring these to manageable levels. Stochastic analysis is a powerful tool which can determine the hydraulic and transport characteristics of intersecting sets of statistically defined fractures. Hydraulic and transport characteristics are required to develop representative elements. Given an assumption of fully developed laminar flow, the net fracture conductivities and hence flow velocities can be determined from descriptive statistics of fracture spacing, orientation, aperture, and extent. The distribution of physical characteristics about their mean leads to a distribution of the associated conductivities. The variance of hydraulic conductivity induces dispersion into the transport process. The simplest of fracture systems, a single set of parallel fractures, is treated to demonstrate the usefulness of stochastic analysis. Explicit equations for conductivity of an element are developed and the dispersion characteristics are shown. The analysis reveals the dependence of the representative element properties on the various parameters used to describe the fracture system. 10 refs., 3 figs.

Clemo, T.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Characterization of EGS Fracture Network Lifecycles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal energy is relatively clean, and is an important non-hydrocarbon source of energy. It can potentially reduce our dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reduction in carbon emissions. High-temperature geothermal areas can be used for electricity generation if they contain permeable reservoirs of hot water or steam that can be extracted. The biggest challenge to achieving the full potential of the nation’s resources of this kind is maintaining and creating the fracture networks required for the circulation, heating, and extraction of hot fluids. The fundamental objective of the present research was to understand how fracture networks are created in hydraulic borehole injection experiments, and how they subsequently evolve. When high-pressure fluids are injected into boreholes in geothermal areas, they flow into hot rock at depth inducing thermal cracking and activating critically stressed pre-existing faults. This causes earthquake activity which, if monitored, can provide information on the locations of the cracks formed, their time-development and the type of cracking underway, e.g., whether shear movement on faults occurred or whether cracks opened up. Ultimately it may be possible to monitor the critical earthquake parameters in near-real-time so the information can be used to guide the hydraulic injection while it is in progress, e.g., how to adjust factors such as injectate pressure, volume and temperature. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to mature analysis techniques and software that were, at the start of this project, in an embryonic developmental state. Task 1 of the present project was to develop state-of-the-art techniques and software for calculating highly accurate earthquake locations, earthquake source mechanisms (moment tensors) and temporal changes in reservoir structure. Task 2 was to apply the new techniques to hydrofracturing (Enhanced Geothermal Systems, or “EGS”) experiments performed at the Coso geothermal field, in order to enhance productivity there. Task 3 was to interpret the results jointly with other geological information in order to provide a consistent physical model. All of the original goals of the project have been achieved. An existing program for calculating accurate relative earthquake locations has been enhanced by a technique to improve the accuracy of earthquake arrival-time measurements using waveform cross-correlation. Error analysis has been added to pre-existing moment tensor software. New seismic tomography software has been written to calculate changes in structure that could be due, for example, to reservoir depletion. Data processing procedures have been streamlined and web tools developed for rapid dissemination of the results, e.g., to on-site operations staff. Application of the new analysis tools to the Coso geothermal field has demonstrated the effective use of the techniques and provided important case histories to guide the style of future applications. Changes in reservoir structure with time are imaged throughout the upper 3 km, identifying the areas where large volumes of fluid are being extracted. EGS hydrofracturing experiments in two wells stimulated a nearby fault to the south that ruptured from south to north. The position of this fault could be precisely mapped and its existence was confirmed by surface mapping and data from a borehole televiewer log. No earthquakes occurred far north of the injection wells, suggesting that the wells lie near the northern boundary of the region of critically stressed faults. Minor en-echelon faults were also activated. Significant across-strike fluid flow occurred. The faults activated had significant crack-opening components, indicating that the hydraulic fracturing created open cavities at depth. The fluid injection changed the local stress field orientation and thus the mode of failure was different from the normal background. Initial indications are that the injections modulated stress release, seismicity and natural fracture system evolution for periods of up to months. The research demon

Gillian R. Foulger

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

John Day Tailrace MASS2 Hydraulic Modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent biological results for the Juvenile Bypass System at John Jay Lock and Dam have raised concerns about the hydraulic conditions that are created in the tailrace under different project operations. This Memorandum for Record discusses the development and application of a truncated MASS2 model in the John Day tailrace.

Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

274

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. , "Investigations on hydraulic cement from spent oilCO, April 16-18, 1980 HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROMUniversity of California. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Fracture Quality From Integrating Time-Lapse VSP and Microseismic Data  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tight gas reservoirs are problematic to produce, often requiring multiple stages of hydraulic fracturing in order to create connected pathways through which hydrocarbons may flow. In this paper, we propose a new methodology ...

House, Nancy J.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Fracture Mapping in the Soultz-sous-Forets Geothermal Field from Microearthquake Relocation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2003, a massive hydraulic fracturing experiment was carried out at the European Geothermal Hot Dry Rock site at Soultz-sous-Forêts, France. The two week injection of water generated a high level of microseismic activity. ...

Michelet, Sophie

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

The Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Properties and Fracture Strain of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the strain rate effect on tensile properties and fracture strain is investigated by a servo-hydraulic system using the state-of-art Digital Image ...

278

Production of hydraulic oil from Baku crudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for low-pour oils for use in hydraulic systems is considerably greater than the possible production volume. The base stocks for hydraulic oils - AMG-10, MGE-10A, RM, and RMTs - are obtained by sulfuric acid treatment. In the interest of improving the ecological aspects of hydraulic oil production, sulfuric acid treatment is being replaced by hydroprocessing. The work described here was aimed at determining the feasibility of obtaining hydraulic oil of the RM type from lube distillate fractions of the mixed low-wax crudes processed in the Baku Azerneftyag Petroleum Refinery. This oil is intended for use in hydraulic systems of automatic control apparatus, mainly in flight vehicles operating in the North. Stringent requirements are imposed on its solid point and viscosity. solid point no higher than -60{degrees}C. viscosity w higher than 350 mm{sup 2}/sec at -40{degrees}C. The lube fractions used as starting materials had viscosities of 2.77 and 16.84 mm{sup 2}/sec at 50{degrees}C, with respective flash points of 85{degrees} and 168{degrees}C. As another starting material we used a gasoil cut with a viscosity of 4.4 mm{sup 2}/sec at 50{degrees}C and a flash point of 134{degrees}C.

Samedova, F.I.; Kasumova, A.M.; Alieva, V.M.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Proppant Fracture Conductivity with High Proppant Loading and High Closure Stress  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ultra-deepwater reservoirs are important unconventional reservoirs that hold the potential to produce billions of barrels of hydrocarbons, but also present major challenges. This type of reservoir is usually high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) and has a relatively high permeability. Hydraulic fracturing high permeability reservoirs are different from the hydraulic fracturing technology used in low permeability formations. The main purpose of hydraulic fracturing in low permeability reservoirs is to create a long, highly conductive path, whereas in high permeability formations hydraulic fracturing is used predominantly to bypass near wellbore formation damage, control sand production and reduce near wellbore pressure drop. Hydraulically fracturing these types of wells requires short fractures packed with high proppant concentrations. In addition, fracturing in high permeability reservoirs aims at achieving enough fracture length to increase productivity, especially when the viscosity of the reservoir fluid is high. In order to pump such a job and ensure long term productivity from the fracture, understanding the behavior of the fracture fluid and proppant is critical. A series of laboratory experiments have been conducted to study conductivity and fracture width with high proppant loading, high temperature and high pressure. Proppant was manually placed in the fracture and fracture fluid was pumped through the pack. Conductivity was measured by pumping oil to simulate reservoir conditions. Proppant performance and fracture fluids, which carry the proppant into the fracture, and their subsequent clean-up during production, were studied. High strength proppant is ideal for deep fracture stimulations and in this study different proppant loadings at different stresses were tested to see the impact of crushing and fracture width reduction on fracture conductivity. The preliminary test results indicated that oil at reservoir conditions improves clean-up of fracture fluid left in the proppant pack compared with using water at ambient temperature. Increasing the proppant concentration in the fracture showed higher conductivity values in some cases even at high closure stress. The increase in effective closure stress with high temperature resulted in a significant loss in conductivity. Additionally, the fracture width decreased with time and increased effective closure stress. Tests were also run to study the effect of cyclic loading which is expected to further decrease conductivity.

Rivers, Matthew Charles

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Hydraulic mining method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydraulic mining method includes drilling a vertical borehole into a pitched mineral vein and a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by a fluid jet stream and the resulting slurry flows down the footwall borehole into the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly therethrough to the surface.

Huffman, L.H.; Knoke, G.S.

1984-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Cradle modification for hydraulic ram  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70{degrees} and 90{degrees}).

Koons, B.M.

1995-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

282

EVALUATION OF ENHANCED VOC REMOVAL WITH SOIL FRACTURING IN THE SRS UPLAND UNIT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a full-scale implementation. The SVE well, monitoring point arrays and four fracturing wells were installed and the well testing has been completed. Four fractures were successfully created the week of July 25, 2005. The fractures were created in an open area at the bottom of steel well casing by using a water jet to create a notch in the soil and then injecting a guar-sand slurry into the formation. The sand-filled fractures increase the effective air permeability of the subsurface formation diffusion path lengths for contaminant removal. The primary metrics for evaluation were an increase in SVE flow rates in the zone of contamination and an increase in the zone of influence. Sufficient testing has been performed to show that fracturing in the Upland Unit accelerates SVE solvent remediation and fracturing can increase flow rates in the Upland Unit by at least one order of magnitude.

Riha, B

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

283

Dynamic model for hydraulic dissipators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors propose a mathematical model of a hydraulic link with energy dissipation, the device working reversibly to the alternative traction and compression movement. The dynamic behavior of the energy hydraulic dissipater depends on the instantaneous ... Keywords: dissipater's control, dynamic behavior, hydraulic dissipater, mathematical model

Adrian S. Axinti; Gavril Axinti

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Sensitivity study on hydraulic well testing inversion using simulated annealing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For environmental remediation, management of nuclear waste disposal, or geothermal reservoir engineering, it is very important to evaluate the permeabilities, spacing, and sizes of the subsurface fractures which control ground water flow. Cluster variable aperture (CVA) simulated annealing has been used as an inversion technique to construct fluid flow models of fractured formations based on transient pressure data from hydraulic tests. A two-dimensional fracture network system is represented as a filled regular lattice of fracture elements. The algorithm iteratively changes an aperture of cluster of fracture elements, which are chosen randomly from a list of discrete apertures, to improve the match to observed pressure transients. The size of the clusters is held constant throughout the iterations. Sensitivity studies using simple fracture models with eight wells show that, in general, it is necessary to conduct interference tests using at least three different wells as pumping well in order to reconstruct the fracture network with a transmissivity contrast of one order of magnitude, particularly when the cluster size is not known a priori. Because hydraulic inversion is inherently non-unique, it is important to utilize additional information. The authors investigated the relationship between the scale of heterogeneity and the optimum cluster size (and its shape) to enhance the reliability and convergence of the inversion. It appears that the cluster size corresponding to about 20--40 % of the practical range of the spatial correlation is optimal. Inversion results of the Raymond test site data are also presented and the practical range of spatial correlation is evaluated to be about 5--10 m from the optimal cluster size in the inversion.

Nakao, Shinsuke; Najita, J.; Karasaki, Kenzi

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Subsurface fracture mapping from geothermal wellbores. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To advance the state-of-the-art in Hot Dry Rock technology, and evaluation is made of (1) the use of both electromagnetic and acoustic radar to map far-field fractures, (2) the use of more than twenty different conventional well logging tools to map borehole-fracture intercepts, (3) the use of magnetic dipole ranging to determine the relative positions of the injection well and the production well within the fractured zone, (4) the use of passive microseismic methods to determine the orientation and extent of hydraulic fractures, and (5) the application of signal processing techniques to fracture mapping including tomography, holography, synthetic aperture, image reconstruction, and the relative importance of phase and amplitude information. It is found that according to calculations, VHF backscatter radar has the potential for mapping fractures within a distance of 50 +- 20 meters from the wellbore. A new technique for improving fracture identification is presented. The range of acoustic radar is five to seven times greater than that of VHF radar when compared on the basis of equal resolution, i.e., equal wavelengths. Analyses of extant data indicate that when used synergistically the (1) caliper, (2) resistivity dipmeter, (3) televiewer, (4) television, (5) impression packer, and (6) acoustic transmission are useful for mapping borehole-fracture intercepts. A new model of hydraulic fracturing is presented which indicates that a hydraulic fracture is dynamically unstable; consequently, improvements in locating the crack tip may be possible. The importance of phase in signal processing is stressed and those techniques which employ phase data are emphasized for field use.

Hartenbaum, B.A.; Rawson, G.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Hydraulic Institute Mission and Vision:  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Institute Mission and Vision: Institute Mission and Vision: Vision: To be a global authority on pumps and pumping systems. Mission: To be a value-adding resource to member companies and pump users worldwide by: * Developing and delivering comprehensive industry standards. * Expanding knowledge by providing education and tools for the effective application, testing, installation, operation and maintenance of pumps and pumping systems. * Serving as a forum for the exchange of industry information. The Hydraulic Institute is a non-profit industry (trade) association established in 1917. HI and its members are dedicated to excellence in the engineering, manufacture, and application of pumping equipment. The Institute plays a leading role in the development of pump standards in North America and worldwide. HI

287

Discrete Fracture Network Models for Risk Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in Coal  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A software package called DFNModeler has been developed to assess the potential risks associated with carbon sequestration in coal. Natural fractures provide the principal conduits for fluid flow in coal-bearing strata, and these fractures present the most tangible risks for the leakage of injected carbon dioxide. The objectives of this study were to develop discrete fracture network (DFN) modeling tools for risk assessment and to use these tools to assess risks in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama, where coal-bearing strata have high potential for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. DFNModeler provides a user-friendly interface for the construction, visualization, and analysis of DFN models. DFNModeler employs an OpenGL graphics engine that enables real-time manipulation of DFN models. Analytical capabilities in DFNModeler include display of structural and hydrologic parameters, compartmentalization analysis, and fluid pathways analysis. DFN models can be exported to third-party software packages for flow modeling. DFN models were constructed to simulate fracturing in coal-bearing strata of the upper Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior Basin. Outcrops and wireline cores were used to characterize fracture systems, which include joint systems, cleat systems, and fault-related shear fractures. DFN models were constructed to simulate jointing, cleating, faulting, and hydraulic fracturing. Analysis of DFN models indicates that strata-bound jointing compartmentalizes the Pottsville hydrologic system and helps protect shallow aquifers from injection operations at reservoir depth. Analysis of fault zones, however, suggests that faulting can facilitate cross-formational flow. For this reason, faults should be avoided when siting injection wells. DFN-based flow models constructed in TOUGH2 indicate that fracture aperture and connectivity are critical variables affecting the leakage of injected CO{sub 2} from coal. Highly transmissive joints near an injection well have potential to divert a large percentage of an injected CO{sub 2} stream away from a target coal seam. However, the strata-bound nature of Pottsville fracture systems is a natural factor that mitigates the risk of long-range leakage and surface seepage. Flow models indicate that cross-formational flow in strata-bound joint networks is low and is dissipated by about an order of magnitude at each successive bedding contact. These models help confirm that strata-bound joint networks are self-compartmentalizing and that the thick successions of interbedded shale and sandstone separating the Pottsville coal zones are confining units that protect shallow aquifers from injection operations at reservoir depth. DFN models are powerful tools for the simulation and analysis of fracture networks and can play an important role in the assessment of risks associated with carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Importantly, the stochastic nature DFN models dictates that they cannot be used to precisely reproduce reservoir conditions in a specific field area. Rather, these models are most useful for simulating the fundamental geometric and statistical properties of fracture networks. Because the specifics of fracture architecture in a given area can be uncertain, multiple realizations of DFN models and DFN-based flow models can help define variability that may be encountered during field operations. Using this type of approach, modelers can inform the risk assessment process by characterizing the types and variability of fracture architecture that may exist in geologic carbon sinks containing natural fractures.

Jack Pashin; Guohai Jin; Chunmiao Zheng; Song Chen; Marcella McIntyre

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are: (1) to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas, (2) to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems, and (3) to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs. Work was directed at both injection wells and production wells and at vertical, horizontal, and highly deviated wells.

Seright, Randall; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Anand; Wavrik, Kathryn

2001-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

289

Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal-Hydraulics Thermal-Hydraulics Dr. Tanju Sofu, Argonne National Laboratory In a power reactor, the energy produced in fission reaction manifests itself as heat to be removed by a coolant and utilized in a thermodynamic energy conversion cycle to produce electricity. A simplified schematic of a typical nuclear power plant is shown in the diagram below. Primary coolant loop Steam Reactor Heat exchanger Primary pump Secondary pump Condenser Turbine Water Although this process is essentially the same as in any other steam plant configuration, the power density in a nuclear reactor core is typically four orders of magnitude higher than a fossil fueled plant and therefore it poses significant heat transfer challenges. Maximum power that can be obtained from a nuclear reactor is often limited by the

291

High-permeability fracturing: The evolution of a technology  

SciTech Connect

Since its introduction almost 50 years ago, hydraulic fracturing has been the prime engineering tool for improving well productivity either by bypassing near-wellbore damage or by actually stimulating performance. Historically (and in many instances erroneously), the emphasis for propped fracturing was on fracture length, culminating in massive treatments for tight-gas sands with several million pounds of proppant and design lengths in excess of 1,500 ft. More recently, the importance of fracture conductivity has become appreciated. This paper uses field examples to trace the history, development, and application of TSO fracturing to high-permeability formations, including fracturing to increase PI, as well as applications aimed at improving completions in unconsolidated sands. Potential applications of fracturing to bypass the need for sand control are explored. Finally, the use of fracturing as a reservoir-management tool is examined through use of a propped fracture to alter the vertical flow profile of a well to maximize reserves. This particular use of fracturing leads to cases where careful design of both fracture length and conductivity is required; i.e., too much conductivity is as damaging to reservoir management as too little.

Smith, M.B.; Hannah, R.R.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

The Study of Permeability Change of Fractal Under Fracturing Basing on Damage Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to research the evolution of permeability and damage of fractal rock under hydraulic fracturing, a new damage variable that describing relative reduction of pore amounts as radius is bigger than r any fracturing stage is defined. Assuming the ... Keywords: damagey, fracta, permeabilit

Zhao Wanchun; Ai Chi

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Hydraulic Fracturing Expert Team from Colorado State University Bill Ritter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

issues associated with oil and gas exploration and production in Colorado and the Rocky Mountain region of technologies to reduce the environmental impact of oil and gas production and has developed a suite to sediments, including those that may produce natural gas and oil, when they are buried by natural processes

295

Optimising hydraulic fracture treatments in reservoirs under complex conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Growing global energy demand has prompted the exploitation of non-conventional resources such as Coal Bed Methane (CBM) and conventional resources such as gas-condensate reservoirs. Exploitation… (more)

Valencia, Karen Joy

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

A Political Ecology of Hydraulic Fracturing for Natural Gas in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[:] shale gas in the US, sand mines in Wisconsin, oil in the Ecuadoran Amazon, oil in the Niger Delta's Marcellus Shale Laura J. Stroup, Ph.D. Dept. of Geography, Texas State University Michael H. Finewood, Ph ! Background of Marcellus Shale Gas Play ! Current Events: The Case of PA ! Geography of Fracking in Study

Scott, Christopher

297

Shale Gas Hydraulic Fracturing in the Dutch Posidonia Shale:.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Recently the oil and gas industry is looking at the Posidonia shale in the Dutch subsurface for production of the unconventional shale gas. This is… (more)

Janzen, M.R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

RPSEA UNCONVENTIONAL GAS CONFERENCE 2012: Geology, the Environment, Hydraulic Fracturing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recovery and Salt Production - Jim Silva, GE Oil & Gas 9:30 a.m. Appalachian Shale and Barnett Area Water Shale Coalition 8:30 a.m. Meeting Overview & Agenda - Kent Perry, Vice President, Onshore Programs Isotope Interpretation Tools to Optimize Gas Shale Production - Yongchun Tang, PEER Institute Shale Gas

Yener, Aylin

299

Fracture characterization study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

First, the origin, nature, and significance of fractures in general are discussed. Next, discussions are directed toward the designation and classification of fractures. Some typical fracture measurement techniques are discussed. Finally, geothermal fracture systems are investigated and correlations made to determine which fracture technologies from oil field work are applicable to geothermal systems. (MHR)

Kehrman, R.F.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Geothermal wells: the cost benefit of fracture stimulation estimated by the GEOCOM code. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

GEOCOM, a computer code that provides life cycle cost/benefit analysis of completion technologies applied to geothermal wells, is used to study fracture stimulation techniques. it is estimated that stimulation must increase flow by roughly tons per $100,000 in order to be cost effective. Typically, hydraulic fracturing costs $100,000 to $500,000 per well, and the attempts at stimulation to date have generally not achieved the desired flow increases. The cost effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing is considered for several geothermal reservoirs.

Brown, G.L.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs. This research project had three objectives. The first objective was to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas. The second objective was to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems. The third objective was to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs.

Seright, Randall S.; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Wang, Ying; Kumar, Ananad; Wavrik, Kathryn

2001-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

302

Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

Morman, James A. (Woodridge, IL); Wei, Thomas Y. C. (Downers Grove, IL); Reifman, Jaques (Western Springs, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

304

Optimization of fractured well performance of horizontal gas wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In low-permeability gas reservoirs, horizontal wells have been used to increase the reservoir contact area, and hydraulic fracturing has been further extending the contact between wellbores and reservoirs. This thesis presents an approach to evaluate horizontal well performance for fractured or unfractured gas wells and a sensitivity study of gas well performance in a low permeability formation. A newly developed Distributed Volumetric Sources (DVS) method was used to calculate dimensionless productivity index for a defined source in a box-shaped domain. The unique features of the DVS method are that it can be applied to transient flow and pseudo-steady state flow with a smooth transition between the boundary conditions. In this study, I conducted well performance studies by applying the DVS method to typical tight sandstone gas wells in the US basins. The objective is to determine the best practice to produce horizontal gas wells. For fractured wells, well performance of a single fracture and multiple fractures are compared, and the effect of the number of fractures on productivity of the well is presented based on the well productivity. The results from this study show that every basin has a unique ideal set of fracture number and fracture length. Permeability plays an important role on dictating the location and the dimension of the fractures. This study indicated that in order to achieve optimum production, the lower the permeability of the formation, the higher the number of fractures.

Magalhaes, Fellipe Vieira

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Dual Permeability Modeling of Flow in a Fractured Geothermal Reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three dimensional fracture system synthesis and flow simulation has been developed to correlate drawdown characteristics measured in a geothermal well and to provide the basis for an analysis of tracer tests. A new dual permeability approach was developed which incorporates simulations at two levels to better represent a discrete fracture system within computer limitations. The first incorporates a discrete simulation of the largest fractures in the system plus distributed or representative element simulation of the smaller fractures. the second determines the representative element properties by discrete simulation of the smaller fractures. The fracture system was synthesized from acoustic televiewer data on the orientation and separation of three distinct fracture sets, together with additional data from the literature. Lognormal and exponential distributions of fracture spacing and radius were studied with the exponential distribution providing more reasonable results. Hydraulic apertures were estimated as a function of distance from the model boundary to a constant head boundary. Mean values of 6.7, 101 and 46 {micro}m were chosen as the most representative values for the three fracture sets. Recommendations are given for the additional fracture characterization needed to reduce the uncertainties in the model.

Miller, John D.; Allman, David W.

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

306

Dual permeability modeling of flow in a fractured geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three dimensional fracture system synthesis and flow simulation has been developed to correlate drawdown characteristics measured in a geothermal well and to provide the basis for an analysis of tracer tests. A new dual permeability approach was developed which incorporates simulations at two levels to better represent a discrete fracture system within computer limitations. The first incorporates a discrete simulation of the largest fractures in the system plus distributed or representative element stimulation of the smaller fractures. The second determines the representative element properties by discrete simulation of the smaller fractures. The fracture system was synthesized from acoustic televiewer data on the orientation and separation of three distinct fracture sets, together with additional data from the literature. Lognormal and exponential distributions of fracture spacing and radius were studied with the exponential distribution providing more reasonable results. Hydraulic apertures were estimated as a function of distance from the model boundary to a constant head boundary. Mean values of 6.7, 101 and 46 ..mu..m were chosen as the most representative values for the three fracture sets. Recommendations are given for the additional fracture characterization needed to reduce the uncertainties in the model. 20 refs., 6 figs.

Miller, J.D.; Allman, D.W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Micro-crack Damage Evolution of Fracturing Rock Chaotic Characteristics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chaotic theory and bifurcation of modern nonlinear science were used to study the evolution of micro-cracks under the hydraulic fracturing of the rock mass characteristics, the tensor damage variable which described the chao evolution of micro-cracks ... Keywords: chaos theory, bifurcation theory, damage evolution

Zhaowan Chun; Wang Tingting

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Hydraulic properties of asphalt concrete.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research has applied standard unsaturated flow models and laboratory methods common to soil analysis, to characterize the hydraulic properties of asphalt concrete. Wetting and… (more)

Pease, Ronald Eric

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Lab Scale Hydraulic Parameter Estimation .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydraulic tomography has been tested at the field scale, lab scale and in synthetic experiments. Recently Illman and Berg have conducted studies at the lab… (more)

Hartz, Andrew Scott

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

..., ASM International, 1996, p 371â??380ASM Handbook, Vol 19, Fatigue And FractureS.D. Antolovich and B.F. Antolovich, An Introduction to Fracture

311

ENVE 417 HYDRAULIC DESIGN TOPIC SYLLABUS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY. 2001. Hydraulic Design Handbook, Larry W. Mays, McGraw-Hill, New of Applied Hydraulics (properties of fluids and energy equation Review of Applied Hydraulics (pipe, open

Clark, Shirley E.

312

Hydraulically actuated well shifting tool  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a hydraulically actuated shifting tool for actuating a sliding member in a well tool. It comprises: a housing having a hydraulic fluid bore therein; shifting dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the housing; locking dog means positioned on the housing for movement away and toward the body; shifting dog hydraulic actuating means in fluid communication with the bore for causing engagement of the shifting dogs with the sliding member; locking dog hydraulic actuating means in communication with the bore for causing engagement of the locking dogs with the locking means; and hydraulic shifting means in communication with the bore for causing relative movement between the shifting dog means and the locking dog means for shifting the sliding sleeve.

Roth, B.A.

1992-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

313

THERMO-HYDRO-MECHANICAL MODELING OF WORKING FLUID INJECTION AND THERMAL ENERGY EXTRACTION IN EGS FRACTURES AND ROCK MATRIX  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing), to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid-heat system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. Reliable performance predictions of EGS reservoirs require accurate and robust modeling for strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes. Conventionally, these types of problems have been solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulators with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. An alternative approach is to solve the system of nonlinear partial differential equations that govern multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, and rock mechanics simultaneously, using a fully coupled, fully implicit solution procedure, in which all solution variables (pressure, enthalpy, and rock displacement fields) are solved simultaneously. This paper describes numerical simulations used to investigate the poro- and thermal- elastic effects of working fluid injection and thermal energy extraction on the properties of the fractures and rock matrix of a hypothetical EGS reservoir, using a novel simulation software FALCON (Podgorney et al., 2011), a finite element based simulator solving fully coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, rock deformation, and fracturing using a global implicit approach. Investigations are also conducted on how these poro- and thermal-elastic effects are related to fracture permeability evolution.

Robert Podgorney; Chuan Lu; Hai Huang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Tidal Hydraulic Generators Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hydraulic Generators Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Tidal Hydraulic Generators Ltd Address 14 Thislesboon Drive Place Mumbles Zip SA3 4HY Sector Marine and Hydrokinetic Phone...

315

Interactive fracture design model  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer program is described that can be used to design a fracture stimulation treatment for a geothermal reservoir. The program uses state-of-the-art methods to calculate the temperature of the fracture fluid as a function of time and distance in the fracture. This information is used to determine the temperature dependent properties of the fracture fluid. These fluid properties are utilized to calculate the fracture geometry as a function of time. The fracture geometry and temperature distribution of the fracture fluid are coupled so the subroutines that calculate these distributions have been made interactive.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Method and tool for contracting tubular members by electro-hydraulic forming before hydroforming  

SciTech Connect

A tubular preform is contracted in an electro-hydraulic forming operation. The tubular preform is wrapped with one or more coils of wire and placed in a chamber of an electro-hydraulic forming tool. The electro-hydraulic forming tool is discharged to form a compressed area on a portion of the tube. The tube is then placed in a hydroforming tool that expands the tubular preform to form a part.

Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich (Beverly Hills, MI)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

Hydraulic system for a ratio change transmission  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a drive assembly (10) for an electrically powered vehicle (12). The assembly includes a transaxle (16) having a two-speed transmission (40) and a drive axle differential (46) disposed in a unitary housing assembly (38), an oil-cooled prime mover or electric motor (14) for driving the transmission input shaft (42), an adapter assembly (24) for supporting the prime mover on the transaxle housing assembly, and a hydraulic system (172) providing pressurized oil flow for cooling and lubricating the electric motor and transaxle and for operating a clutch (84) and a brake (86) in the transmission to shift between the two-speed ratios of the transmission. The adapter assembly allows the prime mover to be supported in several positions on the transaxle housing. The brake is spring-applied and locks the transmission in its low-speed ratio should the hydraulic system fail. The hydraulic system pump is driven by an electric motor (212) independent of the prime mover and transaxle.

Kalns, Ilmars (Northville, MI)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process management expert system for a nuclear, chemical or other process is effective following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. The search process is based upon mass, momentum and energy conservation principles so that qualitative thermal-hydraulic fundamental principles are satisfied for new system configurations. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

Morman, James A.; Wei, Thomas Y.C.; Reifman, Jaques

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic pump having no moving mechanical parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force. The electrokinetic pump, which can generate hydraulic pressures greater than 2500 psi, can be employed to compress a fluid, either liquid or gas, and manipulate fluid flow. The pump is particularly useful for capillary-base systems. By combining the electrokinetic pump with a housing having chambers separated by a flexible member, fluid flow, including high pressure fluids, is controlled by the application of an electric potential, that can vary with time.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

An integrated methodology for sub-surface fracture characterization using microseismic data: A case study at the NW Geysers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs are often characterized by low permeability and porosity. So, they are difficult to produce and require stimulation techniques, such as thermal shear deactivation and hydraulic fracturing. Fractures ... Keywords: Fuzzy clustering, Geothermal reservoirs, Microseismic, Shear wave splitting, Tomographic inversion, Unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs

Fred Aminzadeh, Tayeb A. Tafti, Debotyam Maity

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

OPTIMIZATION OF INFILL DRILLING IN NATURALLY-FRACTURED TIGHT-GAS RESERVOIRS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A major goal of industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fossil energy program is to increase gas reserves in tight-gas reservoirs. Infill drilling and hydraulic fracture stimulation in these reservoirs are important reservoir management strategies to increase production and reserves. Phase II of this DOE/cooperative industry project focused on optimization of infill drilling and evaluation of hydraulic fracturing in naturally-fractured tight-gas reservoirs. The cooperative project involved multidisciplinary reservoir characterization and simulation studies to determine infill well potential in the Mesaverde and Dakota sandstone formations at selected areas in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. This work used the methodology and approach developed in Phase I. Integrated reservoir description and hydraulic fracture treatment analyses were also conducted in the Pecos Slope Abo tight-gas reservoir in southeastern New Mexico and the Lewis Shale in the San Juan Basin. This study has demonstrated a methodology to (1) describe reservoir heterogeneities and natural fracture systems, (2) determine reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, (3) define the elliptical drainage area and recoverable gas for existing wells, (4) determine the optimal location and number of new in-fill wells to maximize economic recovery, (5) forecast the increase in total cumulative gas production from infill drilling, and (6) evaluate hydraulic fracture simulation treatments and their impact on well drainage area and infill well potential. Industry partners during the course of this five-year project included BP, Burlington Resources, ConocoPhillips, and Williams.

Lawrence W. Teufel; Her-Yuan Chen; Thomas W. Engler; Bruce Hart

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Analysis of Fracture in Cores from the Tuff Confining Unit beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

The role fractures play in the movement of groundwater through zeolitic tuffs that form the tuff confining unit (TCU) beneath Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, is poorly known. This is an important uncertainty, because beneath most of Yucca Flat the TCU lies between the sources of radionuclide contaminants produced by historic underground nuclear testing and the regional carbonate aquifer. To gain a better understanding of the role fractures play in the movement of groundwater and radionuclides through the TCU beneath Yucca Flat, a fracture analysis focusing on hydraulic properties was performed on conventional cores from four vertical exploratory holes in Area 7 of Yucca Flat that fully penetrate the TCU. The results of this study indicate that the TCU is poorly fractured. Fracture density for all fractures is 0.27 fractures per vertical meter of core. For open fractures, or those observed to have some aperture, the density is only 0.06 fractures per vertical meter of core. Open fractures are characterized by apertures ranging from 0.1 to 10 millimeter, and averaging 1.1 millimeter. Aperture typically occurs as small isolated openings along the fracture, accounting for only 10 percent of the fracture volume, the rest being completely healed by secondary minerals. Zeolite is the most common secondary mineral occurring in 48 percent of the fractures observed.

Lance Prothro

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report. Volume 1: Site selection, drill plan preparation, drilling, logging, and coring operations  

SciTech Connect

The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

The effect of natural fracture characteristics on current analytical models for hydraulically fractured unconventional shale reservoirs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In recent years, the oil and gas industry has shifted its focus more towards unconventional shale reservoirs. It has become apparent that these reservoirs require… (more)

Junor, Nathaniel T.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Analysis of dynamic characteristics of single piston hydraulic free piton engine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The operation theory of the single piston hydraulic free piston engine (SPHFPE) was introduced and was simplified as a gas spring-mass system. The mathematics model of the gas spring rate vs. displacement was set up. The equivalent spring rate and frequency ... Keywords: AMESim, dynamic characteristic, equivalent spring rate, hydraulic free piston engine (HFPE), spring-mass system

Haoling Ren; Haibo Xie; Huayong Yang

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model  

SciTech Connect

Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation/dissolution, as well as the variation in fracture aperture and pressure. Also, a three-dimensional model of injection/extraction has been developed to consider the impact poro- and thermoelastic stresses on fracture slip and injection pressure. These investigations shed light on the processes involved in the observed phenomenon of injection pressure variation (e.g., in Coso), and allow the assessment of the potential of thermal and chemical stimulation strategies.

Ahmad Ghassemi

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Evaluation of subsurface fracture geometry using fluid pressure response to solid earth tidal strain Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The nature of solid earth tidal strain and surface load deformation due to the influence of gravitational forces and barometric pressure loading are discussed. The pore pressure response to these types of deformation is investigated in detail, including the cases of a confined aquifer intersected by a well and a discrete fracture intersected by a well. The integration of the tidal response method with conventional pump tests in order to independently calculate the hydraulic parameters of the

329

Modelling and Simulation of Tensile Fracture in High Velocity Compacted Metal Powder  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In cold uniaxial powder compaction, powder is formed into a desired shape with rigid tools and a die. After pressing, but before sintering, the compacted powder is called green body. A critical property in the metal powder pressing process is the mechanical properties of the green body. Beyond a green body free from defects, desired properties are high strength and uniform density. High velocity compaction (HVC) using a hydraulic operated hammer is a production method to form powder utilizing a shock wave. Pre-alloyed water atomised iron powder has been HVC-formed into circular discs with high densities. The diametral compression test also called the Brazilian disc test is an established method to measure tensile strength in low strength material like e.g. rock, concrete, polymers and ceramics. During the test a thin disc is compressed across the diameter to failure. The compression induces a tensile stress perpendicular to the compressed diameter. In this study the test have been used to study crack initiation and the tensile fracture process of HVC-formed metal powder discs with a relative density of 99%. A fictitious crack model controlled by a stress versus crack-width relationship is utilized to model green body cracking. Tensile strength is used as a failure condition and limits the stress in the fracture interface. The softening rate of the model is obtained from the corresponding rate of the dissipated energy. The deformation of the powder material is modelled with an elastic-plastic Cap model. The characteristics of the tensile fracture development of the central crack in a diametrically loaded specimen is numerically studied with a three dimensional finite element simulation. Results from the finite element simulation of the diametral compression test shows that it is possible to simulate fracturing of HVC-formed powder. Results from the simulation agree reasonably with experiments.

Jonsen, P.; Haeggblad, H.-A. [Division of Solid Mechanics, Department of Applied Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Luleaa University of Technology, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

330

High velocity impact fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An in-depth understanding of dynamic ductile fracture is one of the most important steps to improve the survivability of critical structures such as the lost Twin Towers. In the present thesis, the macroscopic fracture ...

Teng, Xiaoqing

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Fluid transport properties of rock fractures at high pressure and temperature. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Initial stages of a study on the fluid transport properties of rock at high pressure and temperature are reported. Emphasis is placed on the mechanical hydraulic interactions, in an attempt to clarify the process of fracture closure and its influence on fracture permeability. To determine the fluid transport properties of a fracture, the effect of surface roughness, geometry, and filling on fracture permeability was investigated. Permeability of these fractures was measured at various effective normal stresses at room temperature. The law of effective stress appears valid for fractures without filling but permeability of filled fractures is more sensitive to confining pressure than pore pressure. Permeability of smooth surfaces varied 5 to 0.5 darcys over a range of effective stresses from 0 to 3000 bars. Filled fractures were an order of magnitude more permeable.

Engelder, T.; Scholz, C.

1977-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

On-site investigations and diagnosis of hydraulic structures  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic structures (HSs) should be classified as complex engineering systems. It is difficult to imagine an absolutely reliable and safe engineering system. It is completely obvious that if such a system were possible, then economically it would not experience any competition with less reliable systems whose operation is organized in a certain way.

Vasilevskii, A.G.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Effective fracture geometry obtained with large water sand ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale gas formation exhibits some unusual reservoir characteristics: nano-darcy matrix permeability, presence of natural fractures and gas storage on the matrix surface that makes it unique in many ways. It’s difficult to design an optimum fracture treatment for such formation and even more difficult is to describe production behavior using a reservoir model. So far homogeneous, two wing fracture, and natural fracture models have been used for this purpose without much success. Micro seismic mapping technique is used to measure the fracture propagation in real time. This measurement in naturally fractured shale formation suggests a growth of fracture network instead of a traditional two wing fractures. There is an industry wise consensus that fracture network plays an important role in determining the well productivity of such formations. A well with high density of fracture networks supposed to have better productivity. Shale formations have also exhibited production pattern which is very different from conventional or tight gas reservoir. Initial flow period is marked by steep decline in production while the late time production exhibits a slow decline. One of the arguments put for this behavior is linear flow from a bi-wing fractured well at early time and contribution of adsorbed gas in production at late time. However, bi-wing fracture geometry is not supported by the micro-seismic observation. A realistic model should include both the fracture network and adsorbed gas property. In this research we have proposed a new Power Law Permability model to simulate fluid flow from hydraulically fractured Shale formation. This model was first described by Valko & Fnu (2002) and used for analyzing acid treatment jobs. The key idea of this model is to use a power law permeability function that varies with the radial distance from well bore. Scaling exponent of this power law function has been named power law index. The permeability function has also been termed as secondary permeability. This work introduces the method of Laplace solution to solve the problem of transient and pseudo steady-state flow in a fracture network. Development and validation of this method and its extension to predict the pressure (and production) behaviour of fracture network were made using a novel technic. Pressure solution was then combined with material balance through productivity index to make production forecast. Reservoir rock volume affected by the fracture stimulation treatment that contributes in the production is called effective stimulated volume. This represents the extent of fracture network in this case. Barnett shale formation is a naturally fractured shale reservoir in Fort Worth basin. Several production wells from this formation was analysed using Power Law Model and it was found that wells productivity are highly dependent on stimulated volume. Apparently the wells flow under pseudo steady state for most part of their producing life and the effect of boundary on production is evident in as soon as one months of production. Due to short period of transient flow production from Barnett formations is expected to be largely independent of the relative distribution of permeability and highly dependent on the stimulated area and induced secondary permeability. However, an indirect relationship between permeability distribution and production rate is observed. A well with low power law index shows a better (more even) secondary permeability distribution in spatial direction, larger stimulated volume and better production. A comparative analysis between the new model and traditional fracture model was made. It was found that both models can be used successfully for history matching and production forecasting from hydraulically fractured shale gas formation.

Kumar, Amrendra

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown pressures are smaller than the capillary forces in the formation. For this field, the minimum CO{sub 2} gas quality (volume % of gas) recommended is 30% for moderate differences between fracture and reservoir pressures (2900 psi reservoir, 5300 psi fracture). The minimum quality is reduced to 20% when the difference between pressures is larger, resulting in additional gas expansion in the invaded zone. Inlet fluid temperature, flow rate, and base viscosity did not have a large impact on fracture production. Finally, every stage of the fracturing treatment should be energized with a gas component to ensure high gas saturation in the invaded zone. A second, more general, sensitivity study was conducted. Simulations show that CO{sub 2} outperforms N{sub 2} as a fluid component because it has higher solubility in water at fracturing temperatures and pressures. In fact, all gas components with higher solubility in water will increase the fluid's ability to reduce damage in the invaded zone. Adding methanol to the fracturing solution can increase the solubility of CO{sub 2}. N{sub 2} should only be used if the gas leaks-off either during the creation of the fracture or during closure, resulting in gas going into the invaded zone. Experimental data is needed to determine if the gas phase leaks-off during the creation of the fracture. Simulations show that the bubbles in a fluid traveling across the face of a porous medium are not likely to attach to the surface of the rock, the filter cake, or penetrate far into the porous medium. In summary, this research has created the first compositional fracturing simulator, a useful tool to aid in energized fracture design. We have made several important and original conclusions about the best practices when using energized fluids in tight gas sands. The models and tools presented here may be used in the future to predict behavior of any multi-phase or multi-component fracturing fluid system.

Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrokinetic high pressure hydraulic pump for manipulating fluids in capillary-based systems. The pump uses electro-osmotic flow to provide a high pressure hydraulic system, having no moving mechanical parts, for pumping and/or compressing fluids, for providing valve means and means for opening and closing valves, for controlling fluid flow rate, and manipulating fluid flow generally and in capillary-based systems (Microsystems), in particular. The compact nature of the inventive high pressure hydraulic pump provides the ability to construct a micro-scale or capillary-based HPLC system that fulfills the desire for small sample quantity, low solvent consumption, improved efficiency, the ability to run samples in parallel, and field portability. Control of pressure and solvent flow rate is achieved by controlling the voltage applied to an electrokinetic pump.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA); Arnold, Don W. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Acoustic methods for detecting water-filled fractures using commercial logging tools  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Project, under the Department of Energy and in cooperation with Dresser Atlas, has conducted single- and dual-well acoustic measurements to detect fractures in the artificial geothermal reservoir at the Fenton Hill New Mexico experimental site. The measurements were made using modified Dresser Atlas logging tools. Signals traversed distances of from 48 to 150 feet between two wells. Signals intersecting hydraulic fractures in the reservoir under both hydrostatic and pressurized conditions were simultaneously detected in both wells. Upon reservoir pressurization, signals along many ray paths were severely attenuated throughout their entire coda. In addition obvious shear wave arrivals were notably absent. The signals were processed to obtain Full-Wave Acoustic, Power, and Normalized Equi-Power Logs. Analysis of these logs identified the effective ''top'' of a region of hydraulically activated fractures and fractures intersecting the injection well behind casing.

Albright, J.N.; Aamodt, R.L.; Potter, R.M.; Spence, R.W.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Analytical modeling of a fracture-injection/falloff sequence and the development of a refracture-candidate diagnostic test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fracture-injection/falloff sequences are routinely used as pre-frac well tests to estimate reservoir pressure and transmissibility, but the current interpretation methods are limited to analyzing specific and very small portions of the pressure falloff data. To remove the current limitations, new analytical fractureinjection/ falloff models are developed that account for fracture propagation, fracture closure, and after fracture closure diffusion. A fracture-injection/falloff differs from a conventional injection/falloff sequence in that pressure during the injection is sufficient to initiate and propagate a hydraulic fracture. By considering fracture propagation as time-dependent storage, three new models are presented for a fractureinjection/ falloff sequence in a well in an infinite slab reservoir with a single vertical fracture created during the injection and with variable fracture and wellbore storage as follows: Â? Equivalent propagating-fracture and before-fracture-closure storage with constant after-fractureclosure storage. Â? Time-dependent propagating-fracture storage, constant before-closure storage, and constant afterclosure storage. Â? Time-dependent propagating-fracture storage, constant before-closure storage with linear flow from the fracture, and constant wellbore storage and skin with after-closure radial flow. When a fracture-injection can be considered as occurring instantaneously, limiting-case solutions of the new fracture-injection/falloff models suggest the observed pressure difference can be integrated to generate an equivalent pressure difference if the rate were constant. Consequently, a fractureinjection/ falloff sequence can be analyzed with constant-rate, variable-storage type curves. The new fracture-injection/falloff theory is also extended to allow for a fracture-injection in a reservoir containing an existing conductive hydraulic fracture. The new multiple-fracture fracture-injection/falloff model forms the basis of a new refracture-candidate diagnostic test that uses characteristic variable-storage behavior to qualitatively diagnose a pre-existing fracture retaining residual width and to determine if a preexisting fracture is damaged. A quantitative analysis methodology is also proposed that uses a new pressure-transient solution for a well in an infinite-slab reservoir producing through multiple arbitrarilyoriented finite- or infinite-conductivity fractures.

Craig, David Paul

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Modeling Hydraulic Responses to Meteorological Forcing: from Canopy to Aquifer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equations  for  some  soil  hydraulic properties.  Water Modeling Hydraulic Responses to Meteorological Forcing: CA 94720  lpan@lbl.gov  Modeling Hydraulic Responses to 

Pan, Lehua; Jin, Jiming; Miller, Norman; Wu, Yu-Shu; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR A MODIFIED IN-SITU RETORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBL-1 0431 UC-91 HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR A MODIFIED IN-REFERENCES • . • • • • . , . HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR ACalifomia. LBL-10431 HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS FOR A MODIFIED

Hall, W.G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Hydraulic properties of adsorbed water films in unsaturated porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ionic strength and unit hydraulic head gradient. Figure 7.of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity on matricYork. Durner, W. (1994), Hydraulic conductivity estimation

Tokunaga, Tetsu K.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low permeability reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this study are: to demonstrate the effectiveness of a non-damaging liquid, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in creating sand-propped hydraulic fractures in ``tight`` gas bearing formations within the Appalachian Basin; and to compare and rank the gas production responses from wells treated with liquid CO{sub 2} with other types of treatments (shooting, water based, nitrogen, etc.). The preliminary results are encouraging, and although only a few months of production is available, the rate of gas production from the CO{sub 2} treated candidate wells is greater than that from the control wells. The CO{sub 2}/sand fracs appear to be 56 percent better than the nitrogen fracs in Pike County. In addition, the CO{sub 2}/sand fracs are 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the Pike County study area. It should be recognized that these results are from a very limited data set and overall conclusions may change as more control wells are added to the analysis. From a stimulation process achievement viewpoint, the maximum amount of sand pumped is 46,000 pounds at an average concentration of 3.1 pound per gallon. It should be pointed out that additional foam and nitrogen stimulations have recently been performed by the operator in the Pike County area, and subsequent discussions in the future will include additional control wells to the baseline data sets.

Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

342

Electokinetic high pressure hydraulic system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high pressure hydraulic system having no moving parts for converting electric potential to hydraulic force and for manipulating fluids. Electro-osmotic flow is used to provide a valve and means to compress a fluid or gas in a capillary-based system. By electro-osmotically moving an electrolyte between a first position opening communication between a fluid inlet and outlet and a second position closing communication between the fluid inlet and outlet the system can be configured as a valve. The system can also be used to generate forces as large as 2500 psi that can be used to compress a fluid, either a liquid or a gas.

Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Rakestraw, David J. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Hydraulic jumps on an incline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a fluid jet strikes an inclined solid surface at normal incidence, gravity creates a flow pattern with a thick outer rim resembling a parabola and reminiscent of a hydraulic jump. There appears to be little theory or experiments describing simple aspects of this phenomenon, such as the maximum rise height of the fluid above the impact point, and its dependence on jet velocity and inclination angle. We address this with experiments, and present a simple theory based on horizontal hydraulic jumps which accounts for the rise height and its scaling, though without describing the shape of the parabolic envelope.

Jean-Luc Thiffeault; Andrew Belmonte

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Hydraulic jumps on an incline  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a fluid jet strikes an inclined solid surface at normal incidence, gravity creates a flow pattern with a thick outer rim resembling a parabola and reminiscent of a hydraulic jump. There appears to be little theory or experiments describing simple aspects of this phenomenon, such as the maximum rise height of the fluid above the impact point, and its dependence on jet velocity and inclination angle. We address this with experiments, and present a simple theory based on horizontal hydraulic jumps which accounts for the rise height and its scaling, though without describing the shape of the parabolic envelope.

Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Measurement of Solute Diffusion Behavior in Fractured Waste Glass Media  

SciTech Connect

Determination of aqueous phase diffusion coefficients of solutes through fractured media is essential for understanding and modeling contaminants transport at many hazardous waste disposal sites. No methods for earlier measurements are available for the characterization of diffusion in fractured glass blocks. We report here the use of time-lag diffusion experimental method to assess the diffusion behavior of three different solutes (Cs, Sr and Pentafluoro Benzoic Acid or PFBA) in fractured, immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) glass forms. A fractured media time-lag diffusion experimental apparatus that allows the measurement of diffusion coefficients has been designed and built for this purpose. Use of time-lag diffusion method, a considerably easier experimental method than the other available methods, was not previously demonstrated for measuring diffusion in any fractured media. Hydraulic conductivity, porosity and diffusion coefficients of a solute were experimentally measured in fractured glass blocks using this method for the first time. Results agree with the range of properties reported for similar rock media earlier, indicating that the time-lag experimental method can effectively characterize the diffusion coefficients of fractured ILAW glass media.

Saripalli, Kanaka P.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Meyer, Philip D.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Feasibility of a borehole VHF radar technique for fracture mapping  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to establish the feasibility of a downhole high-frequency electromagnetic technique for location of fractures in the vicinity of boreholes. An existing flame-cut slot in granite was filled with salt water to simulate a brine-filled fracture. A transmitter consisting of a phased dual-dipole array arranged to provide a directional signal toward the fracture was installed in a borehole opposite the fracture. A receiver operated at 30 to 300 MHz was also located in the same borehole. The radar returns from the simulated fracture were detectable in boreholes located at distances of up to 12 meters from the fracture. These results indicate for the first time the feasibility of a downhole VHF radar for use in a single borehole for detection of fractures located away from the borehole.

Chang, H.T.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Rock failure during massive hydraulic stimulation of the Baca location geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The analyses of microearthquake signals occurring during hydraulic stimulation provide an estimate of the size and location of the fractures thus produced. Studies of microearthquakes occurring during two large (> 10/sup 3/m/sup 3/) hydraulic stimulations of the hydrothermal reservoir at the Baca Location in the Jemez Mountains of northeastern New Mexico are reported. Both stimulations consisted of water, viscosity enhancer, and proppant. The microearthquake event rate was low but variable throughout most of the treatment. Rock failure as indicated by the distribution of the microearthquakes' foci appeared restricted to a nearly vertical NE striking zone. This orientation is in good agreement with the local earth stresses inferred from geological considerations. The second stimulation which occurred in a neighboring well was similar to the first except for a larger injected volume. The lateral extent of the detected fracture system was 600 m in both stimulations.

Pearson, C.; Keppler, H.; Albright, J.; Potter, R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Steam Turbine Hydraulic Control system Maintenance Guide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam turbine hydraulic control system maintenance problems have been a significant factor in plant power reductions, shutdowns, and lost generation. This guide provides recommendations to improve the reliability of the hydraulic components and fluid.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

349

CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES  

SciTech Connect

This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

WITTEKIND WD

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

350

Candidate Well Selection for the Test of Degradable Biopolymer as Fracturing Fluid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydraulic fracturing is a well-established technology of generating highly conductive flow path inside the rock by injecting massive amount of fracturing fluid and proppant with sufficient pressure to break the formation apart. But as the concern for environment and health effects of hydraulic fracturing becomes intense, many efforts are made to replace the conventional fracturing fluid with more environment-friendly materials. The degradable biopolymer is one of the novel materials that is injected in the form of solid pellets containing proppant, degrades in the presence of water to form a viscous gel fluid, leaving no gel residue or harmful material. This work develops a methodology and computer program to determine the best candidate wells for the field test of degradable biopolymer as fracturing fluid. The unique properties of degradable biopolymer is captured in the selection of decision criteria such as bottomhole temperature and treatment volume as well as traditional hydraulic fracturing candidate well selection criteria such as formation permeability, productivity index.

Hwang, Yun Suk

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

On Internal Hydraulics with Entrainment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydraulics of a single layer flow with entrainment is examined with a reduced-gravity model. Expressions are derived for the local change of Froude number and layer thickness as a function of the entrainment velocity. It is shown that ...

Frank Gerdes; Chris Garrett; David Farmer

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Dynamic Measurement of Hydraulic Parameters Under Liquid ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Dynamic Measurement of Hydraulic Parameters Under Liquid Unsaturated Flow ...

353

TEMPEST. Transient 3-D Thermal-Hydraulic  

SciTech Connect

TEMPEST is a transient, three-dimensional, hydrothermal program that is designed to analyze a range of coupled fluid dynamic and heat transfer systems of particular interest to the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) thermal-hydraulic design community. The full three-dimensional, time-dependent equations of motion, continuity, and heat transport are solved for either laminar or turbulent fluid flow, including heat diffusion and generation in both solid and liquid materials. The equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation for incompressible flows and small density variations (Boussinesq approximation) are solved using finite-difference techniques. Analyses may be conducted in either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinate systems. Turbulence is treated using a two-equation model. Two auxiliary plotting programs, SEQUEL and MANPLOT, for use with TEMPEST output are included. SEQUEL may be operated in batch or interactive mode; it generates data required for vector plots, contour plots of scalar quantities, line plots, grid and boundary plots, and time-history plots. MANPLOT reads the SEQUEL-generated data and creates the hardcopy plots. TEMPEST can be a valuable hydrothermal design analysis tool in areas outside the intended FBR thermal-hydraulic design community.

Eyler, L.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

The communication protocol design of electro-hydraulic control system for hydraulic supports at coal mine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electro-hydraulic control system for hydraulic supports is a multi embedded systems constitute a computer network system working in the coal mine harsh environment. Excellent hardware connection and fine communication protocol are the fundamental ... Keywords: AVR microcontroller, communication protocols, electro-hydraulic control, hydraulic support

Jingguo Wen; Zisheng Lian

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Software implementation of hydraulic shock numerical computation in the pressure hydraulic systems without protection devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents software for calculus of hydraulic shock phenomenon in pressure hydraulic systems without protection device. The program is written in Java programming language and responds to the following requirements: easy management of several ... Keywords: flowchart, graphical interface, hydraulic shock (water hammer), method of characteristics, pressure hydraulic system, software

Ichinur Omer

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

The hydraulic conductivity of chopped sorghum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydraulic conductivity of water through chopped sweet sorghum at various packing densities and soaking times was measured using permeameters. Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude as packing density increased from 400 to 897 kg/m/sup 3/. Soaking time had less effect on hydraulic conductivity, and the effect depended on packing density.

Custer, M.H.; Reddell, D.L.; Sweeten, J.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Fracture Permeability Evolution in Desert Peak Quartz Monzonite  

SciTech Connect

Fracture flow experiments are being conducted on quartz monzonite core from the Desert Peak East EGS site, Churchill County, Nevada. The flow experiments are conducted at temperatures of 167-169 C and 5.5 MPa confining pressure through artificial fractures. Two injection fluids, a saline solution and a silica-bearing solution, have been used to date. Flow rates are typically 0.02 mL/min, but other rates have been used. The fracture surfaces are characterized with a contact profilometer. The profilometry data demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate statistically similar fracture surfaces and enable us to map aperture variations, which we use in numerical simulations. Effluent samples are collected for chemical analysis. The fluid pressure gradient is measured across the specimen and effective hydraulic apertures are calculated. The experiments show a reduction in permeability over time for both injection fluids, but a more rapid loss of permeability was observed for the silica-bearing solution. The calculated hydraulic aperture is observed to decrease by 17% for the saline solution and 75% for the silica-bearing fluid, respectively. Electrical resistivity measurements, which are sensitive to the ionic content of the pore fluid, provide additional evidence of fluid-rock interactions.

Carlson, S R; Roberts, J J; Detwiler, R L; Viani, B E; Roberts, S K

2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

358

THE THREE DIMENSIONAL THERMAL HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.  

SciTech Connect

BAGIRA - a thermal-hydraulic program complex was primarily developed for using it in nuclear power plant simulator models, but is also used as a best-estimate analytical tool for modeling two-phase mixture flows. The code models allow consideration of phase transients and the treatment of the hydrodynamic behavior of boiling and pressurized water reactor circuits. It provides the capability to explicitly model three-dimensional flow regimes in various regions of the primary and secondary circuits such as, the mixing regions, circular downcomer, pressurizer, reactor core, main primary loops, the steam generators, the separator-reheaters. In addition, it is coupled to a severe-accident module allowing the analysis of core degradation and fuel damage behavior. Section II will present the theoretical basis for development and selected results are presented in Section III. The primary use for the code complex is to realistically model reactor core behavior in power plant simulators providing enhanced training tools for plant operators.

KALINICHENKO,S.D.; KOHUT,P.; KROSHILIN,A.E.; KROSHILIN,V.E.; SMIRNOV,A.V.

2003-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

359

Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work performed during the first year of the project, ''Using Chemicals to Optimize Conformance Control in Fractured Reservoirs.'' This research project has three objectives. The first objective is to develop a capability to predict and optimize the ability of gels to reduce permeability to water more than that to oil or gas. The second objective is to develop procedures for optimizing blocking agent placement in wells where hydraulic fractures cause channeling problems. The third objective is to develop procedures to optimize blocking agent placement in naturally fractured reservoirs. This research project consists of three tasks, each of which addresses one of the above objectives. Our work is directed at both injection wells and production wells and at vertical, horizontal, and highly deviated wells.

Seright, Randall S.; Liang, Jenn-Tai; Schrader, Richard; Hagstrom II, John; Liu, Jin; Wavrik, Kathryn

1999-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

360

Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing  

SciTech Connect

The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Numerical Modeling of Fractured Shale-Gas and Tight-Gas Reservoirs Using Unstructured Grids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Various models featuring horizontal wells with multiple induced fractures have been proposed to characterize flow behavior over time in tight gas and shale gas systems. Currently, there is little consensus regarding the effects of non-ideal fracture geometries and coupled primary-secondary fracture interactions on reservoir performance in these unconventional gas reservoirs. This thesis provides a grid construction tool to generate high-resolution unstructured meshes using Voronoi grids, which provides the flexibility required to accurately represent complex geologic domains and fractures in three dimensions. Using these Voronoi grids, the interaction between propped hydraulic fractures and secondary "stress-release" fractures were evaluated. Additionally, various primary fracture configurations were examined, where the fractures may be non-planar or non-orthogonal. For this study, a numerical model was developed to assess the potential performance of tight gas and shale gas reservoirs. These simulations utilized up to a half-million grid-blocks and consider a period of up to 3,000 years in some cases. The aim is to provide very high-definition reference numerical solutions that will exhibit virtually all flow regimes we can expect in these unconventional gas reservoirs. The simulation results are analyzed to identify production signatures and flow regimes using diagnostic plots, and these interpretations are confirmed using pressure maps where useful. The coupled primary-secondary fracture systems with the largest fracture surface areas are shown to give the highest production in the traditional "linear flow" regime (which occurs for very high conductivity vertical fracture cases). The non-ideal hydraulic fracture geometries are shown to yield progressively lower production as the angularity of these fractures increases. Hence, to design optimum fracture completions, we should endeavor to keep the fractures as orthogonal to the horizontal well as possible. This work expands the current understanding of flow behavior in fractured tight-gas and shale-gas systems and may be used to optimize fracture and completion design, to validate analytical models and to facilitate more accurate reserves estimation.

Olorode, Olufemi Morounfopefoluwa

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

A numerical model of hydro-thermo-mechanical coupling in a fractured rock mass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical codes with the ability to model fractured materials are used for predicting groundwater flow behavior in fractured aquifers containing thermal sources. The potential applications of such a code include the analysis of groundwater behavior within a geothermal reservoir. The capability of modeling hydro-thermo systems with a dual porosity, fracture flow model has been previously developed in the finite element code, FEHM. FEHM has been modified to include stress coupling with the dual porosity feature. FEHM has been further developed to implicitly couple the dependence of fracture hydraulic conductivity on effective stress within two dimensional, saturated aquifers containing fracture systems. The cubic law for flow between parallel plates was used to model fracture permeability. The Bartin-Bandis relationship was used to determine the fracture aperture within the cubic law. The code used a Newton Raphson iteration to implicitly solve for six unknowns at each node. Results from a model of heat flow from a reservoir to the moving fluid in a single fracture compared well with analytic results. Results of a model showing the increase in fracture flow due to a single fracture opening under fluid pressure compared well with analytic results. A hot dry rock, geothermal reservoir was modeled with realistic time steps indicating that the modified FEHM code does successfully model coupled flow problems with no convergence problems.

Bower, K.M.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Analytical and Numerical Solutions for the Case of a Horizontal Well with a Radial Power-Law Permeability Distribution--Comparison to the Multi-Fracture Horizontal Case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, I present the development of analytical solutions in the Laplace domain for a fully-penetrating, horizontal well producing at a constant flow rate or constant wellbore pressure in the center of a composite, cylindrical reservoir system with an impermeable outer boundary. The composite reservoir consists of two regions. The cylindrical region closest to the wellbore is stimulated, and the permeability within this region follows a power-law function of the radial distance from the wellbore. The unstimulated outer region has homogeneous reservoir properties. The current norm for successful stimulation of low permeability reservoir rocks is multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The process of hydraulic fracturing creates thin, high permeability fractures that propagate deep into the reservoir, increasing the area of the rock matrix that is exposed to this low-resistance flow pathway. The large surface area of the high conductivity fracture is what makes hydraulic fracturing so successful. Unfortunately, hydraulic fracturing is often encumbered by problems such as high capital costs and a need for large volumes of water. Therefore, I investigate a new stimulation concept based upon the alteration of the permeability of a large volume around the producing well assembly from its original regime to that following a power-law function. I evaluate the effectiveness of the new concept by comparing it to conventional multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The results of this investigation show that the power-law permeability reservoir (PPR) has a performance advantage over the multi-fractured horizontal treatment (MFH) only when the fracture conductivity and fracture half-length are small. Most importantly, the results demonstrate that the PPR can provide respectable flow rates and recovery factors, thus making it a viable stimulation concept for ultra-low permeability reservoirs, especially under conditions that may not be conducive to a conventional MHF treatment.

Broussard, Ryan Sawyer

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

High energy gas fracture experiments in liquid-filled boreholes: potential geothermal application  

SciTech Connect

High Energy Gas Fracturing is a tailored pulse fracturing technique which uses propellants to obtain controlled fracture initiation and extension. Borehole pressurization rates can be tailored, by suitable choice of propellants, to produce four or eight fractures radiating from the wellbore. High Energy Gas Fracture (HEGF) research is conducted at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) in a tunnel complex where experiments can be done under realistic in situ stress conditions (1400 psi (9.7 MPa) overburden stress). Pressure measurements are made in the test borehole during all fracturing experiments. Experiments are mined back to provide direct observation of fracturing obtained. The initial objective of HEGF research was to develop multiple fracturing technology for application in gas well stimulation. HEGF research at NTS and in Devonian shale demonstration tests has resulted in a completed technology for multiple fracturing in uncased, liquid-free wellbores. Current resarch is directed toward extending the technique to liquid-filled boreholes for application in geothermal in addition to gas and oil wells. For liquid-free boreholes, multiple fracturing is specified in terms of pressure risetime required for a given borehole diameter. Propellants are mixed to achieve the desired risetime using a semiempirical mixing equation. The same techniques were successfully applied to fracturing in liquid-filled wellbores. However, the addition of liquid in the borehole results in a significantly more complicated fracturing behavior. Hydrodynamic effects are significant. Multiple fractures are initiated but only some propagated. Multiple- and hydraulic-type fracturing and wellbore crushing have been observed in the same experiment. The potential of using HEGB for geothermal well stimulation has been demonstrated through the present experiments. 18 refs., 40 figs., 4 tabs.

Cuderman, J.F.; Chu, T.Y.; Jung, J.; Jacobson, R.D.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Determination of the effect of formation water on fracture-fluid cleanup  

SciTech Connect

Understanding hydraulic-fracture cleanup is essential for improving well stimulation. Residual gel damages fracture conductivity, shortens effective fracture half-length, and limits well productivity. The drive to develop fluids, additives, and procedures that minimize this damage continues to be a dominant theme in fracture-fluid-development programs. Fracture cleanup is a complex problem, and many parameters (e.g., fluid system, job design, flowback procedure, and reservoir conditions) can influence polymer and fluid recovery efficiencies. Often, specific products and methods that work well in one reservoir have little effect in another. Systematic analysis of fluid and polymer returns after a treatment is completed is the only way to quantify fracture cleanup. This is referred to as flowback analysis. This paper discusses a flowback-analysis field study on large hydraulic-fracturing treatments in the Taylor zone of the Cotton Valley formation in east Texas. This is a low-permeability (approximately 0.01 md) tight gas formation. It is a heterogeneous zone with layers of productive sandstone interspersed with relatively impermeable layers of shale. A typical well in this field initially produces approximately 0.75 to 1.3 MMcf/D gas and 35 to 40 bbl of water/MMcf of gas. The returns from 10 wells in this field were analyzed thoroughly.

NONE

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Rare Isolated Trapezoid Fracture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Toh S, Tsubo K, et al. An occult fracture of the trapezoiddue to concern for an occult fracture revealed a comminuted

Afifi, Negean; Lu, Jenny J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Hydraulic waste energy recovery, Phase 2. A technical report  

SciTech Connect

The energy required for booster station operation is supplied by the electrical utility company and has an associated cost. Energy removed by pressure reducing valves in the system is lost or wasted. The objective of this project is to capture the wasted hydraulic energy with in-line turbines. In this application, the in-line turbines act as pressure reducing valves while removing energy from the water distribution system and converting it to electrical energy. The North Service Center pumping station was selected for the pilot program due to the availability of a wide range in pressure drop and flow, which are necessary for hydraulic energy recovery. The research performed during this project resulted in documentation of technical, economic, installation, and operational information necessary for local government officials to make an informed judgement as it relates to in-line turbine generation.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

THERMAL HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF A GAS TEST LOOP SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses thermal hydraulic calculations for a Gas Test Loop (GTL) system designed to provide a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for testing fuels and materials for advanced concept nuclear reactors. To assess the performance of candidate reactor fuels, these fuels must be irradiated under actual fast reactor flux conditions and operating environments, preferably in an existing irradiation facility [1]. Potential users of the GTL include the Generation IV Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and Space Nuclear Programs.

Donna Post Guillen; James E. Fisher

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Progress toward using hydraulic data to diagnose lost circulation zones  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several wellbore hydraulic models have been examined to determine their applicability in measuring the characteristics of lost circulation zones encountered in geothermal drilling. Characteristics such as vertical location in the wellbore, fracture size, effective permeability, and formation pressure must be known in order to optimize treatment of such zones. The models that have been examined to date are a steady-state model, a standpipe-pressure model, a raising-the-drill-bit model, a mud-weight model, a hydrofracture model, and several time-dependent models. None of these models yet have been found to adequately match the field data obtained from six loss zones in three geothermal wells. The development of these models is presented in this paper, and a discussion of their limitations is provided.

Mansure, A.J.; Glowka, D.A.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Engine including hydraulically actuated valvetrain and method of valve overlap control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust valve control method may include displacing an exhaust valve in communication with the combustion chamber of an engine to an open position using a hydraulic exhaust valve actuation system and returning the exhaust valve to a closed position using the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly. During closing, the exhaust valve may be displaced for a first duration from the open position to an intermediate closing position at a first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a first mode. The exhaust valve may be displaced for a second duration greater than the first duration from the intermediate closing position to a fully closed position at a second velocity at least eighty percent less than the first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a second mode.

Cowgill, Joel (White Lake, MI)

2012-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

371

Natural and Induced Fracture Diagnostics from 4-D VSP Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Tight gas sand reservoirs generally contain thick gas-charged intervals that often have low porosity and very low permeability. Natural and induced fractures provide the only means of production. The objective of this work is to locate and characterize natural and induced fractures from analysis of scattered waves recorded on 4-D (time lapse) VSP data in order to optimize well placement and well spacing in these gas reservoirs. Using model data simulating the scattering of seismic energy from hydraulic fractures, we first show that it is possible to characterize the quality of fracturing based upon the amount of scattering. In addition, the picked arrival times of recorded microseismic events provide the velocity moveout for isolating the scattered energy on the 4-D VSP data. This concept is applied to a field dataset from the Jonah Field in Wyoming to characterize the quality of the induced hydraulic fractures. The time lapse (4D) VSP data from this field are imaged using a migration algorithm that utilizes shot travel time tables derived from the first breaks of the 3D VSPs and receiver travel time tables based on the microseismic arrival times and a regional velocity model. Four azimuthally varying shot tables are derived from picks of the first breaks of over 200 VSP records. We create images of the fracture planes through two of the hydraulically fractured wells in the field. The scattered energy shows correlation with the locations of the microseismic events. In addition, the azimuthal scattering is different from the azimuthal reflectivity of the reservoir, giving us more confidence that we have separated the scattered signal from simple formation reflectivity. Variation of the scattered energy along the image planes suggests variability in the quality of the fractures in three distinct zones.

Mark E. Willis; Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

372

Evaluation of waste disposal by shale fracturing  

SciTech Connect

The shale fracturing process is evaluated as a means for permanent disposal of radioactive intermediate level liquid waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The estimated capital operating and development costs of a proposed disposal facility are compared with equivalent estimated costs for alternative methods of waste fixation.

Weeren, H.O.

1976-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

1979-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

374

158 HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE OF BRIDGE RAILS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research program addresses issues associated with the hydraulic effects of bridge rails on floodwater levels upstream of bridge structures. The hydraulics of bridge rails and traffic barrier systems are not well understood, especially with regard to rail/barrier systems in series and the submergence of structures. The hydraulics of bridge rails is an important issue for TxDOT bridge rehabilitation projects with potentially significant cost implications. This research project is designed to address issues associated with the hydraulic performance of bridge rails and traffic barriers, and to provide guidance on how different rail/barrier systems can be included in floodplain hydraulics models. 17. Key Words Hydraulics, bridge rails, floodplain, Weir equations,

All J. Charbeneau; On Klenzendorf; Michael E. Barrett; Randall J. Charbeneau; Brandon Klenzendorf; Michael E. Barrett

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle, with the braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

Venkataperumal, Rama R. (Troy, MI); Mericle, Gerald E. (Mount Clemens, MI)

1981-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

376

High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality Characterization Using Rapidly Deployable Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS RD)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Quality1594. High Resolution River Hydraulic and Water Qualityobserving spatiotemporal hydraulic and chemical properties

Thomas C. Harmon; Richard F. Ambrose; Robert M. Gilbert; Jason C. Fisher; Michael Stealey; William J. Kaiser

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Electronics and hydraulics control transmission  

SciTech Connect

Caterpillar engineers have combined electronics and hydraulics for improved transmission control and productivity. The control system had extensive field test experience during development. The system accumulated more than 100,000 hours on 17 vehicles, with individual vehicle times in the 2000-10,000-hour range. Job sites were chosen to test the system over a wide range of applications and locales. The EPTC components are CAT-designed and made by outside suppliers. The components must comply with CAT designs and specifications. All components are 100% functionally tested. The control box is computer-tested functionally at the supplier and at CAT before vehicle installation.

Morris, H.C.; Sorrells, G.K.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Proximity functions for modeling fluids and heat flow in reservoirs with stochastic fracture distributions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional approaches to geothermal reservoir modeling have employed a porous medium approximation, but recently methods have been developed which can take into account the different thermodynamic conditions in rock matrix and fractures. The multiple interacting continua method (MINC) treats the thermal and hydraulic interaction between rock matrix and fractures in terms of a set of geometrical parameters. However, this approach was restricted to idealized fracture distributions with regularly shaped matrix blocks. Fractures in geothermal reservoirs usually occur in nearly parallel sets with a certain scatter in orientation, and a stochastic distribution of spacings and apertures. The MINC-method was extended to realistic fracture systems with stochastic distributions. The interaction between matrix and fractures is parameterized in terms of a proximity function, which represents the volume of matrix rock as a function of distance from the fractures. Monte Carlo techniques were employed to compute proximity functions for a number of two-dimensional systems with regular or stochastic fracture distributions. It is shown how the proximity functions can be used to generate computational grids for modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured reservoirs.

Pruess, K.; Karasaki, K.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Electromagnetic Alteration of Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydraulic conductivity is a measure of the rate at which water flows through porous media. Because of the dipole properties of water molecules, any electric… (more)

Azad, Sahba

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Simulation of fracture fluid cleanup and its effect on long-term recovery in tight gas reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the coming decades, the world will require additional supplies of natural gas to meet the demand for energy. Tight gas reservoirs can be defined as reservoirs where the formation permeability is so low (flowback procedures, production strategy, and reservoir conditions. Residual polymer in the fracture can reduce the effective fracture permeability and porosity, reduce the effective fracture half-length, and limit the well productivity. Our ability to mathematically model the fundamental physical processes governing fluid recovery in hydraulic fractures in the past has been limited. In this research, fracture fluid damage mechanisms have been investigated, and mathematical models and computer codes have been developed to better characterize the cleanup process. The codes have been linked to a 3D, 3-phase simulator to model and quantify the fracture fluid cleanup process and its effect on long-term gas production performances. Then, a comprehensive systematic simulation study has been carried out by varying formation permeability, reservoir pressure, fracture length, fracture conductivity, yield stress, and pressure drawdown. On the basis of simulation results and analyses, new ways to improve fracture fluid cleanup have been provided. This new progress help engineers better understand fracture fluid cleanup, improve fracture treatment design, and increase gas recovery from tight sand reservoirs, which can be extremely important as more tight gas reservoirs are developed around the world.

Wang, Yilin

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Foam flow through a transparent rough-walled rock fracture  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental study of nitrogen, water, and aqueous foam flow through a transparent replica of a natural rough-walled rock fracture with a hydraulic aperture of roughly 30 {mu}m. It is established that single-phase flow of both nitrogen and water is well described by analogy to flow between parallel plates. Inertial effects caused by fracture roughness become important in single-phase flow as the Reynolds number approaches 1. Foam exhibits effective control of gas mobility. Foam flow resistances are approximately 10 to 20 times greater than those of nitrogen over foam qualities spanning from 0.60 to 0.99 indicating effective gas-mobility control. Because previous studies of foam flow have focused mainly upon unfractured porous media, little information is available about foam flow mechanisms in fractured media. The transparency of the fracture allowed flow visualization and demonstrated that foam rheology in fractured media depends upon bubble shape and size. Changes in flow behavior are directly tied to transitions in bubble morphology.

Kovscek, A.; Tretheway, D.; Radke, C. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Relative permeability through fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The mechanism of two-phase flow through fractures is of importance in understanding many geologic processes. Currently, two-phase flow through fractures is still poorly understood. In this study, nitrogen-water experiments were done on both smooth and rough parallel plates to determine the governing flow mechanism for fractures and the appropriate methodology for data analysis. The experiments were done using a glass plate to allow visualization of flow. Digital video recording allowed instantaneous measurement of pressure, flow rate and saturation. Saturation was computed using image analysis techniques. The experiments showed that gas and liquid phases flow through fractures in nonuniform separate channels. The localized channels change with time as each phase path undergoes continues breaking and reforming due to invasion of the other phase. The stability of the phase paths is dependent on liquid and gas flow rate ratio. This mechanism holds true for over a range of saturation for both smooth and rough fractures. In imbibition for rough-walled fractures, another mechanism similar to wave-like flow in pipes was also observed. The data from the experiments were analyzed using Darcy's law and using the concept of friction factor and equivalent Reynold's number for two-phase flow. For both smooth- and rough-walled fractures a clear relationship between relative permeability and saturation was seen. The calculated relative permeability curves follow Corey-type behavior and can be modeled using Honarpour expressions. The sum of the relative permeabilities is not equal one, indicating phase interference. The equivalent homogeneous single-phase approach did not give satisfactory representation of flow through fractures. The graphs of experimentally derived friction factor with the modified Reynolds number do not reveal a distinctive linear relationship.

Diomampo, Gracel, P.

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Probability distributions of hydraulic conductivity for the hydrogeologic units of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of geologic information such as lithology and rock properties is important to constrain conceptual and numerical hydrogeologic models. This geologic information is difficult to apply explicitly to numerical modeling and analyses because it tends to be qualitative rather than quantitative. This study uses a compilation of hydraulic-conductivity measurements to derive estimates of the probability distributions for several hydrogeologic units within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, a geologically and hydrologicaly complex region underlain by basin-fill sediments, volcanic, intrusive, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Probability distributions of hydraulic conductivity for general rock types have been studied previously; however, this study provides more detailed definition of hydrogeologic units based on lithostratigraphy, lithology, alteration, and fracturing and compares the probability distributions to the aquifer test data. Results suggest that these probability distributions can be used for studies involving, for example, numerical flow modeling, recharge, evapotranspiration, and rainfall runoff. These probability distributions can be used for such studies involving the hydrogeologic units in the region, as well as for similar rock types elsewhere. Within the study area, fracturing appears to have the greatest influence on the hydraulic conductivity of carbonate bedrock hydrogeologic units. Similar to earlier studies, we find that alteration and welding in the Tertiary volcanic rocks greatly influence conductivity. As alteration increases, hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease. Increasing degrees of welding appears to increase hydraulic conductivity because welding increases the brittleness of the volcanic rocks, thus increasing the amount of fracturing.

Belcher, W.R.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Elliott, P.E.

2002-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

384

ROC/RMOTC Hydraulic Pump Test Final Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EXTREME EXTREME PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY, INC. Petroleum Engineers Property Evaluation and Economics Reserves Estimates and Reports Well and Completion Design Reservoir and EOR Studies Expert Witness Testimony Regulatory Permitting Wellsite Management Coalbed Methane Final Report Roc Oil/RMOTC Hydraulic Pump Test For Mr. Bob Cook Roc Oil, Inc. Level 16 100 William Street, Sydney 2011 NSW Australia Office +61 2 8356 2059 Fax +61 2 9380 2066 BCook@rocoil.com.au 29 Oct 2004 159 N. Wolcott, Suite 100 PO Box 490 Casper, WY 82601 USA Phone (307)266-4498 Fax (307)266-4495 Web ExtremePetroTech.com ROC OIL/RMOTC HYDRAULIC PUMP TEST FINAL REPORT Executive Summary Roc Oil (ROC) has a majority interest and acts as Operator in a JV project (Cliff Head) in the Offshore

385

Hydrodynamic design of axial hydraulic turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a complete methodology of the hydrodynamic design for the runner of axial hydraulic turbines (Kaplan) using the finite element method. The procedure starts with the parametric design of the meridian channel. Next, the stream traces ... Keywords: QTurbo3D, axial hydraulic turbines, design, meridian channel, runner blade

Daniel Balint; Viorel Câmpian

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in San Francisco Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may 2010 Mercury-Contaminated Hydraulic Mining Debris in SanCA 94025 Abstract The hydraulic gold-mining process usedsediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra

Bouse, Robin M; Fuller, Christopher C; Luoma, Sam; Hornberger, Michelle I; Jaffe, Bruce E; Smith, Richard E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Thermal hydraulics development for CASL  

SciTech Connect

This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

388

Hydraulic Institute Mission and Vision | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hydraulic Institute Mission and Vision Hydraulic Institute Mission and Vision Mission: To be a value-adding resource to member companies and pump users worldwide by: * Developing...

389

Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive...

390

New model for well test analysis in a purely fractured medium  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In a porous medium the flow conduits are small and a large number of conduits are connected to the well. For this reason the medium appears to behave like a continuum on the scale of the well test, and volumetric averaging and continuum approximations are justified. On the contrary, in a fractured medium, only a small number of fractures may intersect the pumping well. These particular fractures will be stressed by a large gradient under well test conditions. Consequently, the early time behavior will be dominated by these fractures. The volumetrically averaged permeability does not control flow in the vicinity of an active well. The individual fractures close to the well must be characterized in order to understand the well test behavior especially if the hydraulic parameters of these fractures are significantly different from the average values for the entire system. In the present study, a new analytical model is proposed for well test problems in fracture networks where the matrix is impermeable. The model accounts for the difference in the flow regime around the active well from that of the system as a whole. The analytical solutions are presented in a series of type curves for ranges of dimensionless parameters. The flow properties of the fracture system can be determined by curve matching.

Karasaki, K.; Long, J.C.S.; Witherspoon, P.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD FROM ANALYSES OF SHEAR-WAVE SPLITTING Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: TEMPORAL VARIATIONS OF FRACTURE DIRECTIONS AND FRACTURE DENSITIES IN THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD FROM ANALYSES OF SHEAR-WAVE SPLITTING Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: This project aims to improve understanding of the subsurface fracture system in the Coso geothermal field, located in the east central California. We applied shear-wave splitting technique on a set of high quality, locally recorded microearthquake (MEQ) data. Four major fracture directions have been identified from the seismograms recorded by the permanent sixteen-station down-hole array: N10- 20W, NS, N20E, and N40-45E,

392

Breaker concentrations required to improve the permeability of proppant packs damaged by concentrated linear and borate-crosslinked fracturing fluids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the concentrations of an oxidative breaker required to reduce significantly the proppant-pack permeability damage caused by aqueous hydraulic fracturing fluids. Long-term, proppant-pack permeability testing was used to evaluate linear and borate-crosslinked gels. Results indicate that increasing the breaker concentration can reduce proppant-pack permeability damage very effectively.

Brannon, H. (BJ Services (United States)); Pulsinelli, R.J. (Dowell Schlumberger, Tulsa, OK (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Fracture Permeability and In Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fracture Permeability and In Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Fracture Permeability and In Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Fracture Permeability and In Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Reservoir Abstract Borehole televiewer, temperature and flowmeter logs and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements conducted in six wells penetrating a geothermal reservoir associated with the Stillwater fault zone in Dixie Valley, Nevada, were used to investigate the relationship between reservoir permeability and the contemporary in situ stress field. Data from wells drilled into productive and nonproductive segments of the Stillwater fault zone indicate that permeability in all wells is dominated by a relatively

394

Fracture orientation analysis by the solid earth tidal strain method | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

orientation analysis by the solid earth tidal strain method orientation analysis by the solid earth tidal strain method Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Fracture orientation analysis by the solid earth tidal strain method Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A new practical method has been developed to estimate subsurface fracture orientation based on an analysis of solid earth tidal strains. The tidal strain fracture orientation technique is a passive method which has no depth limitation. The orientation of either natural or hydraulically stimulated fractures can be measured using either new or old static observation wells. Estimates for total compressibility and areal interconnected porosity can also be developed for reservoirs with matrix permeability using a combination of tidal and barometric strain analysis.

395

X-231A demonstration of in-situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media by soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or reactive barrier destruction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall goal of the program of activities is to demonstrate robust and cost-effective technologies for in situ remediation of DNAPL compounds in low permeability media (LPM), including adaptations and enhancements of conventional technologies to achieve improved performance for DNAPLs in LPM. The technologies sought should be potential for application at simple, small sites (e.g., gasoline underground storage tanks) as well as at complex, larger sites (e.g., DOE land treatment units). The technologies involved in the X-231A demonstration at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) utilized subsurface manipulation of the LPM through soil fracturing with thermally enhanced mass recovery or horizontal barrier in place destruction. To enable field evaluation of these approaches, a set of four test cells was established at the X-231A land treatment unit at the DOE PORTS plant in August 1996 and a series of demonstration field activities occurred through December 1997. The principal objectives of the PORTS X-231A demonstration were to: determine and compare the operational features of hydraulic fractures as an enabling technology for steam and hot air enhanced soil vapor extraction and mass recovery, in situ interception and reductive destruction by zero valent iron, and in situ interception and oxidative destruction by potassium permanganate; determine the interaction of the delivered agents with the LPM matrix adjacent to the fracture and within the fractured zone and assess the beneficial modifications to the transport and/or reaction properties of the LPM deposit; and determine the remediation efficiency achieved by each of the technology strategies.

Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Environmental Science and Engineering Div.; Lowe, K.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., Grand Junction, CO (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Murdoch, L.D. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Slack, W.W. [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [FRx, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States); Houk, T.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)] [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Piketon, OH (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Model development and calibration for the coupled thermal, hydraulic and mechanical phenomena of the bentonite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

FOR THE COUPLED THERMAL, HYDRAULIC AND MECHANICAL PHENOMENAby the interdependence of thermal, hydraulic and mechanical

Hernelind, J.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Progressive wetting of initially hydrophobic plant surfaces by salts – a prerequisite for hydraulic activation of stomata?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

along a transstomatal hydraulic connection. Referencesis called here ‘hydraulic activation of stomata’ (HAS). The

Burkhardt, Juergen; Hunsche, Mauricio; Pariyar, Shyam

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteristics and bubble behavior within a hydraulic jump of Froude number 4.82.

Witt, Adam; Shen, Lian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

The feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured- geothermal resources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for DOE on the application of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources. The report examines both the technical and economic feasibility. Previous reports and demonstrations of geopressured-geothermal energy have been directed to the recovery of heat and methane. This report is specifically directed to extracting the pressure component of a typical reservoir. The pressure energy available in a 220 psia geopressured fluid could yield 1.49 W{center dot}h per pound and an average well could produce 500kW. The best available device for recovering this energy is a Pelton turbine. Commercial Pelton turbines are not available for this application but are technically feasible. Suitable turbines could be developed with first of a kind engineering and tooling costs of approximately $227,000. The breakeven cost to add conversion of hydraulic energy to an existing methane/heat recovery system would be $0.030 per kWh based on a 10 year lifetime. Development testing is necessary to understand the effect of the dissolved gases, verify cavitation suppression, and materials selection. Cavitation suppression would be provided by utilizing the gas backpressure of the dissolved methane and carbon dioxide that exists in the geofluid. It is estimated that adding conversion of hydraulic energy to an operating system recovering heat and methane could reduce the overall cost of electrical production by about 1.5 cents per kWh. This is not a viable stand-alone system is the well costs are to be born by the conversion of hydraulic energy alone. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Thurston, G.C.; Plum, M.M.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Comprehensive fracture diagnostics experiment. Part II. Comparison of seven fracture azimuth measurements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A great deal of effort has been devoted recently to find geophysical techniques for measuring the hydraulic fracture azimuth. This paper discusses a comparison of seven different measurements used to determine the azimuth in a sandstone formation at a depth of 1000 ft (320 m). The azimuth was determined as N95E, but significant differences existed between some of the results. This is of fundamental importance since in developing new measurements, the limits of these must be found and honored. Of particular interest are the results from microseismic monitoring. The lack of results suggests that remote (e.g., surface) monitoring for seismic events may be impractical for normal, sedimentary, hydrocarbon-bearing formations. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Smith, M.B.; Ren, N.K.; Sorrells, G.G.; Teufel, L.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "hydraulic fracturing operations" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Rigid Body Simulation with Local Fracturing Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Focusing on the real-time and interactive ability features in the Virtual Reality application, we propose a fracture pattern based on local fracture mechanism. Taking advantage of the experience analysis or the offline computation verified fracture characteristic, ... Keywords: Rigid Body, pre-fracture, fracture pattern, local fracture, dynamics

Wu Bo; Zeng Liang; Wu Yagang

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Comparative hydraulic and anatomic properties in palm trees (Washingtonia robusta) of varying heights: implications for hydraulic limitation to increased height growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

studies that suggest that hydraulic limitation may not onlyand Dawson 2007). The hydraulic limitation hypothesis isevidence that the hydraulic cost of increased frictional

Renninger, Heidi J.; Phillips, Nathan; Hodel, Donald R.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Validation studies for assessing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock  

SciTech Connect

*The objectives of this contract are to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through heterogeneous fractured rock and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models. Important new information is presented such as the application and evaluation of procedures for estimating hydraulic, pneumatic, and solute transport coefficients for a range of thermal regimes. A field heater experiment was designed that focused on identifying the suitability of existing monitoring equipment to obtain required data. A reliable method was developed for conducting and interpreting tests for air permeability using a straddle-packer arrangement. Detailed studies of fracture flow from Queen Creek into the Magina Copper Company ore haulage tunnel have been initiated. These studies will provide data on travel time for transport of water and solute in unsaturated tuff. The collection of rainfall runoff, and infiltration data at two small watersheds at the Apache Leap Tuff Site enabled us to evaluate the quantity and rate of water infiltrating into the subsurface via either fractures or matrix. Characterization methods for hydraulic parameters relevant to Weigh-level waste transport, including fracture apertures, transmissivity, matrix porosity, and fracture wetting front propagation velocities, were developed.

Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Guzman, A.; Davidson, G.R.; Lohrstorfer, C.F. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Brochure Hydraulic Institute Standards Overview  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

If you specify, select, design, test, install or operate pumps or pumping systems, you will find ANSI/HI Pump Standards to be invaluable tools. 

405

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydraulic cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p.J. W. , "Colorado's primary oil shale resource for verticalJ. B. , "Simulated effects of oil-shale development on the

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

On the Use of Rotating Hydraulic Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two problems regarding the use of rotating hydraulic channel flow models are addressed. The first concerns the difficulties encountered when trying to identify the “potential” depth for a flow of uniform (but nonzero) potential vorticity in a ...

K. M. Borenäs; L. J. Pratt

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydraulic cement from spent oil shale," Vol. 10, No. 4, p.J. W. , "Colorado's primary oil shale resource for verticalSimulated effects of oil-shale development on the hydrology

Mehta, P.K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Flow Properties in Rotating, Stratified Hydraulics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses three distinct features of rotating, stratified hydraulics, using a reduced-gravity configuration. First, a new upstream condition is derived corresponding to a wide, almost motionless basin, and this is applied to flow ...

Peter D. Killworth

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Scientific aspects of hydraulic engineering in the Extreme North  

SciTech Connect

Information relative to participation of the B. E. Vedeneev All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering (VNIIG im. B. E. Vedeneeva) in the solution of problems of scientific verification of the design, construction, and operation of water-development works in regions of the Extreme North are presented. Basic characteristics of changes in the technical condition of high rock-and-earthfill dams, and the conditions under which their safety is ensured for long-term service in these regions are examined.

Panov, S. I.; Krivonogova, N. F.

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible. 2 figs.

Walsh, M.M.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

411

Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible.

Walsh, Michael M. (Schenectady, NY)

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

412

Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for energy conservation. In mobile hydraulic systems, efficiency gains through low friction would translate into improved fuel economy and fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Stationary hydraulic systems, accordingly, would consume less electrical power. Reduced tooling wear in machining operations would translate to greater operating yields, while lowering the energy consumed during processing. The AlMgB14 nanocoatings technology progressed beyond baseline laboratory tests into measurable energy savings and enhancements to product durability. Three key hydraulic markets were identified over the course of the project that will benefit from implementation: industrial vane pumps, orbiting valve-in-star hydraulic motors, and variable displacement piston pumps. In the vane pump application, the overall product efficiency was improved by as much as 11%. Similar results were observed with the hydraulic motors tested, where efficiency gains of over 10% were noted. For variable displacement piston pumps, overall efficiency was improved by 5%. For cutting tools, the most significant gains in productivity (and, accordingly, the efficiency of the machining process as a whole) were associated with the roughing and finishing of titanium components for aerospace systems. Use of the AlMgB14 nanocoating in customer field tests has shown that the coated tools were able to withstand machining rates as high as 500sfm (limited only by the substrate material), with relatively low flank wear when compared to other industrial offerings. AlMgB14 coated tools exhibited a 60% improvement over similarly applied TiAlN thin films. Furthermore, AlMgB14-based coatings in these particular tests lasted twice as long than their TiAlN counterparts at the 500sfm feed rates. Full implementation of the technology into the industrial hydraulic and cutting tool markets equates to a worldwide energy savings of 46 trillion BTU/year by 2030. U.S.-based GHG emissions associated with the markets identified would fall accordingly, dropping by as much as 50,000 tonnes annually.

Clifton B. Higdon III

2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

413

A Physically Based Approach for Modeling Multiphase Fracture-Matrix Interaction in Fractured Porous Media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in modeling multiphase flow in porous and fractured media,multiphase tracer transport in heterogeneous fractured porousof multiphase flow through fractured or porous media.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pan, Lehua; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

A physically based numerical approach for modeling fracture-matrix interaction in fractured reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in modeling multiphase flow in porous and fractured media,multiphase tracer transport in heterogeneous fractured porousof multiphase flow through fractured or porous media. 3.

Wu, Yu-Shu; Pruess, Karsten

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Functional Analysis and Thermal-Hydraulics Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to set forth the Program Plan for the Functional Analysis and Thermal-Hydraulics (FA TH) Program (herein after referred to as the [open quotes]Program[close quotes]) for the 5 year period covering fiscal years 1992 thru 1996. Specifically, the actions planned by the Safety Analysis Group (SAG) of the Reactor Safety Research Section within SRTC will be identified, defined, and a schedule and resource projection presented. This document will be used by the Reactor Safety Research Section management as the baseline definition for the Program's scope, schedule and cost. Annual budget and staffing requests will be submitted based on this approved baseline. Status reporting and progress monitoring will be performed against this approved baseline. This Program plan will be revised as needed to reflect the changes that come about due to Program redirection. The Program's primary mission is to provide further assurance that the Savannah River Site K-Reactor is designed, modified, operated and maintained in a safe, cost-effective manner through application of functional analysis methodology and continued development of thermal hydraulic support capabilities. It is envisioned that the Program will continue throughout the operating life of K-Reactor and have a permanent staff of eight: one lead and seven engineers. The Program has two primary elements; (1) functional analysis, and (2) thermal-hydraulics. Functional analysis is the first element of the formal Systems Engineering Process. Systems Engineering methodology is commonly applied in both commercial and military programs, particularly where the needs of the program involve complex interrelationships between hardware, software, personnel, and support facilities. It has been extensively used in development of military systems, and in the commercial sector in the development of designs for nuclear power reactors.

Paik, I.K.; Lord, R.; Parks, B.

1992-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

416

Functional Analysis and Thermal-Hydraulics Program Plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to set forth the Program Plan for the Functional Analysis and Thermal-Hydraulics (FA&TH) Program (herein after referred to as the {open_quotes}Program{close_quotes}) for the 5 year period covering fiscal years 1992 thru 1996. Specifically, the actions planned by the Safety Analysis Group (SAG) of the Reactor Safety Research Section within SRTC will be identified, defined, and a schedule and resource projection presented. This document will be used by the Reactor Safety Research Section management as the baseline definition for the Program`s scope, schedule and cost. Annual budget and staffing requests will be submitted based on this approved baseline. Status reporting and progress monitoring will be performed against this approved baseline. This Program plan will be revised as needed to reflect the changes that come about due to Program redirection. The Program`s primary mission is to provide further assurance that the Savannah River Site K-Reactor is designed, modified, operated and maintained in a safe, cost-effective manner through application of functional analysis methodology and continued development of thermal hydraulic support capabilities. It is envisioned that the Program will continue throughout the operating life of K-Reactor and have a permanent staff of eight: one lead and seven engineers. The Program has two primary elements; (1) functional analysis, and (2) thermal-hydraulics. Functional analysis is the first element of the formal Systems Engineering Process. Systems Engineering methodology is commonly applied in both commercial and military programs, particularly where the needs of the program involve complex interrelationships between hardware, software, personnel, and support facilities. It has been extensively used in development of military systems, and in the commercial sector in the development of designs for nuclear power reactors.

Paik, I.K.; Lord, R.; Parks, B.

1992-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

Steam Generator Management Program: Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of a Recirculating Steam Generator Using Commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics Software  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to demonstrate that a commercial computational fluid dynamics code can be set up to model the thermal-hydraulic physics that occur during the operation of a steam generator. Specific complexities in steam-generator thermal-hydraulic modeling include: phase change and two-phase fluid mechanics, hydrodynamic representation of the tube bundle, and thermal coupling between the primary and secondary sides. A commercial computational fluid dynamics code was used without any s...

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z