National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hybrid solar lighting

  1. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  2. Hybrid solar lighting systems and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

    2007-06-12

    A hybrid solar lighting system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates each component.

  3. Hybrid Solar Lighting Provides Energy Savings and Reduces Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss; Maxey, L Curt; Earl, Dennis Duncan; Beshears, David L; Ward, Christina D; Parks, James Edgar

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Artificial lighting is the largest component of electricity use in commercial U.S. buildings. Hybrid solar lighting (HSL) provides an exciting new means of reducing energy consumption while also delivering significant ancillary benefits associated with natural lighting in buildings. As more than half of all federal facilities are in the Sunbelt region (defined as having an average direct solar radiation of greater than 4 kWh/m2/day) and as more than half of all square footage available in federal buildings is also in the Sunbelt, HSL is an excellent technology fit for federal facilities. The HSL technology uses a rooftop, 4-ft-wide dish and secondary mirror that track the sun throughout the day (Fig. 1). The collector system focuses the sunlight onto 127 optical fibers. The fibers serve as flexible light pipes and are connected to hybrid light fixtures that have special diffusion rods that spread out the light in all directions. One collector powers about eight hybrid light fixtures-which can illuminate about 1,000 square feet. The system tracks at 0.1 accuracy, required by the two-mirror geometry to keep the focused beam on the fiber bundle. When sunlight is plentiful, the optical fibers in the luminaires provide all or most of the light needed in an area. During times of little or no sunlight, a sensor controls the intensity of the artificial lamps to maintain a desired illumination level. Unlike conventional electric lamps, the natural light produces little to no waste heat and is cool to the touch. This is because the system's solar collector removes the infrared light-the part of the spectrum that generates a lot of the heat in conventional bulbs-from the sunlight.

  4. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough and hybrid textures Piotr Kowalczewski. M. Smets, and M. Zeman, "Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved Lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1D and 2D periodic patterns," Opt. Express 20, A224­A

  5. Adhesion in flexible organic and hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting device and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, D.; Kwabi, D.; Akogwu, O.; Du, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, 70 Prospect Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Olden Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Oyewole, O. K. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Physics, African University of Science and Technology, Km 10, Airport Road, Galadimawa, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State (Nigeria); Tong, T. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, 70 Prospect Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Olden Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Anye, V. C.; Rwenyagila, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology, Km 10, Airport Road, Galadimawa, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Asare, J.; Fashina, A. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Physics, African University of Science and Technology, Km 10, Airport Road, Galadimawa, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Soboyejo, W. O. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, 70 Prospect Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Olden Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology, Km 10, Airport Road, Galadimawa, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria)

    2014-08-21

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells on flexible substrates. Adhesion between the possible bi-material pairs is measured using force microscopy (AFM) techniques. These include: interfaces that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid combinations of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and poly(3-hexylthiophene). The results of AFM measurements are incorporated into the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov model for the determination of adhesion energies. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of robust organic and hybrid organic/inorganic electronic devices.

  6. Hybrid solar-fossil fuel power generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheu, Elysia J. (Elysia Ja-Zeng)

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, a literature review of hybrid solar-fossil fuel power generation is first given with an emphasis on system integration and evaluation. Hybrid systems are defined as those which use solar energy and fuel ...

  7. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar celltarget efficiency of 30%, the hybrid tandem solar cells have

  8. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    and Yablonovitch, E. , Hybrid solar system, USA Provisionaland Yablonovitch, E. , Hybrid solar system, USA ProvisionalEfficiency/power Correlations,” Solar Energy, 83 (5), 614–

  9. Hybrid Solar Cells based on Gallium Arsenide Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddad, Michael Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Polymer-Based Organic Solar Cells. Chemical Reviews, 2007.et al. , Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cell Based on Organic–styrenesulfonate) hybrid solar cells. Nanotechnology, 2010.

  10. Oligo and Poly-thiophene/Zno Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briseno, Alejandro L.

    2010-01-01

    less than organic bulk heterojunction solar cells. Knowledgean organic/inorganic hybrid single nanowire solar cell. End-of individual organic/inorganic hybrid nanowire solar cells.

  11. Outdoor Solar Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outdoor Solar Lighting Outdoor Solar Lighting July 29, 2012 - 6:34pm Addthis Outdoor solar lights use solar cells, which convert sunlight into electricity, and are easy to install...

  12. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied Energy, 87(2),thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied Energy, 87(2),thermal system, solar PVT collector, nonimaging optics, GaAs, solar energy,

  13. Oligo and Poly-thiophene/Zno Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briseno, Alejandro L.

    2010-01-01

    ZnO Hybrid Nanowire Solar Cells Alejandro L. Briseno, Thomashybrid single nanowire solar cell. End-functionalized oligo-Individual nanowire solar cell devices exhibited well-

  14. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light electric customers are eligible for a $400 rebate for the purchase of a new solar water heater. To apply for this rebate, a customer submits a pre-approval application to...

  15. Rational design of hybrid organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lentz, Levi (Levi Carl)

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we will present a novel design for a nano-structured organic-inorganic hybrid photovoltaic material that will address current challenges in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic-based solar cell materials. ...

  16. Light shield for solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plesniak, Adam P.; Martins, Guy L.

    2014-08-26

    A solar receiver unit including a housing defining a recess, a cell assembly received in the recess, the cell assembly including a solar cell, and a light shield received in the recess and including a body and at least two tabs, the body defining a window therein, the tabs extending outward from the body and being engaged with the recess, wherein the window is aligned with the solar cell.

  17. Expansion effects on solar wind hybrid simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parashar, Tulasi N.; Velli, Marco; Goldstein, Bruce E. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Ion kinetic simulations of the solar wind using hybrid codes can model local wave input, heating and instabilities, but generally do not include long term evolution effects in the expanding solar wind. We further develop the expanding box model used in earlier studies to include the mirror force effects and study their role in the evolution of the proton distribution functions in the outer corona and inner heliosphere. The mirror force, significant in the acceleration region of the solar wind, is required for consistency with the conservation of magnetic moment of particles in the expanding wind. We present preliminary results from the modified 1D expanding box hybrid (EBHM) simulations.

  18. Exotic hybrid mesons with light quarks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claude Bernard; Tom Blum; Thomas A. DeGrand; Carleton DeTar; Steven Gottlieb; Urs. M. Heller; Jim Hetrick; Craig McNeile; Kari Rummukainen; Bob Sugar; Doug Toussaint; Matt Wingate

    1996-07-12

    Hybrid mesons, made from a quark, an antiquark and gluons, can have quantum numbers inaccessible to conventional quark-antiquark states. Confirmation of such states would give information on the role of "dynamical" color in low energy QCD. We present preliminary results for hybrid meson masses using light Wilson valence quarks.

  19. Modeling and Optimization of Hybrid Solar Thermoelectric Systems...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Modeling and Optimization of Hybrid Solar Thermoelectric Systems with Thermosyphons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling and Optimization of Hybrid...

  20. Rational design of hybrid dye-sensitized solar cells composed of double-layered photoanodes with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Rational design of hybrid dye-sensitized solar cells composed of double-layered photoanodes,a Bailiang Xue,b Wei Liu,c Zhiqun Lina and Yulin Deng*bc A uniquely structured dye-sensitized solar cell photoanodes have complementary roles in absorbing solar light at different wavelengths. The power conversion

  1. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    the U.S. economy. The solar cell’s target market is the highmarket. By reaching their target efficiency of 30%, the hybrid tandem solar

  2. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    global market. By reaching their target efficiency of 30%, the hybrid tandem solar cells have the potential

  3. Energy Provisioning and Operating Costs in Hybrid Solar Powered Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karakostas, George

    energy was designed in [5]. In these projects, the basestation use of solar and wind power is mainly]. In [3], the design of a basestation that is powered by solar and diesel energy is analyzed, and in [4] a hybrid solar-wind powered basestation is described. A hybrid system consisting of solar, wind and diesel

  4. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    development for hybrid solar cells Summary of the specific20 wafers with full tandem solar cell test structure perIII–Nitride/Silicon Tandem Solar Cell,” Appl. Phys. Express

  5. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    development for hybrid solar cells Summary of the specific20 wafers with full tandem solar cell test structure perNitride/Silicon Tandem Solar Cell,” Appl. Phys. Express 2

  6. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701125 Light-Induced Charge Transfer in Pyrene/CdSe-SWNT Hybrids**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, George

    DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701125 Light-Induced Charge Transfer in Pyrene/CdSe-SWNT Hybrids solar cells.[20­24] Holes are transported along the polymer chains and electrons hop along the nanopar to low hole mobility and hence limit- ing the solar cell efficiency. Semiconductor nanorod-polymer hybrid

  7. Hybrid Silicon Nanocone-Polymer Solar Cells Sangmoo Jeong,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    ABSTRACT: Recently, hybrid Si/organic solar cells have been studied for low-cost Si photovoltaic devices solar cell. Additionally, about 26% of the module cost comes from the fabrication processes of a SiHybrid Silicon Nanocone-Polymer Solar Cells Sangmoo Jeong, Erik C. Garnett, Shuang Wang, Zongfu Yu

  8. Outdoor Solar Lighting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Outdoor Lighting Solar panels are a great way to produce clean energy at home | Photo courtesy of Stefano Paltera, U.S. Department of Energy. Harnessing Solar Energy at Home...

  9. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Energy Loans

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers electric residential and commercial customers low-interest loans for photovoltaic (PV) systems and solar water heaters.

  10. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of On-Board Photovoltaic Modules Options forthe Temperature Dependence of Photovoltaic Module ElectricalChow, T. T. , "A review on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar

  11. Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization Sanja Tepavcevic, Seth B-enhanced solar energy conversion. By using this simple in situ UV polymerization method that couples mobility of the photoactive layer can be enhanced. 1. Introduction Hybrid solar cells have been developed

  12. Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibener, Steven

    Solar cells Improved Hybrid Solar Cells via in situ UV Polymerization Sanja Tepavcevic, Seth B mobility of the photoactive layer can be enhanced. 1. Introduction Hybrid solar cells have been developed in the past decade as a promising alternative for traditional Si-based solar cells. A wide-bandgap metal oxide

  13. Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Photovoltaic nanocrystal scintillators hybridized on Si solar cells for enhanced conversion on solar cells to enhance photovoltaic device parameters including spectral responsivity, open circuit@bilkent.edu.tr Abstract: We propose and demonstrate semiconductor nanocrystal based photovoltaic scintillators integrated

  14. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    passive and hybrid space heating systems. Space Cooling Aand hybrid solar heating and cooling systems. Experimentspassive, and hybrid systems for heating, cooling, and

  15. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2007-01-01

    light on improving solar cell efficiency Ernest Orlandomethods produce solar cells with an efficiency of 12-15%;

  16. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  17. Adaptive, full-spectrum solar energy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.

    2003-08-05

    An adaptive full spectrum solar energy system having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one hybrid luminaire, at least one hybrid photobioreactor, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator, each hybrid luminaire, and each hybrid photobioreactor. A lighting control system operates each component.

  18. Berkeley Lab Sheds Light on Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2007-01-01

    light on improving solar cell efficiency Ernest Orlandomanufacturing methods produce solar cells with an efficiencythe impaired performance of solar cells manufactured from

  19. Solar optics: light as energy; energy as light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, D.J.; Eijadi, D.A.

    1980-05-01

    a prominent characteristic of earth-sheltered and underground buildings, as well as buildings designed to accommodate more uses within the same perimeters, is the prominence of interior space without direct access to natural light and view opportunities. Solar Optics, a technique for illuminating interior spaces with natural light, offers a way to satisfy the well-documented human affinity for natural light. The system, which uses a heliostat to track the sun and lenses and mirrors to direct the light to remote interior spaces, is more efficient than converting solar radiation into electricity. Through the use of cold mirrors, it is also possible to separate the infrared portion of the spectrum from visible light, thereby creating a cool light source that can reduce a building's space cooling demand. Solar Optics also offers energy savings by transmitting light through a small aperture, as opposed to a large window. Several design problems must still be addressed. The system will be demonstrated in a new building at the University of Minnesota. Because this is a limited demonstration, it does not include the integration of a natural light system with a central source light system...another promising application of Solar Optics.

  20. Solar Panel and Induction Lighting Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gresek, Michael

    2014-01-21

    Installation of solar and energy saving lighting technologies at municipal facilities to: Produce and conserve electricity for these facilities; saving money and the environment; lead by example; educate the public on conservation and renewable technologies.

  1. Chicopee Electric Light- Residential Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chicopee Electric Light offers rebates to residential customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes. Customer rebates are $0.50 per watt for a maximum of $2,500 per...

  2. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based on Hyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, Antonios G.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-01

    polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. Journal of PhysicalS. & Meissner, D. Hybrid solar cells based on nanoparticlesmodelling of organic solar cells: The dependence of internal

  3. The renaissance of hybrid solar cells: progresses, challenges, and perspectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Gao; Ren, Shenqiang; Jianpu, Wang

    2013-06-12

    Solution-processed hybrid solar cells, a blend of conjugated polymers and semiconducting nanocrystals, are a promising candidate for next-generation energy-conversion devices. The renaissance of this field in recent years ...

  4. Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The SunShot Initiative supports research and development projects aimed at increasing the efficiency and lifetime as well as evaluating new materials for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar...

  5. Proton corebeam system in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Proton corebeam system in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations Petr Hellinger1,2 and Pavel 9 November 2011. [1] Results of a twodimensional hybrid expanding box simulation of a proton to a decrease of the ratio between the proton perpendicular and parallel temperatures as well as to an increase

  6. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-02-14

    TCF funding of a CRADA between LBNL and RSLE leveraged RSLE's original $1M investment in LBNL research and led to development of a solar cell fabrication process that will bring the high efficiency, high voltage hybrid tandem solar cell closer to commercialization. RSLE has already built a pilot line at its Phoenix, Arizona site.

  7. Limit of light coupling into solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naqavi, A; Ballif, C; Scharf, T; Herzig, H P

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a limit for the strength of coupling light into the modes of solar cells. This limit depends on both a cell's thickness and its modal properties. For a cell with refractive index n and thickness d, we obtain a maximal coupling rate of 2c*sqrt(n^2-1)/d where c is speed of light. Our method can be used in the design of solar cells and in calculating their efficiency limits; besides, it can be applied to a broad variety of resonant phenomena and devices.

  8. Light trapping in plasmonic solar cells Albert Polman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    light management team #12;Light is poorly absorbed in a thin-film solar cell Solar spectrum absorbed Management #12;Light trapping in a thin-film solar cell Nature Mater. 9, 205 (2010) #12;Back contact thin-film solar cell Optimum = closest packed Experiments so far Pitch (nm) Wavelength(nm) Photocurrent

  9. Hybrid Graphene Nematic Liquid Crystal Light Scattering Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qasim, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Kostanyan, A.; Kidambi, P. R.; Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Gardiner, D. J.; Hofman, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.

    2015-08-05

    A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi...

  10. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY light-trapping, photonic crystals, high-efficiency thin-film solar cells Word Cloud...

  11. Hybrid Membranes for Light Gas Separations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ting

    2012-07-16

    Membrane separations provide a potentially attractive technology over conventional processes due to their advantages, such as low capital cost and energy consumption. The goal of this thesis is to design hybrid membranes that facilitate specific gas...

  12. Modeling and analysis of hybrid geothermal-solar thermal energy conversion systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenhut, Andrew David

    2010-01-01

    Innovative solar-geothermal hybrid energy conversion systems were developed for low enthalpy geothermal resources augmented with solar energy. The goal is to find cost-effective hybrid power cycles that take advantage of ...

  13. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based on Hyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, Antonios G.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-01

    solar cells over other hybrid architectures. Still, the efficiencies cited here suggest that the CdSe

  14. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  15. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO); Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO); Williams, Thomas A. (Arvada, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  16. Identifying Optimal Inorganic Nanomaterials for Hybrid Solar Cells Hongjun Xiang* and Su-Huai Wei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    developed photovoltaic technology, organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells have attracted great interest 3.5% so far. As an alternative polymer-based photovoltaic cell, the organic-inorganic hybrid solarIdentifying Optimal Inorganic Nanomaterials for Hybrid Solar Cells Hongjun Xiang* and Su-Huai Wei

  17. Hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting wind, solar, and chemical energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Hybrid energy cell for simultaneously harvesting wind, solar, and chemical energies Yingchun Wu1 KEYWORDS hybrid energy cell, wind energy, solar energy, triboelectric nanogenerators, electrochemical cells ABSTRACT We report a hybrid energy cell that can simultaneously or individually harvest wind, solar

  18. Ultralight Solar Powered Hybrid Research Drone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singer, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    A planetary research drone is proposed, which is capable for vertical takeoff and landing. A hybrid flight concept utilizing static lift enables the exploration over ground. The static lift is achieved with a lighter than CO2 gas like air, He or H2.

  19. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S.; Meyer, Gerald J.

    2003-07-22

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: ##EQU1## wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  20. Solar cells incorporating light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC); Meyer, Gerald J. (Baltimore, MD)

    2002-01-01

    A solar cell incorporates a light harvesting array that comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2 ; and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  1. Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells Zongfu Yu1 , Aaswath Raman and is becoming increasingly urgent for current solar cell research. The standard theory of light trapping-generation solar cells. The ultimate success of photovoltaic (PV) cell technology requires great advancements

  2. Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere, photovoltaics, resonant dielectric structures, solar cells * Corresponding author: e-mail jgrandid for addressing the key challenge of light trapping in thin-film solar cells. We experimentally and theoretically

  3. Moon Solar Light MSL | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: EnergyInformation MontanaOhio: EnergyMoodus, Connecticut: EnergySolar Light

  4. Folded-Light-Path Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    Folded-Light-Path Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells Ghada I. Koleilat*, Illan J. Kramer*, Chris T-processed solar cells offer the promise of low cost, large-area processing, and, prospectively, high solar power solar cell performance20,21 . Results In the present work, we sought to increase the interaction

  5. A HYBRID SOLAR LINEAR CONCENTRATOR PROTOTYPE IN INDIA , J. Daniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and community power supply, and grid connected PV generation [1]. The need for heat in applications such as domestic hot water, air conditioning, or air heating for drying cash crops, makes hybrid concentrator PV-grid systems for basic lighting, irrigation pumps, cellular phone towers, urban applications, medical

  6. Optimization of a hybrid solar energy collector system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinkman, Alan M.

    1981-01-01

    OPTIMIZATION OF A HYBRID SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTOR SYSTEM A Thesis by ALAN M. SHI NEMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1981 Major Subject...: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Me et) (Head o Department) May 1981 wmezg ABSTRACT The Structural Impact of Commodity Farm Programs on Farms in the Southern Texas High Plains. (May 1981) Christina Ray Shirley, B. S. , Illinois State...

  7. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Designs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.; Erbes, M.

    2011-03-01

    A strength of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plants is the ability to provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage or backup heat from fossil fuels. Yet these benefits have not been fully realized because thermal energy storage remains expensive at trough operating temperatures and gas usage in CSP plants is less efficient than in dedicated combined cycle plants. For example, while a modern combined cycle plant can achieve an overall efficiency in excess of 55%; auxiliary heaters in a parabolic trough plant convert gas to electricity at below 40%. Thus, one can argue the more effective use of natural gas is in a combined cycle plant, not as backup to a CSP plant. Integrated solar combined cycle (ISCC) systems avoid this pitfall by injecting solar steam into the fossil power cycle; however, these designs are limited to about 10% total solar enhancement. Without reliable, cost-effective energy storage or backup power, renewable sources will struggle to achieve a high penetration in the electric grid. This paper describes a novel gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines solar contribution of 57% and higher with gas heat rates that rival that for combined cycle natural gas plants. The design integrates proven solar and fossil technologies, thereby offering high reliability and low financial risk while promoting deployment of solar thermal power.

  8. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    and Light Commercial Passive Solar Costs and Energy ImpactsLight Commercial Passive Solar Costs and Energy Impacts l~iledge of performance and costs of passive solar heating and

  9. Efficient light-trapping nanostructures in thin silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Sang Eon

    We examine light-trapping in thin crystalline silicon periodic nanostructures for solar cell applications. Using group theory, we show that light-trapping can be improved over a broad band when structural mirror symmetry ...

  10. EECBG Success Story: Solar LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates the Way in Alabama This is one of the 100 decorative solar-powered LED lights that replaced natural gas-powered streetlights in the city of...

  11. Highly efficient light management for perovskite solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Dong-Lin; Hou, Guo-Jiao; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Qing-Bo; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells have enormous potential to impact the existing photovoltaic industry. As realizing a higher conversion efficiency of the solar cell is still the most crucial task, a great number of schemes were proposed to minimize the carrier loss by optimizing the electrical properties of the perovskite solar cells. Here, we focus on another significant aspect that is to minimize the light loss by optimizing the light management to gain a high efficiency for perovskite solar cells. In our scheme, the slotted and inverted prism structured SiO2 layers are adopted to trap more light into the solar cells, and a better transparent conducting oxide layer is employed to reduce the parasitic absorption. For such an implementation, the efficiency and the serviceable angle of the perovskite solar cell can be promoted impressively. This proposal would shed new light on developing the high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  12. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    2003-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted thin-film indium phosphide solar cell and its computer simulation Guohua Lia, *, Qingfen Yanga+ -i-p+ InP solar cell is developed. The total thickness of its epitaxial layer is only 0.22 mm

  13. Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells Aaswath Raman, Zongfu@stanford.edu Abstract: Organic bulk heterojunction solar cells are a promising candidate for low-cost next lying on top of the organic solar cell stack produce a 8-15% increase in photocurrent for a model

  14. Design of hybrid nanoheterostructure systems for enhanced quantum and solar conversion efficiencies in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K?l?ç, Bayram E-mail: kbayramkilic@gmail.com; Telli, Hakan; Ba?aran, Ali; Pirge, Gursev; Tüzemen, Sebahattin

    2015-04-07

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with an innovative design involving controlled-morphology vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO{sub 2} structures with ultrahigh surface area for implementation as photoanodes are herein reported. Although TiO{sub 2} nanostructures exhibit excellent power conversion efficiency, the electron transport rate is low owing to low electron mobility. To overcome this, ZnO nanowires with high electron mobility have been investigated as potential candidates for photoanodes. However, the power conversion efficiency of ZnO nanowires is still lower than that of TiO{sub 2} owing to their low internal surface area. Consequently, in this work, vertical growth of ZnO nanowires within mesoporous TiO{sub 2} structures is carried out to increase their solar power conversion efficiency. The photovoltaic performance of solar cells using ZnO nanowires, mesoporous TiO{sub 2}, and TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid structures are compared. The VA TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid structures are found to provide direct electron transfer compared with the tortuous pathway of zero-dimensional nanostructures, resulting in an increased conversion efficiency. It is demonstrated that the light scattering of the photoanode film is increased and electron recombination is decreased when an appropriate amount of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} is used as a substrate for ZnO nanowires. The DSSC fabricated with the TiO{sub 2}/ZnO hybrid photoanode prepared with 15.8?wt. % TiO{sub 2} showed the highest conversion efficiency of 7.30%, approximately 5%, 18%, and 40% higher than that of DSSCs fabricated with 3.99?wt. % TiO{sub 2}, pure TiO{sub 2}, and pure ZnO photoanodes, respectively.

  15. Nanoantennas for enhanced light trapping in transparent organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voroshilov, Pavel M; Belov, Pavel A

    2014-01-01

    We propose a light-trapping structure offering a significant enhancement of photovoltaic absorption in transparent organic solar cells operating at infrared while the visible light transmission keeps sufficiently high. The main mechanism of light trapping is related with the excitation of collective oscillations of the metal nanoantenna arrays, characterized by advantageous field distribution in the volume of the solar cell. It allows more than triple increase of infrared photovoltaic absorption.

  16. Florida Power and Light- Solar Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: This program will not be offered after 2015. More information is available on FPL's solar rebate web site.

  17. Combustion system for hybrid solar fossil fuel receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehos, Mark S.; Anselmo, Kenneth M.; Moreno, James B.; Andraka, Charles E.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Corey, John; Bohn, Mark S.

    2004-05-25

    A combustion system for a hybrid solar receiver comprises a pre-mixer which combines air and fuel to form an air-fuel mixture. The mixture is introduced tangentially into a cooling jacket. A burner plenum is fluidically connected to the cooling jacket such that the burner plenum and the cooling jacket are arranged in thermal contact with one another. The air-fuel mixture flows through the cooling jacket cooling the burner plenum to reduce pre-ignition of the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum. A combustion chamber is operatively associated with and open to the burner plenum to receive the air-fuel mixture from the burner plenum. An igniter is operatively positioned in the combustion chamber to combust the air-fuel mixture, releasing heat. A recuperator is operatively associated with the burner plenum and the combustion chamber and pre-heats the air-fuel mixture in the burner plenum with heat from the combustion chamber. A heat-exchanger is operatively associated and in thermal contact with the combustion chamber. The heat-exchanger provides heat for the hybrid solar receiver.

  18. Improved efficiency of smooth and aligned single walled carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark

    and versatility of CNTs in energy storage and conversion devices. In fact, CNT has already been used to contactImproved efficiency of smooth and aligned single walled carbon nanotube/silicon hybrid solar cells on silicon (Si) together with post treatments result in SWNT/Si hybrid solar cells with unprecedented high

  19. Energy level alignment of polythiophene/ZnO hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Energy level alignment of polythiophene/ZnO hybrid solar cells W. Feng,a S. Rangan,b Y. Cao,c E between energy level alignment and photovoltaic properties of a model bilayer hybrid solar cell. Galoppini,c R. A. Bartynskib and E. Garfunkel*ab Energy level alignment at interfaces is critical

  20. The goal of this work is to develop low cost and highly efficient hybrid solar cells based on semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs). Hybrid solar cells have been demonstrated to take advantages of both inorganic and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The goal of this work is to develop low cost and highly efficient hybrid solar cells based on semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs). Hybrid solar cells have been demonstrated to take advantages of both to improve optical and electrical properties of photovoltaic devices. Hybrid solar cells having long-armed Cd

  1. Concord Municipal Light Plant- Solar Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Concord Municipal Light Plant (CMLP) offers rebates to customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems that are designed to offset the customer's electrical needs. Systems must be owned by...

  2. EECBG Success Story: Solar LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    courtesy of Lionel Green, Sand Mountain Reporter. A strip of new solar-powered light emitting-diode (LED) streetlights in Boaz, Alabama were installed with grant funds from the...

  3. Light trapping limits in plasmonic solar cells: an analytical investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We analytically investigate the light trapping performance in plasmonic solar cells with Si/metallic structures. We consider absorption enhancements for surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at planar Si/metal interfaces and ...

  4. Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    1 of 2 Title: Feasibility Study for 20 MW Hybrid Solar and Wind Park in Colombia Principal to assess the Colombian solar and wind resources, looking at different technology options, anticipated performance, and evaluating the economics of solar and wind power technologies. The NMSU team also evaluates

  5. The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Volker

    1 The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells Stefan D.a.j.janssen@tue.nl #12;2 Abstract: The efficiency of polymer solar cells critically depends on the intimacy of mixing and quantitative correlation between solar cell performance, photophysical data and the three

  6. Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2 Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    -called third generation of solar cells including dye-sensitized solar cells, DSCs2,3 and organic phoEnhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Nanostructured Hybrid Solar Cell Using Highly Oriented TiO2- tovoltaics, OPVs.4-6 OPVs or polymer-based photovoltaic devices can be processed from solution and have

  7. Hybrid solar cells based on porous Si and copper phthalocyanine derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Euler, William B.

    Hybrid solar cells based on porous Si and copper phthalocyanine derivatives I. A. Levitskya 25 October 2004) We demonstrate a solar cell based on n-type nanoporous Si (PSi) filled with copper of the PSi structure and pore filling on the solar cell performance is discussed. © 2004 American Institute

  8. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high- efficiency solar energy in a cost of nanostructured high-performance, lightweight, flexible, large-area, and low- cost hybrid solar cells. HoweverToward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers

  9. Marblehead Municipal Light Department - Solar Rebate Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rebates, subject to change. Program Info Sector Name Utility Administrator Marblehead Light Department Website http:www.marbleheadelectric.comindex.php?id166 Funding Source...

  10. White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    . Griffin, C. W. Jeon, and M. D. Dawson, "Spectral conversion of InGaN ultraviolet microarray light functionalization to facilitate cross-linking intentionally when cast into solid-state form. Hybridized on n-UV InGaN/Ga generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

  11. Study of surface enhanced resonant Raman spectroscopy of chromophores on unaggregated plasmonically active nanoparticles / Surface-enhanced Raman study of the interaction of the PEDOT:PSS and P3HT/PCBM components of organic polymer solar cells with plasmonically active nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavytska-Barba, Marina Valeriyivna

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid Plasmonic Organic Solar Cells with Ag Nanoparticles.a Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell. Opt. Express 2010,Light Collection in Organic Solar Cells. Appl. Phys. Lett.

  12. Outdoor Solar Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014DepartmentCouncilOfficeBudget OurOutdoor Lighting

  13. Plasmonic Nanostructure Design for Efficient Light Coupling into Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    . Photovoltaics (PV) technology is currently enjoying sub- stantial growth and investment. Although there are manyPlasmonic Nanostructure Design for Efficient Light Coupling into Solar Cells Vivian E. Ferry, Luke Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 Received July 25, 2008; Revised

  14. Solar concentrator with integrated tracking and light delivery system with summation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2015-05-05

    A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. Solar light waves are processed by the concentrator into a collimated beam of light, which is then transferred through a light receiving port and into the light transfer tube. A reflector redirects the collimated beam of light through the tube to a light distribution port. The interior surface of the light transfer tube is highly reflective so that the light transfers through the tube with minimal losses. An interchangeable luminaire is attached to the light distribution port and provides light inside of a structure. A sun tracking device rotates the concentrator and the light transfer tube to optimize the receiving of solar light by the concentrator throughout the day. The system provides interior lighting that uses only renewable energy sources, and releases no carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

  15. Solar concentrator with integrated tracking and light delivery system with collimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, Lonnie Curt

    2015-06-09

    A solar light distribution system includes a solar light concentrator that is affixed externally to a light transfer tube. Solar light waves are processed by the concentrator into a collimated beam of light, which is then transferred through a light receiving port and into the light transfer tube. A reflector directs the collimated beam of light through the tube to a light distribution port. The interior surface of the light transfer tube is highly reflective so that the light transfers through the tube with minimal losses. An interchangeable luminaire is attached to the light distribution port and distributes light inside of a structure. A sun tracking device rotates the concentrator and the light transfer tube to optimize the receiving of solar light by the concentrator throughout the day. The system provides interior lighting, uses only renewable energy sources, and releases no carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere.

  16. Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaidi, Saleem H.; Gee, James M.

    2005-02-22

    Enhanced light absorption of solar cells and photodetectors by diffraction is described. Triangular, rectangular, and blazed subwavelength periodic structures are shown to improve performance of solar cells. Surface reflection can be tailored for either broadband, or narrow-band spectral absorption. Enhanced absorption is achieved by efficient optical coupling into obliquely propagating transmitted diffraction orders. Subwavelength one-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-dependent, wavelength-selective absorption in solar cells and photodetectors, while two-dimensional structures are designed for polarization-independent, wavelength-selective absorption therein. Suitable one and two-dimensional subwavelength periodic structures can also be designed for broadband spectral absorption in solar cells and photodetectors. If reactive ion etching (RIE) processes are used to form the grating, RIE-induced surface damage in subwavelength structures can be repaired by forming junctions using ion implantation methods. RIE-induced surface damage can also be removed by post RIE wet-chemical etching treatments.

  17. Illuminating Solar Decathlon Homes: Exploring Next Generation Lighting Technology - Light Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-05-22

    This report was prepared by PNNL for the US Department of Energy Building Technologies Program, Solid-State Lighting Program. The report will be provided to teams of university students who are building houses for the 2009 Solar Decathlon, a home design competition sponsored in part by DOE, to encourage teams to build totally solar powered homes. One aspect of the competition is lighting. This report provides the teams with information about LED lighting that can help them determine how they incorporate LED lighting into their homes. The report provides an overview of LED technology, a status of where LED technology is today, questions and answers about lighting quality, efficiency, lifetime etc.; numerous examples of LED products; and several weblinks for further research.

  18. Dangling Bond Defects: The Critical Roadblock to Efficient Photoconversion in Hybrid Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Zhigang

    Solar Cells Huashan Li,* Zhigang Wu,* and Mark T. Lusk* Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines by dangling bonds. INTRODUCTION SiQD-based inorganic-organic hybrid solar cells are an attractive candidate-6 10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1 )7 causes the poor performance of the SiQD/P3HT solar cells.6 It is widely believed

  19. Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Dielectric back scattering patterns for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells M. van Lare,1 of dielectric and metallic backscattering patterns in thin-film a-Si:H solar cells. We compare devices for Light Trapping in Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells", in Proceedings of the 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar

  20. Adaptive Full-Spectrum Solar Energy Systems Cross-Cutting R&D on adaptive full-spectrum solar energy systems for more efficient and affordable use of solar energy in buildings and hybrid photobioreactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Byard; Kim, Kwang

    2006-03-30

    This RD&D project is a multi-institutional effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports daylight from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a bundle of polymer fiber optics. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae for CO{sub 2} sequestration or it can be a device that is a combination of daylighting and electric lighting for space/task lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. For the third generation (beta) system, the secondary mirror is an ellipsoidal mirror that directs the visible light into a bundle of 3 mm diameter fibers. The IR spectrum is filtered out to minimize unnecessary heating at the fiber entrance region. This report describes the major achievements from this research that began in August 2001.

  1. Light trapping design for low band-gap polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    Light trapping design for low band-gap polymer solar cells Stephen Foster1,* and Sajeev John1,2 1 demonstrate numerically a 2-D nanostructured design for light trapping in a low band-gap polymer solar cell, "Light harvesting improvement of organic solar cells with self- enhanced active layer designs," Opt

  2. Solar Influences Light from the Sun is the largest source of energy for Earth's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Influences Light from the Sun is the largest source of energy for Earth's atmosphere. The Solar Influences group at LASP studies the light from the Sun and how it interacts with the Earth) · How and why light from the Sun varies in time from seconds to months to years to centuries · How solar

  3. Genetic algorithms used for the optimization of light-emitting diodes and solar thermal collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayer, Alexandre

    Genetic algorithms used for the optimization of light-emitting diodes and solar thermal collectors developed for the optimization of light-emitting diodes (LED) and solar thermal collectors. The surface a light-extraction efficiency of only 3.7%). The solar thermal collector we considered consists

  4. Economic evaluation of solar-only and hybrid power towers using molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    Several hybrid and solar-only configurations for molten-salt power towers were evaluated with a simple economic model, appropriate for screening analysis. The solar specific aspects of these plants were highlighted. In general, hybrid power towers were shown to be economically superior to solar-only plants with the same field size. Furthermore, the power-booster hybrid approach was generally preferred over the fuel-saver hybrid approach. Using today`s power tower technology, economic viability for the solar power-boost occurs at fuel costs in the neighborhood of $2.60/MBtu to $4.40/ MBtu (low heating value) depending on whether coal-based or gas-turbine-based technology is being offset. The cost Of CO[sub 2] avoidance was also calculated for solar cases in which the fossil fuel cost was too low for solar to be economically viable. The avoidance costs are competitive with other proposed methods of removing CO[sub 2] from fossil-fired power plants.

  5. GEOTHERMAL / SOLAR HYBRID DESIGNS: USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOR CSP FEEDWATER HEATING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig Turchi; Guangdong Zhu; Michael Wagner; Tom Williams; Dan Wendt

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines a hybrid geothermal / solar thermal plant design that uses geothermal energy to provide feedwater heating in a conventional steam-Rankine power cycle deployed by a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. The geothermal energy represents slightly over 10% of the total thermal input to the hybrid plant. The geothermal energy allows power output from the hybrid plant to increase by about 8% relative to a stand-alone CSP plant with the same solar-thermal input. Geothermal energy is converted to electricity at an efficiency of 1.7 to 2.5 times greater than would occur in a stand-alone, binary-cycle geothermal plant using the same geothermal resource. While the design exhibits a clear advantage during hybrid plant operation, the annual advantage of the hybrid versus two stand-alone power plants depends on the total annual operating hours of the hybrid plant. The annual results in this draft paper are preliminary, and further results are expected prior to submission of a final paper.

  6. CRADA Final Report: Process development for hybrid solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ager, Joel W

    2011-01-01

    solar cells have the potential to reduce the cost of concentrator photovoltaic power generation (CPV) by 10-15%--an improvement

  7. A Novel Solar-Fossil Hybrid Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2014-01-01

    This is a short article prepared for Power Magazine about our development of a solar-powered steam-methane reformer.

  8. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  9. The photospheric environment of a solar pore with light bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Giordano; F. Berrilli; D. Del Moro; V. Penza

    2007-05-25

    Pores are one of the various features forming in the photosphere by the emergence of magnetic field onto the solar surface. They lie at the border between tiny magnetic elements and larger sunspots. Light bridges, in such structures, are bright features separating umbral areas in two or more irregular regions. Commonly, light bridges indicate that a the merging of magnetic regions or, conversely, the breakup of the area is underway. We investigate the velocity structure of a solar pore (AR10812) with light bridge, and of the quiet solar photosphere nearby, analyzing high spatial and spectral resolution images. The pore area has been observed with the Interferometric BI-dimensional Spectrometer (IBIS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope, acquiring monochromatic images in the Ca II 854.2 nm line and in the Fe I 709.0 nm line as well as G-band and broad-band images. We also computed the Line of Sight (LoS) velocity field associated to the Fe I and Fe II photospheric lines. The amplitude of the LoS velocity fluctuations, inside the pore, is smaller than that observed in the quiet granulation near the active region. We computed the azimuthal average LoS velocity and derived its radial profile. The whole pore is characterized by a downward velocity -200 m/s and by an annular downflow structure with an average velocity of -350 m/s with respect to the nearby quiet sun. The light bridge inside the pore, when observed in the broad-band channel of IBIS and in the red wing of Ca II 854.2 nm line, shows an elongated dark structure running along its axis, that we explain with a semi-analytical model. In the highest resolution LoS velocity images the light bridge shows a profile consistent with a convective roll: a weak upflow, 50-100m/s, in correspondence of the dark lane, flanked by a downflow, -(200-300) m/s.

  10. Economic evaluation of a novel fuel-saver hybrid combining a solar receiver with a combustor for a solar power tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    achieves the same combus- tion efficiency as the boiler for twice the capital cost of a solar receiverEconomic evaluation of a novel fuel-saver hybrid combining a solar receiver with a combustor for a solar power tower G.J. Nathan a, , D.L. Battye b , P.J. Ashman b a Centre for Energy Technology, Schools

  11. Solar Cells from Earth-Abundant Semiconductors with Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, Harry

    2012-04-30

    Progress is reported in these areas: Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin Film a-Si Solar Cells; Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin InGaN Quantum Well Solar Cells; and Earth Abundant Cu{sub 2}O and Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} Solar Cells.

  12. Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells Vishal structure of polymer solar cells for efficient light harvesting. Two polymer photovoltaic cells are stacked harvesting has been demonstrated for organic solar cells uti- lizing tandem structure.11,12 However

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    a non-concentrating system with limited emission angle in a thin, light trapping GaAs solar cellORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle Emily D Kosten1 of a high-quality GaAs solar cell is a feasible route to achieving power conversion efficiencies above 38

  14. Photonic light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photonic light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film silicon solar cells Lucio Claudio Keywords: Thin-film solar cells Light trapping Photonic structures Carrier collection Electro-optical simulations Surface recombination a b s t r a c t Efficient solar cells require both strong absorption

  15. Extended light scattering model incorporating coherence for thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    Extended light scattering model incorporating coherence for thin-film silicon solar cells Thomas film solar cells. The model integrates coherent light propagation in thin layers with a direct, non efficiency spectra of state-of-the-art microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The simulations agree very well

  16. Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering Gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells Piotr A theoretical study of randomly rough interfaces to obtain light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells of thin-film solar cells. © 2012 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 040.5350, 050.1950. Reducing

  17. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings X://jap.aip.org/authors #12;Light trapping in thin-film solar cells via scattering by nanostructured antireflection coatings X of nanostructured TiO2 layers fabricated on thin-film solar cells to provide, simultaneously, both antireflection

  18. Air stable organic-inorganic nanoparticles hybrid solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Qian, Lei; Yang, Jihua; Xue, Jiangeng; Holloway, Paul H.

    2015-09-29

    A solar cell includes a low work function cathode, an active layer of an organic-inorganic nanoparticle composite, a ZnO nanoparticle layer situated between and physically contacting the cathode and active layers; and a transparent high work function anode that is a bilayer electrode. The inclusion of the ZnO nanoparticle layer results in a solar cell displaying a conversion efficiency increase and reduces the device degradation rate. Embodiments of the invention are directed to novel ZnO nanoparticles that are advantageous for use as the ZnO nanoparticle layers of the novel solar cells and a method to prepare the ZnO nanoparticles.

  19. Polymer and small molecule based hybrid light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choong, Vi-En (Carlsbad, CA); Choulis, Stelios (Nuremberg, DE); Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Regensburg, DE); Mathai, Mathew (Monroeville, PA); So, Franky (Gainesville, FL)

    2010-03-16

    An organic electroluminescent device, includes: a substrate; a hole-injecting electrode (anode) coated over the substrate; a hole injection layer coated over the anode; a hole transporting layer coated over the hole injection layer; a polymer based light emitting layer, coated over the hole transporting layer; a small molecule based light emitting layer, thermally evaporated over the polymer based light emitting layer; and an electron-injecting electrode (cathode) deposited over the electroluminescent polymer layer.

  20. Solar-thermal hybridization of Advanced Zero Emissions Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Khaja, Ragheb Mohamad Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide emissions from power production are believed to have significant contributions to the greenhouse effect and global warming. Alternative energy resources, such as solar radiation, may help abate emissions but ...

  1. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the grid in remote locations. | Photo courtesy of Dave Parsons. Off-Grid or Stand-Alone Renewable Energy Systems Whether a home solar electric system will work for you depends on...

  2. Limiting Light Emission in Solar Cells From the Resnick Sustainability Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    dramatically, reducing overall cost per watt. Achieving high efficiency solar cells provides a promising route to low cost, sustainable solar energy. This project aims to increase the efficiency of solar cellsRESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Limiting Light Emission in Solar Cells From the Resnick Sustainability

  3. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume III. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumpton, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains appendices to the conceptual design and systems analysis studies gien in Volume II, Books 1 and 2. (WHK)

  4. Broadband enhancement of light harvesting in luminescent solar concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Yun-Feng; Xiao, Lixin; Sun, Fang-Wen; Gong, Qihuang

    2010-01-01

    Luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) can absorb large-area incident sunlight, then emit luminescence with high quantum efficiency, which finally be collected by a small photovoltaic (PV) system. The light-harvesting area of the PV system is much smaller than that of the LSC system, potentially improving the efficiency and reducing the cost of solar cells. Here, based on Fermi-golden rule, we present a theoretical description of the luminescent process in nanoscale LSCs where the conventional ray-optics model is no longer applicable. As an example calculated with this new model, we demonstrate that a slot waveguide consisting of a nanometer-sized low-index slot region sandwiched by two high-index regions provides a broadband enhancement of light harvesting by the luminescent centers in the slot region. This is because the slot waveguide can (1) greatly enhance the spontaneous emission due to the Purcell effect, (2) dramatically increase the effective absorption cross-section of luminescent centers, and (3) str...

  5. Measurement of light capture in solar cells from silver- and tin-plated patterned bus bars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winiarz, Christine Eve

    2007-01-01

    Bus bars on solar cells shade silicon from light. When the bus bars are patterned, they can reflect light back onto the silicon using total internal reflection. These patterned bus bars are tin plated and produce 1-2.5% ...

  6. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

    2009-01-27

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  7. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based onHyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, AntoniosG.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-09-09

    In recent years, the search to develop large-area solar cells at low cost has led to research on photovoltaic (PV) systems based on nanocomposites containing conjugated polymers. These composite films can be synthesized and processed at lower costs and with greater versatility than the solid state inorganic semiconductors that comprise today's solar cells. However, the best nanocomposite solar cells are based on a complex architecture, consisting of a fine blend of interpenetrating and percolating donor and acceptor materials. Cell performance is strongly dependent on blend morphology, and solution-based fabrication techniques often result in uncontrolled and irreproducible blends, whose composite morphologies are difficult to characterize accurately. Here we incorporate 3-dimensional hyper-branched colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells, yielding reproducible and controlled nanoscale morphology.

  8. Gas Turbine/Solar Parabolic Trough Hybrid Design Using Molten Salt Heat Transfer Fluid: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Ma, Z.

    2011-08-01

    Parabolic trough power plants can provide reliable power by incorporating either thermal energy storage (TES) or backup heat from fossil fuels. This paper describes a gas turbine / parabolic trough hybrid design that combines a solar contribution greater than 50% with gas heat rates that rival those of natural gas combined-cycle plants. Previous work illustrated benefits of integrating gas turbines with conventional oil heat-transfer-fluid (HTF) troughs running at 390?C. This work extends that analysis to examine the integration of gas turbines with salt-HTF troughs running at 450 degrees C and including TES. Using gas turbine waste heat to supplement the TES system provides greater operating flexibility while enhancing the efficiency of gas utilization. The analysis indicates that the hybrid plant design produces solar-derived electricity and gas-derived electricity at lower cost than either system operating alone.

  9. Hybrid optical-thermal devices and materials for light manipulation and radiative cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boriskina, Svetlana V; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Weinstein, Lee; Huang, Xiaopeng; Loomis, James; Xu, Yanfei; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    We report on optical design and applications of hybrid meso-scale devices and materials that combine optical and thermal management functionalities owing to their tailored resonant interaction with light in visible and infrared frequency bands. We outline a general approach to designing such materials, and discuss two specific applications in detail. One example is a hybrid optical-thermal antenna with sub-wavelength light focusing, which simultaneously enables intensity enhancement at the operating wavelength in the visible and reduction of the operating temperature. The enhancement is achieved via light recycling in the form of whispering-gallery modes trapped in an optical microcavity, while cooling functionality is realized via a combination of reduced optical absorption and radiative cooling. The other example is a fabric that is opaque in the visible range yet highly transparent in the infrared, which allows the human body to efficiently shed energy in the form of thermal emission. Such fabrics can find...

  10. Uv-Light Stabilization Additive Package For Solar Cell Module And Laminated Glass Applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanoka, Jack I. (Brookline, MA); Klemchuk, Peter P. (Watertown, CT)

    2002-03-05

    An ultraviolet light stabilization additive package is used in an encapsulant material that may be used in solar cell modules, laminated glass and a variety of other applications. The ultraviolet light stabilization additive package comprises a first hindered amine light stabilizer and a second hindered amine light stabilizer. The first hindered amine light stabilizer provides thermal oxidative stabilization, and the second hindered amine light stabilizer providing photo-oxidative stabilization.

  11. Nanoparticle-induced light scattering for improved performance of quantum-well solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    in the application of semiconductor nanostructures, including quantum-well structures,1 nanowires,2 and quantum dots3Nanoparticle-induced light scattering for improved performance of quantum-well solar cells D performance of InP/InGaAsP quantum-well waveguide solar cells via light scattering from deposited dielectric

  12. Semiconductor heterostructures and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells Claiborne O McPheeters1 , Dongzhi elements are integrated for light trapping. Measurements and simulations of GaAs solar cells with less than in their performance. Keywords: quantum-well, quantum-dot, scattering, diffraction, thin-film, GaAs, InAs, photovoltaic

  13. Solar Cell Light Trapping beyond the Ray Optic Limit Dennis M. Callahan,* Jeremy N. Munday,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Solar Cell Light Trapping beyond the Ray Optic Limit Dennis M. Callahan,* Jeremy N. Munday a minimum thickness needed to fully absorb the solar spectrum. However, this limit is valid for geometrical optics but not for a new generation of subwavelength solar absorbers such as ultrathin or inhomoge

  14. Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells by a layer-transfer technique, Ireland * christian.schuster@york.ac.uk Abstract: Thin film solar cells benefit significantly from, "Progress and outlook for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65

  15. Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Nanodome Solar Cells with Efficient Light Management and Self-Cleaning Jia Zhu, Ching-Mei Hsu 94305 ABSTRACT Here for the first time, we demonstrate novel nanodome solar cells, which have periodic and enhance absorption over a broad spectral range. Nanodome solar cells with only a 280 nm thick hydrogenated

  16. Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells Deep Panjwania as scattering centers to increase the effective optical thickness of thin-film solar cells. The particular type. Gold-black was deposited on commercial thin-film solar cells using a thermal evaporator in nitrogen

  17. Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping regimes in thin-film silicon solar cells with a photonic pattern Simone Zanotto a theoretical study of crystalline and amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells with a periodic pattern on a sub. Poortmans and V. Arkhipov (editors), Thin Film Solar Cells (Wiley, Chichester 2006). 4. P. W¨urfel, Physics

  18. Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells Nicholas P of solar energy conversion be- cause they use thin films of photoactive material and can be manufactured and photocurrent in flexible organic solar cells. We demonstrate that this enhancement is attributed to a broadband

  19. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2003-01-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes several investigations of various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm significant progress towards the technical feasibility of this technology.

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Hybrid System Study: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-506

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this PTS is to collaboratively leverage the collective resources at General Electric Global Research (GEGRC) and National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) in the areas of concentrating solar power hybrid systems to advance state-of-the-art concentrating solar and conventional power generation system integration.

  1. Light matter interaction in WS{sub 2} nanotube-graphene hybrid devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, John P.; Jegannathan, Gobinath; Grover, Sameer; Dongare, Pratiksha D.; Bapat, Rudheer D.; Chalke, Bhagyashree A.; Purandare, S. C.; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2014-12-01

    We study the light matter interaction in WS{sub 2} nanotube-graphene hybrid devices. Using scanning photocurrent microscopy, we find that by engineering graphene electrodes for WS{sub 2} nanotubes we can improve the collection of photogenerated carriers. We observe inhomogeneous spatial photocurrent response with an external quantum efficiency of ?1% at 0?V bias. We show that defects play an important role and can be utilized to enhance and tune photocarrier generation.

  2. Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal Ping Kuang,1-cubic photonic-crystal. PIR is an acutely negative refraction of light inside a photonic- crystal, leading to light-bending by nearly 90 deg over broad wavelengths (). The consequence is a longer path length

  3. Hybrid MSW + VO Solution of the Solar Neutrino Problem in String-Motivated Unified Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allanach, Benjamin C; Petcov, S T

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the hybrid MSW + VO solution of the solar neutrino problem, according to which the solar nu_e undergo matter-enhanced transitions into nu_mu, nu_tau in the Sun followed by long wave length (about 1.5 10^8 km) nu_e -> nu_mu, nu_tau oscillations in vacuum between the Sun and the Earth, can occur naturally in string-motivated grand unified theories. We consider the supersymmetric version of a string-type SU(4)xSU(2)_LxSU(2)_R theory with U(1)_X family symmetry, which was shown to successfully describe the charged fermion masses and the quark mixing, and extend the earlier fermion mass analysis to the neutrino sector. We show that the four oscillation parameters Delta m_31^2, Delta m_21^2 and sin^2 2 theta_12, sin^2 2 theta_13, characterising the combined matter-enhanced transitions and vacuum oscillations of the solar nu_e, naturally get values in the ranges of the hybrid MSW + VO solutions found recently.

  4. Hybrid MSW + VO Solution of the Solar Neutrino Problem in String-Motivated Unified Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. C. Allanach; G. K. Leontaris; S. T. Petcov

    1997-12-19

    It is shown that the hybrid MSW + VO solution of the solar neutrino problem, according to which the solar nu_e undergo matter-enhanced transitions into nu_mu, nu_tau in the Sun followed by long wave length (about 1.5 10^8 km) nu_e -> nu_mu, nu_tau oscillations in vacuum between the Sun and the Earth, can occur naturally in string-motivated grand unified theories. We consider the supersymmetric version of a string-type SU(4)xSU(2)_LxSU(2)_R theory with U(1)_X family symmetry, which was shown to successfully describe the charged fermion masses and the quark mixing, and extend the earlier fermion mass analysis to the neutrino sector. We show that the four oscillation parameters Delta m_31^2, Delta m_21^2 and sin^2 2 theta_12, sin^2 2 theta_13, characterising the combined matter-enhanced transitions and vacuum oscillations of the solar nu_e, naturally get values in the ranges of the hybrid MSW + VO solutions found recently.

  5. PEDOT:PSS emitters on multicrystalline silicon thin-film absorbers for hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Junghanns, Marcus; Plentz, Jonathan Andrä, Gudrun; Gawlik, Annett; Höger, Ingmar; Falk, Fritz

    2015-02-23

    We fabricated an efficient hybrid solar cell by spin coating poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on planar multicrystalline Si (mc-Si) thin films. The only 5??m thin Si absorber layers were prepared by diode laser crystallization of amorphous Si deposited by electron beam evaporation on glass. On these absorber layers, we studied the effect of SiO{sub x} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} terminated Si surfaces. The short circuit density and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the mc-Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PEDOT:PSS solar cell increase from 20.6 to 25.4?mA/cm{sup 2} and from 7.3% to 10.3%, respectively, as compared to the mc-Si/SiO{sub x}/PEDOT:PSS cell. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} lowers the interface recombination and improves the adhesion of the polymer film on the hydrophobic mc-Si thin film. Open circuit voltages up to 604?mV were reached. This study demonstrates the highest PCE so far of a hybrid solar cell with a planar thin film Si absorber.

  6. TOWARDS CIGS SOLAR CELLS WITH REDUCED FILM THICKNESS: A STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND OF PHOTONIC STRUCTURES FOR LIGHT TRAPPING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TOWARDS CIGS SOLAR CELLS WITH REDUCED FILM THICKNESS: A STUDY OF OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND OF PHOTONIC ABSTRACT: In view of large-scale exploitation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) solar cells for photovoltaic energy. In this work we perform a full study of optical properties of CIGS solar cells grown by a hybrid sputtering

  7. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  8. Light Trapping for Thin Silicon Solar Cells by Femtosecond Laser Texturing: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, B. G.; Lin, Y. T.; Sher, M. J.; Mazur, E.; Branz, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Femtosecond laser texturing is used to create nano- to micron-scale surface roughness that strongly enhances light-trapping in thin crystalline silicon solar cells. Light trapping is crucial for thin solar cells where a single light-pass through the absorber is insufficient to capture the weakly absorbed red and near-infrared photons, especially with an indirect-gap semiconductor absorber layer such as crystalline Si which is less than 20 um thick. We achieve enhancement of the optical absorption from light-trapping that approaches the Yablonovitch limit.

  9. Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tianlin

    2012-07-16

    Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric ...

  10. Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

  11. Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

    2009-01-01

    The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

  12. Light-Biasing Electron-Beam-Induced-Current Measurements for Multijunction Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, M. J.; Olson, J. M.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Results using light-biasing EBIC are illustrated for dual-junction InGaP/InGaAs solar cells.

  13. Solar Thermal Energy Storage Device: Hybrid Nanostructures for High-Energy-Density Solar Thermal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    HEATS Project: MIT is developing a thermal energy storage device that captures energy from the sun; this energy can be stored and released at a later time when it is needed most. Within the device, the absorption of sunlight causes the solar thermal fuel’s photoactive molecules to change shape, which allows energy to be stored within their chemical bonds. A trigger is applied to release the stored energy as heat, where it can be converted into electricity or used directly as heat. The molecules would then revert to their original shape, and can be recharged using sunlight to begin the process anew. MIT’s technology would be 100% renewable, rechargeable like a battery, and emissions-free. Devices using these solar thermal fuels—called Hybrisol—can also be used without a grid infrastructure for applications such as de-icing, heating, cooking, and water purification.

  14. Low-Cost Light Weigh Thin Film Solar Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  15. Details of a Hybrid Model for the Interaction between the Solar Wind and Planets Implemented in FLASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmstrom, M

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid plasma solver treats ions as particles and electrons as a fluid. We have implemented a parallel hybrid solver in the FLASH open source software framework. The solver has been applied to studies of the interaction between the solar wind and planets. Here we discuss the implementation of different model features, such as permanent magnetic fields, ionospheric chemistry, and exospheres. Mars is used as an example.

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle Emily D Kosten1. This isotropic emission corresponds to a significant entropy increase in the solar cell, with a corresponding drop in efficiency. Here, using a detailed balance model, we show that limiting the emission angle

  17. Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: Solution by a new physical-geometric optics hybrid method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baum, Bryan A.

    Scattering and absorption of light by ice particles: Solution by a new physical-geometric optics: Light scattering Geometric optics Physical optics Hexagonal ice crystal a b s t r a c t A new physical-geometric optics hybrid (PGOH) method is developed to compute the scattering and absorption properties of ice

  18. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    heat exchangers, hybrid components such as fans and pumps,for fans, pumps, and valves used in hybrid systems; heat

  19. Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-duty Vehicle Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2004-08-23

    Diesel and hybrid technologies each have the potential to increase light-duty vehicle fuel economy by a third or more without loss of performance, yet these technologies have typically been excluded from technical assessments of fuel economy potential on the grounds that hybrids are too expensive and diesels cannot meet Tier 2 emissions standards. Recently, hybrid costs have come down and the few hybrid makes available are selling well. Diesels have made great strides in reducing particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions, and are likely though not certain to meet future standards. In light of these developments, this study takes a detailed look at the market potential of these two powertrain technologies and their possible impacts on light-duty vehicle fuel economy. A nested multinomial logit model of vehicle choice was calibrated to 2002 model year sales of 930 makes, models and engine-transmission configurations. Based on an assessment of the status and outlook for the two technologies, market shares were predicted for 2008, 2012 and beyond, assuming no additional increase in fuel economy standards or other new policy initiatives. Current tax incentives for hybrids are assumed to be phased out by 2008. Given announced and likely introductions by 2008, hybrids could capture 4-7% and diesels 2-4% of the light-duty market. Based on our best guesses for further introductions, these shares could increase to 10-15% for hybrids and 4-7% for diesels by 2012. The resulting impacts on fleet average fuel economy would be about +2% in 2008 and +4% in 2012. If diesels and hybrids were widely available across vehicle classes, makes, and models, they could capture 40% or more of the light-duty vehicle market.

  20. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors and perform reasonably well. The Simulink modeling platform has been mainly used worldwide on simulation of control systems, digital signal processing and electric circuits, but there are very few examples of application to solar energy systems modeling. This work uses the modular environment of Simulink/Matlab to model individual PV/T system components, and to assemble the entire installation layout. The results show that the modular approach strategy provided by Matlab/Simulink environment is applicable to solar systems modeling, providing good code scalability, faster developing time, and simpler integration with external computational tools, when compared with traditional imperative-oriented programming languages. (author)

  1. Light incoherence theory revisited by Heisenberg time-energy uncertainty challenges solar cell optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Aline; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of the efficiency of solar cells is a major challenge for renewable energies. Using a rigorous theoretical approach, we show that the photocurrent generated in a solar cell depends strongly on the degree of coherence of the incident light. In accordance with Heisenberg uncertainty time-energy, incoherent light at photons of carrier energy lower than the active material bandgap can be absorbed whereas coherent light at the same carrier energy cannot. We identify cases where incoherence does enhance efficiency. This result has a dramatical impact on the way solar cells must be optimized regarding sunlight. As an illustration, surface-corrugated GaAs and c-Si thin-film solar cells are considered.

  2. Enhanced Efficiency of Light-Trapping Nanoantenna Arrays for Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simovski, Constantin R; Voroshilov, Pavel M; Guzhva, Michael E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-01-01

    We suggest a novel concept of efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film solar cells based on arrays of planar nanoantennas operating far from plasmonic resonances. The operation principle of our structures relies on the excitation of chessboard-like collective modes of the nanoantenna arrays with the field localized between the neighboring metal elements. We demonstrated theoretically substantial enhancement of solar-cell short-circuit current by the designed light-trapping structure in the whole spectrum range of the solar-cell operation compared to conventional structures employing anti-reflecting coating. Our approach provides a general background for a design of different types of efficient broadband light-trapping structures for thin-film solar-cell technologically compatible with large-area thin-film fabrication techniques.

  3. City Water Light and Power- Solar Rewards Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Funding for the SOLAR REWARDS Rebate program has been exhausted for the current fiscal year. Please check back after March 1, 2015, to see if funding has been reinstated.

  4. Efficient light trapping structure in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Thin film silicon solar cells are believed to be promising candidates for continuing cost reduction in photovoltaic panels because silicon usage could be greatly reduced. Since silicon is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, ...

  5. Solar collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, S.L.

    1984-08-01

    This report contains summaries and pictures of projects funded by the Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program which include the following solar technologies: solar dish; photovoltaics; passive solar building and solar hot water system; Trombe wall; hot air panel; hybrid solar heating system; solar grain dryer; solar greenhouse; solar hot water workshops; and solar workshops.

  6. Explanation of Light/Dark Superposition Failure in CIGS Solar Cells Markus Gloeckler, Caroline R. Jenkins, and James R. Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    Explanation of Light/Dark Superposition Failure in CIGS Solar Cells Markus Gloeckler, Caroline R ABSTRACT CIGS solar cells in many cases show a failure of light/dark superposition of their current-V measurements under red light may also show an additional distortion, known historically as the "red kink

  7. Molecular ferroelectric contributions to anomalous hysteresis in hybrid perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frost, Jarvist M.; Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron

    2014-08-01

    We report a model describing the molecular orientation disorder in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}, solving a classical Hamiltonian parametrised with electronic structure calculations, with the nature of the motions informed by ab initio molecular dynamics. We investigate the temperature and static electric field dependence of the equilibrium ferroelectric (molecular) domain structure and resulting polarisability. A rich domain structure of twinned molecular dipoles is observed, strongly varying as a function of temperature and applied electric field. We propose that the internal electrical fields associated with microscopic polarisation domains contribute to hysteretic anomalies in the current-voltage response of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells due to variations in electron-hole recombination in the bulk.

  8. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. A summary of results of Phase I is given in this volume. (WHK)

  9. Development and characterization of PCDTBT:CdSe QDs hybrid solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixit, Shiv Kumar Bhatnagar, Chhavi Kumari, Anita Madhwal, Devinder Bhatnagar, P. K. Mathur, P. C.

    2014-10-15

    Solar cell consisting of low band gap polymer poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10, 30-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) as donor and cadmium selenide/zinc sulphide (CdSe/ZnS) core shell quantum dots (QDs) as an acceptor has been developed. The absorption measurements show that the absorption coefficient increases in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure covering broad absorption spectrum (200nm–700nm). Also, the photoluminescence (PL) of the PCDTBT:QDs film is found to decrease by an order of magnitude showing a significant transfer of electrons to the QDs. With this approach and under broadband white light with an irradiance of 8.19 mW/cm{sup 2}, we have been able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.1 % with fill factor 0.42 for our typical solar cell.

  10. Computational design of high performance hybrid perovskite on silicon tandem solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolland, A; Beck, A; Kepenekian, M; Katan, C; Huang, Y; Wang, S; Cornet, C; Durand, O; Even, J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the optoelectronic properties of a monolithically integrated series-connected tandem solar cell are simulated. Following the large success of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, which have recently demonstrated large efficiencies with low production costs, we examine the possibility of using the same perovskites as absorbers in a tandem solar cell. The cell consists in a methylammonium mixed bromide-iodide lead perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3(1-x)Br3x (0 < x < 1), top sub-cell and a single-crystalline silicon bottom sub-cell. A Si-based tunnel junction connects the two sub-cells. Numerical simulations are based on a one-dimensional numerical drift-diffusion model. It is shown that a top cell absorbing material with 20% of bromide and a thickness in the 300-400 nm range affords current matching with the silicon bottom cell. Good interconnection between single cells is ensured by standard n and p doping of the silicon at 5.10^19cm-3 in the tunnel junction. A maximum efficiency of 27% is predicted ...

  11. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    has been involved in funding solar energy research andwhich could impact funding of passive solar projects. E.excluded from funding, very few passive solar projects have

  12. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    IV. E. 2 Hold passive solar design competitions, the primarysolar heating. Passive solar design concepts and climacticor applied to pas- sive solar design. A major effort should

  13. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    elements of the National Solar Energy Program. This willNational Solar Energy Research, Development, and Demonstration Program'' (National Solar Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Com- mercialization Program.

  14. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    build, finance, and market passive solar systems. Thepassive solar research, development, market field testing,passive solar research, development, market field testing,

  15. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    Consumer education Utility programs Solar energy infederal facilities Solar energy in state/local bldgs.University of California Solar Energy Research Institute

  16. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    the immediate and potential applications of the solar energyutilities potential of passive finance solar system andthe potentials of dehumidifiers, heat pumps, and solar

  17. DISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini, and L.C. Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini: In this work we focus on randomly rough textures for light-trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. We use light management is a key to achieve high efficiency thin-film solar cells, and a wide variety of light

  18. Low cost and high performance light trapping structure for thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Nano-scaled dielectric and metallic structures are popular light tapping structures in thin-film solar cells. However, a large parasitic absorption in those structures is unavoidable. Most schemes based on such structures also involve the textured active layers that may bring undesirable degradation of the material quality. Here we propose a novel and cheap light trapping structure based on the prism structured SiO2 for thin-film solar cells, and a flat active layer is introduced purposefully. Such a light trapping structure is imposed by the geometrical shape optimization to gain the best optical benefit. By examining our scheme, it is disclosed that the conversion efficiency of the flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted to exceed the currently certified highest value. As the cost of SiO2-based light trapping structure is much cheaper and easier to fabricate than other materials, this proposal would have essential impact and wide applications in thin-film solar cells.

  19. 554 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 4, NO. 2, MARCH 2014 Light Trapping in Thin Crystalline Si Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    --Dielectric nanoparticles placed on top of a thin-film solar cell strongly enhance light absorption in the cell over a broad to the fab- rication of thin-film c-Si solar cells on glass substrates by liquid phase crystallization [1 into thin (1­100 m) crystalline Si solar cells patterned with Si nanocylinder arrays on top of the cell. We

  20. Shedding light on Nature's nanoscale control of solar energy | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effect Photovoltaics -7541 Unlimited Release4:SeymourShedding LightNational

  1. Estimation the Performance of Solar Fiber Optic Lighting System after Repairing the Glass Fiber Cables in a South Korean Residential Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cha, K. S.; Kim, T. K.; Park, M. S.

    2009-01-01

    The solar fiber optic lighting system consists of the solar ray concentrating apparatus, the tracking control, lighting transmission and emission parts. This system was installed on a 20-storey apartment building in South ...

  2. Method and apparatus for effecting light-off of a catalytic converter in a hybrid powertrain system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roos, Bryan Nathaniel; Spohn, Brian L

    2013-07-02

    A powertrain system includes a hybrid transmission and an internal combustion engine coupled to an exhaust aftertreatment device. A method for operating the powertrain system includes operating the hybrid transmission to generate tractive torque responsive to an operator torque request with the internal combustion engine in an engine-off state so long as the tractive torque is less than a threshold. The internal combustion engine is operated in an engine-on state at preferred operating conditions to effect light-off of the exhaust aftertreatment device and the hybrid transmission is coincidentally operated to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request when the operator torque request exceeds the threshold. The internal combustion engine is then operated in the engine-on state to generate tractive torque responsive to the operator torque request.

  3. Light-splitting photovoltaic system utilizing two dual-junction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Kanglin; Yang, Hui; Lu, Shulong; Dong, Jianrong; Zhou, Taofei; Wang, Rongxin; Jiang, Desheng

    2010-12-15

    There are many difficulties limiting the further development of monolithic multi-junction solar cells, such as the growth of lattice-mismatched material and the current matching constraint. As an alternative approach, the light-splitting photovoltaic system is investigated intensively in different aspects, including the energy loss mechanism and the choice of energy bandgaps of solar cells. Based on the investigation, a two-dual junction system has been implemented employing lattice-matched GaInP/GaAs and InGaAsP/InGaAs cells grown epitaxially on GaAs and InP substrates, respectively. (author)

  4. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    Plan for Passive Solar Heating and Cooling builds upon theto design, build, finance, and market passive solar systems.a build- ing•s thermal energy requirements, • Passive solar

  5. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    of existing solar radiation data and recommendations for thesolar radiation from measured horizontal solar data. I.A.2 (Solar Rad·iation Ana·lysis of exi nc :;:; ;;;- radiation data

  6. Light-Beam-Induced-Current Characterization of CdTe Solar Cells Russell M. Geisthardt and James R. Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    Light-Beam-Induced-Current Characterization of CdTe Solar Cells Russell M. Geisthardt and James R. Sites Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA Abstract--In this work, light can be measured using light-beam-induced current (LBIC). A common problem with LBIC, which has limited

  7. Correlation of hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhar, Matej; Oliveros, Juan Carlos Martínez; Battaglia, Marina; Kleint, Lucia; Casadei, Diego; Hudson, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    A statistical study of the correlation between hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares is performed in order to search for a link between flare-accelerated electrons and white light formation. We analyze 43 flares spanning GOES classes M and X using observations from RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) and HMI (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager). We calculate X-ray fluxes at 30 keV and white light fluxes at 6173 \\r{A} summed over the hard X-ray flare ribbons with an integration time of 45 seconds around the peak hard-X ray time. We find a good correlation between hard X-ray fluxes and excess white light fluxes, with a highest correlation coefficient of 0.68 for photons with energy of 30 keV. Assuming the thick target model, a similar correlation is found between the deposited power by flare-accelerated electrons and the white light fluxes. The correlation coefficient is found to be largest for energy deposition by electrons above ~50 keV. At higher electron energies the co...

  8. Self-assembled photosynthesis-inspired light harvesting material and solar cells containing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC); Chinnasamy, Muthiah (Raleigh, NC); Fan, Dazhong (Raleigh, NC)

    2009-12-15

    A solar cell is described that comprises: (a) a semiconductor charge separation material; (b) at least one electrode connected to the charge separation material; and (c) a light-harvesting film on the charge separation material, the light-harvesting film comprising non-covalently coupled, self-assembled units of porphyrinic macrocycles. The porphyrinic macrocycles preferably comprise: (i) an intramolecularly coordinated metal; (ii) a first coordinating substituent; and (iii) a second coordinating substituent opposite the first coordinating substituent. The porphyrinic macrocycles can be assembled by repeating intermolecular coordination complexes of the metal, the first coordinating substituent and the second coordinating substituent.

  9. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    will enable optimal solar cell efficiencies in multiple bandlow cost, high efficiency hybrid solar cells. 4.6 Conclusioncosts and improving efficiencies of solar photovoltaic

  10. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  11. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  12. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledinský, M., E-mail: ledinsky@fzu.cz [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Meillaud, F.; Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Ganzerová, K.; Vetushka, A.; Fejfar, A. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-15

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool to determine the light-trapping capability of textured ZnO front electrodes implemented in microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon films deposited on superstrates of various roughnesses are characterized by Raman micro-spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 442?nm, 514?nm, 633?nm, and 785?nm, respectively. The way to measure quantitatively and with a high level of reproducibility the Raman intensity is described in details. By varying the superstrate texture and with it the light trapping in the ?c-Si:H absorber layer, we find significant differences in the absolute Raman intensity measured in the near infrared wavelength region (where light trapping is relevant). A good agreement between the absolute Raman intensity and the external quantum efficiency of the ?c-Si:H solar cells is obtained, demonstrating the validity of the introduced method. Applications to thin-film solar cells, in general, and other optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  13. Low-cost, deterministic quasi-periodic photonic structures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Light trapping has been an important issue for thin film silicon solar cells because of the low absorption coefficient in the near infrared range. In this paper, we present a photonic structure which combines anodic aluminum ...

  14. Low cost manufacturing of light trapping features on multi-crystalline silicon solar cells : jet etching method and cost analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berrada Sounni, Amine

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in order to determine low cost methods to improve the light trapping ability of multi-crystalline solar cells. We focused our work on improving current wet etching methods to achieve the ...

  15. Enhanced Light Trapping and Power Conversion Efficiency in Ultrathin Plasmonic Organic Solar Cells: A Coupled Optical-Electrical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    much attention for the more efficient harvesting of solar energy. Notably, even as the thickness acceptor materials have been envisioned as a promising next generation energy harvesting device dueEnhanced Light Trapping and Power Conversion Efficiency in Ultrathin Plasmonic Organic Solar Cells

  16. Improved performance of In,,Ga...As/GaAs quantum dot solar cells via light scattering by nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    of QDs in the context of our work is attractive for achieving long wavelength absorption in solar cells enhancement at all infrared wave- lengths in the device photocurrent spectrum. Epitaxial layer structuresImproved performance of In,,Ga...As/GaAs quantum dot solar cells via light scattering

  17. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structuresTowards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping February 2014; published online 3 March 2014) Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged

  18. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  19. Dual-temperature Kalina cycle for geothermal-solar hybrid power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boghossian, John G

    2011-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the thermodynamics of a power system coupling two renewable heat sources: low-temperature geothermal and a high-temperature solar. The process, referred to as a dual-temperature geothermal-solar Kalina ...

  20. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    w/Storage Floor Storage Col , Solar 15. Ground Preheat LA.l-to existing storage assemblies suitable for passive solarwith isolated storage (e.g. , solar ponds) 15. Ground

  1. Hybrid Solar Cells with Prescribed Nanoscale Morphologies Based on Hyperbranched Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan; Fromer, Neil A.; Chen, Chih-Ping; Kanaras, Antonios G.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2006-01-01

    solar cells.. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Director, Office of Energy Research, Office of Science, Division of Materials

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of New Hybrid Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED): Europium-picrate-triethylene oxide Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarjidan, M. A. Mohd; Abu Zakaria, N. Z. A.; Abd. Majid, W. H. [Solid State Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kusrini, Eny; Saleh, M. I. [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-07-07

    Thin-film light emitting devices based on organic materials have attracted vast interest in applications such as light emitting diode (LED) and flat-panel display. The organic material can be attached with inorganic material to enhance the performance of the light emitting device. A hybrid OLED based on a new complex of europium picrate (Eu-pic) with triethylene oxide (EO3) ligand is fabricated. The OLED is fabricated by using spin coating technique with acetone as the solvent and aluminum as the top electrode. The optical, photoluminescence (PL) and electrical properties of the sample are carried out by UV-Vis spectroscopy (Jasco V-750), luminescence spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer LS-500) and source measure unit (SMU)(Keithly), respectively.

  3. Formation Process of a Light Bridge Revealed with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Katsukawa; T. Yokoyama; T. E. Berger; K. Ichimoto; M. Kubo; B. W. Lites; S. Nagata; T. Shimizu; R. A. Shine; Y. Suematsu; T. D. Tarbell; A. M. Title; S. Tsuneta

    2007-09-17

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) aboard HINODE successfully and continuously observed a formation process of a light bridge in a matured sunspot of the NOAA active region 10923 for several days with high spatial resolution. During its formation, many umbral dots were observed emerging from the leading edges of penumbral filaments, and intruding into the umbra rapidly. The precursor of the light bridge formation was also identified as the relatively slow inward motion of the umbral dots which emerged not near the penumbra, but inside the umbra. The spectro-polarimeter on SOT provided physical conditions in the photosphere around the umbral dots and the light bridges. We found the light bridges and the umbral dots had significantly weaker magnetic fields associated with upflows relative to the core of the umbra, which implies that there was hot gas with weak field strength penetrating from subphotosphere to near the visible surface inside those structures. There needs to be a mechanism to drive the inward motion of the hot gas along the light bridges. We suggest that the emergence and the inward motion are triggered by a buoyant penumbral flux tube as well as the subphotospheric flow crossing the sunspot.

  4. Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations'" [J. Appl. Phys. 117,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Response to "Comment on `Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non.1063/1.4905182 Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non

  5. Operation o Solar Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) Hybrid System in KIER 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naveed, A.T.; Lee, E. J.; Kang, E. C.

    2006-01-01

    The details of the Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) hybrid air heating system, UTC air heating system and its effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV) module and room temperature in KIER are explained in this paper. Two identical test rooms were...

  6. Rapid production of large-area deep sub-wavelength hybrid structures by femtosecond laser light-field tailoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai E-mail: hbsun@jlu.edu.cn; Yang, Rui; Xu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hai; Huo, Cheng-Song; Tu, Hai-Ling; Sun, Hong-Bo E-mail: hbsun@jlu.edu.cn

    2014-01-20

    The goal of creation of large-area deep sub-wavelength nanostructures by femtosecond laser irradiation onto various materials is being hindered by the limited coherence length. Here, we report solution of the problem by light field tailoring of the incident beam with a phase mask, which serves generation of wavelets. Direct interference between the wavelets, here the first-order diffracted beams, and interference between a wavelet and its induced waves such as surface plasmon polariton are responsible for creation of microgratings and superimposed nanogratings, respectively. The principle of wavelets interference enables extension of uniformly induced hybrid structures containing deep sub-wavelength nanofeatures to macro-dimension.

  7. This interactive exhibit is a bean bag tossing game that teaches about the energy of different colors of light and how a solar cell works. Kids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Michael

    is a generalized schematic that could apply to organic or inorganic thin film solar cells. · Directions / Socratic of different colors of light and how a solar cell works. Kids toss colored bean bags at a model solar cell Sequence Hand the child the bean bags. Tell them "The poster shows the layers of a solar cell seen from

  8. DRAFT INTERIM REPORT: NATIONAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR PASSIVE AND HYBRID SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2012-01-01

    Definitions Space Heating Space Cooling Hot Water . .in Passive Solar Heating and Cooling Section C: Program GoalSpace Heating Space Cooling Section G: Task Classifications

  9. The Influence of an Inorganic Interlayer on Exciton Separation in Hybrid Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Claire L.; Price, Michael B.; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Davis, Nathaniel J. K. L.; Abdi-Jalebi, Mojtaba; Friend, Richard H.; Greenham, Neil C.; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.; Böhm, Marcus L.; Musselman, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    -circuit voltage and the short-circuit current was achieved, in particular for P3HT-based solar cells where the power conversion efficiency increased by 39%....

  10. Enhancement of Barrier Properties Using Ultrathin Hybrid Passivation Layer for Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, Sung Woo

    acrylate layer and MS-31 (MgO : SiO2 ¼ 3 : 1 wt %) layer was adopted in organic light emitting diode (OLED the penetrations of oxygen and moisture. [DOI: 10.1143/JJAP.45.5970] KEYWORDS: organic light emitting diode (OLED. Introduction As a next generation display, the organic light emitting diode (OLED) has to great performances

  11. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  12. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: A customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolpak, Alexie M.

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and ...

  13. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  14. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Wilson, John I. B., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200?nm)/i-Si(450?nm)/n-Si(200?nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  15. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozzola, A. Kowalczewski, P.; Andreani, L. C.

    2014-03-07

    Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged as an alternative to standard thick wafers technology, but they are less efficient, because of incomplete absorption of sunlight, and non-radiative recombinations. In this paper, we focus on the case of crystalline silicon (c-Si) devices, and we present a full analytic electro-optical model for p-n junction solar cells with Lambertian light trapping. This model is validated against numerical solutions of the drift-diffusion equations. We use this model to investigate the interplay between light trapping, and bulk and surface recombination. Special attention is paid to surface recombination processes, which become more important in thinner devices. These effects are further amplified due to the textures required for light trapping, which lead to increased surface area. We show that c-Si solar cells with thickness of a few microns can overcome 20% efficiency and outperform bulk ones when light trapping is implemented. The optimal device thickness in presence of light trapping, bulk and surface recombination, is quantified to be in the range of 10–80??m, depending on the bulk quality. These results hold, provided the effective surface recombination is kept below a critical level of the order of 100?cm/s. We discuss the possibility of meeting this requirement, in the context of state-of-the-art techniques for light trapping and surface passivation. We show that our predictions are within the capability of present day silicon technologies.

  16. Carbon Nitride-TiO2 Hybrid Modified with Hydrogenase for Visible Light Driven Hydrogen Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caputo, Christine A.; Wang, Lidong; Beranek, Radim; Reisner, Erwin

    2015-06-29

    5.8 × 105 mol H2 (mol H2ase)–1 after 72 h in a sacrificial electron donor solution at pH 6 during solar AM 1.5G irradiation. An external quantum efficiency up to 4.8 % for photon to hydrogen conversion was achieved. The CNx-TiO2-H2ase construct...

  17. Vertical Pillar-Superlattice Array and Graphene Hybrid Light Emitting Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    after deposition of the thin metal films. Thermal annealing of the graphene/ metal (Gr/M) contact to the GaAs decreases the contact resistance, to provide enhanced carrier injection. The resulting PSL in solar cells, due to the suppressed reflec- tion at the output/input surfaces, increased areas

  18. Controls for Solid-State Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis

    2007-01-01

    of controlling LED lighting using the DALI protocol. Figurewith dimming white LED lighting depending on whether the LEDthe promising hybrid LED lighting systems are: 1. LED Hybrid

  19. Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    devices, semiconductors containing scarce elements such as CdTe and CuInGaSe2 have entered the marketPlasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells This article has been downloaded from Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells P Spinelli1 , V E Ferry2 , J van de Groep1 , M van Lare

  20. Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough Piotr Kowalczewski, Angelo Bozzola, Marco Liscidini, and Lucio Claudio Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light trapping and electrical transport in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures Piotr solar cells J. Appl. Phys. 105, 094511 (2009); 10.1063/1.3108689 Local versus global absorption in thin-film in thin-film solar cells with randomly rough textures Piotr Kowalczewski,a) Angelo Bozzola, Marco

  1. TRNSYS MODELING OF A HYBRID LIGHTING SYSTEM: BUILDING ENERGY LOADS AND CHROMATICITY ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    as a function of time based on horizontal radiation measurements. However, no methods are currently provided. These locations were selected to exemplify best and worst case results, respectively. Annual energy savings rods. 2. LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY AND EFFICACY The amount of illumination provided by a light source

  2. Toward Improved Hybrid Solar Cells (IN-07-053) - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr.Theories81 toDepartmentDo7.1Toward 300Solar

  3. The Bright Lights in New York Could Be Solar | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a solar potential of 5,800 megawatts peak output-more that 40 percent of the city's electrical demand at peak times if all the rooftops were fully outfitted with solar. About...

  4. Multi-facet concentrator of solar setup for irradiating the objects placed in a target plane with solar light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO); Yampolskiy, Vladislav (Moscow, RU); Alekseev, Valerie (Moscow, RU); Son, Valentin (Moscow, RU)

    2001-01-01

    According to the proposed invention, this technical result is achieved so that many-facet concentrator of a solar setup for exposure of objects, placed in a target plane, to the action of solar radiation containing a supporting frame and facets differing by that the facets of the concentrator are chosen with spherical focusing reflective surfaces of equal focal lengths and with selective coatings reflecting a desired spectral fraction of solar radiation, and are arranged on the supporting frame symmetrically with respect to the common axis of the concentrator, their optical axes being directed to the single point on the optical axis of the concentrator located before the nominal focus point of the concentrator and determining the position of arranging the target plane.

  5. Computational Modeling of Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption in a Multicomponent Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    commercially available solar cell panels are made of monocrystalline silicon doped with toxic heavy metals Solar Cell Hanning Chen, Martin G. Blaber, Stacey D. Standridge, Erica J. DeMarco, Joseph T. Hupp, Mark A. Ratner, and George C. Schatz* Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center Department

  6. Towards an understanding of light activation processes in titanium oxide based inverted organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    solar cells S. Chambon, E. Destouesse, B. Pavageau, L. Hirsch, and G. Wantz Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 112. Related Articles Power losses in bilayer inverted small molecule organic solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 233903 (2012) Thin-film encapsulation of inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells by atomic

  7. Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    the surface of the solar cell, where n is the material refractive index. This ray-optics absorption enhancement limit only holds when the thickness of the solar cell is much greater than the optical wavelength limit of 4n2 50. Introduction Texturing of solar cell surfaces allows for absorption enhancement, owing

  8. The effects of fabrication temperature on current-voltage characteristics and energy efficiencies of quantum dot sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, S. M. Z.; Gayen, Taposh; Tint, Naing; Alfano, Robert; Shi, Lingyan; Seredych, Mykola; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2014-11-07

    The effects of fabrication temperature are investigated on the performance of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized hybrid solar cells of the composite material of zinc (hydr)oxide (ZnOH-GO)with 2?wt.?% graphite oxide. The current-voltage (I-V) and photo-current measurements show that higher fabrication temperatures yield greater photovoltaic power conversion efficiencies that essentially indicate more efficient solar cells. Two Photon Fluorescence images show the effects of temperature on the internal morphologies of the solar devices based on such materials. The CdSe-QD sensitized ZnOH-GO hybrid solar cells fabricated at 450?°C showing conversion of ?10.60% under a tungsten lamp (12.1 mW/cm{sup 2}) are reported here, while using potassium iodide as an electrolyte. The output photocurrent, I (?A) with input power, P (mW/cm{sup 2}) is found to be superlinear, showing a relation of I?=?P{sup n}, where n?=?1.4.

  9. Adhesion and degradation of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic light-emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momodu, D. Y.; Chioh, A. V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja (Nigeria); Tong, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Zebaze Kana, M. G. [Physics Advanced Laboratory, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja (Nigeria); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete (Nigeria); Soboyejo, W. O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology, Federal Capital Territory, Abuja (Nigeria); Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-02-28

    This paper presents the results of a combined analytical, computational, and experimental study of adhesion and degradation of Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs). The adhesion between layers that are relevant to OLEDs is studied using an atomic force microscopy technique. The interfacial failure mechanisms associated with blister formation in OLEDs and those due to the addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles into the active regions are then elucidated using a combination of fracture mechanics, finite element modeling and experiments. The blisters observed in the models are shown to be consistent with the results from adhesion, interfacial fracture mechanics models, and prior reports of diffusion-assisted phenomena. The implications of the work are then discussed for the design of OLED structures with improved lifetimes and robustness.

  10. Hybrid Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Meyer; E. S. Swanson

    2015-03-04

    A review of the theoretical and experimental status of hybrid hadrons is presented. The states $\\pi_1(1400)$, $\\pi_1(1600)$, and $\\pi_1(2015)$ are thoroughly reviewed, along with experimental results from GAMS, VES, Obelix, COMPASS, KEK, CLEO, Crystal Barrel, CLAS, and BNL. Theoretical lattice results on the gluelump spectrum, adiabatic potentials, heavy and light hybrids, and transition matrix elements are discussed. These are compared with bag, string, flux tube, and constituent gluon models. Strong and electromagnetic decay models are described and compared to lattice gauge theory results. We conclude that while good evidence for the existence of a light isovector exotic meson exists, its confirmation as a hybrid meson awaits discovery of its iso-partners. We also conclude that lattice gauge theory rules out a number of hybrid models and provides a reference to judge the success of others.

  11. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    basic bilayer CdTe/CdSe solar cells described above. Figurecomplete CdTe/CdSe nanocrystal solar cell (B). gap variationlength for CdSe-P3HT hybrid solar cells. (b) Current-voltage

  12. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recent

  13. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional5 All-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction Inoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  15. Manipulating Light to Understand and Improve Solar Cells (494th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eisaman, Matthew

    2014-04-16

    Energy consumption around the world is projected to approximately triple by the end of the century, according to the 2005 Report from the U.S. Department of Energy's Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Solar Energy Utilization. Much will change in those next 86 years, but for all the power the world needs—for everything from manufacturing and transportation to air conditioning and charging cell phone batteries—improved solar cells will be crucial to meet this future energy demand with renewable energy sources. At Brookhaven Lab, scientists are probing solar cells and exploring variations within the cells—variations that are so small they are measured in billionths of a meter—in order to make increasingly efficient solar cells and ultimately help reduce the overall costs of deploying solar power plants. Dr. Eisaman will discuss DOE's Sunshot Initiative, which aims to reduce the cost of solar cell-generated electricity by 2020. He will also discuss how he and collaborators at Brookhaven Lab are probing different material compositions within solar cells, measuring how efficiently they collect electrical charge, helping to develop a new class of solar cells, and improving solar-cell manufacturing processes.

  16. Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light-scattering substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light://jap.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light developed substrate that decouples the growth and scattering interfaces are investigated in n-i-p triple-junction

  17. Angular dependence of light trapping in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    Angular dependence of light trapping in In0.3Ga0.7As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells X. H. Li,1 P. C trapping in thin-film solar cells via engineered surface morphology or device geometry, scattering,10 In this paper, we describe and demonstrate thin-film quantum-well solar cells that are grown by molecular beam

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2005;86(2):197-205.in LEDs [18-20] and solar cells [ 20, 21]. What makes thesesolar cells, hybrid solar cells and dye-sensitized solar

  19. Life cycle assessment of off-grid lighting applications : kerosene vs. solar lanterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dave, Shreya H

    2008-01-01

    Access to electricity in developing countries is minimal and if available, often unreliable. As a result, fuel-based kerosene lighting is the most common solution to lighting necessities. However, kerosene combustion affects ...

  20. Feasible Café Standard Increases Using Emerging Diesel and Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Abeles, Ethan

    2004-01-01

    USING EMERGING DIESEL AND HYBRID-ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FORusing Emerging Diesel and Hybrid- Electric Technologies forusing Emerging Diesel and Hybrid- Electric Technologies for

  1. Present Status and Marketing Prospects of the Emerging Hybrid-Electric and Diesel Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emissions of New Light-Duty Vehicles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2004-01-01

    modern clean diesel engines and hybrid-electric powertrainsare advanced, clean diesel engines and hybrid-electricmarkets for diesel powered and hybrid-electric vehicles in

  2. Feasible CAFE Standard Increases Using Emerging Diesel and Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Abeles, Ethan C.

    2004-01-01

    USING EMERGING DIESEL AND HYBRID-ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGIES FORusing Emerging Diesel and Hybrid- Electric Technologies forusing Emerging Diesel and Hybrid- Electric Technologies for

  3. Ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells incorporating advanced light-trapping structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branham, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Solar photovoltaics, which convert the energy potential of photons from the sun directly into electrical power, hold immense promise as a cornerstone of a clean energy future. Yet their cost remains greater than that of ...

  4. A ray tracing investigation of light trapping due to grooves in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruggiero, Christopher W

    2007-01-01

    The biggest problem the world faces today is finding a renewable energy source as fossil fuel reserves being depleted, and the ongoing burning of fossil fuels is destroying environments all over the world. Solar energy is ...

  5. High efficiency thin film silicon solar cells with novel light trapping : principle, design and processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Lirong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    One major efficiency limiting factor in thin film solar cells is weak absorption of long wavelength photons due to the limited optical path length imposed by the thin film thickness. This is especially severe in Si because ...

  6. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of primary energy saving than conventional systems fed by vapour compression chillers and coupled with PV cells. All SAC systems present good figures for primary energy consumption. The best performances are seen in systems with integrated heat pumps and small solar collector areas. The economics of these SAC systems at current equipment costs and energy prices are acceptable. They become more interesting in the case of public incentives of up to 30% of the investment cost (Simple Payback Time from 5 to 10 years) and doubled energy prices. (author)

  7. Light sterile neutrinos, spin flavour precession and the solar neutrino experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. R. Das; Joao Pulido; Marco Picariello

    2009-04-01

    We generalize to three active flavours a previous two flavour model for the resonant spin flavour conversion of solar neutrinos to sterile ones, a mechanism which is added to the well known LMA one. The transition magnetic moments from the muon and tau neutrinos to the sterile play the dominant role in fixing the amount of active flavour suppression. We also show, through numerical integration of the evolution equations, that the data from all solar neutrino experiments except Borexino exhibit a clear preference for a sizable magnetic field either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. This is possibly related to the fact that the data from the first set are average ones taken during a period of mostly intense solar activity, whereas in contrast Borexino data were taken during a period of quiet sun. We argue that the solar neutrino experiments are capable of tracing the possible modulation of the solar magnetic field. Those monitoring the high energy neutrinos, namely the $^8 B$ flux, appear to be sensitive to a field modulation either in the convection zone or in the core and radiation zone. Those monitoring the low energy fluxes will be sensitive to the second type of solar field profiles only. In this way Borexino alone may play an essential role, since it examines both energy sectors, although experimental redundance from other experiments will be most important.

  8. On the current solar magnetic activity in the light of its behaviour during the Holocene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inceoglu, F; Knudsen, M F; Karoff, C; Olsen, J; Turck-Chièze, S

    2015-01-01

    Solar modulation potential (SMP) reconstructions based on cosmogenic nuclide records reflect changes in the open solar magnetic field and can therefore help us obtain information on the behaviour of the open solar magnetic field over the Holocene period. We aim at comparing the Sun's large-scale magnetic field behaviour over the last three solar cycles with variations in the SMP reconstruction through the Holocene epoch. To achieve these objectives, we use the IntCal13 $^{14}$C data to investigate distinct patterns in the occurrences of grand minima and maxima during the Holocene period. We then check whether these patterns might mimic the recent solar magnetic activity by investigating the evolution of the energy in the Sun's large-scale dipolar magnetic field using the Wilcox Solar Observatory data. The cosmogenic radionuclide data analysis shows that $\\sim$71\\% of grand maxima during the period from 6600 BC to 1650 AD were followed by a grand minimum. The occurrence characteristics of grand maxima and mini...

  9. Performance of a small solar-powered hybrid membrane system for remote communities under varying feedwater salinities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schäfer, Andrea; Remy, C.; Richards, B.S.

    2004-01-01

    An estimated 1 billion people are living both without access to clean drinking water or electricity. The small photovoltaic (PV)-powered hybrid membrane system described here is designed to address the plight of some ...

  10. Light-induced V{sub oc} increase and decrease in high-efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuckelberger, M., E-mail: michael.stuckelberger@epfl.ch; Riesen, Y.; Despeisse, M.; Schüttauf, J.-W.; Haug, F.-J.; Ballif, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory, Rue de la Maladière 71, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland)

    2014-09-07

    High-efficiency amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells were deposited with different thicknesses of the p-type amorphous silicon carbide layer on substrates of varying roughness. We observed a light-induced open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) increase upon light soaking for thin p-layers, but a decrease for thick p-layers. Further, the V{sub oc} increase is enhanced with increasing substrate roughness. After correction of the p-layer thickness for the increased surface area of rough substrates, we can exclude varying the effective p-layer thickness as the cause of the substrate roughness dependence. Instead, we explain the observations by an increase of the dangling-bond density in both the p-layer—causing a V{sub oc} increase—and in the intrinsic absorber layer, causing a V{sub oc} decrease. We present a mechanism for the light-induced increase and decrease, justified by the investigation of light-induced changes of the p-layer and supported by Advanced Semiconductor Analysis simulation. We conclude that a shift of the electron quasi-Fermi level towards the conduction band is the reason for the observed V{sub oc} enhancements, and poor amorphous silicon quality on rough substrates enhances this effect.

  11. Low-cost light-weight thin material solar heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1985-03-01

    Presented in this paper are innovative concepts to substantially reduce the cost of residential solar application. They were based on a research and development approach that establishes cost goals which if successfully met can insure high marketability. Included in this cost goal-oriented approach is the additional need to address aesthetics and performance. With such constraints established, designs were initialized, tested, and iterated towards appropriate solutions. These solutions are based on methods for reducing the material intensity of the products, improving the simplicity for ease of production, and reducing the cost of installation. Such a development approach has yielded past proof-of-concept designs in the solar collector and in the other components that constitute a total solar heating system.

  12. A Two-ribbon White-light Flare Associated with a Failed Solar Eruption Observed by ONSET, SDO, and IRIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, X; Ding, M D; Liu, K; Chen, P F; Fang, C; Liu, Y D

    2015-01-01

    Two-ribbon brightenings are one of the most remarkable characteristics of an eruptive solar flare and are often used for predicting the occurrence of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Nevertheless, it was called in question recently whether all two-ribbon flares are eruptive. In this paper, we investigate a two ribbon-like white-light (WL) flare that is associated with a failed magnetic flux rope (MFR) eruption on 2015 January 13, which has no accompanying CME in the WL coronagraph. Observations by \\textit{Optical and Near-infrared Solar Eruption Tracer} and \\textit{Solar Dynamics Observatory} reveal that, with the increase of the flare emission and the acceleration of the unsuccessfully erupting MFR, two isolated kernels appear at the WL 3600 {\\AA} passband and quickly develop into two elongated ribbon-like structures. The evolution of the WL continuum enhancement is completely coincident in time with the variation of \\textit{Fermi} hard X-ray 26--50 keV flux. Increase of continuum emission is also clearly visi...

  13. Effectiveness of solar heating and lighting in an underground concrete and glass dwelling high in the Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyer, L.L. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Div. of Design Technology)

    1993-01-01

    Solar heating and daylighting are two primary design features which can have a major impact on occupant perceptions of an underground living environment. A quantitative design analysis and evaluation of these features has been conducted for an energy conserving earth covered dwelling in a cold climate at high altitude in the Rocky Mountains. For this example, because of the solar contribution, a heating load reduction greater than 45 percent has been calculated and demonstrated on an operational basis, compared to the same earth sheltered construction without solar. The building envelope also has an effective time lag of several months which further increases the annual effectiveness. Also, depending on the sky conditions, the portion of exterior daylight reaching deep into the interior spaces easily exceeds 10 percent in the winter and can reach up to 50 percent or more. Thus, both heating and lighting by natural means are shown to be available in ample quantities in this cave-like structure. Pertinent design features to enhance such performance are highlighted.

  14. Recent progress in enhancing solar-to-hydrogen efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Jianqing; Yang, Donghui; Song, Dan; Jiang, Jinghua; Ma, Aibin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ni, Chaoying

    2015-01-01

    Solar water splitting is a promising and ideal route for renewable production of hydrogen by using the most abundant resources of solar light and water. Focusing on the working principal of solar water splitting, including photon absorption and exciton generation in semiconductor, exciton separation and transfer to the surface of semiconductor, and respective electron and hole reactions with absorbed surface species to generate hydrogen and oxygen, this review covers the comprehensive efforts and findings made in recent years on the improvement for the solar-to-hydrogen efficiency (STH) determined by a combination of light absorption process, charge separation and migration, and catalytic reduction and oxidation reactions. Critical evaluation is attempted on the strategies for improving solar light harvesting efficiency, enhancing charge separation and migration, and improving surface reactions. Towards the end, new and emerging technologies for boosting the STH efficiency are discussed on multiple exciton generation, up-conversion, multi-strategy modifications and the potentials of organometal hybrid perovskite materials.

  15. WHITE-LIGHT OBSERVATIONS OF SOLAR WIND TRANSIENTS AND COMPARISON WITH AUXILIARY DATA SETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, T. A.; DeForest, C. E.; Reinard, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents results utilizing a new data processing pipeline for STEREO/SECCHI. The pipeline is used to identify and track 24 large- and small-scale solar wind transients from the Sun out to 1 AU. This comparison was performed during a few weeks around the minimum at the end of Solar Cycle 23 and the start of Cycle 24 (2008 December to 2009 January). We use coronagraph data to identify features near the Sun, track them through HI-2A, and identify their signatures with in situ data at the Earth and STEREO-B. We provide measurements and preliminary analysis of the in situ signatures of these features near 1 AU. Along with the demonstration of the utility of heliospheric imagers for tracking even small-scale structures, we identify and discuss an important limitation in using geometric triangulation for determining three-dimensional properties.

  16. Dynamics of low-energy nuclear forces and Solar Neutrino Problems in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of light nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. N. Ivanov; H. Oberhummer; N. I. Troitskaya; M. Faber

    2000-11-04

    The Solar Neutrino Problems (SNP's) are analysed in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of light nuclei. In this model a possible clue to the solution of the SNP's is in the reduction of the solar neutrino fluxes relative to the predicted by the Standard Solar Model through the decrease of the solar core temperature. The former can be realized through the enhancement of the astrophysical factor for the solar proton burning. The enhancement the upper bound of which is restricted by the helioseismological data goes dynamically via the contribution of the nucleon tensor current coupled to the deuteron. The agreement of the reduced solar neutrino fluxes with the experimental data can be reached within a scenario of vacuum two-flavour neutrino oscillations without a fine tuning of the neutrino-flavour oscillation parameters. In the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model of light nuclei an enhancement of the astrophysical factor for the solar proton burning entails a change of the cross sections for neutrino and anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron at low energies. This provides a theoretical foundation for a new check of a value of the astrophysical factor in terrestrial laboratories.

  17. First lunar wake passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of wake effects and solar wind fluctuations by 3D hybrid simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    with the solar wind were found by the IMP-1 satellite (Ness et al., 1964; Ness, 1965). Later, the magnetic field the existence of a lunar wake (Ness et al., 1967). This pioneering mission revealed the low electric

  18. Solar Self Help Inc aka Light Energy Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium deEnergyCompany Limited SPC JumpSolar ResourcesSelf

  19. Solar LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates the Way in Alabama | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES PursuantEnergySolar Flare Activity Closelyof

  20. EMISSION HEIGHT AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION OF WHITE-LIGHT EMISSION OBSERVED BY HINODE/SOT FROM THE 2012 JANUARY 27 X-CLASS SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, Kyoko; Shimizu, Toshifumi [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Masuda, Satoshi [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Ohno, Masanori, E-mail: watanabe.kyoko@isas.jaxa.jp [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8516 (Japan)

    2013-10-20

    White-light emissions were observed from an X1.7 class solar flare on 2012 January 27, using three continuum bands (red, green, and blue) of the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. This event occurred near the solar limb, and so differences in the locations of the various emissions are consistent with differences in heights above the photosphere of the various emission sources. Under this interpretation, our observations are consistent with the white-light emissions occurring at the lowest levels of where the Ca II H emission occurs. Moreover, the centers of the source regions of the red, green, and blue wavelengths of the white-light emissions are significantly displaced from each other, suggesting that those respective emissions are emanating from progressively lower heights in the solar atmosphere. The temperature distribution was also calculated from the white-light data, and we found the lower-layer emission to have a higher temperature. This indicates that high-energy particles penetrated down to near the photosphere, and deposited heat into the ambient lower layers of the atmosphere.

  1. Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and-E C H N13,CenterCenterLighting Sign In

  2. Controls for Solid-State Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis

    2007-01-01

    the promising hybrid LED lighting systems are: 1. LED Hybridexample of a hybrid LED lighting system, is a system fieldedwhich switches to low-level LED lighting after the occupancy

  3. The synthesis of inorganic semiconductor nanocrystalline materials for the purpose of creating hybrid organic/inorganic light-emitting devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steckel, Jonathan S. (Jonathan Stephen)

    2006-01-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) or quantum dots (QDs) can be synthesized to efficiently emit light from the ultraviolet, across the entire visible spectrum, and into the near infrared. This is now possible due ...

  4. Hybrid Identities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montclair, Sani

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid Identity; Family, Photography and History in Colonialintersectional politics of hybrid identity is the primarycreated a distinctively hybrid culture, one where language,

  5. Many exterior entry and walkway lights in residential and commercial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be difficult since retail stocking is inconsistent. The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Hybrid Outdoor Fixture

  6. Hybrid solar thermal-photovoltaic systems demonstration, Phase I and II. Final technical progress report, July 5, 1979-December 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loferski, J.J.

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of the project is to investigate a system based on combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panels to supply the energy needs of a small single family residence. The system finally selected and constructed uses PV/T panels which utilize air as the heat transfer medium. Optimization of thermal performance was accomplished by attaching metal fins to the back surface of each cell which significantly increased the heat transfer coefficient from the solar cells to the air stream. The other major components of the selected system are an air-to-air heat pump, a rock bin thermal energy storage bin, a synchronous dc-to-ac converter, a microprocessor to control the system, a heat exchanger for the domestic hot water system and of course the building itself which is a one story, well insulated structure having a floor area of 1200 ft/sup 2/. A prototype collector was constructed and tested. Based on this experience, twenty collectors, containing 2860 four inch diameter solar cells, were constructed and installed on the building. Performance of the system was simulated using a TRNSYS-derived program, modified to accommodate PV/T panels and to include the particular components included in the selected system. Simulation of the performance showed that about 65 percent of the total annual energy needs of the building would be provided by the PV/T system. Of this total, about one half is produced at a time when it can be used in the building and one half must be sold back to the utility.

  7. Comparison of electrostatic and localized plasmon induced light enhancement in hybrid InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jie; Llopis, Antonio; Krokhin, Arkadii; Neogi, Arup, E-mail: arup@unt.edu [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States); Pereira, Sergio [CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Watson, Ian M. [SUPA, Institute of Photonics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-16

    The light enhancement phenomena in InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) infiltrated with metal nanoparticles (NPs) are studied using resonant and off-resonant localized plasmon interactions. The emission and recombination characteristics of carriers in InGaN/GaN MQW structures with inverted hexagonal pits (IHPs) are modified distinctly depending on the nature of their interaction with the metal NPs and with the pumping and emitted photons. It is observed that the emission intensity of light is significantly enhanced when the emission energy is off-resonant to the localized plasmon frequency of the metal nanoparticles. This results in enhanced emission from MQW due to Au nanoparticles and from IHPs due to Ag nanoparticles. At resonant-plasmon frequency of the Ag NPs, the emission from MQWs is quenched due to the re-absorption of the emitted photons, or due to the drift carriers from c-plane MQWs towards the NPs because of the Coulomb forces induced by the image charge effect.

  8. Massive Hybrid Stars with Strangeness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatsuyuki Takatsuka; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Kota Masuda

    2014-02-19

    How massive the hybrid stars could be is discussed by a "3-window model" proposed from a new strategy to construct the equation of state with hadron-quark transition. It is found that hybrid stars have a strong potentiality to generate a large mass compatible with two-solar-mass neutron star observations.

  9. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic powerTowards efficient hybrid solar cells based on fully polymerSariciftci, N. S. Hybrid solar cells, Inorg. Chim. Acta 361,

  10. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Towards efficient hybrid solar cells based on fully polymerS. , Sariciftci, N. S. Hybrid solar cells, Inorg. Chim. ActaY. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar cell efficiency table (

  11. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Towards efficient hybrid solar cells based on fully polymerSariciftci, N. S. Hybrid solar cells, Inorg. Chim. Acta 361,radial GaAs nanopillar solar cells, Nano Lett. 11, 2490-

  12. The IMM solar cell's advanced ultra-light, highly flexible design earned it a 2008 R&D 100 Award and a 2009 Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer by the Federal Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --particularly for complex multijunction cells. These cells convert solar energy more efficiently than single- junction cells of the standard triple-junction cell, NREL scientists knew further success--and higher efficienciesinnovati n The IMM solar cell's advanced ultra-light, highly flexible design earned it a 2008 R

  13. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    absorbed light energy into output electricity. Solar cellselectricity. The remaining 70% of absorbed energy is turned into heat inside the solar

  14. Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widyolar, Bennett

    2013-01-01

    solar and hybrid technologies represent a potential solutionon potential cost savings that will make solar coolingsolar collectors, even though there exists a huge potential

  15. Remnant PbI{sub 2}, an unforeseen necessity in high-efficiency hybrid perovskite-based solar cells?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Duyen H.; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Katz, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T. E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. E-mail: m-kanatzidis@northwestern.edu; Farha, Omar K.

    2014-09-01

    Perovskite-containing solar cells were fabricated in a two-step procedure in which PbI{sub 2} is deposited via spin-coating and subsequently converted to the CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite by dipping in a solution of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I. By varying the dipping time from 5 s to 2 h, we observe that the device performance shows an unexpectedly remarkable trend. At dipping times below 15 min the current density and voltage of the device are enhanced from 10.1 mA/cm{sup 2} and 933 mV (5 s) to 15.1 mA/cm{sup 2} and 1036 mV (15 min). However, upon further conversion, the current density decreases to 9.7 mA/cm{sup 2} and 846 mV after 2 h. Based on X-ray diffraction data, we determined that remnant PbI{sub 2} is always present in these devices. Work function and dark current measurements showed that the remnant PbI{sub 2} has a beneficial effect and acts as a blocking layer between the TiO{sub 2} semiconductor and the perovskite itself reducing the probability of back electron transfer (charge recombination). Furthermore, we find that increased dipping time leads to an increase in the size of perovskite crystals at the perovskite-hole-transporting material interface. Overall, approximately 15 min dipping time (?2% unconverted PbI{sub 2}) is necessary for achieving optimal device efficiency.

  16. Hybrid Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernhard Ketzer

    2012-08-25

    The SU(3)_flavor constituent quark model has been quite successful to explain the properties as well as the observed spectrum of mesons with pseudoscalar and vector quantum numbers. Many radial and orbital excitations of quark-antiquark systems predicted by the model, however, have not yet been observed experimentally or assigned unambiguously. In addition, a much richer spectrum of mesons is expected from QCD, in which quarks interact which each other through the exchange of colored self-interacting gluons. Owing to this particular structure of QCD, configurations are allowed in which an excited gluonic field contributes to the quantum numbers J^{PC} of the meson. States with a valence color-octet qqbar' pair neutralized in color by an excited gluon field are termed hybrids. The observation of such states, however, is difficult because they will mix with ordinary qqbar' states with the same quantum numbers, merely augmenting the observed spectrum for a given J^{PC}. Since the gluonic field may carry quantum numbers other than 0^{++}, however, this can give rise to states with "exotic" quantum numbers J^{PC}=0^{--}, 0^{+-}, 1^{-+}, 2^{+-},... The lowest-lying hybrid multiplet is expected to contain a state with exotic quantum numbers J^{PC}=1^{-+}. The identification of such a state is considered a "smoking gun" for the observation of non-qqbar mesons. The search for hybrid states has been a central goal of hadron spectroscopy in the last 20 years. Ongoing and upcoming high-statistics experiments are expected to shed new light on the existence of such states in nature. In this paper, theoretical predictions for masses and decay modes as well as recent experimental evidence for hybrid meson states and future experimental directions are discussed.

  17. Development of a light detection system for bidirectional measurements over the solar spectrum and sun course simulations with scale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Browne, Courtney, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    The use of natural light in building structures can increase energy efficiency and lead to more sustainable architecture. To encourage such use of natural light, a dual experimental device is being developed at MIT to help ...

  18. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4867008] I. INTRODUCTION A central focus of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cell research important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structures

  19. Rapid sintering of TiO{sub 2} photoelectrodes using intense pulsed white light for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Hwa-Young; Kim, Jae-Yup; Ah Lee, Jin; Lee, Kwangsoo; Yoo, Kicheon; Lee, Doh-Kwon; Kim, BongSoo; Young Kim, Jin; Kim, Honggon; Jung Son, Hae; Kim, Jihyun; Ah Lim, Jung E-mail: mjko@kist.re.kr; Jae Ko, Min E-mail: mjko@kist.re.kr

    2014-04-07

    Intense pulsed white light (IPWL) sintering was carried out at room temperature, which is suitable dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabrication process on plastic substrates for the mass production. Five seconds irradiation of IPWL on TiO{sub 2} electrode significantly improves the photocurrent density and power conversion efficiency of DSSCs by more than 110% and 115%, respectively, compared to the DSSCs without IPWL treatment. These improvements were mainly attributed to the enhanced interconnection between the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced by IPWL illumination, which is confirmed by the impedance spectra analysis.

  20. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  1. Design of Nanostructured Solar Cells Using Coupled Optical and Electrical Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    novel route toward optical solar cell design, in which lightDesign of Nanostructured Solar Cells Using Coupled Opticaland electrical design of light trapping in solar cells is

  2. Solar-Driven Microbial Photoelectrochemical System for Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hanyu

    2015-01-01

    solar light. Coupling of the renewable solar energy with the3 The DSSC harvests renewable solar energy and provides theprovided by a renewable energy source such as solar light,

  3. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    voltage . The cell output power is given by:solar cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ?ratio of the solar cell output power to the incident light

  4. Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

  5. ZnO/a-Si Distributed Bragg Reflectors for Light Trapping in Thin Film Solar Cells from Visible to Infrared Range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Aqing; Zhu, Kaigui

    2015-01-01

    Distributed bragg reflectors (DBRs) consisting of ZnO and amorphous silicon (a-Si) were prepared by magnetron sputtering method for selective light trapping. The quarter-wavelength ZnO/a-Si DBRs with only 6 periods exhibit a peak reflectance of above 99% and have a full width at half maximum that is greater than 347 nm in the range of visible to infrared. The 6-pair reversed quarter-wavelength ZnO/a-Si DBRs also have a peak reflectance of 98%. Combination of the two ZnO/a-Si DBRs leads to a broader stopband from 686 nm to 1354 nm. Using the ZnO/a-Si DBRs as the rear reflector of a-Si thin film solar cells significantly increases the photocurrent in the spectrum range of 400 nm to 1000 nm, in comparison with that of the cells with Al reflector. The obtained results suggest that ZnO/a-Si DBRs are promising reflectors of a-Si thin-film solar cells for light trapping.

  6. Angular dependence of light trapping in In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, X. H.; Li, P. C.; Yu, E. T.; Hu, D. Z.; Schaadt, D. M.

    2014-01-28

    The dependence of light trapping effects in In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs quantum-well solar cells on wavelength and incident angle is experimentally characterized and analyzed. Separation of active device layers from their epitaxial growth substrate enables integration of thin-film semiconductor device layers with nanostructured metal/dielectric rear contacts to increase optical absorption via coupling to both Fabry-Perot resonances and guided lateral propagation modes in the semiconductor. The roles of Fabry-Perot resonances and coupling to guided modes are analyzed via photocurrent response measurements and numerical modeling for light incident at angles of 0° (normal incidence) to 30° off normal. Light trapping enables external quantum efficiency at long wavelengths as high as 2.9% per quantum well to be achieved experimentally, substantially exceeding the ?1% per quantum well level typically observed. Increased long wavelength quantum efficiency is shown in experimental measurements to persist with increasing angle of incidence and is explained as a consequence of the large number of guided modes available in the device structure.

  7. Solar collector array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, John Champlin; Martins, Guy Lawrence

    2015-09-06

    A method and apparatus for efficient manufacture, assembly and production of solar energy. In one aspect, the apparatus may include a number of modular solar receiver assemblies that may be separately manufactured, assembled and individually inserted into a solar collector array housing shaped to receive a plurality of solar receivers. The housing may include optical elements for focusing light onto the individual receivers, and a circuit for electrically connecting the solar receivers.

  8. Development of Novel RTP-like Processing for Solar Cell Fabrication using UV-Rich Light Sources: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA No. CRD-11-442

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2013-01-01

    NREL and Mattson Technology are interested in developing new processing techniques for fabrication of solar cells using UV-rich optical processing. UV light has a very high absorption coefficient in most semiconductors, allowing the semiconductor surface to be heated locally and, in some cases, without a significant increase in the substrate temperature. NREL has several projects related to cell processing that currently use an optical furnace (having a spectrum rich in visible and infrared light). Mattson Technology has developed a UV rich light source that can be used in either pulse or continuous modes. The objective of this CRADA is to explore applications in solar cell processing where absorption characteristics of UV light can lead to lower cell cost and/or higher efficiencies.

  9. Voltage-induced electroluminescence characteristics of hybrid light-emitting diodes with CdSe/Cd/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles embedded in a conducting polymer on plastic substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwak, Kiyeol; Cho, Kyoungah, E-mail: chochem@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.kr; Kim, Sangsig, E-mail: chochem@korea.ac.kr, E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-10

    We investigate the electroluminescence (EL) characteristics of a hybrid light-emitting diode (HyLED) with an emissive layer comprised of CdSe/Cd/ZnS core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) on a plastic substrate. The EL characteristics change dramatically with increasing of the biased voltage. At low voltages, recombination of electrons and holes occurs only in the PFO film because of poor charge transfer in the PFO-CdSe/Cd/ZnS NPs composite film, while the color of the light-emitting from the HyLED changes from blue to red as the biased voltage increases from 7.5 to 17.5?V. We examine and discuss the mechanism of this color tunability.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Energy Savings from Lighting Controls in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Alison

    2012-01-01

    2000: 131-142. California Lighting Technology Center. Hybrid2011 01 July. California Lighting Technology Center.2007. Lighting research program project 4.1 hotel and

  11. Fact #598: November 23, 2009 Hybrid Vehicle Sales by Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The number of all light vehicles sold declined about 18% from 2007 to 2008, while the number of hybrid vehicles sold declined about 11%. Five new hybrid models were sold in 2008; other than those,...

  12. Manufacturers of light sensitive devices need to measure the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    of light sensitive devices. The Solar cells testing system has won the Dutch Cleantech Challenge 2014

  13. Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Market Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Market 2004 Diesel...

  14. Types of Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    selection. Types of lighting include: Fluorescent Incandescent Outdoor solar Light-emitting diode (LED) Also learn how energy-efficient lightbulbs compare to traditional...

  15. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Michael, Joseph Darryl (Schenectady, NY)

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  16. Lead selenide nanowire solar cells via LPNE and its new found derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hujdic, Justin

    2012-01-01

    solar panels require solar trackers which change the incident angle of light throughout the day to maintain operating efficiency

  17. Design of inflatable solar concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrasquillo, Omar (Omar Y. Carrasquillo De Armas)

    2013-01-01

    Solar concentrators improve the performance of solar collection systems by increasing the amount of usable energy available for a given collector size. Unfortunately, they are not known for their light weight and portability, ...

  18. Investigation of porous alumina as a self-assembled diffractive element to facilitate light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coronel, Naomi (Naomi Cristina)

    2009-01-01

    Thin film solar cells are currently being investigated as an affordable alternative energy source because of the reduced material cost. However, these devices suffer from low efficiencies, compared to silicon wafer solar ...

  19. Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory 21st Century Automotive Challenge April 17-19, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    . Larson PA Transportation Institute Automotive challenge features advanced vehicles, solar home Imagine you live in a solar home with a high-power energy capturing capacity. Now imagine you can choose any vehicle technology you need to match your lifestyle ­ electric, solar electric, hybrid, pluggable hybrid

  20. Making fuel from light: Argonne research sheds light on photosynthesis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Making fuel from light: Argonne research sheds light on photosynthesis and creation of solar fuel By Jo Napolitano * September 1, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Refined by nature over a...

  1. Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are exotic hybrid crystalline materials developed out of curiosity. Unexpectedly, solar cells incorporating these perovskites are rapidly emerging as serious contenders to rival...

  2. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1978

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    of advanced concept solar power plants. For conditions ofis essential if solar power plants are ever to supply aoptimum size for a solar-hybrid power plant utilizing small

  3. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  4. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  5. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-04-27

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A thin LiF layer serves typically as the electron injection layer in OLEDs and electron collection interlayer in the OSCs. However, several reports showed that it can also assist in holeinjection in OLEDs. Here we first demonstrate that it assists hole-collection in OSCs, which is more obvious after air-plasma treatment, and explore this intriguing dual role. For OLEDs, we focus on solution processing methods to fabricate highly efficient phosphorescent OLEDs. First, we investigated OLEDs with a polymer host matrix, and enhanced charge injection by adding hole- and electron-transport materials into the system. We also applied a hole-blocking and electron-transport material to prevent luminescence quenching by the cathode. Finally, we substituted the polymer host by a small molecule, to achieve more efficient solution processed small molecular OLEDs (SMOLEDs); this approach is cost-effective in comparison to the more common vacuum thermal evaporation. All these studies help us to better understand the underlying relationship between the organic semiconductor materials and the OSCs and OLEDs’ performance and will subsequently assist in further enhancing the efficiencies of OSCs and OLEDs. With better efficiency and longer lifetime, the OSCs and OLEDs will be competitive with their inorganic counterparts.

  6. Einstein static Universe in hybrid metric-Palatini gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian G. Boehmer; Francisco S. N. Lobo; Nicola Tamanini

    2015-02-18

    Hybrid metric-Palatini gravity is a recent and novel approach to modified theories of gravity, which consists of adding to the metric Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian an f(R) term constructed a la Palatini. It was shown that the theory passes local tests even if the scalar field is very light, and thus implies the existence of a long-range scalar field, which is able to modify the dynamics in galactic and cosmological scales, but leaves the Solar System unaffected. In this work, motivated by the possibility that the Universe may have started out in an asymptotically Einstein static state in the inflationary universe context, we analyse the stability of the Einstein static Universe by considering linear homogeneous perturbations in the respective dynamically equivalent scalar-tensor representation of hybrid metric-Palatini gravity. Considering linear homogeneous perturbations, the stability regions of the Einstein static universe are parametrized by the first and second derivatives of the scalar potential, and it is explicitly shown that a large class of stable solutions exists in the respective parameter space, in the context of hybrid metric-Palatini gravity.

  7. Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs Solar Photovoltaic and Demand Response 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyra, K.; Hanel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Excitonic photovoltaic devices, including organic, hybrid organic/inorganic, and dye-sensitized solar cells, are attractive alternatives to conventional inorganic solar cells due to their potential for low cost and low ...

  8. Interface and composition analysis on perovskite solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteocci, Fabio; Busby, Yan; Pireaux, Jean-Jaques; Divitini, Giorgio; Cacovich, Stefania; Ducati, Caterina; di Carlo, Aldo

    2015-11-02

    Organometal halide (hybrid) perovskite solar cells have been fabricated following four different deposition procedures and investigated in order to find correlations between the solar cell characteristics/performance and their structure...

  9. Wankel engine for hybrid powertrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butti, A.; Site, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Wankel engine is suited to be used to drive hybrid propulsion systems. The main disadvantage of hybrid propulsion systems is the complexity that causes a high weight and large dimensions. For these reason hybrid systems are more suitable for large size vehicle (buses, vans) rather than for small passenger cars. A considerable reduction of hybrid systems weight and dimensions can be obtained using a Wankel rotary engine instead of a conventional engine. The Wankel engine is light, compact, simple, and produces low noise and low vibrations. Therefore a Wankel engine powered hybrid system is suited to be used on small cars. In this paper a 1,000 kg parallel hybrid car with continuously variable transmission and a 6,000 kg series hybrid minibus both equipped with Wankel engines are considered. The Wankel engine works at steady state to minimize fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The simulation of the behavior of these two vehicles during a ECE + EUDC test cycle is presented in order to evaluate the performances of the systems.

  10. Solar lighting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendo New Energy Equipment Co

  11. Solar-Driven Microbial Photoelectrochemical System for Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hanyu

    2015-01-01

    photo-anode based solar microbial energy conversion system,C. J. N. , Solar Energy Powered Microbial Fuel Cell with aLight Energy to Bioelectricity: Photosynthetic Microbial

  12. New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Morphological Paradigm Uncovered in Organic Solar Cells Print Organic solar cells are made of light, flexible, renewable materials; they require simple and inexpensive...

  13. Black oxide nanoparticles as durable solar absorbing material for high-temperature concentrating solar power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Available online 8 January 2015 Keywords: Concentrating solar power Solar absorber Cobalt oxide Light trapping High temperature a b s t r a c t Concentrating solar power is becoming an increasingly important an increasingly urgent need for human society [1,2]. Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems (or solar thermal sys

  14. Many exterior entry lights in residential and commercial applications use two-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and replacement CFLs are not widely stocked. The Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Hybrid Security Fixture combines

  15. Alternative Energy Technologies Solar Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Christopher

    #12;Alternative Energy Technologies Solar Power Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Power;Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Reflector material is Aluminum or Silver Tube material ..... Several possible gauges, gas sensors. Light-emitting diodes (LED's) Power amplifiers for cell phones Indium Gallium #12

  16. ORNL/TM-2004/181 Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/TM-2004/181 Future Potential of Hybrid and Diesel Powertrains in the U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle. #12;FUTURE POTENTIAL OF HYBRID AND DIESEL POWERTRAINS IN THE U.S. LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLE MARKET David L .....................................................................................................................1 2. HYBRID AND DIESEL TECHNOLOGY STATUS AND PROSPECTS...............................3 2.1 DIESELS

  17. Tuning near-gap electronic structure, interface charge transfer and visible light response of hybrid doped graphene and Ag3PO4 composite: Dopant effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Chao-Ni; Xu, Liang; Yang, Yin-Cai; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Huang, Gui-Fang; Peng, P; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The enhanced photocatalytic performance of doped graphene(GR)/semiconductor nanocomposites have recently been widely observed, but an understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind it is still out of reach. As a model system to study the effect of dopants, we investigate the electronic structures and optical properites of doped GR/Ag3PO4 nanocomposites using the first-principles calculations, demonstrating that the band gap, near-gap electronic structure and interface charge transfer of the doped GR/Ag3PO4(100) composite can be tuned by the dopants. Interestingly, the doping atom and C atoms bonded to dopant become active sites for photocatalysis because they are positively or negatively charged due to the charge redistribution caused by interaction. The dopants can enhance the visible light absorption and photoinduced electrons transfer. We propose that the N atom may be most appropriate doping for the GR/Ag3PO4 photocatalyst. This work can rationalize the available experimental results about N-doped GR-s...

  18. Accurate performance measurement of silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accurate performance measurement of silicon solar cells William Murray Keogh July 2001 A thesis is an important part of the solar cell manufacturing process. Two classes of measurement can be considered accuracy. The light source is very important when calibrating solar cells. Commonly used light sources

  19. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 03 · Nature of Sunlight 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 3: Nature of Sunlight Wave-Particle Duality · Light acts as ­ Waves University: Solar Cells Lecture 3: Nature of Sunlight Properties of Light · Sunlight contains photons of many

  20. Solar performance: results from the field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    Actual monitored data are presented on 7 homes and an office complex to illustrate energy savings possible through the use of solar energy and energy conservation. In the Brookhaven house (superinsulated) a Trombe wall is shown to be superior to a sunspace. Energy-Efficient Residence I (Mt. Airy, MD) is compared to a conventional house next door and found to use 70% less energy for heating and 31% less energy for cooling. Energy-Efficient Residence II (Damascus, MD) is a two-story residence using passive and hybrid solar space heating, rockbin heat storage, greywater recycling and an earth-source heat pump. It's energy heating costs are reported at $120/yr. In an office complex in Taos, NM solar energy was reported to provide 67% of the heating and a large fraction of the lighting requirements. The Mastin Double-Envelope House in Middletown, RI is described as operating quite effectively although some problems remain. Rymark I, II, and III (Frederick, MD) are described as modular homes with various amounts of north and south glazing, and differing amounts of insulation and thermal mass. One finding is that 85 ft/sup 2/ of glass and R-5 window insulation saves the same amount of energy as adding 125 ft/sup 2/ of south glass and eutectic salts for thermal mass, but costs $2200 less. (MJJ)

  1. Ford Debuts Solar Energy Concept Car

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ford Motor Company unveiled the C-MAX Solar Energi Concept, a sun-powered vehicle with the potential to deliver what a plug-in hybrid offers without depending on the electric grid for fuel.

  2. Modeling low cost hybrid tandem photovoltaics with the potential for efficiencies exceeding 20%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    shows that an organic solar cell may be added on top of a commercial CIGS cell to improve its efficiency% in order to keep installation costs down. In this work we explore a novel solar cell architecture, a hybrid of an inexpensive and low temperature processed solar cell, such as an organic or dye-sensitized solar cell

  3. Lighting energy savings potential of split-pane electrochromic windows controlled for daylighting with visual comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Daylight Coefficients, Lighting Research and Technology,America, 1999, The IESNA lighting handbook: reference andcontrol of electric lighting and blinds, Solar Energy, 77(

  4. Solar-Driven Microbial Photoelectrochemical System for Energy Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Hanyu

    2015-01-01

    Visible Light Driven Photocatalysis. Chem. Commun. 2011, 47,R. , Visible-Light Photocatalysis in Nitrogen-Doped TitaniumSolar Absorption for Photocatalysis with Black Hydrogenated

  5. Solar PV and Glare Factsheet

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A common misconception about solar photovoltaic (PV) panels is that they inherently cause or create "too much" glare, posing a nuisance to neighbors and a safety risk for pilots. While solar PV systems can produce glare, light absorption - rather than reflection - is central to the function of solar PV panels. This fact sheet describes the basic issues surrounding glare from solar PV panels, the new Federal Aviation Administration guidance, and the implications for local governments.

  6. Advanced Nanomaterials for High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Junhong

    2013-11-29

    Energy supply has arguably become one of the most important problems facing humankind. The exponential demand for energy is evidenced by dwindling fossil fuel supplies and record-high oil and gas prices due to global population growth and economic development. This energy shortage has significant implications to the future of our society, in addition to the greenhouse gas emission burden due to consumption of fossil fuels. Solar energy seems to be the most viable choice to meet our clean energy demand given its large scale and clean/renewable nature. However, existing methods to convert sun light into electricity are not efficient enough to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels. This DOE project aims to develop advanced hybrid nanomaterials consisting of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs) supported on graphene for cost-effective solar cells with improved conversion efficiency for harvesting abundant, renewable, clean solar energy to relieve our global energy challenge. Expected outcomes of the project include new methods for low-cost manufacturing of hybrid nanostructures, systematic understanding of their properties that can be tailored for desired applications, and novel photovoltaic cells. Through this project, we have successfully synthesized a number of novel nanomaterials, including vertically-oriented graphene (VG) sheets, three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanostructures comprising few-layer graphene (FLG) sheets inherently connected with CNTs through sp{sup 2} carbons, crumpled graphene (CG)-nanocrystal hybrids, CdSe nanoparticles (NPs), CdS NPs, nanohybrids of metal nitride decorated on nitrogen-doped graphene (NG), QD-carbon nanotube (CNT) and QD-VG-CNT structures, TiO{sub 2}-CdS NPs, and reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SnO{sub 2} NPs. We further assembled CdSe NPs onto graphene sheets and investigated physical and electronic interactions between CdSe NPs and the graphene. Finally we have demonstrated various applications of these nanomaterials in solar cells (both as photoanodes and counter electrodes), gas sensors, and energy storage devices. This research is potentially transformative since the availability of affordable hybrid nanostructures and their fundamental properties will enable various innovative applications of the multifunctional hybrid nanostructures and thus will accelerate new discoveries and inventions in nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  7. Hybrid Renewable Energy Investment in Microgrid Hao Wang, Jianwei Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    Hybrid Renewable Energy Investment in Microgrid Hao Wang, Jianwei Huang Network Communications: {haowang, jwhuang}@ie.cuhk.edu.hk Abstract--Both solar energy and wind energy are promising renewable the hybrid renewable energy investment in the microgrid. We jointly consider the investment and operation

  8. Exciton splitting and carrier transport across the amorphous-silicon/ polymer solar cell interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    of bilayer hybrid solar cells to better understand the physics controlling organic-inorganic device of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2408641 Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells combine the pro- cessabilityExciton splitting and carrier transport across the amorphous-silicon/ polymer solar cell interface

  9. Limiting Emission Angle for Improved Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limiting Emission Angle for Improved Solar Cell Performance While direct light enters a solar cell will explore the potential benefits to limiting the emission angles of realistic solar cells, with efficiencies cooling, waste heat recovery and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure

  10. 7Be Solar Neutrino Measurement with KamLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gando, A.

    2014-01-01

    Be Solar Neutrino Measurement with KamLAND A. Gando, 1 Y.light on the question of solar metallicity. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSscattering rate of 862 keV 7 Be solar neutrinos based on a

  11. DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program: Overview and Highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-05-01

    A non-technical overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Technologies Program, including sections on photovoltaics (PV), concentrating solar power, and solar heating and lighting R&D.

  12. Limiting and realistic efficiencies of multi-junction solar Photonic Materials Group, FOM institute AMOLF, Amsterdam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Limiting and realistic efficiencies of multi-junction solar cells Photonic Materials Group, FOM of multi-junction solar cells, varying the number of subcells, the concentration of solar light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.4 Multi-junction Solar cells

  13. DOE/NREL Inner Mongolia PV/Wind Hybrid Systems Pilot Project: A Post-Installation Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stroup, K. K.

    2005-02-01

    This report assesses the Inner Mongolia Pilot Project, which disseminates wind-solar hybrid systems to a rural and remote population.

  14. Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Combined Potential of Hybrid Technology and Behavioral Adaptation Title Reducing Light Duty Vehicle Fuel Consumption and Greenhouse Gas...

  15. Solar skylight

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adamson, James C. (Osprey La., Rumson, NJ 07760)

    1984-01-01

    A reflective shutter rotates within a skylight housing in such a fashion as to control solar energy thereby providing a combination of heating, lighting, and ventilation. The skylight housing has three faces: a glazed southern face, a glazed northern face, and an open downwardly oriented face to the interior of the structure. Counter-weighted pivot arms support the shutter at either end causing the center of rotation to pass through the center of gravity. The shutter has three basic positions: In the first position, during the winter day, the shutter closes off the northern face, allowing solar energy to enter directly into the supporting structure providing heat gain and daylighting. In the second position, during the winter night, the shutter closes off the open face to the interior, providing insulation between the structure and the skylight housing. In the third position, during the non-heating season, the shutter closes off the southern face blocking unwanted heat gain but allowing diffuse northern light to penetrate for daylighting. In this last position, a means is provided for ventilating by natural convection. The apparatus can be operated either manually or by motor.

  16. Branchburg Solar Farm and Carport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory, John

    2013-10-23

    To meet the goal of becoming a model of green, clean, and efficient consumer of energy, the Township of Branchburg will install of a 250kw solar farm to provide energy for the Township of Branchburg Municipal Building, a 50kw Solar carport to provide power to the Municipal Annex, purchase 3 plug in hybrid-electric vehicles, and install 3 dual-head charging stations.

  17. Tunable Localized Surface Plasmon-Enabled Broadband Light-Harvesting Enhancement for High-Efficiency Panchromatic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dang, Xiangnan

    In photovoltaic devices, light harvesting (LH) and carrier collection have opposite relations with the thickness of the photoactive layer, which imposes a fundamental compromise for the power conversion efficiency (PCE). ...

  18. Low-Cost Nano-Patterning Process Makes Millions of Holes in Silver Film, Boosting Light-Capturing Qualities of Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    NREL researchers have demonstrated a simple, low-cost way to pattern nano-sized holes in thin silver films in order to trap light waves and boost the transmission of photons into usable energy.

  19. Hudson Light & Power- Photovoltaic Incentive Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hudson Light & Power Department, the municipal utility for the Town of Hudson, offers a limited number of solar photovoltaic (PV) rebates for residential, commercial, industrial, and municipal...

  20. Hybrid type checking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flanagan, C

    2006-01-01

    O’Callahan and J. -D. Choi. Hybrid dynamic data race detec-subtyping is sound, the hybrid compilation algorithmHybrid Type Checking Cormac Flanagan Department of Computer

  1. A Global Optimization Approach to the Design of Solar Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... at a high temperature is then transferred to the heat transfer fluid to produce ...... A Review of Hybrid Solar-Fossil Fuel Power Generation.

  2. SolarHybrid AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing Capacity forSilicium deEnergyCompany

  3. Solar Cells DOI: 10.1002/anie.200904492

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Solar Cells DOI: 10.1002/anie.200904492 Optical Fiber/Nanowire Hybrid Structures for Efficient Three- Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells** Benjamin Weintraub, Yaguang Wei, and Zhong Lin Wang* Renewable and green energy are the technological drivers of the future economy. Solar cells (SCs) are one

  4. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 511522 In situ Raman spectroscopy of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nabben, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 71 (2002) 511­522 In situ Raman spectroscopy. In this situation, a low energy excitation (e.g. visible light) is needed to excite an electron to a neighboring

  5. Design of Zinc Oxide Based Solid-State Excitonic Solar Cell with Improved Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Tao Hua

    2012-02-14

    Excitonic photovoltaic devices, including organic, hybrid organic/inorganic, and dye-sensitized solar cells, are attractive alternatives to conventional inorganic solar cells due to their potential for low cost and low temperature solution...

  6. Light-Light Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naohiro Kanda

    2011-06-03

    For a long time, it is believed that the light by light scattering is described properly by the Lagrangian density obtained by Heisenberg and Euler. Here, we present a new calculation which is based on the modern field theory technique. It is found that the light-light scattering is completely different from the old expression. The reason is basically due to the unphysical condition (gauge condition) which was employed by the QED calcualtion of Karplus and Neumann. The correct cross section of light-light scattering at low energy of $(\\frac{\\omega}{m} \\ll 1)$ can be written as $ \\displaystyle{\\frac{d\\sigma}{d\\Omega}=\\frac{1}{(6\\pi)^2}\\frac{\\alpha^4} {(2\\omega)^2}(3+2\\cos^2\\theta +\\cos^4\\theta)}$.

  7. Manzanita Hybrid Power system Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trisha Frank

    2005-03-31

    The Manzanita Indian Reservation is located in southeastern San Diego County, California. The Tribe has long recognized that the Reservation has an abundant wind resource that could be commercially utilized to its benefit, and in 1995 the Tribe established the Manzanita Renewable Energy Office. Through the U.S. Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program the Band received funds to install a hybrid renewable power system to provide electricity to one of the tribal community buildings, the Manzanita Activities Center (MAC building). The project began September 30, 1999 and was completed March 31, 2005. The system was designed and the equipment supplied by Northern Power Systems, Inc, an engineering company with expertise in renewable hybrid system design and development. Personnel of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory provided technical assistance in system design, and continued to provide technical assistance in system monitoring. The grid-connected renewable hybrid wind/photovoltaic system provides a demonstration of a solar/wind energy hybrid power-generating project on Manzanita Tribal land. During the system design phase, the National Renewable Energy Lab estimated that the wind turbine is expected to produce 10,000-kilowatt hours per year and the solar array 2,000-kilowatt hours per year. The hybrid system was designed to provide approximately 80 percent of the electricity used annually in the MAC building. The project proposed to demonstrate that this kind of a system design would provide highly reliable renewable power for community uses.

  8. Reduced ultraviolet light induced degradation and enhanced light harvesting using YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} down-shifting nano-phosphor layer in organometal halide perovskite solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chander, Nikhil; Chandrasekhar, P. S.; Thouti, Eshwar; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh; Komarala, Vamsi K.; Khan, A. F.

    2014-07-21

    We report a simple method to mitigate ultra-violet (UV) degradation in TiO{sub 2} based perovskite solar cells (PSC) using a transparent luminescent down-shifting (DS) YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} nano-phosphor layer. The PSC coated with DS phosphor showed an improvement in stability under prolonged illumination retaining more than 50% of its initial efficiency, whereas PSC without the phosphor layer degraded to ?35% of its initial value. The phosphor layer also provided ?8.5% enhancement in photocurrent due to DS of incident UV photons into additional red photons. YVO{sub 4}:Eu{sup 3+} layer thus served a bi-functional role in PSC by reducing photo-degradation as well as enhancing energy conversion efficiency.

  9. Hybridization and Selective Release of DNA Microarrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, N R; Baker, B; Piggott, T; Maberry, S; Hara, C M; DeOtte, J; Benett, W; Mukerjee, E; Dzenitis, J; Wheeler, E K

    2011-11-29

    DNA microarrays contain sequence specific probes arrayed in distinct spots numbering from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, depending on the platform. This tremendous degree of multiplexing gives microarrays great potential for environmental background sampling, broad-spectrum clinical monitoring, and continuous biological threat detection. In practice, their use in these applications is not common due to limited information content, long processing times, and high cost. The work focused on characterizing the phenomena of microarray hybridization and selective release that will allow these limitations to be addressed. This will revolutionize the ways that microarrays can be used for LLNL's Global Security missions. The goals of this project were two-fold: automated faster hybridizations and selective release of hybridized features. The first study area involves hybridization kinetics and mass-transfer effects. the standard hybridization protocol uses an overnight incubation to achieve the best possible signal for any sample type, as well as for convenience in manual processing. There is potential to significantly shorten this time based on better understanding and control of the rate-limiting processes and knowledge of the progress of the hybridization. In the hybridization work, a custom microarray flow cell was used to manipulate the chemical and thermal environment of the array and autonomously image the changes over time during hybridization. The second study area is selective release. Microarrays easily generate hybridization patterns and signatures, but there is still an unmet need for methodologies enabling rapid and selective analysis of these patterns and signatures. Detailed analysis of individual spots by subsequent sequencing could potentially yield significant information for rapidly mutating and emerging (or deliberately engineered) pathogens. In the selective release work, optical energy deposition with coherent light quickly provides the thermal energy to single spots to release hybridized DNA. This work leverages LLNL expertise in optics, microfluids, and bioinformatics.

  10. Sneak peek at electrofuels: Geobacter team aims for bio-based solution to solar energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    Sneak peek at electrofuels: Geobacter team aims for bio-based solution to solar energy storage a hybrid of solar and bio-power and also solve the most perplexing problem facing solar energy: energy compounds, and oxygen is released as a byproduct," Lovley explains. Solar energy powers the microbes

  11. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alstone, Peter

    2012-01-01

    offered in a recent market test—solar and grid charged—forSolar Lighting for the Base of the Pyramid: Overview of an Emerging Market.market test). The figure shows that over a two-year lifetime, 5 the solar

  12. Hybrid Pulsators -- Pulsating Stars with Multiple Identities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, A -Y

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out a statistic survey on the pulsating variable stars with multiple identities. These stars were identified to exhibit two types of pulsation or multiple light variability types in the literature, and are usually called hybrid pulsators. We extracted the hybrid information based on the Simbad database. Actually, all the variables with multiple identities are retrieved. The survey covers various pulsating stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We aim at giving a clue in selecting interesting targets for further observation. Hybrid pulsators are excellent targets for asteroseismology. An important implication of such stars is their potential in advancing the theories of both stellar evolution and pulsation. By presenting the statistics, we address the open questions and prospects regarding current status of hybrid pulsation studies.

  13. (Melanin-Sensitized Solar Cell) : 696220016

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    platinum thin film for counter-electrode, uses solar simulator to measure efficiency at AM 1.5 (100 mW/cm2 (Melanin-Sensitized Solar Cell) : : : 696220016 #12; #12;#12; #12;I PLD the majority dye-sensitized solar cell research all uses the Ruthenium-complex as a light harvester

  14. SOLAR CENTER INFORMATION Industrial Extension Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -berm insulation. The house also uses compact fluorescent lighting, a ground- coupled heat pump, and has bothSOLAR CENTER INFORMATION Industrial Extension Service College of Engineering NCSU Box 7401 active solar water heating and photovoltaic (PV) systems. The Solar House was resided in for three years

  15. $?$ Meson Decays of Heavy Hybrid Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang Zhang; Peng-Zhi Huang

    2015-05-04

    We calculate the $\\rho$ meson couplings between heavy hybrid doublets H^h/S^h/M^h/T^h and the ordinary q\\bar{Q} doublets in the framework of light-cone QCD sum rule. The sum rules obtained rely mildly on the Borel parameters in their working regions. The resulting coupling constants are rather small in most cases.

  16. Solar Cell Modules With Improved Backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2003-12-09

    A laminated solar cell module comprises a front light transmitting support, a plurality of interconnected solar cells encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant material, and an improved backskin formed of an ionomer/nylon alloy. The improved backskin has a toughness and melting point temperature sufficiently great to avoid any likelihood of it being pierced by any of the components that interconnect the solar cells.

  17. Community Shared Solar with Solarize

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    An overview of the concept behind The Solarize Guidebook, which offers neighborhoods a plan for getting volume discounts when making group purchases of rooftop solar energy systems.

  18. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  19. Broad spectrum solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA); Wu, Junqiao (Richmond, CA); Schaff, William J. (Ithaca, NY)

    2007-05-15

    An alloy having a large band gap range is used in a multijunction solar cell to enhance utilization of the solar energy spectrum. In one embodiment, the alloy is In.sub.1-xGa.sub.xN having an energy bandgap range of approximately 0.7 eV to 3.4 eV, providing a good match to the solar energy spectrum. Multiple junctions having different bandgaps are stacked to form a solar cell. Each junction may have different bandgaps (realized by varying the alloy composition), and therefore be responsive to different parts of the spectrum. The junctions are stacked in such a manner that some bands of light pass through upper junctions to lower junctions that are responsive to such bands.

  20. Solar-Driven Microbial Photoelectrochemical Cells with a Nanowire Photocathode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yat

    cell (solar MPC) that can produce sustainable energy through coupling the microbial catalysis for microbial/nanoelectronic hybrid devices with unique applications in energy conversion, environmental that the microbial electrohydrogenesis process requires additional energy input to overcome the energy barrier

  1. Hybrid and multifield inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sfakianakis, Evangelos I

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis I study the generation of density perturbations in two classes of inflationary models: hybrid inflation and multifield inflation with non-minimal coupling to gravity. In the case of hybrid inflation, we ...

  2. A strategy to stabilise the local structure of Ti{sup 4+} and Zn{sup 2+} species against aging in TiO{sub 2}/aluminium-doped ZnO bi-layers for applications in hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, Giovanna; La Magna, Antonino; Bongiorno, Corrado; Smecca, Emanuele; Alberti, Alessandra, E-mail: alessandra.alberti@imm.cnr.it [CNR-IMM Zona Industriale VIII Strada 5, 95121 Catania (Italy); Condorelli, Guglielmo G. [Università degli studi di Catania and INSTM UdR Catania V.le A. Doria 6, Catania (Italy); Mocuta, Cristian [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-08-07

    We explore a strategy to counteract aging issues in TiO{sub 2}/aluminium-doped ZnO bi-layers used in hybrid solar cells photo-anodes, mainly related to Zn diffusion in the TiO{sub 2} matrix. Different Ti{sup 4+} and Zn{sup 2+} local structures within the anatase grains and along the film thickness were found as a function of post-deposition annealing treatments in the range between 200?°C and 500?°C by synchrotron radiation extended x-ray absorption fine structure analyses. In particular, in the 500?°C-treated sample, diffusion of zinc species along the TiO{sub 2} grain-boundaries has been observed with aging (3?years). In contrast, a mild thermal budget at 200?°C favours a proper atomic arrangement of the zinc-containing anatase lattice which reduces Zn diffusion, thus guaranteeing a good stability with aging.

  3. Light trapping in photonic crystals Ken Xingze Wang,ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    improvement and cost reduction in practical solar cells.1,2 With the emergence of nanotechnology substantial bandwidths. Broader context Commercial solar cells use light trapping to maximize solar absorption optics. This limit could be surpassed in nanostructured solar cells, however, typically only for limited

  4. Hybrid Power Test Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This document describes efforts by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to simulate hybrid power systems. Hybrid power systems combine multiple power sources such as wind turbines, photovoltaic (PV) arrays, diesel generators, and battery storage systems. They typically are used in remote areas, away from major electric grids. The Hybrid Power Test Bed is designed to assist the U.S. wind industry in developing and testing hybrid power generation systems. Test bed capabilities, features, and equipment are described.

  5. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, Hy D. (Albuquerque, NM); Claudet, Andre A. (Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Andrew D. (Waltham, MA)

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  6. Atomistic Time-Domain Simulations of Light-Harvesting and Charge-Transfer Dynamics in Novel Nanoscale Materials for Solar Hydrogen Production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2012-03-22

    Funded by the DOE grant (i) we continued to study and analyze the atomistic detail of the electron transfer (ET) across the chromophore-TiO2 interface in Gratzel cell systems for solar hydrogen production. (ii) We extensively investigated the nature of photoexcited states and excited state dynamics in semiconductor quantum dots (QD) designed for photovoltaic applications. (iii) We continued a newly initiated research direction focusing on excited state properties and electron-phonon interactions in nanoscale carbon materials. Over the past year, the results of the DOE funded research were summarized in 3 review articles. 12 original manuscripts were written. The research results were reported in 28 invited talks at conferences and university seminars. 20 invitations were accepted for talks in the near future. 2 symposia at national and international meetings have being organized this year on topics closely related to the DOE funded project, and 2 more symposia have been planned for the near future. We summarized the insights into photoinduced dynamics of semiconductor QDs, obtained from our time-domain ab initio studies. QDs exhibit both molecular and bulk properties. Unlike either bulk or molecular materials, QD properties can be modified continuously by changing QD shape and size. However, the chemical and physical properties of molecular and bulk materials often contradict each other, which can lead to differing viewpoints about the behavior of QDs. For example, the molecular view suggests strong electron-hole and charge-phonon interactions, as well as slow energy relaxation due to mismatch between electronic energy gaps and phonon frequencies. In contrast, the bulk view advocates that the kinetic energy of quantum confinement is greater than electron-hole interactions, that charge-phonon coupling is weak, and that the relaxation through quasi-continuous bands is rapid. By synthesizing the bulk and molecular viewpoints, we clarified the controversies and provided a unified atomistic picture of the nature and dynamics of photoexcited states in semiconductor QDs. We also summarized our recent findings about the photoinduced electron dynamics at the chromophore-semiconductor interfaces from a time-domain ab initio perspective. The interface provides the foundation for a new, promising type of solar cell and presents a fundamentally important case study for several fields, including photo-, electro- and analytical chemistries, molecular electronics, and photography. Further, the interface offers a classic example of an interaction between an organic molecular species and an inorganic bulk material. Scientists employ different concepts and terminologies to describe molecular and solid states of matter, and these differences make it difficult to describe the interface with a single model. At the basic atomistic level of description, however, this challenge can be largely overcome. Recent advances in non-adiabatic molecular dynamics and time-domain density functional theory have created a unique opportunity for simulating the ultrafast, photoinduced processes on a computer very similar to the way that they occur in nature. These state-of-the-art theoretical tools offered a comprehensive picture of a variety of electron transfer processes that occur at the interface, including electron injection from the chromophore to the semiconductor, electron relaxation and delocalization inside the semiconductor, back-transfer of the electron to the chromophore and to the electrolyte, and regeneration of the neutral chromophore by the electrolyte. The ab initio time-domain modeling is particularly valuable for understanding these dynamic features of the ultrafast electron transfer processes, which cannot be represented by a simple rate description. We demonstrated using symmetry adapted cluster theory with configuration interaction (SAC-CI) that charging of small PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) greatly modifies their electronic states and optical excitations. Conduction and valence band transitions that are not available in neutral NCs dominate

  7. Hybrid Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingR Walls - BuildingofDepartmentHybird Geothemal-SolarHybrid

  8. Ultrathin, high-efficiency, broad-band, omni-acceptance, organic solar cells enhanced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Three of central challenges in solar cells are high light coupling into solar cell, high light trapping electrode, and in-between a polymer photovoltaic active layer (P3HT/PCBM) of 85 nm thick (1/3 average

  9. Hybrid Systems Frits Vaandrager

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaandrager, Frits

    on these data, the computer may decide to turn on a heating system, switch off a pump, etc. When a dangerous1 Hybrid Systems Frits Vaandrager 1 Introduction Hybrid systems are systems that intermix discrete. The specification, design and analysis of hybrid systems require a synthesis of ideas, concepts, mathe­ matical

  10. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Asay, James R. (Los Lunas, NM); Hall, Clint A. (Albuquerque, NM); Konrad, Carl H. (Albuquerque, NM); Sauve, Gerald L. (Berthoud, CO); Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Susoeff, Allan R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  11. Corn Hybrid Virginia Corn &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials 2007 Virginia Corn & Small Grain Management #12;VIRGINIA CORN HYBRID AND MANAGEMENT TRIALS IN 2007 Coordinators of Virginia Corn Hybrid Trials in 2007 Wade Thomason, Extension Specialist, Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Harry

  12. Corn Hybrid Virginia Corn &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Virginia Corn Hybrid Management and Trials 2006 Virginia Corn & Small Grain Management #12;#12;Virginia Corn Hybrid and Management Trials 2006 Coordinators of Virginia Corn Hybrid Trials in 2006 Wade Thomason, Extension Specialist, Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech Harry

  13. Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Solar panels are cost intensive, have limitations with respect to where they can be integrated of the window, integrated in the window frames, strip-shaped CIGS PV solar cells convert the light the CIGS PV solar cells in the form of strips at the edges of the window in the window frame. These solar

  14. Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Weidong

    Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells Weidong to current crystalline silicon solar cells, as well as future thin film, quantum dot, and organic solar cells for light collection is vital in achieving high performance solar cells.1 An ideal antireflec- tion AR

  15. Sterically Engineered Perylene Dyes for High Efficiency Oriented Fluorophore Luminescent Solar Concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, David L.

    Sterically Engineered Perylene Dyes for High Efficiency Oriented Fluorophore Luminescent Solar Luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs) collect and concentrate sunlight for use in solar power generation.1 or interior lighting, increasing the combined-cycle efficiency. Accordingly, LSC performance is expressed

  16. Lead selenide nanowire solar cells via LPNE and its new found derivatives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hujdic, Justin

    2012-01-01

    absorption in a thin film solar cell; An AM1.5 filter solarin a thin film solar cell………………………………………………………………17 Figuregeometries for thin-film solar cells: (a) Light trapping by

  17. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Solar Data a. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide aAppendix C - Appendix 0 - Solar Radiation Glossary. Convers

  18. SPECIFICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF IFC BASED PERFORMANCE METRICS TO SUPPORT BUILDING LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a performance metrics programming hierarchy is displayed for a heat pump and a solar array. Utilising the sets ASSESSMENT OF HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEMS Elmer Morrissey1 & 2 , James O'Donnell1 & 2 , Marcus Keane1 and Vladimir

  19. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  20. Effects of molecular interface modification in hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Effects of molecular interface modification in hybrid organic-inorganic photovoltaic cells Chiatzun in hybrid TiO2/regioregular poly 3-hexylthiophene P3HT photovoltaic cells. By employing a series of para in the field of organic photovoltaic PV cells1­7 and dye-sensitized solar cells DSSCs Refs. 7­10 as part

  1. Oxide nanowires for solar cell applications Qifeng Zhang, Supan Yodyingyong, Junting Xi, Daniel Myers and Guozhong Cao*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    and the application of nanomaterials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) and organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells. HeOxide nanowires for solar cell applications Qifeng Zhang, Supan Yodyingyong, Junting Xi, Daniel Oxide nanowire arrays were studied for their applications to solar cells. It was demonstrated

  2. Solar Forecasting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On December 7, 2012, DOE announced $8 million to fund two solar projects that are helping utilities and grid operators better forecast when, where, and how much solar power will be produced at U.S....

  3. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A solar energy system is defined as "a system affixed to a building or buildings that uses solar devices, which are thermally isolated from living space or any other area where the energy is used...

  4. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In the context of this law, a solar energy device is a system "manufactured and sold for the sole purpose of facilitating the collection and beneficial use of solar energy, including passive...

  5. Smart Lighting Controller!! Smart lighting!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Betty Lise

    'll build the circuit! We'll use an LED to represent the room lights! #12;4! Block diagram! Battery! Rail! #12;23! LED: light-emitting diode! Diode conducts current in only one direction! When current flows1! Smart Lighting Controller!! #12;2! Smart lighting! No need to spend energy lighting the room if

  6. Solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cassidy, V.M.

    1981-11-01

    Practical applications of solar energy in commercial, industrial and institutional buildings are considered. Two main types of solar collectors are described: flat plate collectors and concentrating collectors. Efficiency of air and hydronic collectors among the flat plate types are compared. Also several concentrators are described, including their sun tracking mechanisms. Descriptions of some recent solar installations are presented and a list representing the cross section of solar collector manufacturers is furnished.

  7. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light?Harvesting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    through sessions on the initial light-harvesting events in the biological conversion of solar energy to chemically stored energy forms, and how these natural photosynthetic...

  8. Illuminating the Pecking Order in Off-Grid Lighting: A Demonstration of LED Lighting for Saving Energy in the Poultry Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    replication of this LED lighting strategy in the developingA Demonstration of LED Lighting for Saving Energy in thefrom kerosene to solar-LED lighting for commercial broiler

  9. Illuminating the Pecking Order in Off-Grid Lighting: A Demonstration of LED Lighting for Saving Energy in the Poultry Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    each of the three systems. Lighting System Kerosene Solar-opened and all available lighting points in use—we measuredin comparison to the other lighting systems. There is

  10. Passive solar design handbook. Volume two of two volumes: passive solar design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Barley, D.; McFarland, R.; Perry, J. Jr.; Wray, W.; Noll, S.

    1980-01-01

    A manual for the design and performance evaluation and analysis of passive solar heating systems is presented. Two passive solar building types are analyzed: direct gain and thermal storage walls. Rules of thumb for the schematic design phase and simplified procedures for the design development phase are described. Analysis methods for the construction documents phase are given. The design procedure for fan-forced rock beds for hybrid systems is presented. Economic analysis methods for passive solar buildings are described. Tables of monthly average solar radiation, temperature, and degree-days for various locations in the US and southern Canada are included. (WHK)

  11. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01

    advantage of light transmission through heat mirrors may notimportant but heat gain may not be, the transmission windowheat mirror coating alone (without substrate losses) is a solar transmission

  12. Solar Pumped Laser Microthruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubenchik, A. M.; Beach, R.; Dawson, J.; Siders, C. W.

    2010-10-08

    The development of microsatellites requires the development of engines to modify their orbit. It is natural to use solar energy to drive such engines. For an unlimited energy source the optimal thruster must use a minimal amount of expendable material to minimize launch costs. This requires the ejected material to have the maximal velocity and, hence, the ejected atoms must be as light as possible and be ejected by as high an energy density source as possible. Such a propulsion can be induced by pulses from an ultra-short laser. The ultra-short laser provides the high-energy concentration and high-ejected velocity. We suggest a microthruster system comprised of an inflatable solar concentrator, a solar panel, and a diode-pumped fiber laser. We will describe the system design and give weight estimates.

  13. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    investigated in the build-up to one of the deepest solar minima expe- rienced in the past 100 years1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-013-0335-3 Changes in Quasi-periodic Variations of Solar Photospheric Fields: Precursor to the Deep Solar Minimum

  14. High Performance Builder Spotlight: Wathen Castanos Hybrid Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    Wathen Castanos Hybrid Homes of Fresno, CA, has worked with Building America team member IBACOS to apply building science to production homes. Even without solar panels, the company’s Jordan model exceeds California’s building efficiency standard by 36%.

  15. Pattern Replication in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nedelcu, Mihaela

    2014-05-27

    solar cells discovered in 1927 gave less than 1 % e?ciency. R. Ohl developed solar cells with 6 % energy-conversion e?ciency when used under sun light. GaAs solar cells developed in the United States have 17 % e?ciency. Since the photovoltaic effect... have been used as semiconductors in solar cell devices. They initially looked very promising, but the complexity of the material has been found to lead to complications in thin- film devices [33]. The p-n junction of thin-film solar cells based on Cd...

  16. Close Look at Hybrid Vehicle Loyalty and Ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Chin, Shih-Miao; Wilson, Daniel W; Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Taylor, Rob D

    2013-01-01

    In a news release dated April 9, 2012, Polk stated that only 35% of hybrid owners bought a hybrid again when they returned to market in 2011. These findings were based on an internal study conducted by Polk. The study also indicated that if repurchase behavior among the high volume audience of Toyota Prius owners wasn t factored in; hybrid loyalty would drop to under 25%. This news release has generated a lot of interest and concern by the automobile industry as well as consumers, since it was published, and caused many to think about the idea of hybrid loyalty as well as factors that influence consumers. Most reactions to the 35% hybrid loyalty dealt with concerns of the viability of hybrid technology as part of the solution to address transportation energy challenges. This paper attempts to shed more light on Polk s hybrid loyalty study as well as explore several information sources concerning hybrid loyalty status. Specifically, major factors that might impact the selection and acquisition of hybrid vehicles are addressed. This includes investigating the associations between hybrid market shares and influencing factors like fuel price and hybrid incentives, as well as the availability of hybrid models and other highly fuel efficient vehicle options. This effort is not in-depth study, but rather a short study to see if Polk s claim could be validated. This study reveals that Polk s claim was rather misleading because its definition of loyalty was very narrow. This paper also suggests that Polk s analysis failed to account for some very important factors, raising the question of whether it is fair to compare a vehicle drive train option (which hybrids are) with a vehicle brand in terms of loyalty and also raises the question of whether hybrid loyalty is even a valid point to consider. This report maintains that Polk s study does not prove that hybrid owners were dissatisfied with their vehicles, which was a common theme among reporting news agencies when Polk initially released their findings. In this brief review, the team has looked at factors that might contribute to a consumer choosing to not purchase a hybrid; including the increase in manufacture s overall vehicle mpg and the percentage of the vehicle market owned by hybrids.

  17. Hybrid sodium heat pipe receivers for dish/Stirling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laing, D.; Reusch, M.

    1997-12-31

    The design of a hybrid solar/gas heat pipe receiver for the SBP 9 kW dish/Stirling system using a United Stirling AB V160 Stirling engine and the results of on-sun testing in alternative and parallel mode will be reported. The receiver is designed to transfer a thermal power of 35 kW. The heat pipe operates at around 800 C, working fluid is sodium. Operational options are solar-only, gas augmented and gas-only mode. Also the design of a second generation hybrid heat pipe receiver currently developed under a EU-funded project, based on the experience gained with the first hybrid receiver, will be reported. This receiver is designed for the improved SPB/L. and C.-10 kW dish/Stirling system with the reworked SOLO V161 Stirling engine.

  18. Scientists produce transparent, light-harvesting material

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light-harvesting material The material could be used in development of transparent solar panels. November 3, 2010 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote...

  19. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    network approach of solar potential in Turkey,” Renewabledue to the high solar resource potential. However, the solar

  20. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    by device optimization, ” Advanced Materials, 2010, 22(39),Optimization of ultra-thin light absorbing layer and transparent cathode architecture,” Advanced Energy Materials,optimization of diketopyrrolopyrrole?based narrow bandgap polymer solar cells‘‘, Advanced Materials,

  1. A low cost high flux solar simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel S.

    A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

  2. Studying the Solar System's Chemical Recipe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    photodissociation of hydrogen sulfide as the gas condensed to iron sulfide in the inner solar system, driven by intense 121.6-nanometer-wavelength ultraviolet light as the young...

  3. Community Solar Public Opinion Research Results (Seattle)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    500 Seattle City Light customers were polled to determine interest in a community solar program, how people would participate and at what price levels. This is a presentation of the results.

  4. Light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC)

    2002-01-01

    A light harvesting array useful for the manufacture of devices such as solar cells comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2, and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  5. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating Unmeasured Solar Radiation Quantities . . . . . .Weather Data . . . . . , . , . . . . . . . . . .Solar DataB. l'he Solar Constant. . . . . . C. Solar Time and Standard

  6. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    data records. 1, Solar Data Solar energy is a general termin obtaining reliable data for solar energy applications,data and analyzed the consequences of designing solar energy

  7. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    a characteristic solar potential is expected to prevail, Theso many sites of potential solar energy applications will besun creates a high potential for solar energy use. Solar-

  8. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and forecasting of solar radiation data: a review,”forecasting of solar- radiation data,” Solar Energy, vol.sequences of global solar radiation data for isolated sites:

  9. Formula Hybrid International Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    , and computerized control systems. But the greatest obstacle of all was that hybrid cars could not meet newlyFormula Hybrid International Competition May 4, 5, 6, 2009 #12;09 annual third We are thrilled to have 30 cars competing this year. The competition is the result of the hard work of many people

  10. Nanophotonics: Shrinking light-based technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    , optical computing, solar, and medical technologies, setting high expectations for many novel discoveries bulbs are being replaced by efficient solid-state lighting, and solar energy technologies)/visible/near-infrared spec- tral range, and provide an outlook for the bright future of this research field. Photonic

  11. IRIM -InfraRed Imaging Magnetogram The InfraRed Imaging Magnetograph (IRIM) is an imaging solar spectropolarimeter employing a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) solar spectropolarimetry. IRIM is located in the NST Coudé Lab, and is fed light corrected by Adaptive

  12. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Ordinances, bylaws, or regulations may reasonably restrict the installation and use of solar energy devices to protect public health and safety, buildings from damage, historic/aesthetic values ...

  13. Outdoor Solar Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (BillionProvedTravelInformationCollection Request Title:of2 OilOregon Public UtilityElectricity &

  14. Solar Electric Light Fund | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc JumpHeter Battery TechnologySocovoltaic Systems JumpSolanaInc

  15. Visible Light Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowa (Utility Company)Idaho) JumpWinside, NebraskaVirginiaVirtualVisiam

  16. Hybrid Quantum Cloning Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Satyabrata Adhikari; A. K. Pati; Indranil Chakrabarty; B. S. Choudhury

    2007-06-14

    In this work, we introduce a special kind of quantum cloning machine called Hybrid quantum cloning machine. The introduced Hybrid quantum cloning machine or transformation is nothing but a combination of pre-existing quantum cloning transformations. In this sense it creates its own identity in the field of quantum cloners. Hybrid quantum cloning machine can be of two types: (i) State dependent and (ii) State independent or Universal. We study here the above two types of Hybrid quantum cloning machines. Later we will show that the state dependent hybrid quantum-cloning machine can be applied on only four input states. We will also find in this paper another asymmetric universal quantum cloning machine constructed from the combination of optimal universal B-H quantum cloning machine and universal anti-cloning machine. The fidelities of the two outputs are different and their values lie in the neighborhood of ${5/6} $

  17. Quantum Junction Solar Cells Jiang Tang,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis To date, the bandgaps of light-absorbing semiconductors making up multijunction solar cells have been quantum dots offer avenues to inexpensive and robust multijunction solar cell architectures. Recently

  18. Spectral sensitization of nanocrystalline solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spitler, Mark T. (Concord, MA); Ehret, Anne (Malden, MA); Stuhl, Louis S. (Bedford, MA)

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to dye sensitized polycrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells for use in energy transduction from light to electricity. It concerns the utility of highly absorbing organic chromophores as sensitizers in such cells and the degree to which they may be utilized alone and in combination to produce an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, e.g., a regenerative solar cell.

  19. Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Padmanabhan, Janardhan

    1 23 Solar Physics A Journal for Solar and Solar- Stellar Research and the Study of Solar-010-9653- x Solar Polar Fields During Cycles 21??? 23: Correlation with Meridional Flows #12;1 23 Your article's request, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after publication. #12;Solar Phys

  20. Dish/stirling hybrid-receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehos, Mark S. (Boulder, CO); Anselmo, Kenneth M. (Arvada, CO); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Corey, John (Melrose, NY); Bohn, Mark S. (Golden, CO)

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid high-temperature solar receiver is provided which comprises a solar heat-pipe-receiver including a front dome having a solar absorber surface for receiving concentrated solar energy, a heat pipe wick, a rear dome, a sidewall joining the front and the rear dome, and a vapor and a return liquid tube connecting to an engine, and a fossil fuel fired combustion system in radial integration with the sidewall for simultaneous operation with the solar heat pipe receiver, the combustion system comprising an air and fuel pre-mixer, an outer cooling jacket for tangentially introducing and cooling the mixture, a recuperator for preheating the mixture, a burner plenum having an inner and an outer wall, a porous cylindrical metal matrix burner firing radially inward facing a sodium vapor sink, the mixture ignited downstream of the matrix forming combustion products, an exhaust plenum, a fossil-fuel heat-input surface having an outer surface covered with a pin-fin array, the combustion products flowing through the array to give up additional heat to the receiver, and an inner surface covered with an extension of the heat-pipe wick, a pin-fin shroud sealed to the burner and exhaust plenums, an end seal, a flue-gas diversion tube and a flue-gas valve for use at off-design conditions to limit the temperature of the pre-heated air and fuel mixture, preventing pre-ignition.

  1. Hybrid Automata-based CEGAR for Rectangular Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Hybrid Automata-based CEGAR for Rectangular Hybrid Systems Pavithra Prabhakar, Sridhar Duggirala- example guided abstraction-refinement (CEGAR) for systems modelled as rectangular hybrid automata. The main difference, between our ap- proach and previous proposals for CEGAR for hybrid automata

  2. HYBRID LIMIT CYCLES AND HYBRID POINCARE-BENDIXSON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    HYBRID LIMIT CYCLES AND HYBRID POINCAR´E-BENDIXSON Slobodan N. Simi´c Department of Electrical regular hybrid systems with no branching (Simi´c et al., 2000a). The first one provides a condition for asymptotic stability of hybrid closed orbits in terms of contraction-expansion rates of resets and flows

  3. Hybrid 2012 Innovative Hybrid Approaches to the Processing of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EACL 2012 Hybrid 2012 Innovative Hybrid Approaches to the Processing of Textual Data Proceedings@aclweb.org ii #12;Introduction The hybrid approach term covers a large set of situations in which different of the dedicated task. Hybrid approaches are commonly used in various NLP applications (i.e., automatic creation

  4. Hybrid Systems State estimation for hybrid systems: applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomlin, Claire

    Hybrid Systems State estimation for hybrid systems: applications to aircraft tracking I. Hwang, H of a stochastic linear hybrid system, given only the continuous system output data, is studied. Well established techniques for hybrid estimation, known as the multiple model adaptive estimation algorithm

  5. Light Properties Light travels at the speed of light `c'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    LIGHT!! #12;Light Properties Light travels at the speed of light `c' C = 3 x 108 m/s Or 190,000 miles/second!! Light could travel around the world about 8 times in one second #12;What is light?? Light is a "wave packet" A photon is a "light particle" #12;Electromagnetic Radiation and You Light is sometimes

  6. MRS BULLETIN VOLUME 34 FEBRUARY 2009 www.mrs.org/bulletin 95 When light is absorbed in organic semiconductors, bound electronhole pairs known

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    . Nanostructured Organic­Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells Michael D. McGehee The following article is based, transistors, and solar cells." This article describes his research on organic solar cells. through Another advantage, which is partic- ularly important during the current stage of organic solar cell

  7. Unified Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Unified Solar is an MIT startup that is commercializing an integrated circuit solution that eliminates most of the adverse effects caused by partial shading in photovoltaic power systems. With its patent-pending design, Unified Solar's solution is smaller, cheaper and more powerful than any competing power optimizer in the market.

  8. Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    where = T(P0/P) ad (potential temperature) #12;Petrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology Group velocity Helioseismology Global helioseismology: Determine set of nlm's infer global mean solar structure. LocalPetrovay: Solar physics Helioseismology SOLAR OSCILLATIONS: INTRODUCTION Small departures from

  9. EVOLUTION OF L HYBRID WAVES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karney, Charles

    . INTRODUCTIO In typical lower hybrid heating schemes, lower hybrid waves are launched at the wall sf tokamak. In this paper we study the C numerically, and determine the consequences of our results for lower hybrid heating hybrid heating of a tokamak. 11. THE CMKDV EQUAT The two-dimensional steady-state propagation of a single

  10. EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 16: Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    1 EELE408 Photovoltaics Lecture 16: Silicon Solar Cell Fabrication Techniques Dr. Todd J. Kaiser - Bozeman Screen Printed Solar Cells · Starting wafer is about 0.5 mm thick and 10 x 10 cm2. The wafer is p-type and lightly doped with Boron (1016/cm3) 2 Screen Printed Solar Cells · Saw Damage Etch ­ The starting wafer

  11. Plasmonic solar cells K.R. Catchpole,1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    Plasmonic solar cells K.R. Catchpole,1,2* and A. Polman,1 1 FOM Institute for Atomic and Molecular of increasing the light absorption in thin-film solar cells. Enhancements in photocurrent have been observed for a wide range of semiconductors and solar cell configurations. We review experimental and theoretical

  12. 10.1117/2.1201108.003807 Solar power conversion using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that, but with additional complexity and cost. Semiconductor solar cells also require costly refined10.1117/2.1201108.003807 Solar power conversion using diodes coupled to antennas Garret Moddel, Zixu Zhu, and Sachit Grover In the developing technology of rectenna solar cells, light is received

  13. The luminosity constraint on solar neutrino fluxes John N. Bahcall*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahcall, John

    photon luminosity if nuclear fusion reactions among light elements are responsible for solar energy analyses of solar neutrino data. Accurate numerical values for the linear coefficients are provided. DOI to the energy budget of the sun. If no detailed knowledge derived from solar models is used to limit

  14. The luminosity constraint on solar neutrino fluxes John N. Bahcall*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahcall, John

    photon luminosity if nuclear fusion reactions among light elements are responsible for solar energy analyses of solar neutrino data. Accurate numerical values for the linear coefficients are provided. DOI allowed to have arbitrary amplitudes when fit to the available solar neutrino data 1­10 . A. Previous work

  15. Investigating the efficiency of Silicon Solar cells at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attari, Shahzeen Z.

    Investigating the efficiency of Silicon Solar cells at different temperatures and wavelengths to study the characteristics of silicon photovoltaic cells (solar cells). We vary the wavelength of light as well as the temperature of the solar cell to investigate how the open voltage across the cell varies

  16. Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    for enhancing the absorption of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using periodic arrangements of resonant,7 Dielectric nanospheres are promising structures for light trapping in planar, thin-film solar cells. It has a thin-film a-Si solar cell structure featuring back reflector and optimized anti-reflection coating. We

  17. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  18. Solar | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar SHARE Solar ORNL's Solar Technologies program supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Office - SunShot Initiative goal to make solar energy...

  19. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    Techniques for Daily Solar Radiation Data. Proceedings ofa. SOLAR RADIATION Solar radiation data provide a measure ofMonthly Solar Data Latitude: Jan SOLAR RADIATION (kWhJm2 per

  20. Automated hybridization/imaging device for fluorescent multiplex DNA sequencing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Robert B. (Salt Lake City, UT); Kimball, Alvin W. (Salt Lake City, UT); Gesteland, Raymond F. (Salt Lake City, UT); Ferguson, F. Mark (Salt Lake City, UT); Dunn, Diane M. (West Valley City, UT); Di Sera, Leonard J. (Salt Lake City, UT); Cherry, Joshua L. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1995-01-01

    A method is disclosed for automated multiplex sequencing of DNA with an integrated automated imaging hybridization chamber system. This system comprises an hybridization chamber device for mounting a membrane containing size-fractionated multiplex sequencing reaction products, apparatus for fluid delivery to the chamber device, imaging apparatus for light delivery to the membrane and image recording of fluorescence emanating from the membrane while in the chamber device, and programmable controller apparatus for controlling operation of the system. The multiplex reaction products are hybridized with a probe, then an enzyme (such as alkaline phosphatase) is bound to a binding moiety on the probe, and a fluorogenic substrate (such as a benzothiazole derivative) is introduced into the chamber device by the fluid delivery apparatus. The enzyme converts the fluorogenic substrate into a fluorescent product which, when illuminated in the chamber device with a beam of light from the imaging apparatus, excites fluorescence of the fluorescent product to produce a pattern of hybridization. The pattern of hybridization is imaged by a CCD camera component of the imaging apparatus to obtain a series of digital signals. These signals are converted by the controller apparatus into a string of nucleotides corresponding to the nucleotide sequence an automated sequence reader. The method and apparatus are also applicable to other membrane-based applications such as colony and plaque hybridization and Southern, Northern, and Western blots.

  1. Proceedings of the 2002 Advanced Vehicle Control Conference, Hiroshima, Japan, September 2002 Control of a Hybrid Electric Truck Based on Driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    initiated, aiming to duplicate the success of hybrid powertrain on passenger cars to light and heavy trucks demonstrated by several prototype hybrid passenger cars, produced by the PNGV program, will be an unrealistic Control of a Hybrid Electric Truck Based on Driving Pattern Recognition Chan-Chiao Lin, Huei Peng Soonil

  2. Introduction Hybrid ICNs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    analysis Experimental results Conclusion Real-Time Networks and Protocols for Industrial Automation Lucia-Time Networks & Protocols for Industrial Automation Hybrid ICNs Modeling of real wireless components IEEE 802 Simulative analysis Experimental results Conclusion Industrial Communication Networks Nowadays Industrial

  3. Assimilating hybridized architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jane C., 1977-

    2005-01-01

    The thesis searches for means of operation to deal with hybridized architecture. As a conceptual framework, sociology theory appears to be an insightful precedent, for it analyzes and classifies how multiple constituents ...

  4. Heavy Hybrid mesons Masses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Iddir; L. Semlala

    2006-11-25

    We estimate the ground state masses of the heavy hybrid mesons using a phenomenological QCD-type potential. 0^{- -},1^{- -},0^{- +},1^{- +} and 0^{+ -} J^{PC} states are considered.

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Huntington Beach, CA); Sahimi, Muhammad (Altadena, CA); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Richmond, CA); Harale, Aadesh (Los Angeles, CA); Park, Byoung-Gi (Yeosu, KR); Liu, Paul K. T. (Lafayette Hill, PA)

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Diesel hybridization and emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasquier, M.; Monnet, G.

    2004-04-21

    The CTR Vehicle Systems and Fuels team a diesel hybrid powertrain. The goal of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the potential of diesel engines for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in a fuel economy and emissions. The test set-up consisted of a diesel engine coupled to an electric motor driving a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). This hybrid drive is connected to a dynamometer and a DC electrical power source creating a vehicle context by combining advanced computer models and emulation techniques. The experiment focuses on the impact of the hybrid control strategy on fuel economy and emissions-in particular, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM). The same hardware and test procedure were used throughout the entire experiment to assess the impact of different control approaches.

  7. A simple mathematical description of an off-grid hybrid solarwind power generating system This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blasone, Massimo

    A simple mathematical description of an off-grid hybrid solar­wind power generating system­771 doi:10.1088/0143-0807/34/3/763 A simple mathematical description of an off-grid hybrid solar energy from the PV cells to the storage unit. In this paper we consider the energy flow in the off-grid

  8. AZ Pending Solar Right-of-Way

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    AR AZ Pending Solar Right-of-Way Applications IZONA STRIP DISTRICT MOHAVE COUNTY Arizona Strip 34618.36 Yuma FO AZA34540 Horizon Wind G1 CSP Trough 11495.99 Hassayampa FO AZA34554 Next Light Renewable Power, LLC K1 CSP Trough 20777.41 Yuma FO AZA34560 Next Light Renewable Power, LLC K2 CSP Trough

  9. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  10. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  11. Soft x ray/extreme ultraviolet images of the solar atmosphere with normal incidence multilayer optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindblom, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The first high resolution Soft X-Ray/Extreme Ultraviolet (XUV) images of the Sun with normal incidence multilayer optics were obtained by the Standford/MSFC Rocket X-Ray Spectroheliograph on 23 Oct. 1987. Numerous images at selected wavelengths from 8 to 256 A were obtained simultaneously by the diverse array of telescopes flown on-board the experiment. These telescopes included single reflection normal incidence multilayer systems (Herschelian), double reflection multilayer systems (Cassegrain), a grazing incidence mirror system (Wolter-Schwarzschild), and hybrid systems using normal incidence multilayer optics in conjunction with the grazing incidence primary (Wolter-Cassegrain). Filters comprised of approximately 1700{Angstrom} thick aluminum supported on a nickel mesh were used to transmit the soft x ray/EUV radiation while preventing the intense visible light emission of the Sun from fogging the sensitive experimental T-grain photographic emulsions. These systems yielded high resolution soft x ray/EUV images of the solar corona and transition region, which reveal magnetically confined loops of hot solar plasma, coronal plumes, polar coronal holes, supergranulation, and features associated with overlying cool prominences. The development, testing, and operation of the experiments, and the results from the flight are described. The development of a second generation experiment, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array, which is scheduled to fly in the summer of 1990, and a recently approved Space Station experiment, the Ultra-High Resolution XUV Spectroheliograph, which is scheduled to fly in 1996 are also described.

  12. Solar Two

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Solar Two is a concentrating solar power plant that can supply electric power on demand to the local utility, Southern California Edison Company. It can do so because it operates not only during sunny parts of the day, but it can store enough thermal energy from the sun to operate during cloudy periods and after dark, for up to three hours, at its rated output of 10 megawatts (MW). For the first time ever, a utility scale solar power plant can supply electricity when the utility needs it most, to satisfy the energy requirements of its customers.

  13. EEE 565 Solar Cells Course Objective: To introduce the basic concepts of the operation of photovoltaic devices, the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    ) Heterojunction Solar Cells (1 week) 6) Multi-junction Solar Cells (1 week) 7) Light Management (1 week) 8EEE 565 Solar Cells Fall 2013 Course Objective: To introduce the basic concepts of the operation solar cell technologies, and how they are integrated into solar cell systems. Topics: 1) Photovoltaic

  14. Solar powered dehumidifier apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jebens, Robert W. (Skillman, NJ)

    1980-12-30

    A thermally insulated light transmitting housing forms a chamber containing a desiccant and having a first gas port open to the ambient and a second gas port connected by a two way valve to a volume to be dried. Solar energy transmitted through the housing heats and dries the desiccant. The increased air pressure due to the heating of the volume to be dried causes the air from the volume to be expelled through the valve into the chamber. The desiccant is then cooled by shielding it from solar energy before the volume cools thereby increasing its moisture absorbing capacity. Then the volume is allowed to cool drawing dehumidified air through the desiccant and the valve into the volume to be dried. This cycle is then repeated.

  15. Controls for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis

    2007-06-22

    This study predicts new hybrid lighting applications for LEDs. In hybrid lighting, LEDs provide a low-energy 'standby' light level while another, more powerful, efficient light source provides light for occupied periods. Lighting controls will allow the two light sources to work together through an appropriate control strategy, typically motion-sensing. There are no technical barriers preventing the use of low through high CRI LEDs for standby lighting in many interior and exterior applications today. The total luminous efficacy of LED systems could be raised by increasing the electrical efficiency of LED drivers to the maximum practically achievable level (94%). This would increase system luminous efficacy by 20-25%. The expected market volumes for many types of LEDs should justify the evolution of new LED drivers that use highly efficient ICs and reduce parts count by means of ASICs. Reducing their electronics parts count by offloading discrete components onto integrated circuits (IC) will allow manufacturers to reduce the cost of LED driver electronics. LED luminaire manufacturers will increasingly integrate the LED driver and thermal management directly in the LED fixture. LED luminaires of the future will likely have no need for separable lamp and ballast because the equipment life of all the LED luminaire components will all be about the same (50,000 hours). The controls and communications techniques used for communicating with conventional light sources, such as dimmable fluorescent lighting, are appropriate for LED illumination for energy management purposes. DALI has been used to control LED systems in new applications and the emerging ZigBee protocol could be used for LEDs as well. Major lighting companies are already moving in this direction. The most significant finding is that there is a significant opportunity to use LEDs today for standby lighting purposes. Conventional lighting systems can be made more efficient still by using LEDs to provide a low-energy standby state when lower light levels are acceptable.

  16. Hybrid models of transport in crowded environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battiato, Ilenia

    2010-01-01

    6.2.5 Hybrid algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88 Chapter 5 Hybrid Model for Reactive Flow in a5.3.1 Hybrid validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

  17. Hybrid silicon evanescent approach to optical interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Big Island, HI, USA, 2006 Hybrid silicon evanescent approach10.1007/s00339-009-5118-1 Hybrid silicon evanescent approachthe recently developed hybrid silicon evanescent platform (

  18. Quantifying the benefits of hybrid vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Delucchi, Mark; Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Sun, Yongling

    2006-01-01

    Citroën Unveils 69mpg Diesel Hybrid Prototypes. 31 January.Citröen, have developed diesel-hybrid prototypes thatalso apply hybrid technologies to diesel vehicles, further

  19. Musa hybrid cv. Blue Java (Cultivated) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    and photovoltaic technology. Far west Texas has some of the highest levels of solar insolation in the United States (see Appendix D). Coastal southern Texas, parts of western Texas, and the Texas Panhandle have class 3 or stronger winds on a scale of 1 (lowest... of photovoltaics can be traced to French physicist Alexandre Becquerel?s 1839 discovery of the photoelectric effect ? the conversion of light to electricity. Nearly 40 years later, in 1877, the first selenium solar cell was constructed. In the early 20th century...

  20. Solar Leasing for Residential Photovoltaic Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This publication examines the solar lease option for residential PV systems and describes two solar lease programs already in place. As a result of the $2,000 cap on the residential ITC being lifted in 2009, the expansion of the solar lease model across the United States may be slower than anticipated. The lease model, though, still offers homeowners some distinct advantages. This publication helps homeowners revisit the comparison between the solar lease and home-equity financing in light of the change to the ITC.

  1. Effect of shell thickness on small-molecule solar cells enhanced by dual plasmonic gold-silica nanorods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Qihua

    enhancement in hybrid organic/Si heterojunction solar cells enabled by embedded gold nanoparticles Appl. Phys of a small-molecule organic solar cell. At optimal (1 wt. %) concentration, Au-silica nanorods with 5 nm. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4896516] Plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) have been inten- sively

  2. Solar Rights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In June of 2015, SB 1626 was signed into law. It provides that during the development period, the developer may only prohibit  a property owner from installing solar in developments with 50 or...

  3. Cerenkov Light

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2014-05-22

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  4. Cerenkov Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2013-06-13

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  5. Lighting Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When undertaking a lighting renovation in a Federal building, daylighting is the primary renewable energy opportunity. Photovoltaics (PV) also present an excellent opportunity. While this guide...

  6. PROJECT PROFILE: Stable Perovskite Solar Cells via Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project is focused on novel approaches to remove risk related to the development of hybrid perovskite solar cells (HPSCs). Researchers will synthesize a new and chemically stable hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite that eliminates decomposition of the absorber layer upon exposure to water vapor, which is a chief obstacle to widespread use of HPSC technology. They will also demonstrate a unique and industrially-scalable chemical vapor deposition method without halides or iodine, which are the main contributors to perovskite degradation.

  7. field fabricated solar powered steam turbinesfield fabricated solar powered steam turbines energy and computationenergy and computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and computationenergy and computation 5/10/065/10/06 Amy SunAmy Sun Center for Bits and AtomsCenter for Bits and Atoms energy using a parabolic troughfocusing solar energy using a parabolic trough concentrator sun light also, demo!)(see also, demo!) efficiency cost Solar collector 50% $50 Boiler 50% $35 Turbine 40% $60

  8. Solar and Wind Easements & Rights Laws & Local Option Solar Rights...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools State Government Federal Government Agricultural Institutional Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Thermal Electric Solar Thermal...

  9. Long-Term Modeling of Solar Energy: Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) and PV Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yabei; Smith, Steven J.

    2007-08-16

    This report presents an overview of research conducted on solar energy technologies and their implementation in the ObjECTS framework. The topics covered include financing assumptions and selected issues related to the integration of concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) and photovoltaics PV technologies into the electric grid. A review of methodologies for calculating the levelized energy cost of capital-intensive technologies is presented, along with sensitivity tests illustrating how the cost of a solar plant would vary depending on financing assumptions. An analysis of the integration of a hybrid concentrating thermal solar power (CSP) system into the electric system is conducted. Finally a failure statistics analysis for PV plants illustrates the central role of solar irradiance uncertainty in determining PV grid integration characteristics.

  10. Driving Pattern Recognition for Control of Hybrid Electric Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    strategy is to minimize fuel consumption and engine-out NOx and PM emissions on a set of diversified is selected adaptively. This "multi-mode" control scheme was tested on several driving cycles and was found was initiated, aiming to duplicate the success of the hybrid powertrain on passenger cars to light and heavy

  11. Solar Advisor Model User Guide for Version 2.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilman, P.; Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Janzou, S.; Cameron, C.

    2008-08-01

    The Solar Advisor Model (SAM) provides a consistent framework for analyzing and comparing power system costs and performance across the range of solar technologies and markets, from photovoltaic systems for residential and commercial markets to concentrating solar power and large photovoltaic systems for utility markets. This manual describes Version 2.0 of the software, which can model photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies for electric applications for several markets. The current version of the Solar Advisor Model does not model solar heating and lighting technologies.

  12. Ligand chemistry of titania precursor affects transient photovoltaic behavior in inverted organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to inorganic solar cells, organic solar cells promise to be low cost, light weight, and possessing processing solar cells Jong Bok Kim, Seokhoon Ahn, Seok Ju Kang, Colin Nuckolls, and Yueh-Lin Loo Citation: Appl Institute of Physics. Related Articles A ferroelectric­semiconductor-coupled solar cell with tunable

  13. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    the cost of a solar cell compared with first-generation solar cells, usually at the expense of efficiencyIEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption flat gallium arsenide solar cell, we show that it is possible to modify the flow of light and enhance

  14. Identification, Characterization, and Implications of Shadow Degradation in Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    cells [4]. The problem of shadowing of solar panels has been studied for quite some time; however of a solar cell, showing the dark and light current components. (b) The series connection in a solar panelIdentification, Characterization, and Implications of Shadow Degradation in Thin Film Solar Cells

  15. innovati nNREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    innovati nNREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells material. The upper TCO contact in a solar cell allows light to reach the absorber material below, which by the TCO to an external circuit, forming the negative terminal of the solar cell. TCOs used in this fashion

  16. Presented July 16, 2015 2:00 PM Geothermal & Solar Breakout Session

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branoff, Theodore J.

    sources. Geothermal Split-heat/heat pump Solar PV Solar heat Solar thermal Small/micro wind Fuel? Small wind: vibration noise? Flickering light? Maintenance? Solar: visual aesthetics? 11 #12; Determine Environmental Beautification Commission Energy and building science - experience & proficiency Owner

  17. By Stanley Micklavzina, Asher Tubman, and Frank Vignola for the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory circuit voltage as the distance between the lamp and the solar cell changes. A discussion between solar cell and light bulb filament. #12;Name: _____________________________ Kit

  18. Solar Rights | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Residential Schools State Government Federal Government Savings Category Solar - Passive Solar Water Heat Solar Space Heat Solar Photovoltaics Daylighting Solar Pool...

  19. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbers $N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$ and $\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible withmore »a color octet gluonic excitation having $J^{P}=1^{+}$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.« less

  20. Hybrid meson decay from lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziwen Fu

    2012-09-10

    Besides the conventional hadrons containing valence quarks and valence antiquarks, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) suggests the existence of the hybrid hadrons containing valence gluons in addition to the quarks and antiquarks, and some experiments may have found some. A decisive experimental confirmation of its existence, however, is still needed. At present, lattice simulations have offered the practicable ways of theoretically guiding us to search for the hybrid states. In this dissertation, we study the spectroscopy and the decay rate of the heavy hybrid mesons made of a heavy $b$ quark, a heavy $\\bar b$ antiquark, and a gluon ($b\\bar{b}g$) to selected channels, and use lattice methods to extract the transition matrix elements in full QCD. We are particular interested in the spin-exotic hybrid mesons. For sufficiently heavy quarks (e.g., $b$ quark), we use the leading Born-Oppenheimer (LBO) approximation to calculate the static potential energy at all $b\\bar{b}$ separations. Then, by solving the Schr\\"odinger equation with this potential, we reconstruct the motion of the heavy quarks. In a similar way we can determine decay rates. In this dissertation, we use the numerical lattice method to calculate the mass of the $f_0$ meson at a single lattice spacing and light quark mass, namely, $m_{f_0} = (768 \\pm 136)$ MeV. Most of all we consider the decay channels involving the production of a scalar meson. We obtain the partial decay rate ($\\Gamma$) for the channel $ H \\rightarrow \\chi_b + \\pi + \\pi $, namely, $ \\Gamma = 3.62(98)$ MeV. All of our results are consistent with those of other researchers. Knowledge of the masses and the decay rates should help us considerably in experimental searches for the hybrid mesons.

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  2. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in traditionalthe limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric powertechnologies is that of solar photovoltaics due to the high

  3. Solar powered desalination system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Tiffany Alisa

    2011-01-01

    2008, uses concentrated solar power to split water. Figurethe main reason the potential for solar power is boundless.a clean energy source, solar power is inexhaustible, fairly

  4. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    and M. Cony, “Prediction of global solar irradiance based onand C. K. Chan, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation usingand K. C. Chee, “Prediction of hourly solar radiation using

  5. CALIFORNIA SOLAR DATA MANUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.

    2010-01-01

    of these errors on solar design is discussed. To facilitateone of the simplified solar design methods discussed inWisconsin Interactive Solar Heating Design Program, , , , c,

  6. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)2.4 Evaluation of Solar Forecasting . . . . . . . . .2.4.1 Solar Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  7. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    the cloud index,” Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 280 –Cover Indices,” ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering (inHorizontal Irradiance,” submitted to Solar Energy, 2012.

  8. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  9. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01

    nanocrystal-polymer solar cells The full potential of hybridto reach the full potential of polymer blend solar cells.solar cells described here offer several potential

  10. Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE solar resource research focuses on understanding historical solar resource patterns and making future predictions, both of which are needed to support reliable power system operation. As solar...

  11. Solar forecasting review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inman, Richard Headen

    2012-01-01

    2.1.2 European Solar Radiation Atlas (ESRA)synthetic hourly radiation,” Solar Energy, vol. 49, pp. 67–for supplementing solar radiation network data,” Final

  12. AEROSPACE TECHNOLOGY REVIEW FOR LBL WINDOW/PASSIVE SOLAR PROGRAM FINAL REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Energy Study: Sun Light Energy Study: Solar RadiationS, Perkins, If Sun 'Tracking Solar Energy Collector ll , N77L. Berger, "The Sun, a New Source of Energy", AD B 026689,

  13. The HERMES Solar Atlas and the spectroscopic analysis of the seismic solar analogue KIC3241581

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, P G; Van Reeth, T; Tkachenko, A; Raskin, G; van Winckel, H; Nascimento, J -D do; Salabert, D; Corsaro, E; Garcia, R A

    2015-01-01

    Solar-analog stars provide an excellent opportunity to study the Sun's evolution, i.e. the changes with time in stellar structure, activity, or rotation for solar-like stars. The unparalleled photometric data from the NASA space telescope Kepler allows us to study and characterise solar-like stars through asteroseismology. We aim to spectroscopically investigate the fundamental parameter and chromospheric activity of solar analogues and twins, based on observations obtained with the HERMES spectrograph and combine them with asteroseismology. Therefore, we need to build a solar atlas for the spectrograph, to provide accurate calibrations of the spectroscopically determined abundances of solar and late type stars observed with this instrument and thus perform differential spectral comparisons. We acquire high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectroscopy to construct three solar reference spectra by observing the reflected light of Vesta and Victoria asteroids and Europa (100

  14. Scenario analysis of hybrid class 3-7 heavy vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, F.; Stodolsky, F.; Vyas, A.; Cuenca, R.; Eberhardt, J. J.

    1999-12-23

    The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, they quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time. From the analysis, they conclude that (1) hybridization can significantly reduce energy consumption of Class 3-7 heavy vehicles under urban driving conditions; (2) the grid-independent, conventional vehicle (CV)-like hybrid is more cost-effective than the grid-dependent, electric vehicle (EV)-like hybrid, and the parallel configuration is more cost-effective than the series configuration; (3) for CV-like hybridization, the on-board engine can be significantly downsized, with a gasoline or diesel engine used for SUVs perhaps being a good candidate for an on-board engine; (4) over the long term, the incremental cost of a CV-like, parallel-configured Class 3-4 hybrid heavy vehicle is about %5,800 in the year 2005 and $3,000 in 2020, while for a Class 6-7 truck, it is about $7,100 in 2005 and $3,300 in 2020; and (5) investment payback time, which depends on the specific type and application of the vehicle, averages about 6 years under urban driving conditions in 2005 and 2--3 years in 2020.

  15. "Hybrid" Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valeri P. Frolov; Andrei V. Frolov

    2014-12-30

    We discuss a solution of the Einstein equations, obtained by gluing the external Kerr metric and the internal Weyl metric, describing an axisymmetric static vacuum distorted black hole. These metrics are glued at the null surfaces representing their horizons. For this purpose we use the formalism of massive thin null shells. The corresponding solution is called a "hybrid" black hole. The massive null shell has an angular momentum which is the origin of the rotation of the external Kerr spacetime. At the same time, the shell distorts the geometry inside the horizon. The inner geometry of the "hybrid" black hole coincides with the geometry of the interior of a non-rotating Weyl-distorted black hole. Properties of the "hybrid" black holes are briefly discussed.

  16. Porosity in hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaefer, D.W.; Beaucage, G.; Loy, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Multicomponent, or hybrid composites are emerging as precursors to porous materials. Sacrifice of an ephemeral phase can be used to generate porosity, the nature of which depends on precursor structure. Retention of an organic constituent, on the other hand, can add desirable toughness to an otherwise brittle ceramic. We use small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering to examine porosity in both simple and hybrid materials. We find that microphase separation controls porosity in almost all systems studied. Pore distributions are controlled by the detailed bonding within and between phases as well as the flexibility of polymeric constituents. Thus hybridization opens new regions of pore distributions not available in simple systems. We look at several sacrificial concepts and show that it is possible to generate multimodal pore size distributions due to the complicated phase structure in the precursor.

  17. Properties and Stability of Hybrid Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Schramm; R. Negreiros; J. Steinheimer; T. Schürhoff; V. Dexheimer

    2011-12-09

    We discuss the properties of neutron stars and their modifications due to the occurrence of hyperons and quarks in the core of the star. More specifically, we consider the general problem of exotic particles inside compact stars in light of the observed two-solar mass pulsar. In addition, we investigate neutron star cooling and a possible explanation of the recently measured cooling curve of the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cas A.

  18. Energy-Efficient Building HVAC Control Using Hybrid System LBMPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aswani, Anil; Taneja, Jay; Krioukov, Andrew; Culler, David; Tomlin, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Improving the energy-efficiency of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems has the potential to realize large economic and societal benefits. This paper concerns the system identification of a hybrid system model of a building-wide HVAC system and its subsequent control using a hybrid system formulation of learning-based model predictive control (LBMPC). Here, the learning refers to model updates to the hybrid system model that incorporate the heating effects due to occupancy, solar effects, outside air temperature (OAT), and equipment, in addition to integrator dynamics inherently present in low-level control. Though we make significant modeling simplifications, our corresponding controller that uses this model is able to experimentally achieve a large reduction in energy usage without any degradations in occupant comfort. It is in this way that we justify the modeling simplifications that we have made. We conclude by presenting results from experiments on our building HVAC testbed, which s...

  19. Corn Hybrids for Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, J. S.; McAfee, T. E.

    1954-01-01

    Corn Hybrids for Terns ST LOCATIONS AREA I AREA II ARE4 Ill AREA IV 2Prdrie View 7.Tylw lZ.Lockhart 17.Waxahachie 22San Antonio 3.Cleveland 8.Mt. Pbctont I3Brsnha B.Garland 23Lamposas 4.Colbqe Sta. 9Sulphw Spp. 14Holland l9.0reenvilb 24...Stephenville ,J* 5.K'rbyvilb I0.Cbrkdb 15.Tanpk 2ODetiion 25.Wllothe TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS. DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS DIGEST The Texas corn acreage planted to hybrids increased from less than 1 percent of the total acrea...

  20. Hybrid sol-gel optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeigler, John M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid sol-gel materials comprise silicate sols cross-linked with linear polysilane, polygermane, or poly(silane-germane). The sol-gel materials are useful as optical identifiers in tagging and verification applications and, in a different aspect, as stable, visible light transparent non-linear optical materials. Methyl or phenyl silicones, polyaryl sulfides, polyaryl ethers, and rubbery polysilanes may be used in addition to the linear polysilane. The linear polymers cross-link with the sol to form a matrix having high optical transparency, resistance to thermooxidative aging, adherence to a variety of substrates, brittleness, and a resistance to cracking during thermal cycling.