National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hybrid pulse power

  1. Hybrid chirped pulse amplification system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barty, Christopher P.; Jovanovic, Igor

    2005-03-29

    A hybrid chirped pulse amplification system wherein a short-pulse oscillator generates an oscillator pulse. The oscillator pulse is stretched to produce a stretched oscillator seed pulse. A pump laser generates a pump laser pulse. The stretched oscillator seed pulse and the pump laser pulse are directed into an optical parametric amplifier producing an optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and an optical parametric amplifier output unconverted pump pulse. The optical parametric amplifier output amplified signal pulse and the optical parametric amplifier output laser pulse are directed into a laser amplifier producing a laser amplifier output pulse. The laser amplifier output pulse is compressed to produce a recompressed hybrid chirped pulse amplification pulse.

  2. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.

    1998-03-03

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.

  3. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.

  4. Low Insertion HVDC Circuit Breaker: Magnetically Pulsed Hybrid Breaker for HVDC Power Distribution Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-09

    GENI Project: General Atomics is developing a direct current (DC) circuit breaker that could protect the grid from faults 100 times faster than its alternating current (AC) counterparts. Circuit breakers are critical elements in any electrical system. At the grid level, their main function is to isolate parts of the grid where a fault has occurred—such as a downed power line or a transformer explosion—from the rest of the system. DC circuit breakers must interrupt the system during a fault much faster than AC circuit breakers to prevent possible damage to cables, converters and other grid-level components. General Atomics’ high-voltage DC circuit breaker would react in less than 1/1,000th of a second to interrupt current during a fault, preventing potential hazards to people and equipment.

  5. HIGH POWER PULSED OSCILLATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singer, S.; Neher, L.K.

    1957-09-24

    A high powered, radio frequency pulse oscillator is described for generating trains of oscillations at the instant an input direct voltage is impressed, or immediately upon application of a light pulse. In one embodiment, the pulse oscillator comprises a photo-multiplier tube with the cathode connected to the first dynode by means of a resistor, and adjacent dynodes are connected to each other through adjustable resistors. The ohmage of the resistors progressively increases from a very low value for resistors adjacent the cathode to a high value adjacent the plate, the last dynode. Oscillation occurs with this circuit when a high negative voltage pulse is applied to the cathode and the photo cathode is bombarded. Another embodiment adds capacitors at the resistor connection points of the above circuit to increase the duration of the oscillator train.

  6. Pulse power linac

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Villa, Francesco

    1990-01-01

    A linear acceleration for charged particles is constructed of a plurality of transmission line sections that extend between a power injection region and an accelerating region. Each line section is constructed of spaced plate-like conductors and is coupled to an accelerating gap located at the accelerating region. Each gap is formed between a pair of apertured electrodes, with all of the electrode apertures being aligned along a particle accelerating path. The accelerating gaps are arranged in series, and at the injection region the line sections are connected in parallel. At the injection region a power pulse is applied simultaneously to all line sections. The line sections are graduated in length so that the pulse reaches the gaps in a coordinated sequence whereby pulse energy is applied to particles as they reach each of the gaps along the accelerating path.

  7. Switching power pulse system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  8. Switching power pulse system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, Kristian

    1983-01-01

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  9. Petawatt pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stygar, William A.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Headley, Daniel I.; Ives, Harry C.; Ives, legal representative; Berry Cottrell; Leeper, Ramon J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Olson, Craig L.; Porter, John L.; Wagoner; Tim C.

    2010-03-16

    A petawatt pulsed-power accelerator can be driven by various types of electrical-pulse generators, including conventional Marx generators and linear-transformer drivers. The pulsed-power accelerator can be configured to drive an electrical load from one- or two-sides. Various types of loads can be driven; for example, the accelerator can be used to drive a high-current z-pinch load. When driven by slow-pulse generators (e.g., conventional Marx generators), the accelerator comprises an oil section comprising at least one pulse-generator level having a plurality of pulse generators; a water section comprising a pulse-forming circuit for each pulse generator and a level of monolithic triplate radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, that have variable impedance profiles, for each pulse-generator level; and a vacuum section comprising triplate magnetically insulated transmission lines that feed an electrical load. When driven by LTD generators or other fast-pulse generators, the need for the pulse-forming circuits in the water section can be eliminated.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Pulsed Power: About Pulsed Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Pulsed Power Pulsed power science is the collection of technologies, capabilities, and theoretical and experimental tools that enable the concentration of electrical energy in space and time. This allows the creation of high energy density environments and highly diagnosed experiments to be conducted for multiple national security applications. Climate High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) The study of materials in extreme conditions of temperature and density is known as HEDP. Our mission is

  11. Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Faidas, Homer

    1990-01-01

    This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch empolying flashlamps.

  12. Pulsed Power Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are some specific sites on Pulsed Power MAGPIE Pulsed Power Facility, Imperial College NIF Naval Research Laboratory, Plasma Physics Division Reviews of U.S. Fusion Policy UKAEA...

  13. Hybrid power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Advanced Pulsed Power Concepts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Pulsed Power Concepts Sandia's Pulsed Power Research Programs Sandia Research Sandia has become the undisputed leader in fast pulsed power science and technology. Beginning in the 1960s, our pulsed power devices have helped assure the performance of every nuclear system in the stockpile. In July 2014's issue of Sandia Research, learn more about the amazing capabilities of the Z Machine and our Pulsed Power technologies and the critical work we perform here at the laboratories. Linear

  15. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  16. Solid state pulsed power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Fengfeng; Saddoughi, Seyed Gholamali; Herbon, John Thomas

    2014-02-11

    A power generator includes one or more full bridge inverter modules coupled to a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) through an inductive resonant branch. Each module includes a plurality of switches that are switched in a fashion causing the one or more full bridge inverter modules to drive the semiconductor opening switch SOS through the resonant circuit to generate pulses to a load connected in parallel with the SOS.

  17. Prefire identification for pulse-power systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longmire, J.L.; Thuot, M.E.; Warren, D.S.

    1982-08-23

    Prefires in a high-power, high-frequency, multi-stage pulse generator are detected by a system having an EMI shielded pulse timing transmitter associated with and tailored to each stage of the pulse generator. Each pulse timing transmitter upon detection of a pulse triggers a laser diode to send an optical signal through a high frequency fiber optic cable to a pulse timing receiver which converts the optical signal to an electrical pulse. The electrical pulses from all pulse timing receivers are fed through an OR circuit to start a time interval measuring device and each electrical pulse is used to stop an individual channel in the measuring device thereby recording the firing sequence of the multi-stage pulse generator.

  18. Prefire identification for pulse power systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longmire, Jerry L.; Thuot, Michael E.; Warren, David S.

    1985-01-01

    Prefires in a high-power, high-frequency, multi-stage pulse generator are detected by a system having an EMI shielded pulse timing transmitter associated with and tailored to each stage of the pulse generator. Each pulse timing transmitter upon detection of a pulse triggers a laser diode to send an optical signal through a high frequency fiber optic cable to a pulse timing receiver which converts the optical signal to an electrical pulse. The electrical pulses from all pulse timing receivers are fed through an OR circuit to start a time interval measuring device and each electrical pulse is used to stop an individual channel in the measuring device thereby recording the firing sequence of the multi-stage pulse generator.

  19. Plastic Laminate Pulsed Power Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALEXANDER,JEFF A.; SHOPE,STEVEN L.; PATE,RONALD C.; RINEHART,LARRY F.; JOJOLA,JOHN M.; RUEBUSH,MITCHELL H.; CROWE,WAYNE; LUNDSTROM,J.; SMITH,T.; ZAGAR,D.; PRESTWICH,K.

    2000-09-01

    The desire to move high-energy Pulsed Power systems from the laboratory to practical field systems requires the development of compact lightweight drivers. This paper concerns an effort to develop such a system based on a plastic laminate strip Blumlein as the final pulseshaping stage for a 600 kV, 50ns, 5-ohm driver. A lifetime and breakdown study conducted with small-area samples identified Kapton sheet impregnated with Propylene Carbonate as the best material combination of those evaluated. The program has successfully demonstrated techniques for folding large area systems into compact geometry's and vacuum impregnating the laminate in the folded systems. The major operational challenges encountered revolve around edge grading and low inductance, low impedance switching. The design iterations and lessons learned are discussed. A multistage prototype testing program has demonstrated 600kV operation on a short 6ns line. Full-scale prototypes are currently undergoing development and testing.

  20. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Hybrid switch for resonant power converters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hybrid switch for resonant power converters A hybrid switch comprising two ...

  1. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van; Manwell, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Multifilamentation of powerful optical pulses in silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berge, L.; Mauger, S.; Skupin, S.

    2010-01-15

    The multiple filamentation of powerful light pulses in fused silica is numerically investigated for central wavelengths at 355 nm and 1550 nm. We consider different values for beam waist and pulse duration and compare the numerical results with behaviors expected from the plane-wave modulational instability theory. Before the nonlinear focus, the spatiotemporal intensity patterns can be explained in the framework of this theory. Once the clamping intensity is reached, for long input pulse durations (approx1 ps), the ionization front defocuses all trailing components within a collective dynamic, and a spatial replenishment scenario takes place upon further propagation. Short pulses (approx50 fs) undergo similar ionization fronts, before an optically turbulent regime sets in. We observe moderate changes in the total temporal extent of ultraviolet pulses and in the corresponding spectra. In contrast, infrared pulses may undergo strong temporal compression and important spectral broadening. For short input pulses, anomalous dispersion and self-steepening push all pulse components to the trailing edge, where many small-scaled filaments are nucleated. In the leading part of the pulse, different spatial landscapes, e.g., broad ring patterns, may survive and follow their own propagation dynamics.

  3. GE Hybrid Power Generation Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: GE Hybrid Power Generation Systems Place: Georgia Zip: Atlanta Product: Focused on fuel cell stack and system development. References: GE Hybrid Power Generation Systems1...

  4. Evaluation of pulse power devices in electric vehicle propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, A.F. ); Dowgiallo, E.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The application of pulse power devices in electric vehicle propulsion systems to load level the main energy storage battery has been studied. Both high energy density capacitors (ultracapacitors) and high power density, bipolar batteries are considered. Computer simulations of vehicle operation with hybrid (two power source) powertrains indicated the energy storage capacities of the pulse power devices required to load level the main battery are 300 to 500 Wh for the capacitors and 5 to 10 Ah for the bipolar batteries can be reduced from 79 W/kg to about 40 W/kg depending on the vehicle gradeability (speed, percent grade, and length of grade) desired. Evaluation of the status of the technology for the pulse power devices indicated that for both devices, improvements in technology are needed before the devices can be used in EV applications. In the case of the ultracapacitor, the energy density of present devices are 1 to 2 Wh/kg. A minimum energy density of about 5 Wh/kg is needed for electric vehicle applications. Progress in increasing the energy density of ultracapacitors has been rapid in recent years and the prospects for meeting the 5 Wh/kg requirement for EVs appear to be good. For bipolar batteries, a minimum power density of 500 W/kg is needed and the internal resistance must be reduced by about a factor of ten from that found in present designs.

  5. Pulsed power for electromagnetic launching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, M

    1980-12-01

    There are system advantages to producing power for electromagnetic propulsion by real-time generation rather than by a sequence of generation-storage-switching. The best type of generator for this purpose is the flux compression generator. Different types of flux compression generator which have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories are reviewed and their applications to electric launching are discussed. New experimental facilities for producing more powerful generators are described and cost comparisons are made.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Pulsed-Power Science and Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Pulsed Power Pulsed-Power Science and Technology Advanced Pulsed Power Concepts SNL Remains One of the World's Premier Pulsed-Power Research and Applications Center Advanced Pulsed Power Concepts Planetary Research High Energy Density Physics Planetary Research Astrophysics SNL experiments may force revision of astrophysical models of the universe Astrophysics Inertial Confinement Fusion Innovative concepts could lead to "break-even" fusion in the

  7. Acceleration Mechanism Of Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Mashima, Yuki; Yamada, Osamu

    2011-11-10

    A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted. Laser-ablation plasma in the thruster was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thrusters was evaluated by measuring the ablated mass per pulse and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulses up to 7,200 s were obtained at charge energies of 8.6 J. Moreover, from the Faraday cup measurement, it was confirmed that the speed of ions was accelerated with addition of electric energy.

  8. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, James; Buden, David; Williams, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometeorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length.

  9. Survivable pulse power space radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mims, J.; Buden, D.; Williams, K.

    1988-03-11

    A thermal radiator system is described for use on an outer space vehicle, which must survive a long period of nonuse and then radiate large amounts of heat for a limited period of time. The radiator includes groups of radiator panels that are pivotally connected in tandem, so that they can be moved to deployed configuration wherein the panels lie largely coplanar, and to a stowed configuration wherein the panels lie in a stack to resist micrometerorite damage. The panels are mounted on a boom which separates a hot power source from a payload. While the panels are stowed, warm fluid passes through their arteries to keep them warm enough to maintain the coolant in a liquid state and avoid embrittlement of material. The panels can be stored in a largely cylindrical shell, with panels progressively further from the boom being of progressively shorter length. 5 figs.

  10. Pulsed power peer review committee report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2004-08-01

    As part of meeting the GRPA (Government Performance and Results Act) requirements and to provide input to Sandia's annual Performance Evaluation Assessment Report (PEAR) to the National Nuclear Security Administration in FY2004, a 14-member external review committee chaired by Dr. Alvin Trivelpiece was convened by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on May 4-6, 2004 to review Sandia National Laboratories' Pulsed Power Programs. The scope of the review included activities in high energy density physics (HEDP), inertial confinement fusion (ICF), radiation/weapon physics, the petawatt laser initiative (PW) and fast ignition, equation-of state studies, radiation effects science and lethality, x-ray radiography, ZR development, basic research and pulsed power technology research and development, as well as electromagnetics and work for others. In his charge to the Committee, Dr. Jeffrey P. Quintenz, Director of Pulsed Power Sciences (Org. 1600) asked that the evaluation and feedback be based on three criteria: (1) quality of technical activities in science, technology, and engineering, (2) programmatic performance, management, and planning, and (3) relevance to national needs and agency missions. In addition, the director posed specific programmatic questions. The accompanying report, produced as a SAND document, is the report of the Committee's finding.

  11. Pulsed Power Peer Review Committee Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BLOOMQUIST,DOUGLAS D.

    2000-12-01

    In 1993, the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA, PL 103-62) was enacted. GPRA, which applies to all federal programs, has three components: strategic plans, annual performance plans, and metrics to show how well annual plans are being followed. As part of meeting the GRPA requirement in FY2000, a 14-member external peer review panel (the Garwin Committee) was convened on May 17-19, 2000 to review Sandia National Laboratories' Pulsed Power Programs as a component of the Performance Appraisal Process negotiated with the Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of the review included activities in inertial confinement fission (ICF), weapon physics, development of radiation sources for weapons effects simulation, x-ray radiography, basic research in high energy density physics (HEDP), and pulsed power technology research and development. In his charge to the committee, Jeffrey Quintenz, Director of Pulsed Power Sciences (1600) asked that the review be based on four criteria (1) quality of science, technology, and engineering, (2) programmatic performance, management, and planning, (3) relevance to national needs and agency missions, and (4) performance in the operation and construction of major research facilities. In addition, specific programmatic questions were posed by the director and by the DOE-Defense Programs (DP). The accompanying report, produced as a SAND document, is the report of the committee's findings.

  12. Pulsed Power Peer Review Committee Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BLOOMQUIST, DOUGLAS D.

    2002-10-01

    In 1993, the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA, PL 103-62) was enacted. GPRA, which applies to all federal programs, has three components: strategic plans, annual performance plans, and metrics to show how well annual plans are being followed. As part of meeting the GRPA requirement in FY2002, a 15-member external review committee chaired by Dr. Alvin Trivelpiece (the Trivelpiece Committee) was convened by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on May 7-9, 2002 to review Sandia National Laboratories' Pulsed Power Programs as a component of the Performance Appraisal Process negotiated with the National Nuclear Security Administration of the Department of Energy (NNSA/DOE). The scope of the review included activities in high energy density physics (HEDP), inertial confinement fusion (ICF), radiation/weapon physics, the petawatt laser initiative (PW) and fast ignition, equation-of-state studies, radiation effects science and lethality, x-ray radiography, ZR development, basic research and pulsed power technology research and development, as well as electromagnetics and work for others. In his charge to the Committee, Dr. Jeffrey P. Quintenz, Director of Pulsed Power Sciences (Org. 1600) asked that the evaluation and feedback be based on three criteria: (1) quality of technical activities in science, technology, and engineering, (2) programmatic performance, management, and planning, and (3) relevance to national needs and agency missions. In addition, the director posed specific programmatic questions. The accompanying report, produced as a SAND document, is the report of the Committee's finding.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Z Pulsed Power Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Z-Machine About Z Z Research Z News Contact Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Z-Machine Z Pulsed Power Facility Science serving the nation Created to validate nuclear weapons models, the Z machine is also in the race for viable fusion energy. Z-Machine From Earth's Core to Black Holes Contributing to discovery science by studying matter at conditions found nowhere else on Earth Center of Z About Z Sandia's Z machine is the world's most powerful and efficient laboratory radiation source. It

  14. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  15. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  16. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses (Conference)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | SciTech Connect Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid

  17. Hybrid electric vehicle power management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2015-08-25

    Level voltage levels/states of charge are maintained among a plurality of high voltage DC electrical storage devices/traction battery packs that are arrayed in series to support operation of a hybrid electric vehicle drive train. Each high voltage DC electrical storage device supports a high voltage power bus, to which at least one controllable load is connected, and at least a first lower voltage level electrical distribution system. The rate of power transfer from the high voltage DC electrical storage devices to the at least first lower voltage electrical distribution system is controlled by DC-DC converters.

  18. A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power A Revolutionary Hybrid Thermodynamic Cycle for Bianary Geothermal Power presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. hybrid_therm_cycle_peer2013.pdf (571.03 KB) More Documents & Publications Working Fluids and Their Effect on Geothermal Turbines Tailored Working Fluids for Enhanced Binary

  19. Pulse transmission transceiver architecture for low power communications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-05

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A method of pulse transmission communications includes: generating a modulated pulse signal waveform; transforming said modulated pulse signal waveform into at least one higher-order derivative waveform; and transmitting said at least one higher-order derivative waveform as an emitted pulse. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  20. High power pulsed magnicon at 34-GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nezhevenko, O.A.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Ganguly, A.K.; Hirshfield, J.L. [Omega-P Inc., 202008 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    A high efficiency, high power magnicon amplifier at 34.272 GHz has been designed as a radiation source to drive multi-TeV electron-positron linear colliders. Simulations show peak output power of 45 MW in a 1.5 microsecond wide pulse with an efficiency of 45{percent} and gain of 55 dB. The repetition rate is 10 Hz. The amplifier is a frequency tripler, or third harmonic amplifier, in that the output frequency of 34.272 GHz is three times the input drive frequency of 11.424 GHz. Thus the rotating TM{sub 110} modes in the drive cavity, 3 gain cavities and double decoupled penultimate cavities are resonant near 11.424 GHz; and the rotating TM{sub 310} mode in the output cavity is resonant at 34.272 GHz. A 500 kV, 200 A high area compression electron gun will provide a low emittance electron beam with a diameter of about 0.8 mm. A superconducting solenoid magnet will provide a magnetic field of 13 kG in the deflection system and 22 kG in the output cavity. A collector for the spent beam has also been designed. Detailed simulation results for the operation of the entire magnicon amplifier (gun, magnetic system, rf system and collector) will be given. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Beams 92: Proceedings. Volume 1: Invited papers, pulsed power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G.

    1993-12-31

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere.

  2. High power linear pulsed beam annealer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strathman, Michael D.; Sadana, Devendra K.; True, Richard B.

    1983-01-01

    A high power pulsed electron beam is produced in a system comprised of an electron gun having a heated cathode, control grid, focus ring, and a curved drift tube. The drift tube is maintained at a high positive voltage with respect to the cathode to accelerate electrons passing through the focus ring and to thereby eliminate space charge. A coil surrounding the curved drift tube provides a magnetic field which maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the tube and imparts motion on electrons in a spiral path for shallow penetration of the electrons into a target. The curvature of the tube is selected so there is no line of sight between the cathode and a target holder positioned within a second drift tube spaced coaxially from the curved tube. The second tube and the target holder are maintained at a reference voltage that decelerates the electrons. A second coil surrounding the second drift tube maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the second drift tube and compresses the electron beam to the area of the target. The target holder can be adjusted to position the target where the cross section of the beam matches the area of the target.

  3. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, W. ); O'Sullivan, G. )

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  4. Pulsed Power Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the News Nuclear fusion simulation shows high-gain energy output (March 2012) Rapid-fire pulse brings Sandia Z method closer to goal of high-yield fusion reactor (April 2007)...

  5. Pulsed Power Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M.D. Furnish, "Exploring pulse shaping for Z using graded-density impactors on Gas Guns," October 2005. J. Davis, "User Manual for INVICE 0.1-beta: A computer Code for Inverse...

  6. Energy storage for hybrid remote power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isherwood, W., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Energy storage can be a cost-effective component of hybrid remote power systems. Storage serves the special role of taking advantage of intermittent renewable power sources. Traditionally this role has been played by lead-acid batteries, which have high life-cycle costs and pose special disposal problems. Hydrogen or zinc-air storage technologies can reduce life-cycle costs and environmental impacts. Using projected data for advanced energy storage technologies, LLNL ran an optimization for a hypothetical Arctic community with a reasonable wind resource (average wind speed 8 m/s). These simulations showed the life-cycle annualized cost of the total energy system (electric plus space heating) might be reduced by nearly 40% simply by adding wind power to the diesel system. An additional 20 to 40% of the wind-diesel cost might be saved by adding hydrogen storage or zinc-air fuel cells to the system. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water using intermittent, renewable power provides inexpensive long-term energy storage. Conversion back to electricity with fuel cells can be accomplished with available technology. The advantages of a hydrogen electrolysis/fuel cell system include low life-cycle costs for long term storage, no emissions of concern, quiet operation, high reliability with low maintenance, and flexibility to use hydrogen as a direct fuel (heating, transportation). Disadvantages include high capital costs, relatively low electrical turn-around efficiency, and lack of operating experience in utility settings. Zinc-air fuel cells can lower capital and life-cycle costs compared to hydrogen, with most of the same advantages. Like hydrogen systems, zinc-air technology promises a closed system for long-term storage of energy from intermittent sources. The turn around efficiency is expected to exceed 60%, while use of waste heat can potentially increase overall energy efficiency to over 80%.

  7. Pulsed pyroelectric crystal-powered gamma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.; Raber, T. N.; Morse, D. H.

    2013-04-19

    A compact pulsed gamma generator is being developed to replace radiological sources used in commercial, industrial and medical applications. Mono-energetic gammas are produced in the 0.4 - 1.0 MeV energy range using nuclear reactions such as {sup 9}Be(d,n{gamma}){sup 10}B. The gamma generator employs an RF-driven inductively coupled plasma ion source to produce deuterium ion current densities up to 2 mA/mm{sup 2} and ampere-level current pulses can be attained by utilizing an array extraction grid. The extracted deuterium ions are accelerated to approximately 300 keV via a compact stacked pyroelectric crystal system and then bombard the beryllium target to generate gammas. The resulting microsecond pulse of gammas is equivalent to a radiological source with curie-level activity.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Z Pulsed Power Facility: About Z

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Z Picture of Z Machine Sandia's Z machine is Earth's most powerful pulsed-power facility and X-ray generator. Z compresses energy in time and space to achieve extreme powers and intensities, found nowhere else on Earth. In approximately 200 shots Z fires every year, the machine uses currents of about 26 million amps to reach peak X-ray emissions of 350 terawatts and an X-ray output of 2.7 megajoules. The Z machine is located in Albuquerque, N.M., and is part of Sandia's Pulsed Power

  9. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  10. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-03-30

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  11. Power Conversion Apparatus and Method for Hybrid Electric and Electric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicle Engines - Energy Innovation Portal Power Conversion Apparatus and Method for Hybrid Electric and Electric Vehicle Engines Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryORNL researchers developed a solution to power source problems in hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and electric vehicle (EV) engines. These engines typically use voltage source inverters. The conventional type of converter requires costly capacitors, has trouble with high

  12. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  13. Acoustic recovery of lost power in pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Gardner, D.L.; Backhaus, S.

    1999-02-01

    In an efficient Stirling-cycle cryocooler, the cold piston or displacer recovers power from the gas. This power is dissipated into heat in the orifice of an orifice pulse tube refrigerator, decreasing system efficiency. Recovery of some of this power in a pulse tube refrigerator, without sacrificing the simplicity and reliability inherent in a system with no cold moving parts, is described in this paper. In one method of such power recovery, the hot ends of both the regenerator and the pulse tube are connected to the front of the piston driving the refrigerator. Experimental data is presented demonstrating this method using a thermoacoustic driver instead of a piston driver. Control of time-averaged mass flux through the refrigerator is crucial to this power recovery, lest the refrigerator{close_quote}s cooling power be overwhelmed by a room-temperature mass flux. Two methods are demonstrated for control of mass flux: a barrier method, and a hydrodynamic method based on turbulent irreversible flow. At {minus}55{degree}C, the refrigerator provided cooling with 9{percent} of the Carnot coefficient of performance. With straightforward improvements, similar refrigerators should achieve efficiencies greater than those of prior pulse tube refrigerators and prior standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerators, while maintaining the advantages of no moving parts. {copyright} {ital 1999 Acoustical Society of America.}

  14. Optical Isolation Transformer for Pulsed Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew J. Heino

    1999-08-01

    Described is a system that can provide electrical power to stacks of switching circuits while maintaining exceptional isolation between high voltage planes. High power laser diode bars are used to illuminate highly efficient photovoltaic cells. This is accomplished using efficient and cost-effective lens ducts and optical fiber segments. Such a system can be very efficient in transmitting optical power to the photocell. Using a glass lens duct we can achieve a theoretical isolation of 200 kV using a unit no bigger than a conventional dc-dc converter with isolation of only 50 kV. The trade off being total electrical efficiency, which is predicted to still be as high as 44 percent.

  15. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Ruth, Ronald D.; Zolotorev, Max

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  16. Possible high power limitations from RF pulsed heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritzkau, D.P.; Bowden, G.B.; Menegat, A.; Siemann, R.H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, California 94309 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    One of the possible limitations to achieving high power in RF structures is damage to metal surfaces due to RF pulsed heating. Such damage may lead to degradation of RF performance. An experiment to study RF pulsed heating on copper has been developed at SLAC. The experiment consists of operating two pillbox cavities in the TE{sub 011} mode using a 50 MW X-Band klystron. The estimated temperature rise of the surface of copper is 350&hthinsp;{degree}C for a power input of 20 MW to each cavity with a pulse length of 1.5 {mu}s. Preliminary results from an experiment performed earlier are presented. A revised design for continued experiments is also presented along with relevant theory and calculations. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Economic analysis of PV hybrid power system: Pinnacles National Monument

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenthal, A.; Durand, S.; Thomas, M.; Post, H.

    1997-11-01

    PV hybrid electric power systems can offer an economically competitive alternative to engine generator (genset) systems in many off-grid applications. Besides the obvious `green` advantages of producing less noise and emissions, the PV hybrid can, in some cases, offer a lower life-cycle cost (LCC) then the genset. This paper evaluates the LCC of the 9.6 kWp PV hybrid power system installed by the National Park Services (NPS) at Pinnacles National Monument, CA. NPS motivation for installation of this hybrid was not based on economics, but rather the need to replace two aging diesel gensets with an alternative that would be quieter, fuel efficient, and more in keeping with new NPS emphasis on sustainable design and operations. In fact, economic analysis shows a lower 20-year LCC for the installed PV hybrid than for simple replacement of the two gensets. The analysis projects are net savings by the PV hybrid system of $83,561 and over 162,000 gallons of propane when compared with the genset-only system. This net savings is independent of the costs associated with environmental emissions. The effects of including emissions costs, according to NPS guidelines, is also discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Bohn, Mark S.; Williams, Thomas A.

    1995-01-01

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production.

  19. Hybrid solar central receiver for combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.; Bohn, M.S.; Williams, T.A.

    1995-05-23

    A hybrid combined cycle power plant is described including a solar central receiver for receiving solar radiation and converting it to thermal energy. The power plant includes a molten salt heat transfer medium for transferring the thermal energy to an air heater. The air heater uses the thermal energy to preheat the air from the compressor of the gas cycle. The exhaust gases from the gas cycle are directed to a steam turbine for additional energy production. 1 figure.

  20. Computer controlled MHD power consolidation and pulse generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, R.; Marcotte, K.; Donnelly, M.

    1990-01-01

    The major goal of this research project is to establish the feasibility of a power conversion technology which will permit the direct synthesis of computer programmable pulse power. Feasibility has been established in this project by demonstration of direct synthesis of commercial frequency power by means of computer control. The power input to the conversion system is assumed to be a Faraday connected MHD generator which may be viewed as a multi-terminal dc source and is simulated for the purpose of this demonstration by a set of dc power supplies. This consolidation/inversion (CI), process will be referred to subsequently as Pulse Amplitude Synthesis and Control (PASC). A secondary goal is to deliver a controller subsystem consisting of a computer, software, and computer interface board which can serve as one of the building blocks for a possible phase II prototype system. This report period work summarizes the accomplishments and covers the high points of the two year project. 6 refs., 41 figs.

  1. Determination of modeling parameters for power IGBTs under pulsed power conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale, Gregory E; Van Gordon, Jim A; Kovaleski, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    While the power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGRT) is used in many applications, it is not well characterized under pulsed power conditions. This makes the IGBT difficult to model for solid state pulsed power applications. The Oziemkiewicz implementation of the Hefner model is utilized to simulate IGBTs in some circuit simulation software packages. However, the seventeen parameters necessary for the Oziemkiewicz implementation must be known for the conditions under which the device will be operating. Using both experimental and simulated data with a least squares curve fitting technique, the parameters necessary to model a given IGBT can be determined. This paper presents two sets of these seventeen parameters that correspond to two different models of power IGBTs. Specifically, these parameters correspond to voltages up to 3.5 kV, currents up to 750 A, and pulse widths up to 10 {micro}s. Additionally, comparisons of the experimental and simulated data will be presented.

  2. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production Andrea Ashwood and Desikan Bharathan Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-48765 March 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Hybrid Cooling Systems for

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  4. Design concepts for a pulse power test facility to simulate EMP surges. Part II. Slow pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dethlefsen, R.

    1985-10-01

    The work described in this report was sponsored by the Division of Electric Energy Systems (EES) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) through a subcontract with the Power Systems Technology Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work deals with the effect of high altitude nuclear bursts on electric power systems. In addition to fast voltage transients, slow, quasi-dc currents are also induced into extended power systems with grounded neutral connections. Similar phenomena at lower magnitude are generated by solar induced electromagnetic pulses (EMP). These have caused power outages, related to solar storms, at northern latitudes. The applicable utility experience is reviewed in order to formulate an optimum approach to future testing. From a wide variety of options two pulser designs were selected as most practical, a transformer-rectifier power supply, and a lead acid battery pulser. both can be mounted on a trailer as required for field testing on utility systems. The battery system results in the least cost. Testing on power systems requires that the dc pulser pass high values of alternating current, resulting from neutral imbalance or from potential fault currents. Batteries have a high ability to pass alternating currents. Most other pulser options must be protected by an ac bypass in the form of an expensive capacitor bank. 8D truck batteries can meet the original specification of 1 kA test current. Improved batteries for higher discharge currents are available.

  5. Scalable and Power Efficient Data Analytics for Hybrid Exascale Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, Alok; Samatova, Nagiza; Wu, Kesheng; Liao, Wei-keng

    2015-03-19

    This project developed a generic and optimized set of core data analytics functions. These functions organically consolidate a broad constellation of high performance analytical pipelines. As the architectures of emerging HPC systems become inherently heterogeneous, there is a need to design algorithms for data analysis kernels accelerated on hybrid multi-node, multi-core HPC architectures comprised of a mix of CPUs, GPUs, and SSDs. Furthermore, the power-aware trend drives the advances in our performance-energy tradeoff analysis framework which enables our data analysis kernels algorithms and software to be parameterized so that users can choose the right power-performance optimizations.

  6. Soft x-ray diagnostics for pulsed power machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idzorek, G.C.; Coulter, W.L.; Walsh, P.J.; Montoya, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    A variety of soft x-ray diagnostics are being fielded on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Pegasus and Procyon pulsed power systems and also being fielded on joint US/Russian magnetized target fusion experiments known as MAGO (Magnitoye Obzhatiye). The authors have designed a low-cost modular photoemissive detector designated the XRD-96 that uses commercial 1100 series aluminum for the photocathode. In addition to photocathode detectors a number of designs using solid state silicon photodiodes have been designed and fielded. They also present a soft x-ray time-integrated pinhole camera system that uses standard type TMAX-400 photographic film that obviates the need for expensive and no longer produced zero-overcoat soft x-ray emulsion film. In a typical experiment the desired spectral energy cuts, signal intensity levels, and desired field of view will determine diagnostic geometry and x-ray filters selected. The authors have developed several computer codes to assist in the diagnostic design process and data deconvolution. Examples of the diagnostic design process and data analysis for a typical pulsed power experiment are presented.

  7. Conversion of Solar Two to a Kokhala hybrid power tower

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, H.W.

    1997-06-01

    The continued drop in energy prices and restructuring of the utility industry have reduced the likelihood that a follow-on commercial 100-MW, power tower project will be built immediately following the Solar Two demonstration project. Given this, it would be desirable to find a way to extend the life of the Solar Two project to allow the plant to operate as a showcase for future power tower projects. This paper looks at the possibility of converting Solar Two into a commercial Kokhala hybrid power tower plant at the end of its demonstration period in 1998. The study identifies two gas turbines that could be integrated into a Kokhala cycle at Solar Two and evaluates the design, expected performance, and economics of each of the systems. The study shows that a commercial Kokhala project at Solar Two could produce power at a cost of less than 7 e/kWhr.

  8. High-Isp Mode Of Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Accelerator For Space Propulsion Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Kishida, Yoshiaki; Funaki, Ikkoh

    2010-10-08

    A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted. Laser-ablation plasma in the thruster was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thrusters was evaluated by measuring the mass shot and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulses up to 7,200 sec were obtained at the charge energies of 8.6 J. In addition, typical thrust efficiency varied between 11.8% and 21.3% depending on the charge energy.

  9. A Pulsed Laser-Electromagnetic Hybrid Accelerator For Space Propulsion Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinohara, Tadaki; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Baba, Msahumi; Tei, Kazuyoku

    2010-05-06

    A fundamental study of a newly developed rectangular pulsed laser-electromagnetic hybrid thruster was conducted, in which laser-ablation plasma was induced through laser beam irradiation onto a solid target and accelerated by electrical means instead of direct acceleration only by using a laser beam. The performance of the thruster was evaluated by measuring the mass per shot and impulse bit. As results, significantly high specific impulse ranging from 5,000 approx6,000 sec were obtained at energies of 0.1 and 8.6 J, respectively. In addition, the typical thrust efficiency varied from 17% to 19% depending on the charge energy.

  10. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  11. Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

    2009-11-01

    Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of

  12. An innovative high-power constant-current pulsed-arc power-supply for a high-density pulsed-arc-plasma ion-source using a LaB{sub 6}-filament

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ikegami, K.; Namekawa, Y.; Ohkoshi, K.; Tokuchi, A.

    2010-02-15

    An innovative high-power constant-current (CC) pulsed-arc (PA) power-supply (PS) indispensable for a high-density PA plasma ion-source using a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB{sub 6}) filament was devised by combining a constant-voltage (CV) PA-PS, which is composed of an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switch, a CV direct-current (dc) PS and a 270 mF capacitor with a CC-PA-PS, which is composed of an IGBT-switch, a CC-dc-PS and a 400 {mu}H inductor, through the inductor. The hybrid-CC-PA-PS succeeded in producing a flat arc-pulse with a peak power of 56 kW (400 Ax140 V) and a duty factor of more than 1.5%(600 {mu}sx25 Hz) for Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) H{sup -} ion-source stably. It also succeeded in shortening the 99% rising-time of the arc-pulse-current to about 20 {mu}s and tilting up or down the arc-pulse-current arbitrarily and almost linearly by changing the setting voltage of its CV-dc-PS.

  13. A new 40 MA ranchero explosive pulsed power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goforth, James; Herrera, Dennis; Oona, Hank; Torres, David; Atchison, W L; Colgate, S A; Griego, J R; Guzik, J; Holtkamp, D B; Idzorek, G; Kaul, A; Kirkpatrick, R C; Menikoff, R; Reardon, P T; Reinovsky, R E; Rousculp, C L; Sgro, A G; Tabaka, L J; Tierney, T E; Watt, R G

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a new high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system based on the 1.4 m long Ranchero generator which was developed in 1999 for driving solid density z-pinch loads. The new application requires approximately 40 MA to implode similar liners, but the liners cannot tolerate the 65 {micro}s, 3 MA current pulse associated with delivering the initial magnetic flux to the 200 nH generator. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a system with an internal start switch and four explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switches. The integral start switch is installed between the output glide plane and the armature. It functions in the same manner as a standard input crowbar switch when armature motion begins, but initially isolates the load. The circuit is completed during the flux loading phase using post hole convolutes. Each convolute attaches the inner (coaxial) output transmission line to the outside of the outer coax through a penetration of the outer coaxial line. The attachment is made with the conductor of an EFF at each location. The EFFs conduct 0.75 MA each, and are actuated just after the internal start switch connects to the load. EFFs operating at these parameters have been tested in the past. The post hole convolutes must withstand as much as 80 kV at peak dl/dt during the Ranchero load current pulse. We describe the design of this new HEPP system in detail, and give the experimental results available at conference time. In addition, we discuss the work we are doing to test the upper current limits of a single standard size Ranchero module. Calculations have suggested that the generator could function at up to {approx}120 MA, the rule of thumb we follow (1 MA/cm) suggests 90 MA, and simple flux compression calculations, along with the {approx}4 MA seed current available from our capacitor bank, suggests 118 MA is the currently available upper limit.

  14. High power linear pulsed beam annealer. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strathman, M.D.; Sadana, D.K.; True, R.B.

    1980-11-26

    A high power pulsed electron beam system for annealing semiconductors is comprised of an electron gun having a heated cathode, control grid and focus ring for confining the pulsed beam of electrons to a predetermined area, and a curved drift tube. The drift tube and an annular Faraday shield between the focus ring and the drift tube are maintained at a high positive voltage with respect to the cathode to accelerate electrons passing through the focus ring, thereby eliminating space charge limitations on the emission of electrons from said gun. A coil surrounding the curved drift tube provides a magnetic field which maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the tube. The magnetic field produced by the coil around the curved tube imparts motion to electrons in a spiral path for shallow penetration of the electrons into a target. It also produces a scalloped profile of the electron beam. A second drift tube spaced a predetermined distance from the curved tube is positioned with its axis aligned with the axis of the first drift tube. The second drift tube and the target holder are maintained at a reference voltage between the cathode voltage and the curved tube voltage to decelerate the electrons. A second coil surrounding the second drift tube, maintains the electron beam focused about the axis of the second drift tube. The magnetic field of the second coil comprises the electron beam to the area of the semiconductor on the target holder.

  15. The development of a one microsecond pulse length, repetitively pulsed, high power modulator and a long-pulse electron beam diode for the production of intense microwaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stringfield, R.M.; Faehl, R.J.; Fazio, M.V.; Hoeberling, R.F.; Kwan, T.J.T.; Rickel, D.G.; VanHaaften, F.; Wasierski, R.F.; Erickson, A.; Rust, K.

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses the pulse power and explosive emission electron beam diode development effort we have undertaken to power a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) microwave source. The pulsed power and electron beam must enable the RKA to Produce one kilojoule of 13 GHz radiation per pulse at a 5 Hz repetition frequency. These efforts include tests and improvements of a 1 {mu}s pulse length thyratron switched modulator, and the computational and experimental design of a 1-{mu}s-pulse-length explosive emission electron gun. The one microsecond pulse length is almost an order of magnitude beyond what has been achieved heretofore with an RKA. Achieving a peak power approaching 1 GW for 1 {mu}s requires a well behaved electron beam on that time scale. An electron beam diode has been developed that delivers a peak current of 4 to 5 kA for a pulse duration exceeding 1 {mu}s, at a beam kinetic energy above 600 keV. BANSHEE is the high voltage modulator designed for use as an electron beam driver for high power microwave tube development. The BANSHEE output pulse design parameters are 1 MV and 10 kA, with a 1 {mu}s pulse width at a repetition rate of 3--5 Hz, driving a load of impedance of 100 ohms. BANSHEE is a thyratron-switched line-type modular with a pulse transformer output stage. The modulator design is pushing the state of the art in thyratron technology and capacitor lifetime. The results of the BANSHEE modulator testing are described.

  16. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W.; Tesche, F.M.; Vance, E.F.

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation`s power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation`s electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  17. Hybrid vehicle powertrain system with power take-off driven vehicle accessory

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beaty, Kevin D.; Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Zou, Zhanijang; Hope, Mark E.; Kang, Xiaosong; Carpenter, Jeffrey L.

    2006-09-12

    A hybrid vehicle powertrain system includes a first prime mover, a first prime mover driven power transmission mechanism having a power take-off adapted to drive a vehicle accessory, and a second prime mover. The second prime mover is operable to drive the power transmission mechanism alone or in combination with the first prime mover to provide power to the power take-off through the power transmission mechanism. The invention further includes methods for operating a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  18. Pulse power enhancement of the anaerobic digester process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, H.W.

    1996-12-31

    A pilot study of the effects of Pulse Power Processing on an anaerobic digester system was completed at the Decatur Utilities Dry Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, in Decatur Alabama, in September, 1995. This patented method generates several significant effects when all biosolids material is treated as it enters the anaerobic system. Intense, high peak-power plasma arcs are created, one at each end of the parabolic processing chamber, to produce an amplified synergy of alterations to the digester sludge flowing between them. The millisecond electric discharges generate localized temperatures as high as 30,000 K{degrees}, followed by a rapid cooling of the flowing liquid, which produces acoustic shock waves with pressures approaching 5,000 atmospheres. This destructive force: ruptures many of the cell walls of the bacteria and other single-cell organisms, releasing their vacuole fluids; breaks carbon bonds to form smaller organic compounds; and pulverizes large particle conglomerates, increasing the overall surface area of the solids. These beneficial results serve to boost the nutrient source for the anaerobes in the digester. In conjunction with LTV radiation, the formation of excited chemical radicals (including OH{sup -}), and the changes in ionic charge through alteration of the zeta potential, the bioreactor system is turbocharged to enhance the conversion of volatile biosolids to methane gas, which is the natural respiratory by-product of anaerobic digestion.

  19. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV ...

  20. HIGH ENERGY PULSED POWER SYSTEM FOR AGS SUPER NEUTRINO FOCUSING HORN.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG, S.Y.; SANDBERG, J.; WENG, W.-T.

    2005-05-16

    This paper present a preliminary design of a 300 kA, 2.5 Hz pulsed power system. This system will drive the focusing horn of proposed Brookhaven AGS Neutrino Super Beam Facility for Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment. The peak output power of the horn pulsed power system will reach Giga-watts, and the upgraded AGS will be capable of delivering 1 MW in beam power.

  1. Method for the Production of Ultrashort Peak Power Laser Pulses and System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Putting Into Practice This Method Inventors Gerard Mourou, Nathaniel J. Fisch, Vladimir M. Malkin, and Zeev Toroker | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Method for the Production of Ultrashort Peak Power Laser Pulses and System For Putting Into Practice This Method Inventors Gerard Mourou, Nathaniel J. Fisch, Vladimir M. Malkin, and Zeev Toroker Laser-pulse intensities have grown remarkably in recent years, primarily through the method of chirped pulse amplification. Much higher powers are

  2. Simultaneous production of desalinated water and power using a hybrid-cycle OTEC plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1987-05-01

    A systems study for simultaneous production of desalinated water and electric power using the hybrid-cycle OTEC system was carried out. The hybrid cycle is a combination of open and closed-cycle OTEC systems. A 10 MWe shore-based hybrid-cycle OTEC plant is discussed and corresponding operating parameters are presented. Design and plant operating criteria for adjusting the ratio of water production to power generation are described and their effects on the total system were evaluated. The systems study showed technical advantages of the hybrid-cycle power system as compared to other leading OTEC systems for simultaneous production of desalinated water and electric power generation.

  3. Research into pulsed power-driven recombination lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, M.; Nash, T.; Lepell, P.D. )

    1988-10-01

    The DNA/PITHON pulsed power generator was used to produce hot, dense, aluminum, and neon plasmas in a Z-pinch configuration. An annulus of neon gas was radially imploded onto a parylene capillary on axis which was coated with aluminum. The pinch produced 3 cm and 5 cm long Al/Ne plasmas with densities --10/sup 20/ cm/sup -3/ and temperatures --500 eV. A time-gated, grazing incidence spectrograph (MCPIGS) was used to image the plasma and to capture three consecutive 25 ns duration spectra. The Al XI, 4f-3d and 4-d-3p lines at 154.4 and 150.4A were observed to be anomalously bright compared to the Al XI, 4d-2p line. This anomaly, which might be suggestive of recombination lasing, may also be explained by opacity, whereby the optically thick 4 ..-->.. 2 lines are reduced in apparent intensity with respect ot the 4 ..-->.. 3 lines. The Ne X 4-3 line was observed to be spatially localized on axis where emissions from the Ne X 3-2 line were sharply reduced in intensity. On axis, the anomalous brightness of the Ne X 4-3 line suggests a strong inversion. The interpretation of these Ne lines should not be strongly affected by opacity considerations and is suggestive of inversions in Ne X on axis.

  4. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant

  5. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Hybrid Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Systems Hydropower Light Water Reactors Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Nuclear Fuel Cycles Solar Power Stationary Fuel Cells Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Wind Power ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Clean Power Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Hybrid Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Chapter 4: Technology Assessments Introduction and Background This Technology Assessment summarizes the current state of knowledge of nuclear-renewable hybrid

  6. High-Power Laser Pulse Recirculation for Inverse Compton Scattering-Produced Gamma-Rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jovanovic, I; Shverdin, M; Gibson, D; Brown, C

    2007-04-17

    Inverse Compton scattering of high-power laser pulses on relativistic electron bunches represents an attractive method for high-brightness, quasi-monoenergetic {gamma}-ray production. The efficiency of {gamma}-ray generation via inverse Compton scattering is severely constrained by the small Thomson scattering cross section. Furthermore, repetition rates of high-energy short-pulse lasers are poorly matched with those available from electron accelerators, resulting in low repetition rates for generated {gamma}-rays. Laser recirculation has been proposed as a method to address those limitations, but has been limited to only small pulse energies and peak powers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate an alternative method for laser pulse recirculation that is uniquely capable of recirculating short pulses with energies exceeding 1 J. Inverse Compton scattering of recirculated Joule-level laser pulses has a potential to produce unprecedented peak and average {gamma}-ray brightness in the next generation of sources.

  7. Effect of Pulsed Nd: YAG Laser Powers On 304 Stainless Steel Welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candan, L.; Demir, A.; Akman, E. [University of Kocaeli, Laser Technologies Research and Application Center, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2007-04-23

    In this study, optimum welding parameters are obtained for 1mm thickness type 304 stainless steel welding using the Lumonics JK760TR pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The influences of laser welding parameters such as pulse duration, focal position, frequency, laser power, welding speed, and shielding gas (N2) pressure on penetration defining welding quality are investigated. Also comparisons of overlap ratios are presented between theory and experiment for pulse duration, frequency and welding speed.

  8. Hybrid power management system and method - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles & Fuels » Vehicles » Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Basics Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicle Basics August 20, 2013 - 9:13am Addthis Text Version Photo of hands holding a battery pack (grey rectangular box) for a hybrid electric vehicle. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and all-electric vehicles (EVs)-also called electric drive vehicles collectively-use electricity either as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of

  9. Predicts the Long Term Performance and Economic Feasibility of Hybrid Power Sys

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    HYBRID2 is a combined probalistic/time series model designed to study a wide variety of hybrid power systems. Hybrid power systems combine a number of sources of power generation and, usually, a form of energy storage to supply an electrical load. Hybrid power systems are mainly used in areas such as islands or remote communities that are removed from a power distribution network. These power systems can range from large, multi-megawatt systems to those supplying singlemore » family dwellings. HYBRID2 simulates systems that include diesel generators, wind turbines, battery storage, different power conversion devices and a photovoltaic array. Systems can be modeled with components on the AC, DC or multiple buses. A variety of different operating strategies have been allowed as well as an economic analysis tool. The HYBRID2 code has a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) as well as a glossary of terms commonly associated with hybrid power systems. HYBRID2 is also packaged with an extensive library of equipment to assist the user in designing hybrid power systems. Each piece of equipment is commercially available and uses manufacturer''s specifications. In addition the library includes resource data and some sample power systems and projects that can be used as templates. Two levels of output are provided, a summary as well as a detailed time step by time step description of power flows. A Graphical Results Interface (GRI) allows for easy and in-depth review of the detailed simulation results.« less

  10. High-Power Plasma Switch for 11.4 GHz Microwave Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2010-03-04

    Results obtained in several experiments on active RF pulse compression at X-band using a magnicon as the high-power RF source are presented. In these experiments, microwave energy was stored in high-Q TE01 and TE02 modes of two parallel-fed resonators, and then discharged using switches activated with rapidly fired plasma discharge tubes. Designs and high-power tests of several versions of the compressor are described. In these experiments, coherent pulse superposition was demonstrated at a 59 MW level of incident power. The compressed pulses observed had powers of 5070 MW and durations of 4070 ns. Peak power gains were measured to be in the range of 7:111:1 with efficiency in the range of 5063%.

  11. Electron-Beam Switches For A High Peak Power Sled-II Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay, L.

    2015-12-02

    Omega-P demonstrated triggered electron-beam switches on the L=2 m dual-delay-line X-band pulse compressor at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In those experiments, with input pulses of up to 9 MW from the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon, output pulses having peak powers of 140-165 MW and durations of 16-20 ns were produced, with record peak power gains M of 18-20. Switch designs are described based on the successful results that should be suitable for use with the existing SLAC SLED-II delay line system, to demonstrate C=9, M=7, and n>>78%, yielding 173ns compressed pulses with peak powers up to 350MW with input of a single 50-MW.

  12. Pulsed power supply for Nova Upgrade. Final report, August 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, J.L.; Kajs, J.P.; Walls, A.; Weldon, W.F.; Zowarka, R.C.

    1992-12-31

    This report describes work carried out at the Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT). A baseline design of the Nova Upgrade has been completed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Nova Upgrade is an 18 beamline Nd: glass laser design utilizing fully relayed 4x4 30 cm aperture segmented optical components. The laser thus consists of 288 independent beamlets nominally producing 1.5 to 2.0 MJ of 0.35 {mu}m light in a 3 to 5 ns pulse. The laser design is extremely flexible and will allow a wide range of pulses to irradiate ICF targets. This facility will demonstrate ignition/gain and the scientific feasibility of ICF for energy and defense applications. The pulsed power requirements for the Nova Upgrade are given. CEM-UT was contracted to study and develop a design for a homopolar generator/inductor (HPG/inductor) opening switch system which would satisfy the pulsed power supply requirements of the Nova Upgrade. The Nd:glass laser amplifiers used in the Nova Upgrade will be powered by light from xenon flashlamps. The pulsed power supply for the Nova Upgrade powers the xenon flashlamps. This design and study was for a power supply to drive flashlamps.

  13. Electrode-plasma-driven radiation cutoff in long-pulse, high-power microwave devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, D. V.; Miller, C. L.; Welch, D. R.; Portillo, S.

    2013-03-15

    The impact of electrode plasma dynamics on the radiation production in a high power microwave device is examined using particle-in-cell simulations. Using the design of a compact 2.4 GHz magnetically insulated line oscillator (MILO) as the basis for numerical simulations, we characterize the time-dependent device power and radiation output over a range of cathode plasma formation rates. These numerical simulations can self-consistently produce radiation characteristics that are similar to measured signals in long pulse duration MILOs. This modeling capability should result in improved assessment of existing high-power microwave devices and lead to new designs for increased radiation pulse durations.

  14. A high voltage pulse power supply for metal plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Sgubin, L. G.; Sochugov, N. S.; Spirin, R. E.; Brown, I. G.

    2010-12-15

    We describe the design and implementation of a high voltage pulse power supply (pulser) that supports the operation of a repetitively pulsed filtered vacuum arc plasma deposition facility in plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (Mepiiid) mode. Negative pulses (micropulses) of up to 20 kV in magnitude and 20 A peak current are provided in gated pulse packets (macropulses) over a broad range of possible pulse width and duty cycle. Application of the system consisting of filtered vacuum arc and high voltage pulser is demonstrated by forming diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films with and without substrate bias provided by the pulser. Significantly enhanced film/substrate adhesion is observed when the pulser is used to induce interface mixing between the DLC film and the underlying Si substrate.

  15. Single and repetitive short-pulse high-power microwave window breakdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.; Tang, C. X.; Shao, H.; Chen, C. H.; Huang, W. H.

    2010-05-15

    The mechanisms of high-power microwave breakdown for single and repetitive short pulses are analyzed. By calculation, multipactor saturation with electron density much higher than the critical plasma density is found not to result in microwave cutoff. It is local high pressure about Torr class that rapid plasma avalanche and final breakdown are realized in a 10-20 ns short pulse. It is found by calculation that the power deposited by saturated multipactor and the rf loss of protrusions are sufficient to induce vaporizing surface material and enhancing the ambient pressure in a single short pulse. For repetitive pulses, the accumulation of heat and plasma may respectively carbonize the surface material and lower the repetitive breakdown threshold.

  16. Suppression of beam induced pulse shortening modes in high power RF generator TW output structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1992-12-31

    Several different style 11.4 GHz relativistic klystrons, operating with beam pulse widths of 50 ns and using large aperture, tapered phase-velocity TW structures,` have recently demonstrated output RF power levels in the range of 100 to 300 MW without breakdown or pulse shortening. To extend this performance into the long pulse regime (1 {mu}s) or to demonstrate a threefold increase in output power by using higher currents, the existing TW circuit designs must be modified (a) to reduce the cavity maximum surface E-fields by a factor of 2 to 3, and (b) to elevate the current threshold values of the beam induced higher order modes (HOM) to ensure avoidance of RF pulse shortening and associated instabilities. A technique for substantially elevating this threshold current is described, and microwave data and photographs are presented showing the degree of HOM damping achieved in a recently constructed 11.4 GHz TW structure.

  17. A Novel Solar-Fossil Hybrid Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2014-01-01

    This is a short article prepared for Power Magazine about our development of a solar-powered steam-methane reformer.

  18. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  19. Design considerations for 100 MJ class flux compression pulse power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reinovsky, R.E.; Lindemuth, I.R.

    1993-10-01

    With the cost of high performance, capacitor-discharge, pulse power systems continuing around $1--2 per joule and with energy requirements for experiments such as fast compression of magnetized plasmas ranging to 100 MJ and beyond, the need for economical, super-energy pulse power systems is being recognized. Explosively powered flux compressors, capable of delivering 100 MJ to a plasma physics experiment, can be designed, fabricated, and fielded at costs of less than $0.01J per shot. While less economical than laboratory pulsed power systems, if system life exceeds a few hundred full-energy shots, explosive pulse power techniques allow initial experiments to be performed quickly and economically at energies that are prohibitively costly, and hence unavailable, using conventional techniques. A variety of configurations for flux compressors suitable for 100-MJ operation can be considered. Among these, the disk configuration, pioneered by researchers at the All Russian Institute of Experimental Physics has demonstrated both high current and high energy capabilities.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Z Pulsed Power Facility: Z Research: Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Sinars Studying matter at conditions found nowhere else on Earth Z provides the fastest, most accurate, and most affordable method to determine how materials will react under high pressures and temperatures, characteristics that can then be expressed in formulas called equations of state. Combining theoretical simulations with laboratory work, Sandia researchers are able to perform more precisely than ever before. Exposing targets to the high power levels of Z also allows scientists to

  1. FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW μs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  2. Design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel power systems for Brazilian applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGowan, J.G.; Manwell, J.F.; Avelar, C.; Warner, C.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a summary of a study centered on the design and evaluation of hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems for remote locations in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate high reliability hybrid power systems that have been designed for the lowest life cycle costs. The technical and economic analysis of the hybrid wind/PV/diesel systems was carried out using HYBRID2, a computational code developed at the University of Massachusetts in conjunction with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). After a summary of a generalized design procedure for such systems based on the use of this code, a systematic parametric evaluation of a representative design case for a village power system in Brazil is presented. As summarized in the paper, the performance and economic effects of key design parameters are illustrated. 8 refs., 10 figs.

  3. Hybrid Cooling Systems for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashwood, A.; Bharathan, D.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the identification and evaluation of methods by which the net power output of an air-cooled geothermal power plant can be enhanced during hot ambient conditions with a minimal amount of water use.

  4. Hybrid Power System Simulation Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontenthybrid-power-system-simulation-model, Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This...

  5. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants: thermodynamic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SUPERHEATING; THERMODYNAMICS; WELL TEMPERATURE; WELLHEADS; WESTERN REGION; HEATING; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; NORTH AMERICA; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; POWER PLANTS; RESERVOIR TEMPERATURE;...

  6. AN ASSESSMENT OF FLYWHEEL HIGH POWER ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGY FOR HYBRID VEHICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, James Gerald

    2012-02-01

    An assessment has been conducted for the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program to determine the state of the art of advanced flywheel high power energy storage systems to meet hybrid vehicle needs for high power energy storage and energy/power management. Flywheel systems can be implemented with either an electrical or a mechanical powertrain. The assessment elaborates upon flywheel rotor design issues of stress, materials and aspect ratio. Twelve organizations that produce flywheel systems submitted specifications for flywheel energy storage systems to meet minimum energy and power requirements for both light-duty and heavy-duty hybrid applications of interest to DOE. The most extensive experience operating flywheel high power energy storage systems in heavy-duty and light-duty hybrid vehicles is in Europe. Recent advances in Europe in a number of vehicle racing venues and also in road car advanced evaluations are discussed. As a frame of reference, nominal weight and specific power for non-energy storage components of Toyota hybrid electric vehicles are summarized. The most effective utilization of flywheels is in providing high power while providing just enough energy storage to accomplish the power assist mission effectively. Flywheels are shown to meet or exceed the USABC power related goals (discharge power, regenerative power, specific power, power density, weight and volume) for HEV and EV batteries and ultracapacitors. The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems remains the issue of safety and containment. Flywheel safety issues must be addressed during the design and testing phases to ensure that production flywheel systems can be operated with adequately low risk.

  7. Hybrid robust predictive optimization method of power system dispatch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandra, Ramu Sharat; Liu, Yan; Bose, Sumit; de Bedout, Juan Manuel

    2011-08-02

    A method of power system dispatch control solves power system dispatch problems by integrating a larger variety of generation, load and storage assets, including without limitation, combined heat and power (CHP) units, renewable generation with forecasting, controllable loads, electric, thermal and water energy storage. The method employs a predictive algorithm to dynamically schedule different assets in order to achieve global optimization and maintain the system normal operation.

  8. Economic evaluation of solar-only and hybrid power towers using molten salt technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolb, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    Several hybrid and solar-only configurations for molten-salt power towers were evaluated with a simple economic model, appropriate for screening analysis. The solar specific aspects of these plants were highlighted. In general, hybrid power towers were shown to be economically superior to solar-only plants with the same field size. Furthermore, the power-booster hybrid approach was generally preferred over the fuel-saver hybrid approach. Using today`s power tower technology, economic viability for the solar power-boost occurs at fuel costs in the neighborhood of $2.60/MBtu to $4.40/ MBtu (low heating value) depending on whether coal-based or gas-turbine-based technology is being offset. The cost Of CO[sub 2] avoidance was also calculated for solar cases in which the fossil fuel cost was too low for solar to be economically viable. The avoidance costs are competitive with other proposed methods of removing CO[sub 2] from fossil-fired power plants.

  9. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY AIR-COOLED CONDENSERS; POWER PLANT COOLING; BINARY-CYCLE; FINNED-TUBE; HEAT TRANSFER; NEVADA; ...

  10. PV-hybrid village power systems in Amazonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, C.L.; Taylor, R.W.; Ribeiro, C.M.

    1996-05-01

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Hundreds of diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable energy resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL, and Brazilian CEPEL/Eletrobras and state electric utilities.

  11. Supervisory Power Management Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles. A Survey

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2014-03-31

    The growing necessity for environmentally benign hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms to maximize fuel economy and minimize pollutant emissions. This paper surveys the control algorithms for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) that have been reported in the literature to date. The exposition ranges from parallel, series, and power split HEVs and PHEVs and includes a classification of the algorithms in terms of their implementation and the chronological order of their appearance. Remaining challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.

  12. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG E) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PG E grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Design of pulsed guiding magnetic field for high power microwave generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, J.-C. Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Shu, T.; Zhong, H.-H.

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on designing solenoid together with the corresponding power supply system to excite pulsed magnetic field required for high power microwave generators. Particularly, a solenoid is designed and the excited magnetic field is applied to a Ku-band overmoded Cerenkov generator. It is found in experiment that the electron beam is properly guided by the magnetic field and a 1.1 GW high power microwave is achieved at a central frequency of 13.76 GHz. Pulsed solenoid system has the advantages of compactness and low energy consumption, which are of great interest for repetitive operation. The reported studies and results can be generalized to other applications which require magnetic fields.

  14. Comparison of Parallel and Series Hybrid Power Trains for Transit Bus Applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C. Stuart; Smith, David E.; LaClair, Tim J.; Parks, James E.; Jones, Perry T.

    2016-08-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions after treatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicated that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced tailpipe emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle, which hasmore » the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus; the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus power trains were found to require periodic active diesel particulate filter regeneration to maintain control of particulate matter. Finally, plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed because of the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.« less

  15. Mitigation of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) effects from commerical electric power systems. Power Systems Technology Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Tesche, F.M.; Vance, E.F.

    1992-03-01

    A large nuclear detonation at altitudes of several hundred kilometers above the earth distorts the earth`s magnetic field and produces a strong magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). This can adversely affect electrical power systems. In this report, the effects of this nuclear environment on critical facilities connected to the commercial power system are considered. Methods of mitigating the MHD-EMP impacts are investigated, and recommended protection schemes are presented. Guidelines for testing facilities to determine the effects of MHD-EMP and to validate the mitigation methods also are discussed.

  16. Hybrid Wet/Dry Cooling for Power Plants (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Buys, A.; Gladden, C.

    2006-02-01

    This presentation includes an overview of cooling options, an analysis of evaporative enhancement of air-cooled geothermal power plants, field measurements at a geothermal plant, a preliminary analysis of trough plant, and improvements to air-cooled condensers.

  17. Electromagnetic pulse research on electric power systems: Program summary and recommendations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; McConnell, B.W.; Van Dyke, J.W. ); Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Vance, E.F. , Fort Worth, TX )

    1993-01-01

    A single nuclear detonation several hundred kilometers above the central United States will subject much of the nation to a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (BENT). This pulse consists of an intense steep-front, short-duration transient electromagnetic field, followed by a geomagnetic disturbance with tens of seconds duration. This latter environment is referred to as the magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (NMENT). Both the early-time transient and the geomagnetic disturbance could impact the operation of the nation's power systems. Since 1983, the US Department of Energy has been actively pursuing a research program to assess the potential impacts of one or more BENT events on the nation's electric energy supply. This report summarizes the results of that program and provides recommendations for enhancing power system reliability under HENT conditions. A nominal HENP environment suitable for assessing geographically large systems was developed during the program and is briefly described in this report. This environment was used to provide a realistic indication of BEMP impacts on electric power systems. It was found that a single high-altitude burst, which could significantly disturb the geomagnetic field, may cause the interconnected power network to break up into utility islands with massive power failures in some areas. However, permanent damage would be isolated, and restoration should be possible within a few hours. Multiple bursts would likely increase the blackout areas, component failures, and restoration time. However, a long-term blackout of many months is unlikely because major power system components, such as transformers, are not likely to be damaged by the nominal HEND environment. Moreover, power system reliability, under both HENT and normal operating conditions, can be enhanced by simple, and often low cost, modifications to current utility practices.

  18. A source of high-power pulses of elliptically polarized ultrawideband radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, Yu. A. Efremov, A. M.; Koshelev, V. I.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Petkun, A. A.; Sukhushin, K. N.; Zorkaltseva, M. Yu.

    2014-10-01

    Here, we describe a source of high-power ultrawideband radiation with elliptical polarization. The source consisting of a monopolar pulse generator, a bipolar pulse former, and a helical antenna placed into a radioparent container may be used in tests for electromagnetic compatibility. In the source, the helical antenna with the number of turns N = 4 is excited with a high-voltage bipolar pulse. Preliminary, we examined helical antennas at a low-voltage source aiming to select an optimal N and to estimate a radiation center position and boundary of a far-field zone. Finally, characteristics of the source in the operating mode at a pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz are presented in the paper as well. Energy efficiency of the antenna is 0.75 at the axial ratio equal to 1.3. The effective potential of radiation of the source at the voltage amplitudes of the bipolar pulse generator equal to -175/+200 kV reaches 280 kV.

  19. THYME: Toolkit for Hybrid Modeling of Electric Power Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    THYME is an object oriented library for building models of wide area control and communications in electric power systems. This software is designed as a module to be used with existing open source simulators for discrete event systems in general and communication systems in particular. THYME consists of a typical model for simulating electro-mechanical transients (e.g., as are used in dynamic stability studies), data handling objects to work with CDF and PTI formatted power flowmore » data, and sample models of discrete sensors and controllers.« less

  20. Very Low-Power Consumption Analog Pulse Processing ASIC for Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wessendorf, K.O.; Lund, J.C.; Brunett, B.A.; Laguna, G.R.; Clements, J.W.

    1999-08-23

    We describe a very-low power consumption circuit for processing the pulses from a semiconductor radiation detector. The circuit was designed for use with a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detector for unattended monitoring of stored nuclear materials. The device is intended to be battery powered and operate at low duty-cycles over a long period of time. This system will provide adequate performance for medium resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectroscopy applications. The circuit incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive preamplifier, shaping amplifier, and peak sample and hold circuit. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) version of the design has been designed, built and tested. With the exception of the input field effect transistor (FET), the circuit is constructed using bipolar components. In this paper the design philosophy and measured performance characteristics of the circuit are described.

  1. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, Daniel; Mines, Greg; Turchi, Craig; Zhu, Guangdong

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  2. Peculiarities of the spatial focusing of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A

    2008-12-31

    The propagation of focused high-power femtosecond laser pulses in air is numerically simulated. The dependences of the effective average size of a focal spot and the maximum achievable radiation intensity in the focal beam waist on the peak power of incident radiation are studied. It is shown that in the regime of nonstationary self-action of radiation, due to photoionisation of the medium and formation of plasma, it becomes impossible to focus radiation into a spot of diffraction-limited size predicted by a linear theory. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  3. Mitigation of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP) effects from commerical electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R. ); Tesche, F.M. , Dallas, TX ); Vance, E.F. , Fort Worth, TX )

    1992-03-01

    A large nuclear detonation at altitudes of several hundred kilometers above the earth distorts the earth's magnetic field and produces a strong magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). This can adversely affect electrical power systems. In this report, the effects of this nuclear environment on critical facilities connected to the commercial power system are considered. Methods of mitigating the MHD-EMP impacts are investigated, and recommended protection schemes are presented. Guidelines for testing facilities to determine the effects of MHD-EMP and to validate the mitigation methods also are discussed.

  4. Improved volume-averaged model for steady and pulsed-power electronegative discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sungjin; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Gudmundsson, J. T.

    2006-11-15

    An improved volume-averaged global model is developed for a cylindrical (radius R, length L) electronegative (EN) plasma that is applicable over a wide range of electron densities, electronegativities, and pressures. It is applied to steady and pulsed-power oxygen discharges. The model incorporates effective volume and surface loss factors for positive ions, negative ions, and electrons combining three electronegative discharge regimes: a two-region regime with a parabolic EN core surrounded by an electropositive edge, a one-region parabolic EN plasma, and a one-region flat-topped EN plasma, spanning the plasma parameters and gas pressures of interest for low pressure processing (below a few hundred millitorr). Pressure-dependent effective volume and surface loss factors are also used for the neutral species. A set of reaction rate coefficients, updated from previous model calculations, is developed for oxygen for the species O{sub 2}, O{sub 2}({sup 1}{delta}{sub g}), O, O{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sup +}, and O{sup -}, based on the latest published cross-section sets and measurements. The model solutions yield all of the quantities above together with such important processing quantities such as the neutral/ion flux ratio {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}, with the discharge aspect ratio 2R/L and pulsed-power period and duty ratio (pulse on-time/pulse period) as parameters. The steady discharge results are compared to an experiment, giving good agreement. For steady discharges, increasing 2R/L from 1 to 6 leads to a factor of 0.45 reduction in {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i}. For pulsed discharges with a fixed duty ratio, {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} is found to have a minimum with respect to pulse period. A 25% duty ratio pulse reduces {gamma}{sub O}/{gamma}{sub i} by a factor of 0.75 compared to the steady-state case.

  5. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  6. Measurements of the efficiency and refrigeration power of pulse-tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S.; Radebaugh, R.

    1986-09-01

    Pulse-tube or thermoacoustic refrigerators have the potential for high reliability since they require only one moving part - an oscillating piston or diaphragm at room temperature. If a tube is closed at one end and connected to a pressure-wave generator at the open end, and if the phase angle between mass flow and pressure is shifted from 90/sup 0/, then refrigeration occurs at the open end. The shift in phase angle can be realized by thermal relaxation between the gas and the tube walls or by an orifice at the closed end. A low temperature of 60 K using helium gas in a one-stage orifice pulse tube has been achieved at NBS. The report describes the first measurements of the efficiency, refrigeration power, and refrigeration power per unit mass flow, for three pulse-tube refrigerators. Three tube sizes, differing in length and diameter, were studied over a frequency range of 3 to 11.5 Hz. Cooling efficiencies as high as 90% of the Carnot efficiency were obtained when compressor and regenerator losses are neglected.

  7. Railguns and plasma accelerators: arc armatures, pulse power sources and US patents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, O.M. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    Railguns and plasma accelerators have the potential for use in many basic and applied research projects, such as in creating high-pressures for equation-of-state studies and in impact fusion. A brief review of railguns and plasma accelerators with references is presented. Railgun performance is critically dependent on armature operation. Plasma arc railgun armatures are addressed. Pulsed power supplies for multi-stage railguns are considered. This includes brief comments on the compensated pulsed alternator, or compulsator, rotating machinery, and distributed energy sources for railguns. References are given at the end of each section. Appendix A contains a brief review of the US Patents on multi-staging techniques for electromagnetic accelerators, plasma propulsion devices, and electric guns.

  8. Subsurface Hybrid Power Options for Oil & Gas Production at Deep Ocean Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Haut, R; Jahn, G; Goldman, J; Colvin, J; Karpinski, A; Dobley, A; Halfinger, J; Nagley, S; Wolf, K; Shapiro, A; Doucette, P; Hansen, P; Oke, A; Compton, D; Cobb, M; Kopps, R; Chitwood, J; Spence, W; Remacle, P; Noel, C; Vicic, J; Dee, R

    2010-02-19

    An investment in deep-sea (deep-ocean) hybrid power systems may enable certain off-shore oil and gas exploration and production. Advanced deep-ocean drilling and production operations, locally powered, may provide commercial access to oil and gas reserves otherwise inaccessible. Further, subsea generation of electrical power has the potential of featuring a low carbon output resulting in improved environmental conditions. Such technology therefore, enhances the energy security of the United States in a green and environmentally friendly manner. The objective of this study is to evaluate alternatives and recommend equipment to develop into hybrid energy conversion and storage systems for deep ocean operations. Such power systems will be located on the ocean floor and will be used to power offshore oil and gas exploration and production operations. Such power systems will be located on the oceans floor, and will be used to supply oil and gas exploration activities, as well as drilling operations required to harvest petroleum reserves. The following conceptual hybrid systems have been identified as candidates for powering sub-surface oil and gas production operations: (1) PWR = Pressurized-Water Nuclear Reactor + Lead-Acid Battery; (2) FC1 = Line for Surface O{sub 2} + Well Head Gas + Reformer + PEMFC + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (3) FC2 = Stored O2 + Well Head Gas + Reformer + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (4) SV1 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Fuel Cell + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (5) SV2 = Submersible Vehicle + Stored O{sub 2} + Engine or Turbine + Lead-Acid & Li-Ion Batteries; (6) SV3 = Submersible Vehicle + Charge at Docking Station + ZEBRA & Li-Ion Batteries; (7) PWR TEG = PWR + Thermoelectric Generator + Lead-Acid Battery; (8) WELL TEG = Thermoelectric Generator + Well Head Waste Heat + Lead-Acid Battery; (9) GRID = Ocean Floor Electrical Grid + Lead-Acid Battery; and (10) DOC = Deep Ocean Current + Lead-Acid Battery.

  9. Online Identification of Power Required for Self-Sustainability of the Battery in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid electric vehicles have shown great potential for enhancing fuel economy and reducing emissions. Deriving a power management control policy to distribute the power demanded by the driver optimally to the available subsystems (e.g., the internal combustion engine, motor, generator, and battery) has been a challenging control problem. One of the main aspects of the power management control algorithms is concerned with the self-sustainability of the electrical path, which must be guaranteed for the entire driving cycle. This paper considers the problem of identifying online the power required by the battery to maintain the state of charge within a range of the target value. An algorithm is presented that realizes how much power the engine needs to provide to the battery so that self-sustainability of the electrical path is maintained.

  10. Non-intrusive beam power monitor for high power pulsed or continuous wave lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawsey, Robert A.; Scudiere, Matthew B.

    1993-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring the output of a laser is provided in which the output of a photodiode disposed in the cavity of the laser is used to provide a correlated indication of the laser power. The photodiode is disposed out of the laser beam to view the extraneous light generated in the laser cavity whose intensity has been found to be a direct correlation of the laser beam output power level. Further, the system provides means for monitoring the phase of the laser output beam relative to a modulated control signal through the photodiode monitor.

  11. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  12. Means and method for characterizing high power, ultra short laser pulses in a real time, on line manner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1994-01-01

    An ultra short (<10 ps), high power laser pulse is temporally characterized by a system that uses a physical measurement of a wavefront that has been altered in a known manner. The system includes a first reflection switch to remove a portion of a pulse from a beam of pulses, then includes a second reflection switch, operating in a mode that is opposite to the first reflection switch, to slice off a portion of that removed portion. The sliced portion is then directed to a measuring device for physical measurement. The two reflection switches are arranged with respect to each other and with respect to the beam of ultra short pulses such that physical measurement of the sliced portion is related to the temporal measurement of the ultra short pulse by a geometric or trigonometric relationship. The reflection switches are operated by a control pulse that is directed to impinge on each of the reflection switches at a 90.degree. angle of incidence.

  13. PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new Berkeley Lab accelerator | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab PPPL delivers a plasma source that will enable high-power beam pulses in a new Berkeley Lab accelerator March 19, 2012 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Erik Gilson with a copper-clad module and chamber for testing the units. (Photo by Elle Starkman, PPPL Office of Communications) Erik Gilson with a copper-clad module and chamber for testing the units. Gallery: Interior views of a plasma-source module. (Photo by Elle

  14. DESIGN OF HYBRID POWER GENERATION CYCLES EMPLOYING AMMONIA-WATER-CARBON DIOXIDE MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashish Gupta

    2002-06-01

    A power cycle generates electricity from the heat of combustion of fossil fuels. Its efficiency is governed by the cycle configuration, the operating parameters, and the working fluid. Typical. designs use pure water as the fluid. in the last two decades, hybrid cycles based on ammonia-water, and carbon-dioxide mixtures as the working fluid have been proposed. These cycles may improve the power generation efficiency of Rankine cycles by 15%. Improved efficiency is important for two reasons: it lowers the cost of electricity being produced, and by reducing the consumption of fossil fuels per unit power, it reduces the generation of environmental pollutants. The goal of this project is to develop a computational optimization-based method for the design and analysis of hybrid bottoming power cycles to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. The development of this methodology has been achieved by formulating this task as that of selecting the least cost power cycle design from all possible configurations. They employ a detailed thermodynamic property prediction package they have developed under a DOE-FETC grant to model working fluid mixtures. Preliminary results from this work suggest that a pure NH{sub 3} cycle outperforms steam or the expensive Kalina cycle.

  15. Downstream plasma transport and metal ionization in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Liang; Szott, Matthew M.; McLain, Jake T.; Ruzic, David N.; Yu, He

    2014-06-14

    Downstream plasma transport and ionization processes in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron were studied. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}) were characterized with a 3D scanning triple Langmuir probe. Plasma expanded from the racetrack region into the downstream region, where a high n{sub e} peak was formed some time into the pulse-off period. The expansion speed and directionality towards the substrate increased with a stronger magnetic field (B), largely as a consequence of a larger potential drop in the bulk plasma region during a relatively slower sheath formation. The fraction of Cu ions in the deposition flux was measured on the substrate using a gridded energy analyzer. It increased with higher pulse voltage. With increased B field from 200 to 800 Gauss above racetrack, n{sub e} increased but the Cu ion fraction decreased from 42% to 16%. A comprehensive model was built, including the diffusion of as-sputtered Cu flux, the Cu ionization in the entire plasma region using the mapped n{sub e} and T{sub e} data, and ion extraction efficiency based on the measured plasma potential (V{sub p}) distribution. The calculations matched the measurements and indicated the main causes of lower Cu ion fractions in stronger B fields to be the lower T{sub e} and inefficient ion extraction in a larger pre-sheath potential.

  16. A Pulsed Modulator Power Supply for the g-2 Muon Storage Ring Injection Kicker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi,J.; Lee, Y.Y.; Morse, W. M.; Pai, C.; Pappas, G.; Sanders, R.; Semertzidis, Y.

    1999-03-29

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the g-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage capacitor, damping resistor and a fast thyratron switch are used to energize three magnets that kick the beam into the proper orbit. A 100 kV charging power supply is used to charge the capacitor to 95 kV. the damping resistor shapes the magnet current waveform to a 450 nanosecond half-sine to match the injection requirements. this paper discusses the modulator design, construction and operation.

  17. A PULSED MODULATOR POWER SUPPLY FOR THE G-2 MUON STORAGE RING INJECTION KICKER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MI,J.LEE,Y.Y.MORSE,W.M.PAI,C.I.PAPPAS,G.C.SANDERS,Y.SEMERTIZIDIS,Y.,ET AL.

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the pulse modulator power supplies used to drive the kicker magnets that inject the muon beam into the 8-2 storage ring that has been built at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three modulators built into coaxial structures consisting of a series circuit of an energy storage capacitor, a damping resistor and a fast thyratron switch are used to energize three magnets that kick the beam into the proper orbit. A 100 kV charging power supply is used to charge the capacitor to 95kV. The damping resistor shapes the magnet current waveform to a 450 nanosecond half-sine to match the injection requirements. This paper discusses the modulator design, construction and operation.

  18. High power pulsed magnetron sputtering: A method to increase deposition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, Priya McLain, Jake; Ruzic, David N; Shchelkanov, Ivan A.

    2015-05-15

    High power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) is a state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition technique with several industrial applications. One of the main disadvantages of this process is its low deposition rate. In this work, the authors report a new magnetic field configuration, which produces deposition rates twice that of conventional magnetron's dipole magnetic field configuration. Three different magnet pack configurations are discussed in this paper, and an optimized magnet pack configuration for HPPMS that leads to a higher deposition rate and nearly full-face target erosion is presented. The discussed magnetic field produced by a specially designed magnet assembly is of the same size as the conventional magnet assembly and requires no external fields. Comparison of deposition rates with different power supplies and the electron trapping efficiency in complex magnetic field arrangements are discussed.

  19. Measurement of pulsed-power-driven magnetic fields via proton deflectometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mariscal, D.; McGuffey, C.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Chittenden, J. P.; Niasse, N.; Presura, R.; Haque, S.; Wallace, M.; Arias, A.; Covington, A.; Sawada, H.; Wiewior, P.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring magnetic field and current distribution in Z-pinch plasma systems is crucial to the validation of Z-pinch theory. In this letter, the demonstration of proton deflectometry to pulsed-power-driven loads at the mega-amp scale is presented, which is capable of making more detailed field maps in high-density regions of plasmas. In this method, a laser-driven, broad-spectrum, MeV-energy proton beam is directed through a pulsed-power-driven plasma system, and the resulting deflections are measured to examine configuration of magnetic fields and to infer the currents that support them. The technique was first demonstrated on simple short-circuit loads, and the results are in excellent agreement with numerical simulations providing reliable estimates of the field and current configurations. It was then applied to a more complex—radial foil—plasma load. The measurements show unexpected proton deflections that exhibit the complexity of the plasma load and that with further analysis will reveal details about the current and magnetic field topology in this complex configuration.

  20. Gas breakdown driven by L band short-pulse high-power microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yiming; Yuan Chengwei; Qian Baoliang

    2012-12-15

    High power microwave (HPM) driven gas breakdown is a major factor in limiting the radiation and transmission of HPM. A method that HPM driven gas breakdown could be obtained by changing the aperture of horn antenna is studied in this paper. Changing the effective aperture of horn antenna can adjust the electric field in near field zone, leading to gas breakdown. With this method, measurements of air and SF{sub 6} breakdowns are carried out on a magnetically insulated transmission-line oscillators, which is capable of generating HPM with pulse duration of 30 ns, and frequency of 1.74 GHz. The typical breakdown waveforms of air and SF{sub 6} are presented. Besides, the breakdown field strengths of the two gases are derived at different pressures. It is found that the effects of air and SF{sub 6} breakdown on the transmission of HPM are different: air breakdown mainly shortens the pulse width of HPM while SF{sub 6} breakdown mainly reduces the peak output power of HPM. The electric field threshold of SF{sub 6} is about 2.4 times larger than that of air. These differences suggest that gas properties have a great effect on the transmission characteristic of HPM in gases.

  1. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-10-19

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a stationary-wireless- power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep was performed over many different battery sizes, charging power levels, and number/location of bus stop charging stations. The net present cost was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under favorable and high unfavorable market penetration assumptions. The analysis identifies fuel saving opportunities with plug-in hybrid electric bus scenarios at cumulative net present costs not too dissimilar from those for conventional buses.

  2. The Development of the Electrically Controlled High Power RF Switch and Its Application to Active RF Pulse Compression Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiquan; /SLAC

    2009-03-20

    In the past decades, there has been increasing interest in pulsed high power RF sources for building high-gradient high-energy particle accelerators. Passive RF pulse compression systems have been used in many applications to match the available RF sources to the loads requiring higher RF power but a shorter pulse. Theoretically, an active RF pulse compression system has the advantage of higher efficiency and compactness over the passive system. However, the key component for such a system an element capable of switching hundreds of megawatts of RF power in a short time compared to the compressed pulse width is still an open problem. In this dissertation, we present a switch module composed of an active window based on the bulk effects in semiconductor, a circular waveguide three-port network and a movable short plane, with the capability to adjust the S-parameters before and after switching. The RF properties of the switch module were analyzed. We give the scaling laws of the multiple-element switch systems, which allow the expansion of the system to a higher power level. We present a novel overmoded design for the circular waveguide three-port network and the associated circular-to-rectangular mode-converter. We also detail the design and synthesis process of this novel mode-converter. We demonstrate an electrically controlled ultra-fast high power X-band RF active window built with PIN diodes on high resistivity silicon. The window is capable of handling multi-megawatt RF power and can switch in 2-300ns with a 1000A current driver. A low power active pulse compression experiment was carried out with the switch module and a 375ns resonant delay line, obtaining 8 times compression gain with a compression ratio of 20.

  3. Survey of technology for hybrid vehicle auxiliary power units. Interim report, April 1994-June 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widener, S.K.

    1995-10-01

    The state-of-the-art of heat engines for use as auxiliary power units in hybrid vehicles is surveyed. The study considers reciprocating or rotary heat engines, excluding gas turbines and fuel cells. The relative merits of various engine-generator concepts are compared. The concepts are ranked according to criteria tailored for a series-type hybrid drive. The two top APU concepts were the free-piston engine/linear generator (FPELG) and the Wankel rotary` engine. The FPELG is highly ranked primarily because of thermal efficiency cost, producibility. reliability, and transient response advantages; it is a high risk concept because of unproven technology. The Wankel engine is proven. with high power density, low cost and low noise. Four additional competitive concepts include two-stroke spark-ignition engine. two-stroke gas generator with turboalternator, free-piston engine gas generator with turboalternator, and homogeneous charge compression ignition engine. This study recommends additional work, including cycle simulation development and preliminary design to better quantify thermal efficiency and power density. Auxiliary concepts were also considered, including two which warrant further study: electrically actuated valves, and lean turndown of a normally stoichiometric engine. These concepts should be evaluated by retrofitting to existing engines.

  4. Interaction of powerful nanosecond flashlamp and laser pulses with color centers in lithium fluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baryshnikov, V.I.; Kolesnikova, T.A.

    1994-07-01

    Photoionization mechanisms for F{sub 2}-centers in LiF were studied at laser and nanosecond flashlamp excitation. Photodecomposition of F{sub 2}-color centers is observed at excitation with nhv > 4.5 eV (n=1,2,3) accompanied by the efficient formation of the F{sub 2}{sup +}-color centers, most of which decay into F-centers on the second time scale. The two-step photoionization processes were virtually unobservable in F{sub 2}:LiF at high-power nanosecond flashlamp pumping. Efficient and stable amplification of ultrashort laser pulses by miniature media based on F{sub 2}:LiF at nanosecond flashlamp pumping was demonstrated. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search High Power Performance Lithium Ion Battery Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization Test (HPPC) results for 3 coin cells of various AB:PVDF ratios. Technology Marketing SummaryGao Liu and colleagues at Berkeley Lab have

  6. Concentrating Solar Power Hybrid System Study: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-506

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this PTS is to collaboratively leverage the collective resources at General Electric Global Research (GEGRC) and National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) in the areas of concentrating solar power hybrid systems to advance state-of-the-art concentrating solar and conventional power generation system integration.

  7. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  8. Feasibility of Hybrid Retrofits to Off-Grid Diesel Power Plants in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Flowers, L. T.; Benavidez, P. J.; Abergas, R. L.; Barruela, R. B.

    1999-08-01

    The Strategic Power Utilities Group (SPUG) of the National Power Corporation (NPC) in the Philippines owns and operates about 100 power plants, mostly fueled by diesel, ranging in energy production from about 15 kilowatt-hours (kWh)/day to 106,000 kWh/day. Reducing the consumption of diesel fuel in these plants, along with the associated financial losses, is a priority for SPUG. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential fuel and cost savings that might be achieved by retrofitting hybrid power systems to these existing diesel plants. As used in this report, the term ''hybrid system'' refers to any combination of wind turbine generators (WTGs), photovoltaic (PV) modules, lead-acid batteries, and an AC/DC power converter (either an electronic inverter or a rotary converter), in addition to the existing diesel gensets. The resources available for this study did not permit a detailed design analysis for each of the plants. Instead, the following five-step process was used: (1) Tabulate some important characteristics of all the plants. (2) Group the plants into categories (six classes) with similar characteristics. (3) For each class of system, identify one plant that is representative of the class. (4) For each representative plant, perform a moderately detailed prefeasibility analysis of design options. (5) Summarize and interpret the results. The analysis of each representative plant involved the use of time-series computer simulation models to estimate the fuel usage, maintenance expenses, and cash flow resulting from various designs, and to search the domain of possible designs for the one leading to the lowest life-cycle cost. Cost items that would be unaffected by the retrofit, such as operator salaries and the capital cost of existing equipment, were not included in the analysis. Thus, the results are reported as levelized cost of energy (COE) savings: the difference between the cost of the existing diesel-only system and that of an optimized hybrid

  9. Type-I cascaded quadratic soliton compression in lithium niobate: Compressing femtosecond pulses from high-power fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bache, Morten; Wise, Frank W.

    2010-05-15

    The output pulses of a commercial high-power femtosecond fiber laser or amplifier are typically around 300-500 fs with wavelengths of approximately 1030 nm and tens of microjoules of pulse energy. Here, we present a numerical study of cascaded quadratic soliton compression of such pulses in LiNbO{sub 3} using second-harmonic generation in a type-I phase-matching configuration. We find that because of competing cubic material nonlinearities, compression can only occur in the nonstationary regime, where group-velocity-mismatch-induced Raman-like nonlocal effects prevent compression to less than 100 fs. However, the strong group-velocity dispersion implies that the pulses can achieve moderate compression to durations of less than 130 fs in available crystal lengths. Most of the pulse energy is conserved because the compression is moderate. The effects of diffraction and spatial walk-off are addressed, and in particular the latter could become an issue when compressing such long crystals (around 10 cm long). We finally show that the second harmonic contains a short pulse locked to the pump and a long multi-picosecond red-shifted detrimental component. The latter is caused by the nonlocal effects in the nonstationary regime, but because it is strongly red-shifted to a position that can be predicted, we show that it can be removed using a bandpass filter, leaving a visible component of less than 100 fs at {lambda}=515 nm with excellent pulse quality.

  10. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMICS OF THE ADVANCED CO2 HYBRID POWER CYCLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Nehrozoglu

    2004-12-01

    Research has been conducted under United States Department of Energy Contract DEFC26-02NT41621 to analyze the feasibility of a new type of coal-fired plant for electric power generation. This new type of plant, called the Advanced CO{sub 2} Hybrid Power Plant, offers the promise of efficiencies nearing 36 percent, while concentrating CO{sub 2} for 100% sequestration. Other pollutants, such as SO{sub 2} and NOx, are sequestered along with the CO{sub 2} yielding a zero emissions coal plant. The CO{sub 2} Hybrid is a gas turbine-steam turbine combined cycle plant that uses CO{sub 2} as its working fluid to facilitate carbon sequestration. The key components of the plant are a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), a pressurized circulating fluidized bed gasifier, a CO{sub 2} powered gas turbine, a circulating fluidized bed boiler, and a super-critical pressure steam turbine. The gasifier generates a syngas that fuels the gas turbine and a char residue that, together with coal, fuels a CFB boiler to power the supercritical pressure steam turbine. Both the gasifier and the CFB boiler use a mix of ASU oxygen and recycled boiler flue gas as their oxidant. The resulting CFB boiler flue gas is essentially a mixture of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Cooling the CFB flue gas to 80 deg. F condenses most of the moisture and leaves a CO{sub 2} rich stream containing 3%v oxygen. Approximately 30% of this flue gas stream is further cooled, dried, and compressed for pipeline transport to the sequestration site (the small amount of oxygen in this stream is released and recycled to the system when the CO{sub 2} is condensed after final compression and cooling). The remaining 70% of the flue gas stream is mixed with oxygen from the ASU and is ducted to the gas turbine compressor inlet. As a result, the gas turbine compresses a mixture of carbon dioxide (ca. 64%v) and oxygen (ca. 32.5%v) rather than air. This carbon dioxide rich mixture then becomes the gas turbine working fluid and

  11. Generation of high power pulsed terahertz radiation using a plasmonic photoconductive emitter array with logarithmic spiral antennas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Christopher W.; Hashemi, Mohammad R.; Jarrahi, Mona

    2014-02-24

    An array of 3 × 3 plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitters with logarithmic spiral antennas is fabricated on a low temperature (LT) grown GaAs substrate and characterized in response to a 200 fs optical pump from a Ti:sapphire mode-locked laser at 800 nm wavelength. A microlens array is used to split and focus the optical pump beam onto the active area of each plasmonic photoconductive emitter element. Pulsed terahertz radiation with record high power levels up to 1.9 mW in the 0.1–2 THz frequency range is measured at an optical pump power of 320 mW. The record high power pulsed terahertz radiation is enabled by the use of plasmonic contact electrodes, enhancing the photoconductor quantum efficiencies, and by increasing the overall device active area, mitigating the carrier screening effect and thermal breakdown at high optical pump power levels.

  12. Composite Organic Radical - Inorganic Hybrid Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Qian; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Koech, Phillip K.; Choi, Daiwon; Lemmon, John P.

    2013-07-01

    A new organic radical inorganic hybrid cathode comprised of PTMA/LiFePO4 composite system is developed and reported for the first time. The hybrid cathodes demonstrate high pulse power capability resulting in a significant improvement over the pure PTMA or LiFePO4 cathode which is very promising for transportation and other high pulse power applications that require long cycle life and lower cost.

  13. Means and method for characterizing high power, ultra short laser pulses in a real time, on line manner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1994-03-08

    An ultra short (<10 ps), high power laser pulse is temporally characterized by a system that uses a physical measurement of a wavefront that has been altered in a known manner. The system includes a first reflection switch to remove a portion of a pulse from a beam of pulses, then includes a second reflection switch, operating in a mode that is opposite to the first reflection switch, to slice off a portion of that removed portion. The sliced portion is then directed to a measuring device for physical measurement. The two reflection switches are arranged with respect to each other and with respect to the beam of ultra short pulses such that physical measurement of the sliced portion is related to the temporal measurement of the ultra short pulse by a geometric or trigonometric relationship. The reflection switches are operated by a control pulse that is directed to impinge on each of the reflection switches at a 90[degree] angle of incidence. 8 figures.

  14. Long pulse acceleration of MeV class high power density negative H{sup −} ion beam for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umeda, N. Kojima, A.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Hiratsuka, J.; Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Yamanaka, H.; Hanada, M.

    2015-04-08

    R and D of high power density negative ion beam acceleration has been carried out at MeV test facility in JAEA to realize ITER neutral beam accelerator. The main target is H{sup −} ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV with 200 A/m{sup 2} for 60 s whose pulse length is the present facility limit. For long pulse acceleration at high power density, new extraction grid (EXG) has been developed with high cooling capability, which electron suppression magnet is placed under cooling channel similar to ITER. In addition, aperture size of electron suppression grid (ESG) is enlarged from 14 mm to 16 mm to reduce direct interception on the ESG and emission of secondary electron which leads to high heat load on the upstream acceleration grid. By enlarging ESG aperture, beam current increased 10 % at high current beam and total acceleration grid heat load reduced from 13 % to 10 % of input power at long pulse beam. In addition, heat load by back stream positive ion into the EXG is measured for the first time and is estimated as 0.3 % of beam power, while heat load by back stream ion into the source chamber is estimated as 3.5 ~ 4.0 % of beam power. Beam acceleration up to 60 s which is the facility limit, has achieved at 683 keV, 100 A/m{sup 2} of negative ion beam, whose energy density increases two orders of magnitude since 2011.

  15. The influence of magnetic fields on the wake field and stopping power of an ion-beam pulse in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Xiao-ying; Zhang, Ya-ling; Duan, Wen-shan; Qi, Xin E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn; Shi, Jian; Zhang, Ling-yu; Yang, Lei E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn

    2015-09-15

    We performed two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to investigate how a magnetic field affects the wake field and stopping power of an ion-beam pulse moving in plasmas. The corresponding density of plasma electrons is investigated. At a weak magnetic field, the wakes exhibit typical V-shaped cone structures. As the magnetic field strengthens, the wakes spread and lose their typical V-shaped structures. At a sufficiently strong magnetic field, the wakes exhibit conversed V-shaped structures. Additionally, strengthening the magnetic field reduces the stopping power in regions of low and high beam density. However, the influence of the magnetic field becomes complicated in regions of moderate beam density. The stopping power increases in a weak magnetic field, but it decreases in a strong magnetic field. At high beam density and moderate magnetic field, two low-density channels of plasma electrons appear on both sides of the incident beam pulse trajectory. This is because electrons near the beam pulses will be attracted and move along with the beam pulses, while other electrons nearby are restricted by the magnetic field and cannot fill the gap.

  16. Optimization of Electric Power Systems for Off-Grid Domestic Applications: An Argument for Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, W.; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal configuration of home power systems relevant to different regions in the United States. The hypothesis was that, regardless of region, the optimal system would be a hybrid incorporating wind technology, versus a photovoltaic hybrid system without the use of wind technology. The method used in this research was HOMER, the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. HOMER is a computer program that optimizes electrical configurations under user-defined circumstances. According to HOMER, the optimal system for the four regions studied (Kansas, Massachusetts, Oregon, and Arizona) was a hybrid incorporating wind technology. The cost differences between these regions, however, were dependent upon regional renewable resources. Future studies will be necessary, as it is difficult to estimate meteorological impacts for other regions.

  17. Integration and optimization of the gas removal system for hybrid-cycle OTEC power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.J.; Panchal, C.B.; Stevens, H.C. )

    1990-02-01

    A preliminary design of the noncondensible gas removal system for a 10 mWe, land-based hybrid-cycle OTEC power plant has been developed and is presented herein. This gas removal system is very different from that used for conventional power plants because of the substantially larger and continuous noncondensible gas flow rates and lower condenser pressure levels which predicate the need for higher-efficiency components. Previous OTEC studies discussed the need for multiple high-efficiency compressors with intercoolers; however, no previous design effort was devoted to the details of the intercoolers, integration and optimization of the intercoolers with the compressors, and the practical design constraints and feasibility issues of these components. The resulting gas removal system design uses centrifugal (radial) compressors with matrix-type crossflow aluminum heat exchangers as intercoolers. Once-through boiling of ammonia is used as the heat sink for the cooling and condensing of the steam-gas mixture. A computerized calculation method was developed for the performance analysis and subsystem optimization. For a specific number of compressor units and the stream arrangement, the method is used to calculate the dimensions, speeds, power requirements, and costs of all the components.

  18. Plasma formation and dynamics in conical wire arrays in the Llampudken pulsed power generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muoz, C. Gonzalo E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Valenzuela, Vicente E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Veloso, Felipe E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Favre, Mario E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl; Wyndham, Edmund E-mail: fveloso@fis.puc.cl

    2014-12-15

    Plasma formation and dynamics from conical wire array is experimentally studied. Ablation from the wires is observed, forming plasma accumulation at the array axis and subsequently a jet outflow been expelled toward the top of the array. The arrays are composed by 16 equally spaced 25? diameter tungsten wires. Their dimensions are 20mm height, with base diameters of 8mm and 16mm top diameter. The array loads are design to be overmassed, hence no complete ablation of the wires is observed during the current rise. The experiments have been carried out in the Llampudken. pulsed power generator (?350kA in ?350ns). Plasma dynamics is studied in both side-on and end-on directions. Laser probing (shadowgraphy) is achieved using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (532nm, 12ps FWHM) captured by CCD cameras. Pinhole XUV imaging is captured using gated microchannel plate cameras with time resolution ?5ns. Results on the jet velocity and the degree of collimation indicating the plausibility on the use of these jets as comparable to the study astrophysically produced jets are presented and discussed.

  19. Optical Spectroscopy Experiments on the 500 kA XP Pulsed-Power Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, K. S.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; McBride, R. D.; Blesener, I. C.; Knapp, P. F.; Hammer, D. A.; Greenly, J. B.; Maron, Y.

    2009-01-21

    Recent experiments on the 500 kA XP pulsed-power generator at Cornell University have explored the properties of optical spectra in single wires and wire arrays. In the single wire experiments, {approx}1% of the current from XP has been directed through the single wire. Spectra have been recorded using a half-meter spectrometer and a CCD camera located adjacent to the XP pulser. We are studying the visible spectra emitted by the wires and the background light from the machine hardware in order to identify the levels of current per wire for which visible spectroscopy might provide a means to measure magnetic field strength. We have also investigated the dependence of single wire visible spectra on the current, which was measured using a calibrated non-integrating Rogowski coil. UV and XUV diodes were employed to gather information about the temporal structure of the background and wire radiation. The line radiation in the spectra was recorded with wire currents at the few kA level. This is comparable to the first 10 ns of a 32-wire array experiment on 1 Ma generator and a 600-wire array at 20 MA.

  20. Fabrication of pulsed-power-driven x-ray laser targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiemann, D.K.; Bieg, K.W.; Rand, P.B.; Sharp, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    In the pulsed power driven x-ray laser program at Sandia National Laboratories, a complex cylindrically symmetric target is placed at the center of an imploding gas puff Z-pinch. The targets presently being fabricated are multi-layered, thin-walled annuli (''soda straws'') that have nominal dimensions of 2 cm in length by 2 or 3 mm in diameter. The primary target consists of a 2 ..mu..m parylene strongback with an inner layer of lasant material such as Cu, and an outer layer of x-ray converter material such as Al. Fabrication of this target involves subsequent PVD coatings onto a lucite mandrel and then etching the mandrel away in acetone. Other configurations replace the parylene strongback with Be or a parylene/low density foam combination. The different lasant/converter combinations along with the fabrication process, techniques and problems of the parylene ''soda straws'' will be presented. Procedures and problems with the Be and the parylene/foam ''soda straw'' fabrication will be presented.

  1. Target fabrication of current pulsed-power driven x-ray laser targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiemann, D.K.; Bieg, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    The goal of the NARYA program at Sandia National Laboratories is to make a pulsed-power driven x-ray laser. Ongoing experiments on the 10 TW, 5 MA accelerator, PROTO II, have required a wide range of thin-walled, hollow cylindrical targets called soda straws. A typical soda straw consists of an inner lasant layer, a Parylene strong back layer, and an outer converter layer. Variations to this have been targets of plain Parylene straws, straws with only lasant layers, and straws with only converter layers. These straws are nominally 1.6, 3, or 6 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length. Additional components to the straws have been solid cones coated with a lasant laser of vanadium mounted within the straws. Cone specifications are shown. The solid cones have a base diameter of either 3 or 6 mm and extend 2/3 the way up the straw with a tip radius of 127 ..mu..m. Target parameters for the straws have been the following: the inner coatings ranging from 100-1000 A of vanadium, nickel, or copper; the Parylene thicknesses ranging from 1.8 - 5.0 ..mu..m; and the outer coatings ranging from 100-500 A of silver or barium, 500-4000 A of aluminum, or 2000-10,000 A of sodium fluoride. The requirements for the cones have been 4000 A and 400 A of vanadium.

  2. Development of a rotary engine powered APU for a medium duty hybrid shuttle bus. Interim report July 1995--July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBroom, S.T.

    1998-07-01

    Under contract to the TARDEC Petroleum and Water Business Area, sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, SwRI has procured and installed a rotary Auxiliary Power Unit on a medium-duty series hybrid electric bus. This report covers the specification and distillation of the APU and the lessons learned from those efforts.

  3. Nonlinear propagation of a high-power focused femtosecond laser pulse in air under atmospheric and reduced pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Ionin, Andrei A; Kudryashov, Sergei I; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S

    2012-04-30

    This paper examines the propagation of focused femtosecond gigawatt laser pulses in air under normal and reduced pressure in the case of Kerr self-focusing and photoionisation of the medium. The influence of gas density on the beam dimensions and power and the electron density in the plasma column in the nonlinear focus zone of the laser beam has been studied experimentally and by numerical simulation. It has been shown that, in rarefied air, the radiation-induced reduction in the rate of plasma formation diminishes the blocking effect of the plasma on the growth of the beam intensity in the case of tight focusing. This allows higher power densities of ultrashort laser pulses to be reached in the focal waist region in comparison with beam self-focusing under atmospheric pressure.

  4. Implementing and diagnosing magnetic flux compression on the Z pulsed power accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, Ryan D.; Bliss, David E.; Gomez, Matthew R.; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Martin, Matthew R.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Slutz, Stephen A.; Rovang, Dean C.; Knapp, Patrick F.; Schmit, Paul F.; Awe, Thomas James; Hess, M. H.; Lemke, Raymond W.; Dolan, D. H.; Lamppa, Derek C.; Jobe, Marc Ronald Lee; Fang, Lu; Hahn, Kelly D.; Chandler, Gordon A.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Maurer, A. J.; Robertson, Grafton Kincannon; Cuneo, Michael E.; Sinars, Daniel; Tomlinson, Kurt; Smith, Gary; Paguio, Reny; Intrator, Tom; Weber, Thomas; Greenly, John

    2015-11-01

    We report on the progress made to date for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project aimed at diagnosing magnetic flux compression on the Z pulsed-power accelerator (0-20 MA in 100 ns). Each experiment consisted of an initially solid Be or Al liner (cylindrical tube), which was imploded using the Z accelerator's drive current (0-20 MA in 100 ns). The imploding liner compresses a 10-T axial seed field, B z ( 0 ) , supplied by an independently driven Helmholtz coil pair. Assuming perfect flux conservation, the axial field amplification should be well described by B z ( t ) = B z ( 0 ) x [ R ( 0 ) / R ( t )] 2 , where R is the liner's inner surface radius. With perfect flux conservation, B z ( t ) and dB z / dt values exceeding 10 4 T and 10 12 T/s, respectively, are expected. These large values, the diminishing liner volume, and the harsh environment on Z, make it particularly challenging to measure these fields. We report on our latest efforts to do so using three primary techniques: (1) micro B-dot probes to measure the fringe fields associated with flux compression, (2) streaked visible Zeeman absorption spectroscopy, and (3) fiber-based Faraday rotation. We also mention two new techniques that make use of the neutron diagnostics suite on Z. These techniques were not developed under this LDRD, but they could influence how we prioritize our efforts to diagnose magnetic flux compression on Z in the future. The first technique is based on the yield ratio of secondary DT to primary DD reactions. The second technique makes use of the secondary DT neutron time-of-flight energy spectra. Both of these techniques have been used successfully to infer the degree of magnetization at stagnation in fully integrated Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments on Z [P. F. Schmit et al. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 , 155004 (2014); P. F. Knapp et al. , Phys. Plasmas, 22 , 056312 (2015)]. Finally, we present some recent developments for designing

  5. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the ? pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E.? M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M.? E.; Wenger, D.? F.; Fowler, W.? E.; Johnson, W.? A.; Basilio, L.? I.; Coats, R.? S.; Jennings, C.? A.; Sinars, D.? B.; et al

    2014-11-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerators vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerators vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerators magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)moreand a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R.D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed efficient

  6. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Vesey, R. A.; Jones, B.; Ampleford, D. J.; Lemke, R. W.; Martin, M. R.; Schrafel, P. C.; Lewis, S. A.; Moore, J. K.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerators vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerators vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerators magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed

  7. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Waisman, E. M.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Wenger, D. F.; Fowler, W. E.; Johnson, W. A.; Basilio, L. I.; Coats, R. S.; Jennings, C. A.; Sinars, D. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM). Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m) by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs)more » and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010)] that showed

  8. The shallow water equations as a hybrid flow model for the numerical and experimental analysis of hydro power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2015-03-10

    The numerical analysis of hydro power stations is an important method of the hydraulic design and is used for the development and optimisation of hydro power stations in addition to the experiments with the physical submodel of a full model in the hydraulic laboratory. For the numerical analysis, 2D and 3D models are appropriate and commonly used.The 2D models refer mainly to the shallow water equations (SWE), since for this flow model a large experience on a wide field of applications for the flow analysis of numerous problems in hydraulic engineering already exists. Often, the flow model is verified by in situ measurements. In order to consider 3D flow phenomena close to singularities like weirs, hydro power stations etc. the development of a hybrid fluid model is advantageous to improve the quality and significance of the global model. Here, an extended hybrid flow model based on the principle of the SWE is presented. The hybrid flow model directly links the numerical model with the experimental data, which may originate from physical full models, physical submodels and in-situ measurements. Hence a wide field of application of the hybrid model emerges including the improvement of numerical models and the strong coupling of numerical and experimental analysis.

  9. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  10. Pulse stretcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, J.A.

    1994-05-03

    Apparatus for increasing the length of a laser pulse to reduce its peak power without substantial loss in the average power of the pulse is disclosed. The apparatus uses a White cell having a plurality of optical delay paths of successively increasing number of passes between the field mirror and the objective mirrors. A pulse from a laser travels through a multi-leg reflective path between a beam splitter and a totally reflective mirror to the laser output. The laser pulse is also simultaneously injected through the beam splitter to the input mirrors of the optical delay paths. The pulses from the output mirrors of the optical delay paths go simultaneously to the laser output and to the input mirrors of the longer optical delay paths. The beam splitter is 50% reflective and 50% transmissive to provide equal attenuation of all of the pulses at the laser output. 6 figures.

  11. Equivalence of optical and electrical noise equivalent power of hybrid NbTiN-Al microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janssen, R. M. J.; Endo, A.; Visser, P. J. de; Klapwijk, T. M.; Baselmans, J. J. A.

    2014-11-10

    We have measured and compared the response of hybrid NbTiN-Al Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) to changes in bath temperature and illumination by sub-mm radiation. We show that these two stimulants have an equivalent effect on the resonance feature of hybrid MKIDs. We determine an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) from the measured temperature responsivity, quasiparticle recombination time, superconducting transition temperature, and noise spectrum, all of which can be measured in a dark environment. For the two hybrid NbTiN-Al MKIDs studied in detail, the electrical NEP is within a factor of two of the optical NEP, which is measured directly using a blackbody source.

  12. Binary power multiplier for electromagnetic energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farkas, Zoltan D.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for converting electromagnetic pulses to higher power amplitude and shorter duration, in binary multiples, splits an input pulse into two channels, and subjects the pulses in the two channels to a number of binary pulse compression operations. Each pulse compression operation entails combining the pulses in both input channels and selectively steering the combined power to one output channel during the leading half of the pulses and to the other output channel during the trailing half of the pulses, and then delaying the pulse in the first output channel by an amount equal to half the initial pulse duration. Apparatus for carrying out each of the binary multiplication operation preferably includes a four-port coupler (such as a 3 dB hybrid), which operates on power inputs at a pair of input ports by directing the combined power to either of a pair of output ports, depending on the relative phase of the inputs. Therefore, by appropriately phase coding the pulses prior to any of the pulse compression stages, the entire pulse compression (with associated binary power multiplication) can be carried out solely with passive elements.

  13. Worldwide wind/diesel hybrid power system study: Potential applications and technical issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W.R.; Johnson, B.L. III )

    1991-04-01

    The world market potential for wind/diesel hybrid technology is a function of the need for electric power, the availability of sufficient wind resource to support wind/diesel power, and the existence of buyers with the financial means to invest in the technology. This study includes data related to each of these three factors. This study does not address market penetration, which would require analysis of application specific wind/diesel economics. Buyer purchase criteria, which are vital to assessing market penetration, are discussed only generally. Countries were screened for a country-specific market analysis based on indicators of need and wind resource. Both developed countries and less developed countries'' (LDCs) were screened for wind/diesel market potential. Based on the results of the screening, ten countries showing high market potential were selected for more extensive market analyses. These analyses provide country-specific market data to guide wind/diesel technology developers in making design decisions that will lead to a competitive product. Section 4 presents the country-specific data developed for these analyses, including more extensive wind resource characterization, application-specific market opportunities, business conditions, and energy market characterizations. An attempt was made to identify the potential buyers with ability to pay for wind/diesel technology required to meet the application-specific market opportunities identified for each country. Additionally, the country-specific data are extended to corollary opportunities in countries not covered by the study. Section 2 gives recommendations for wind/diesel research based on the findings of the study. 86 refs.

  14. Studies on a self-excited closed cycle MHD generator for pulse power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harada, N.

    1998-07-01

    The authors have been proposing to use a closed cycle disk MHD generator as an alternative of an open cycle linear generator for applications to portable pulsed power supply because of its special advantages of durability and reliability. Steady state operation with applied magnetic field mode, magnet coil design and dynamic behavior of a disk type MHD generator in self-excited mode were studied numerically. One-dimensional numerical code based on MacCormack method were used. Thermal input to the disk channel was 40MW and working medium was argon seeded with potassium driven by the nonequilibrium plasma generator. At first, steady state solutions were obtained for both initial applied field of 0.7T and for full magnetic field 4T. For any load conditions examined, generator behaved quite stable and output current reaches its certain final value. Based on these steady state output current, they successfully designed suitable magnet coils. Current density was about 15A/mm{sup 2} . This value was quite reasonable and durable even for relatively long duration. With the designed magnet coils, dynamic behavior of the disk generator was studied. For transition from initial applied field mode to self-excited mode, switching was succeeded and there was no abnormal fluctuations in current trace. Noticeable instability did not develop in this period. However, in self-excited mode, the output current significantly increases and becomes much higher than the rated current of 1720A at B=4T after time=4sec., in spite of the fact that the output current increases steadily and very smoothly until that time. Sudden development of ionization instability was suggested from distributions of electron temperature and number density. They tried to limit excitation current to the magnet coils exactly to the designed value using bypass circuit to prevent from development of ionization instability. Then stable operation in the self-excited mode was successfully achieved. Further the authors

  15. Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project discusses preliminary experimental results to find how thermoelectrics can be applied ot future hybrid vehicles and the optimum design of such equipment using heat pipes

  16. Hybrid solid state laser system using a neodymium-based master oscillator and an ytterbium-based power amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, Stephen A.; Marshall, Christopher D.; Powell, Howard T.; Krupke, William F.

    2001-01-01

    In a master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) hybrid laser system, the master oscillator (MO) utilizes a Nd.sup.3+ -doped gain medium and the power amplifier (PA) utilizes a diode-pumped Yb.sup.3+ -doped material. The use of two different laser gain media in the hybrid MOPA system provides advantages that are otherwise not available. The Nd-doped gain medium preferably serves as the MO because such gain media offer the lowest threshold of operation and have already been engineered as practical systems. The Yb-doped gain medium preferably serves in the diode-pumped PA to store pump energy effectively and efficiently by virtue of the long emission lifetime, thereby reducing diode pump costs. One crucial constraint on the MO and PA gain media is that the Nd and Yb lasers must operate at nearly the same wavelength. The 1.047 .mu.m Nd:YLF/Yb:S-FAP [Nd:LiYF.sub.4 /Yb:Sr.sub.5 (PO.sub.4).sub.3 F] hybrid MOPA system is a preferred embodiment of the hybrid Nd/Yb MOPA.

  17. Low-jitter high-power thyristor array pulse driver and generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanks, Roy L. (Byron, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for generating low-jitter, high-voltage and high-current pulses for driving low impedance loads such as detonator fuses uses a MOSFET driver which, when triggered, discharges a high-voltage pre-charged capacitor into the primary of a toroidal current-multiplying transformer with multiple isolated secondary windings. The secondary outputs are suitable for driving an array of thyristors that discharge a precharged high-voltage capacitor and thus generating the required high-voltage and high-current pulse.

  18. Relativistic Fermi-Ulam map: Application to WEGA stellarator lower hybrid power operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, V.; Seidl, J.; Krln, L.; Pnek, R.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Laqua, H. P.

    2014-06-15

    Analytical and numerical support is here provided in support of the explanation [Laqua et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 075022 (2014)] for the observation of ?MeV electrons during Lower Hybrid (LH) operation in EC pre-heated plasma at the WEGA stellarator [Otte et al., Nukleonika, 57, 171 (2012)]. In the quoted experiments, LH power from the WEGA TE{sub 11} circular waveguide, 9?cm diameter, un-phased, 2.45?GHz antenna, is radiated into a B???0.5?T, n{sup }{sub e}???5??10{sup 17} 1/m{sup 3} plasma at T{sub e}???10?eV bulk temperature with an EC-generated 50?keV population of electrons. In response, the fast electrons travel around flux or drift surfaces essentially without collisions, repeatedly interacting with the rf field close to the antenna mouth, and gaining energy in the process. Our WEGA antenna calculations indicate a predominantly standing electric field pattern at the antenna mouth. From a simple approximation of the corresponding Hamiltonian equations of motion, we derive here a relativistic generalization of the simplified area-preserving Fermi-Ulam (F-U) map [M. A. Lieberman and A. J. Lichtenberg, Phys. Rev. A 5, 1852 (1972), Lichtenberg et al., Physica D 1, 291 (1980)], allowing phase-space global stochasticity analysis. At typical WEGA plasma and antenna conditions, and with correlated phases between electronantenna electric field interaction events, the F-U map and supporting numerical simulations predict an absolute energy barrier in the range of 300?keV. In contrast, with random phases intervening between interaction events, the electron energy can reach ?MeV values, compatible with the measurements on WEGA [Laqua et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 56, 075022 (2014)].

  19. Pulsed power supplies for the Fermilab 1 TeV switchyard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartelson, L.; Walton, J.

    1985-06-01

    An upgraded system of pulseed switching magnets has been implemented in the Fermilab Switchyard to accommodate proton energies up to 1 TeV. These devices are required for switching the ''slow'' and ''fast'' extracted beams into their respective beam lines. ''Slow'' beam passes undeflected through the magnet in the off condition. During a puls ''slow'' is disabled and ''fast'', which is of approx.1 ms duration, is deflected. The requirement then is for a ''flat-top'' current pulse of minimum rise and fall time. The circuit chosen is of the resonant charge recovery type. Several different styles and combinations of magnets and constraints. In all cases maximum voltage is limited to 600 volts and pulse width to 100 ms.

  20. Hybrid Solvent-Membrane CO2 Capture: A Solvent/Membrane Hybrid Post-combustion CO2 Capture Process for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: The University of Kentucky is developing a hybrid approach to capturing CO2 from the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants. In the first, CO2 is removed as flue gas is passed through an aqueous ammonium-based solvent. In the second, carbon-rich solution from the CO2 absorber is passed through a membrane that is designed to selectively transport the bound carbon, enhancing its concentration on the permeate side. The team’s approach would combine the best of both membrane- and solventbased carbon capture technologies. Under the ARPA-E award, the team is enabling the membrane operation to be a drop-in solution.

  1. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A

    2008-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic

  2. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and radiation hybrid mapping analyses enable the ordering of eleven DNA loci in Xq22

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Reilly, M.A.; Alterman, L.A.; Zijlstra, J.; Malcolm, S.; Levinsky, R.J.; Kinnon, C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Xq22 region of the human X chromosome encompasses the loci of several genes and random DNA markers whose relative positions have not been determined. By a combination of PFGE mapping and the analysis of a selected panel of X chromosome radiation hybrid cell lines, we have constructed physical maps of Xq22 that order a total of 11 polymorphic and nonpolymorphic DNA markers. Ten of these probes have been linked physically into three separate clusters, spanning nearly 6 Mb of DNA in total. The DXS94, DXS147, DXS211, DXS17, and DXS87 loci are all present on a 2.7-Mb MluI fragment; PLP, DXS54, DXS24, and DXS83 are present on MluI fragments spanning over 1.6 Mb; and DXS178 is present on a 1.5-Mb MluI fragment. Mapping with additional enzymes has allowed the further ordering of these loci with respect to each other. Together with these data, analysis of a small set of radiation hybrids has suggested the following overall order of loci with Xq22; centromere-DCS178-DXS94-DXS147-DXS211-DXS17-DXS87-PLP-DXS54-DXS24-DXS83-DOL4A5-telomere. The ordering of these random DNA markers, genes, and disease loci, including the genes responsible for Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease and Alport syndrome, indicates DNA markers that could be of further use clinically for these diseases. Furthermore, this map should form a basis for the refinement of additional disease-associated loci in this region. 32 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Short spatial filters with spherical lenses for high-power pulsed lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdonov, K F; Soloviev, A A; Shaikin, A A; Potemkin, A K; Egorov, A S

    2013-11-30

    We report possible employment of short spatial filters based on spherical lenses in a pulsed laser source (neodymium glass, 300 J, 1 ns). The influence of the spherical aberration on the quality of output radiation and coefficient of conversion to the second harmonics is studied. The ultra-short aberration spatial filter of length 1.9 m with an aperture of 122 mm is experimentally tested. A considerable shortening of multi-cascade pump lasers for modern petawatt laser systems is demonstrated by the employment of short spatial filters without expensive aspherical optics. (elements of laser systems)

  4. Application of Pulsed Electrical Fields for Advanced Cooling and Water Recovery in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young Cho; Alexander Fridman

    2009-04-02

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop technologies to reduce freshwater consumption in a cooling tower of coal-based power plant so that one could significantly reduce the need of make-up water. The specific goal was to develop a scale prevention technology based an integrated system of physical water treatment (PWT) and a novel filtration method so that one could reduce the need for the water blowdown, which accounts approximately 30% of water loss in a cooling tower. The present study investigated if a pulsed spark discharge in water could be used to remove deposits from the filter membrane. The test setup included a circulating water loop and a pulsed power system. The present experiments used artificially hardened water with hardness of 1,000 mg/L of CaCO{sub 3} made from a mixture of calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) and sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in order to produce calcium carbonate deposits on the filter membrane. Spark discharge in water was found to produce strong shockwaves in water, and the efficiency of the spark discharge in cleaning filter surface was evaluated by measuring the pressure drop across the filter over time. Results showed that the pressure drop could be reduced to the value corresponding to the initial clean state and after that the filter could be maintained at the initial state almost indefinitely, confirming the validity of the present concept of pulsed spark discharge in water to clean dirty filter. The present study also investigated the effect of a plasma-assisted self-cleaning filter on the performance of physical water treatment (PWT) solenoid coil for the mitigation of mineral fouling in a concentric counterflow heat exchanger. The self-cleaning filter utilized shockwaves produced by pulse-spark discharges in water to continuously remove scale deposits from the surface of the filter, thus keeping the pressure drop across the filter at a relatively low value. Artificial hard water was used in the

  5. Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the minutes and viewgraphs from a meeting of military personnel on the subject of power generation and distribution systems for military applications. Topics include heating and cooling systems for standard shelters, SDIO power programs, solar dynamic space power systems, hybrid solar dynamic/ photovoltaic systems, pulsed power technology, high-{Tc} superconductors, and actuators and other electronic equipment for aerospace vehicles. Attendees represented the US Air Force, Army, Navy, and NASA. (GHH)

  6. Interagency Advanced Power Group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This document contains the minutes and viewgraphs from a meeting of military personnel on the subject of power generation and distribution systems for military applications. Topics include heating and cooling systems for standard shelters, SDIO power programs, solar dynamic space power systems, hybrid solar dynamic/ photovoltaic systems, pulsed power technology, high-{Tc} superconductors, and actuators and other electronic equipment for aerospace vehicles. Attendees represented the US Air Force, Army, Navy, and NASA. (GHH)

  7. Ionization-induced effects in the soliton dynamics of high-peak-power femtosecond pulses in hollow photonic-crystal fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2007-07-15

    Ionization phenomena are shown to modify the soliton propagation dynamics of high-peak-power laser pulses in hollow-core photonic-crystal fibers (PCFs). Based on the numerical solution of the pulse-evolution equation for a high-peak-power laser field in an ionizing gas medium in a hollow PCF, we demonstrate that hollow PCFs filled with gases having high ionization potentials I{sub p} can support soliton transmission regimes for gigawatt femtosecond laser pulses. In hollow PCFs filled with low-I{sub p} gases, on the other hand, the ionization-induced change in the refractive index of the gas leads to a blueshifting of soliton transients, pushing their spectrum beyond the point of zero group-velocity dispersion, thus preventing the formation of stable high-peak-power solitons.

  8. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  9. Peak power ratio generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  10. Experimental study of filamentation of high-power ultrashort laser pulses with initial angular divergence in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geints, Yu E; Zemlyanov, A A; Kabanov, Andrey M; Matvienko, Gennady G; Stepanov, A N

    2013-04-30

    Experimental study of the nonlinear propagation of near-IR gigawatt femtosecond laser pulses in air in the self-focusing and filamentation regimes have been performed in open air and in laboratory. The influence of the initial geometric divergence (both positive and negative) of the laser beam with an irregular intensity profile on the transverse light energy distribution at the end of the path is studied. It is shown experimentally that the displacement of the filamentation region due to geometric focusing or defocusing, makes it possible to control the number and spatial location of light energy density peaks in the receiving plane. The conditions under which a light filament can be reconstructed after the beam transmission through a linear focal waist are determined. A semi-empirical threshold relation is obtained for the beam focusing force and the beam power, when light beam undergoes filamentation behind the geometric focus of the optical system. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  11. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; Genoni, T. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Greiser, G. W.; Gruner, F. R.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hutsel, B. T.; Jennings, C. A.; Jobe, D. O.; Jones, B. M.; Jones, M. C.; Jones, P. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Lash, J. S.; LeChien, K. R.; Leckbee, J. J.; Leeper, R. J.; Lewis, S. A.; Long, F. W.; Lucero, D. J.; Madrid, E. A.; Martin, M. R.; Matzen, M. K.; Mazarakis, M. G.; McBride, R. D.; McKee, G. R.; Miller, C. L.; Moore, J. K.; Mostrom, C. B.; Mulville, T. D.; Peterson, K. J.; Porter, J. L.; Reisman, D. B.; Rochau, G. A.; Rochau, G. E.; Rose, D. V.; Savage, M. E.; Sceiford, M. E.; Schmit, P. F.; Schneider, R. F.; Schwarz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Spielman, R. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Thoma, C.; Vesey, R. A.; Wakeland, P. E.; Welch, D. R.; Wisher, M. L.; Woodworth, J. R.; Bailey, J. E.; Rovang, D. C.

    2015-11-30

    Here, we have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated by the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator’s water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator’s physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD

  12. Conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators for high-energy-density-physics experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stygar, W. A.; Awe, T. J.; Bennett, N L; Breden, E. W.; Campbell, E. M.; Clark, R. E.; Cooper, R. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Ennis, J. B.; Fehl, D. L.; et al

    2015-11-30

    Here, we have developed conceptual designs of two petawatt-class pulsed-power accelerators: Z 300 and Z 800. The designs are based on an accelerator architecture that is founded on two concepts: single-stage electrical-pulse compression and impedance matching [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 030401 (2007)]. The prime power source of each machine consists of 90 linear-transformer-driver (LTD) modules. Each module comprises LTD cavities connected electrically in series, each of which is powered by 5-GW LTD bricks connected electrically in parallel. (A brick comprises a single switch and two capacitors in series.) Six water-insulated radial-transmission-line impedance transformers transport the power generated bymore » the modules to a six-level vacuum-insulator stack. The stack serves as the accelerator’s water-vacuum interface. The stack is connected to six conical outer magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines (MITLs), which are joined in parallel at a 10-cm radius by a triple-post-hole vacuum convolute. The convolute sums the electrical currents at the outputs of the six outer MITLs, and delivers the combined current to a single short inner MITL. The inner MITL transmits the combined current to the accelerator’s physics-package load. Z 300 is 35 m in diameter and stores 48 MJ of electrical energy in its LTD capacitors. The accelerator generates 320 TW of electrical power at the output of the LTD system, and delivers 48 MA in 154 ns to a magnetized-liner inertial-fusion (MagLIF) target [Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)]. The peak electrical power at the MagLIF target is 870 TW, which is the highest power throughout the accelerator. Power amplification is accomplished by the centrally located vacuum section, which serves as an intermediate inductive-energy-storage device. The principal goal of Z 300 is to achieve thermonuclear ignition; i.e., a fusion yield that exceeds the energy transmitted by the accelerator to the liner. 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD

  13. Plasma wakefields driven by an incoherent combination of laser pulses: A path towards high-average power laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2014-05-15

    The wakefield generated in a plasma by incoherently combining a large number of low energy laser pulses (i.e., without constraining the pulse phases) is studied analytically and by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations. The structure of the wakefield has been characterized and its amplitude compared with the amplitude of the wake generated by a single (coherent) laser pulse. We show that, in spite of the incoherent nature of the wakefield within the volume occupied by the laser pulses, behind this region, the structure of the wakefield can be regular with an amplitude comparable or equal to that obtained from a single pulse with the same energy. Wake generation requires that the incoherent structures in the laser energy density produced by the combined pulses exist on a time scale short compared to the plasma period. Incoherent combination of multiple laser pulses may enable a technologically simpler path to high-repetition rate, high-average power laser-plasma accelerators, and associated applications.

  14. High-Power Warm-White Hybrid LED Package for Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soer, Wouter

    2013-09-19

    In this project, an integrated warm-white hybrid light engine was developed. The hybrid approach involves combining phosphor-converted off-white InGaN LEDs and direct-emitting red AlInGaP LEDs in a single light engine to achieve high efficacy together with high color rendering index. We developed and integrated technology improvements in InGaN and AlInGaP die technology, phosphor technology, package architecture and encapsulation, to realize a hybrid warm-white LED package with an efficacy of 140 lm/W at a correlated color temperature of 3000K and a color rendering index of 90, measured under representative operating conditions. This efficacy is 26% higher than the best warm-white LEDs of similar specification that are commercially available at the end of the project. Since the InGaN- and AlInGaP-based LEDs used in the hybrid engine show different behavior as a function of current and temperature, a control system needs to be in place to ensure a stable color point over all operating conditions. In this project, we developed an electronic control circuit that is fully integrated into the light engine in such a way that the module can simply be driven by a conventional single-channel driver. The integrated control circuit uses a switch-mode boost converter topology to control the LED drive currents based on the temperature and the input current of the light engine. A color control performance of 5 SDCM was demonstrated, and improvement to 3 SDCM is considered well within reach. The combination of high efficacy and ease of integration with existing single-channel drivers is expected to facilitate the adoption of the hybrid technology and accelerate the energy savings associated with solid-state lighting. In the product commercialization plan, downlights and indirect-lit troffers have been selected as the first target applications for this product concept. Fully functional integrated prototypes have been developed for both applications, and the business case

  15. Pulse stretcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus (20) for increasing the length of a laser pulse to reduce its peak power without substantial loss in the average power of the pulse. The apparatus (20) uses a White cell (10) having a plurality of optical delay paths (18a-18d) of successively increasing number of passes between the field mirror (13) and the objective mirrors (11 and 12). A pulse (26) from a laser (27) travels through a multi-leg reflective path (28) between a beam splitter (21) and a totally reflective mirror (24) to the laser output (37). The laser pulse (26) is also simultaneously injected through the beam splitter (21) to the input mirrors (14a-14d) of the optical delay paths (18a-18d). The pulses from the output mirrors (16a-16d) of the optical delay paths (18a-18d) go simultaneously to the laser output (37) and to the input mirrors ( 14b-14d) of the longer optical delay paths. The beam splitter (21) is 50% reflective and 50% transmissive to provide equal attenuation of all of the pulses at the laser output (37).

  16. Method and apparatus for generating high power laser pulses in the two to six micron wavelength range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacPherson, D.C.; Nelson, L.D.; O`Brien, M.J.

    1996-12-10

    Apparatus performs a method of generating one or more output laser pulses in a range of 2 to 6 microns. When a plurality of the output laser pulses are generated, a first output pulse has any selected wavelength within the range and a second output pulse is temporally closely spaced relative to the first output pulse and has a chosen wavelength differing from the selected wavelength. An oscillator laser cavity is provided with a tunable oscillator rod capable of generating initial laser pulses within a range of from 750 to 1000 nm, and a tuning element is coupled to the rod. A flashlamp is operable to pump the rod. For two pulse operation, the flashlamp has a given duration. A Q-switch provides the initial laser pulses upon operation of the tuning element and the flashlamp. A Raman device coupled to the rod shifts the wavelength of such initial laser pulse into the range of from 2 to 6 microns to form the output laser pulse having a wavelength within the range. For multiple pulses, a controller causes the Q-switch to provide first and second ones of the initial laser pulses, spaced by a time interval less than the given duration. Also, a selector coupled to the tuning element is operable within such duration to successively select the wavelength of the first output pulse and the chosen wavelength of the second initial pulse. The Raman device is responsive to each of the initial light pulses to generate radiation at first and second Stokes wavelengths, each of said the output laser pulses being radiation at the second Stokes wavelength. 30 figs.

  17. Method and apparatus for generating high power laser pulses in the two to six micron wavelength range

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacPherson, David C.; Nelson, Loren D.; O'Brien, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Apparatus performs a method of generating one or more output laser pulses in a range of 2 to 6 microns. When a plurality of the output laser pulses are generated, a first output pulse has any selected wavelength within the range and a second output pulse is temporally closely spaced relative to the first output pulse and has a chosen wavelength differing from the selected wavelength. An oscillator laser cavity is provided with a tunable oscillator rod capable of generating initial laser pulses within a range of from 750 to 1000 nm, and a tuning element is coupled to the rod. A flashlamp is operable to pump the rod. For two pulse operation, the flashlamp has a given duration. A Q-switch provides the initial laser pulses upon operation of the tuning element and the flashlamp. A Raman device coupled to the rod shifts the wavelength of such initial laser pulse into the range of from 2 to 6 microns to form the output laser pulse having a wavelength within the range. For multiple pulses, a controller causes the Q-switch to provide first and second ones of the initial laser pulses, spaced by a time interval less than the given duration. Also, a selector coupled to the tuning element is operable within such duration to successively select the wavelength of the first output pulse and the chosen wavelength of the second initial pulse. The Raman device is responsive to each of the initial light pulses to generate radiation at first and second Stokes wavelengths, each of said the output laser pulses being radiation at the second Stokes wavelength.

  18. Formation of a laminar electron flow for 300 GHz high-power pulsed gyrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Yuusuke; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Teruo; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Mudiganti, Jagadish C.; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    This paper describes the design of a triode magnetron injection gun for use in a 200 kW, 300 GHz gyrotron. As power and frequency increase, the performance of the gyrotron becomes quite sensitive to the quality of the electron beam. Formation of a laminar electron flow is essential for the realization of a high quality beam with a small velocity spread. In this study, a new method is developed for a quantitative evaluation of the laminarity and is applied to optimize the electrode design. The laminarity depends not only on conventional design parameters such as the cathode slant angle but also on the spatial distribution of the electric field along the beam trajectory. In the optimized design, the velocity pitch factors, {alpha}, larger than 1.2 are obtained at 65 kV, 10 A with spreads, {Delta}{alpha}, less than 5%.

  19. PULSE COUNTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trumbo, D.E.

    1959-02-10

    A transistorized pulse-counting circuit adapted for use with nuclear radiation detecting detecting devices to provide a small, light weight portable counter is reported. The small size and low power requirements of the transistor are of particular value in this instance. The circuit provides an adjustable count scale with a single transistor which is triggered by the accumulated charge on a storage capacitor.

  20. Testing Low-Energy, High-Power Energy Storage Alternatives in a Full-Hybrid Vehicle (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonger, J.

    2014-01-01

    Automakers have been mass producing hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for well over a decade, and the technology has proven to be very effective at reducing per-vehicle gasoline use. However, the battery cost in HEVs contribute to higher incremental cost of HEVs (a few thousand dollars) than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. Significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost vs. benefit relationship for HEVs. Such an improvement could lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate gasoline savings. After significant analysis by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) and Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage program suggested a new set of requirements for ESS for power-assist HEVs for cost reduction without impacting performance and fuel economy significantly. With support from DOE, NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This poster will describe development of the LEESS HEV test platform, and LEESS laboratory as well as in-vehicle evaluation results. The first LEESS technology tested was lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) - i.e., asymmetric electrochemical energy storage devices possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). We will discuss the performance and fuel saving results with LIC with comparison with original NiMH battery.

  1. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  2. Helium-3 and Helium-4 acceleration by high power laser pulses for hadron therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Leemans, W. P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Margarone, D.; Korn, G.; Haberer, T.

    2015-06-24

    The laser driven acceleration of ions is considered a promising candidate for an ion source for hadron therapy of oncological diseases. Though proton and carbon ion sources are conventionally used for therapy, other light ions can also be utilized. Whereas carbon ions require 400 MeV per nucleon to reach the same penetration depth as 250 MeV protons, helium ions require only 250 MeV per nucleon, which is the lowest energy per nucleon among the light ions. This fact along with the larger biological damage to cancer cells achieved by helium ions, than that by protons, makes this species an interesting candidate for the laser driven ion source. Two mechanisms (Magnetic Vortex Acceleration and hole-boring Radiation Pressure Acceleration) of PW-class laser driven ion acceleration from liquid and gaseous helium targets are studied with the goal of producing 250 MeV per nucleon helium ion beams that meet the hadron therapy requirements. We show that He3 ions, having almost the same penetration depth as He4 with the same energy per nucleon, require less laser power to be accelerated to the required energy for the hadron therapy.

  3. Hybrid Air-Cooled Condenser for Power Plants and other applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The thermal efficiency of geothermal power plants is relatively low, e.g. in the range of 10 to 23 ... when extracting useful energy during the generation of electricity. ...

  4. Short-Pulse Lasers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Short-Pulse Lasers NIF Petawatt Laser Is on Track to Completion The National Ignition Facility's Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC), a petawatt-class laser with peak power ...

  5. American Recovery & Reinvestment Act: Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Packs and Hydrogen Refueling for Lift Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, Gus

    2011-07-31

    HEB Grocery Company, Inc. (H-E-B) is a privately-held supermarket chain with 310 stores throughout Texas and northern Mexico. H-E-B converted 14 of its lift reach trucks to fuel cell power using Nuvera Fuel Cells’ PowerEdge™ units to verify the value proposition and environmental benefits associated with the technology. Issues associated with the increasing power requirements of the distribution center operation, along with high ambient temperature in the summer and other operating conditions (such as air quality and floor surface condition), surfaced opportunities for improving Nuvera’s PowerEdge fuel cell system design in high-throughput forklift environments. The project included on-site generation of hydrogen from a steam methane reformer, called PowerTap™ manufactured by Nuvera. The hydrogen was generated, compressed and stored in equipment located outside H-E-B’s facility, and provided to the forklifts by hydrogen dispensers located in high forklift traffic areas. The PowerEdge fuel cell units logged over 25,300 operating hours over the course of the two-year project period. The PowerTap hydrogen generator produced more than 11,100 kg of hydrogen over the same period. Hydrogen availability at the pump was 99.9%. H-E-B management has determined that fuel cell forklifts help alleviate several issues in its distribution centers, including truck operator downtime associated with battery changing, truck and battery maintenance costs, and reduction of grid electricity usage. Data collected from this initial installation demonstrated a 10% productivity improvement, which enabled H-E-B to make economic decisions on expanding the fleet of PowerEdge and PowerTap units in the fleet, which it plans to undertake upon successful demonstration of the new PowerEdge reach truck product. H-E-B has also expressed interst in other uses of hydrogen produced on site in the future, such as for APUs used in tractor trailers and refrigerated transport trucks in its fleet.

  6. Hybrid: Overview

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    button highlighted Starting Button Cruising Button Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar OVERVIEW Hybrid-electric vehicles combine the benefits of gasoline engines and electric motors to provide improved fuel economy. The engine provides most of the vehicle's power, and the electric motor provides additional power when needed, such as for accelerating and passing. This allows a smaller, more-efficient engine to be used. The electric power for the motor is

  7. Fundamental studies on initiation and evolution of multi-channel discharges and their application to next generation pulsed power machines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, Jens; Savage, Mark E.; Lucero, Diego Jose; Jaramillo, Deanna M.; Seals, Kelly Gene; Pitts, Todd; Hautzenroeder, Brenna M.; Laine, Mark Richard; Karelitz, David B.; Porter, John L.

    2014-09-01

    Future pulsed power systems may rely on linear transformer driver (LTD) technology. The LTD's will be the building blocks for a driver that can deliver higher current than the Z-Machine. The LTD's would require tens of thousands of low inductance ( < 85nH), high voltage (200 kV DC) switches with high reliability and long lifetime ( 10 4 shots). Sandia's Z-Machine employs 36 megavolt class switches that are laser triggered by a single channel discharge. This is feasible for tens of switches but the high inductance and short switch life- time associated with the single channel discharge are undesirable for future machines. Thus the fundamental problem is how to lower inductance and losses while increasing switch life- time and reliability. These goals can be achieved by increasing the number of current-carrying channels. The rail gap switch is ideal for this purpose. Although those switches have been extensively studied during the past decades, each effort has only characterized a particular switch. There is no comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics that would allow predictive capability for arbitrary switch geometry. We have studied rail gap switches via an extensive suite of advanced diagnostics in synergy with theoretical physics and advanced modeling capability. Design and topology of multichannel switches as they relate to discharge dynamics are investigated. This involves electrically and optically triggered rail gaps, as well as discrete multi-site switch concepts.

  8. Experimental observation of the behaviour of cogenerated dusty plasma using a bipolar pulsed direct current power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Sanjib; Bose, M. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pramanik, J. [Kharagpur College, Kharagpur 721305, West Bengal (India); Mukherjee, S. [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-02-15

    We have experimentally observed the behaviour of cogenerated dusts in unmagnetized plasma produced using a bipolar pulsed dc power supply. In this experiment, the dust particles have been generated through sputtering of graphite cathode and were stratified between two electrodes. This stratification of dust clouds has obtained at a typical range of plasma parameters, namely, 650 V (peak-to-peak) with 0.2 mbar pressure. In above condition, we detected the Taylor-like instability at the interface of two dusty clouds with different densities. A very less dust density (void like) region inside the lesser dust density portion is also noted. Again, it has been observed that a self excited dust density wave propagates towards the higher density dust fluid inside the system as well as a stationary band structure of thin multiple layers of dust particles when we apply a higher voltage (750 V peak-to-peak). The wavelength, phase velocity, and frequency of the excited wave have also been estimated.

  9. Residential hybrid power for load leveling and efficiency gains: A concept overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.; Mubayi, V.; Salzano, F.

    1986-04-01

    In this new concept, a local direct current (DC) power distribution system for residential consumers is proposed for its advantages to both the utility and its customers. The DC distribution is limited to the short spans emanating from the residential power terminal. Alternating current power is maintained for its transmission advantages to the load center of the residence and is there converted to low voltage direct current for distribution in the house. This approach used in combination with electronically monitored appliance-resident electrical storage constitutes the basics of a new system that promises greatly improved load management and higher operating efficiency. The objective in this concept is to make the residential customer look like a quasi-steady state power consumer with the additional option for load shedding without any disturbance in service. Even utilities with a good overall match between supply and demand can benefit from this new approach and cut operating cost by redistributing demand more evenly throughout the hours of the day. The basic object is to improve the utility load curves by smoothing out the peaks and valleys of customer demand without resorting to the complex assorted options being considered today.

  10. High-power radio frequency pulse generation and extration based on wakefield excited by an intense charged particle beam in dielectric-loaded waveguides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, F.; High Energy Physics; Illinois Inst. of Tech

    2009-07-24

    Power extraction using a dielectric-loaded (DL) waveguide is a way to generate high-power radio frequency (RF) waves for future particle accelerators, especially for two-beam-acceleration. In a two-beam-acceleration scheme, a low-energy, high-current particle beam is passed through a deceleration section of waveguide (decelerator), where the power from the beam is partially transferred to trailing electromagnetic waves (wakefields); then with a properly designed RF output coupler, the power generated in the decelerator is extracted to an output waveguide, where finally the power can be transmitted and used to accelerate another usually high-energy low-current beam. The decelerator, together with the RF output coupler, is called a power extractor. At Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA), we designed a 7.8GHz power extractor with a circular DL waveguide and tested it with single electron bunches and bunch trains. The output RF frequency (7.8GHz) is the sixth harmonic of the operational frequency (1.3GHz) of the electron gun and the linac at AWA. In single bunch excitation, a 1.7ns RF pulse with 30MW of power was generated by a single 66nC electron bunch passing through the decelerator. In subsequent experiments, by employing different splitting-recombining optics for the photoinjector laser, electron bunch trains were generated and thus longer RF pulses could be successfully generated and extracted. In 16-bunch experiments, 10ns and 22ns RF pulses have been generated and extracted; and in 4-bunch experiments, the maximum power generated was 44MW with 40MW extracted. A 26GHz DL power extractor has also been designed to test this technique in the millimeter-wave range. A power level of 148MW is expected to be generated by a bunch train with a bunch spacing of 769ps and bunch charges of 20nC each. The arrangement for the experiment is illustrated in a diagram. Higher-order-mode (HOM) power extraction has also been explored in a dual-frequency design. By using a bunch

  11. Impact Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the U.S. Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Nguyen, Tony B.; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Secrest, Thomas J.

    2010-09-30

    The US electricity grid is a national infrastructure that has the potential to deliver significant amounts of the daily driving energy of the US light duty vehicle (cars, pickups, SUVs, and vans) fleet. This paper discusses a 2030 scenario with 37 million plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on the road in the US demanding electricity for an average daily driving distance of about 33 miles (53 km). The paper addresses the potential grid impacts of the PHEVs fleet relative to their effects on the production cost of electricity, and the emissions from the electricity sector. The results of this analysis indicate significant regional difference on the cost impacts and the CO2 emissions. Battery charging during the day may have twice the cost impacts than charging during the night. The CO2 emissions impacts are very region-dependent. In predominantly coal regions (Midwest), the new PHEV load may reduce the CO2 emission intensity (ton/MWh), while in others regions with significant clean generation (hydro and renewable energy) the CO2 emission intensity may increase. Discussed will the potential impact of the results with the valuation of carbon emissions.

  12. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) low cost generator design using power MOSFET and Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit as high voltage DC source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulaeman, M. Y.; Widita, R.

    2014-09-30

    Purpose: Non-ionizing radiation therapy for cancer using pulsed electric field with high intensity field has become an interesting field new research topic. A new method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) offers a novel means to treat cancer. Not like the conventional electroporation, nsPEFs able to create nanopores in all membranes of the cell, including membrane in cell organelles, like mitochondria and nucleus. NsPEFs will promote cell death in several cell types, including cancer cell by apoptosis mechanism. NsPEFs will use pulse with intensity of electric field higher than conventional electroporation, between 20100 kV/cm and with shorter duration of pulse than conventional electroporation. NsPEFs requires a generator to produce high voltage pulse and to achieve high intensity electric field with proper pulse width. However, manufacturing cost for creating generator that generates a high voltage with short duration for nsPEFs purposes is highly expensive. Hence, the aim of this research is to obtain the low cost generator design that is able to produce a high voltage pulse with nanosecond width and will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Method: Cockcroft-Walton multiplier circuit will boost the input of 220 volt AC into high voltage DC around 1500 volt and it will be combined by a series of power MOSFET as a fast switch to obtain a high voltage with nanosecond pulse width. The motivation using Cockcroft-Walton multiplier is to acquire a low-cost high voltage DC generator; it will use capacitors and diodes arranged like a step. Power MOSFET connected in series is used as voltage divider to share the high voltage in order not to damage them. Results: This design is expected to acquire a low-cost generator that can achieve the high voltage pulse in amount of ?1.5 kV with falltime 3 ns and risetime 15 ns into a 50? load that will be used for nsPEFs purposes. Further detailed on the circuit design will be explained at presentation.

  13. Measurements of the Radiated Fields and Conducted Current Leakage from the Pulsed Power Systems in the National Ignition Facility at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, R A; Clancy, T J; Fulkerson, S; Petersen, D; Pendelton, D; Hulsey, S; Ullery, G; Tuck, J; Polk, M; Kamm, R; Newton, M; Moore, W B; Arnold, P; Ollis, C; Hinz, A; Robb, C; Fornes, J; Watson, J

    2003-07-31

    An important pulsed power system consideration is that they inherently generate fields and currents that can cause interference in other subsystems and diagnostics. Good pulsed power design, grounding and isolation practices can help mitigate these unwanted signals. During the laser commissioning shots for the NIF Early Light milestone at LLNL, measurements were made of the radiated field and conducted currents caused by the Power Conditioning System (PCS) modules with flash lamp load and the Plasma Electrode Pockels Cell (PEPC) driver. The measurements were made in the capacitor bay, laser bay, control room and target bay. The field measurements were made with B-dot and E-dot probes with bandwidth of about 100MHz. The current measurements were made with a clamp on probe with a bandwidth of about 20 MHz. The results of these measurements show fields and currents in the NIF Facility well below that required for interference with other subsystems. Currents on the target chamber from the pulsed power systems are well below the background noise currents.

  14. Renewable Energy in China: Xiao Qing Dao Village Power Wind/Diesel Hybrid Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, DOE/NREL and the State Power Corporation of China (SPCC) developed a pilot project to electrify Xiao Qing Dao, a small island located in China's Yellow Sea. The project demonstrates the practicality of renewable energy systems for medium-scale, off-grid applications. It consists of four 10 k-W wind turbines connected to a 30-kW diesel generator, a 40-kW inverter and a battery bank.

  15. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  16. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  17. High efficiency direct fuel cell hybrid power cycle for near term application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfeld, G.; Maru, H.C.; Sanderson, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Direct carbonate fuel cells being developed by Energy Research Corporation can generate power at an efficiency approaching 60% LHV. This unique fuel cell technology can consume natural gas and other hydrocarbon based fuels directly without requiring an external reformer, thus providing a simpler and inherently efficient power generation system. A 2 MW power plant demonstration of this technology has been initiated at an installation in the city of Santa Clara in California. A 2.85 MW commercial configuration shown in Figure 1 is presently being developed. The complete plant includes the carbonate fuel cell modules, an inverter, transformer and switchgear, a heat recovery unit and supporting instrument air and water treatment systems. The emission levels for this 2.85 MW plant are projected to be orders of magnitude below existing or proposed standards. The 30 year levelized cost of electricity, without inflation, is projected to be approximately 5{cents}/kW-h assuming capital cost for the carbonate fuel cell system of $1000/kW.

  18. Application of Hybrid Geo-Spatially Granular Fragility Curves to Improve Power Outage Predictions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Steven J; Allen, Melissa R; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Fragility curves depict the relationship between a weather variable (wind speed, gust speed, ice accumulation, precipitation rate) and the observed outages for a targeted infrastructure network. This paper describes an empirical study of the county by county distribution of power outages and one minute weather variables during Hurricane Irene with the objective of comparing 1) as built fragility curves (statistical approach) to engineering as designed (bottom up) fragility curves for skill in forecasting outages during future hurricanes; 2) county specific fragility curves to find examples of significant deviation from average behavior; and 3) the engineering practices of outlier counties to suggest future engineering studies of robustness. Outages in more than 90% of the impacted counties could be anticipated through an average or generic fragility curve. The remaining counties could be identified and handled as exceptions through geographic data sets. The counties with increased or decreased robustness were characterized by terrain more or less susceptible to persistent flooding in areas where above ground poles located their foundations. Land use characteristics of the area served by the power distribution system can suggest trends in the as built power grid vulnerabilities to extreme weather events that would be subjects for site specific studies.

  19. Evaluation of Hybrid Air-Cooled Flash/Binary Power Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Mines

    2005-10-01

    Geothermal binary power plants reject a significant portion of the heat removed from the geothermal fluid. Because of the relatively low temperature of the heat source (geothermal fluid), the performance of these plants is quite sensitive to the sink temperature to which heat is rejected. This is particularly true of air-cooled binary plants. Recent efforts by the geothermal industry have examined the potential to evaporatively cool the air entering the air-cooled condensers during the hotter portions of a summer day. While the work has shown the benefit of this concept, air-cooled binary plants are typically located in regions that lack an adequate supply of clean water for use in this evaporative cooling. In the work presented, this water issue is addressed by pre-flashing the geothermal fluid to produce a clean condensate that can be utilized during the hotter portions of the year to evaporatively cool the air. This study examines both the impact of this pre-flash on the performance of the binary plant, and the increase in power output due to the ability to incorporate an evaporative component to the heat rejection process.

  20. Development of auxiliary power units for electric hybrid vehicles. Interim report, July 1993-February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, E.C.; Steiber, J.

    1997-06-01

    Larger urban commercial vehicles (such as shuttle and transit buses), various delivery and service vehicles (such as panel and step vans), and garbage trucks and school buses are particularly well suited for electric drive propulsion systems due to their relatively short operating routes, and operation and maintenance from central sites. Furthermore, these vehicles contribute a proportionately large amount to metropolitan air pollution by virtue of their continuous operation in those areas. It is necessary to develop auxiliary power units (APUs) that minimize emissions and in addition, increase range of electric vehicles. This report focuses on the first phase study of the development of APUs for large, electric drive commercial vehicles, intended primarily for metropolitan applications. This paper (1) summarizes the differences between available mobile APUs and Electric Vehicle APU requirements, (2) describes the major components in APUs, and (3) discusses APU integration issues. During this phase, three potential APU manufacturers were identified and selected for development of prototype units at 25 kW and 50 kW power levels.

  1. Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program site operator program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-01

    During the term of the above mentioned agreement, the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP), a municipal utility serving the citizens of Los Angeles, marked its tenth year of involvement in testing and promoting electric vehicles as part of Los Angeles` overall air quality improvement program, and as a means of improving the regions` economic competitiveness through the creation of new industries. LADWP maintained and operated twenty electric vehicles (EVs) during the test period. These vehicles consisted of six G-Vans, four Chrysler TEVans, five U.S. Electricar pickup trucks, and five U.S. Electricar Prizms. LADWP`s electric transportation program also included infrastructure, public transit development, public and awareness, and legislative and regulatory activities.

  2. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  3. The hydrogen hybrid option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-10-15

    The energy efficiency of various piston engine options for series hybrid automobiles are compared with conventional, battery powered electric, and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell hybrid automobiles. Gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen are considered for these hybrids. The engine and fuel comparisons are done on a basis of equal vehicle weight, drag, and rolling resistance. The relative emissions of these various fueled vehicle options are also presented. It is concluded that a highly optimized, hydrogen fueled, piston engine, series electric hybrid automobile will have efficiency comparable to a similar fuel cell hybrid automobile and will have fewer total emissions than the battery powered vehicle, even without a catalyst.

  4. Strategy for Migration of Traditional to Hybrid Control Boards in a Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Ulrich, Thomas Anthony

    2014-07-01

    This strategy document describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of new digital control room elements in a legacy analog main control room (MCR). Information from previous planning and analysis work serves as the foundation for creating a human-machine interface (HMI) specification for distributed control systems (DCSs) to be implemented as part of nuclear power plant (NPP) modernization. This document reviews ways to take the HMSI specification and use it when migrating legacy displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then an integrated system validation (ISV) in the full-scope control room training simulator. Following successful demonstration of operator performance using the systems during the ISV, the new DCS is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the MCR. This document concludes with a sample project plan, including a 15-month timeline from DCS design through implementation. Included is a discussion of how the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) can be used to support design and V&V activities. This report completes a Level 4 (M4) milestone under the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program.

  5. Saturation of light – current characteristics of high-power lasers (λ = 1.0 – 1.1 mm) in pulsed regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veselov, D A; Kapitonov, V A; Pikhtin, N A; Lyutetskiy, A V; Nikolaev, D N; Slipchenko, S O; Sokolova, Z N; Shamakhov, V V; Shashkin, I S; Tarasov, I S

    2014-11-30

    Semiconductor lasers based on MOVPE-grown asymmetric separate-confinement heterostructures with a broadened waveguide and emitting in the wavelength range 1.0 – 1.1 μm are studied. It is found that the intensity of spontaneous emission from the active region increases with increasing pump current above the lasing threshold and that this is caused by a growth in the concentration of charge carriers in the active region due to the modal gain enhancement needed to compensate for the growing internal optical loss at high pulsed pump currents. It is shown that the increase in the internal optical loss with increasing pulsed pump current is one of the main reasons for saturation of the light – current characteristics of high-power semiconductor lasers. (lasers)

  6. Heat Flux Calculation and Problem of Flaking of Boron Carbide Coatings on the Faraday Screen of the ICRH Antennas During Tore Supra High Power, Long Pulse Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corre, Y.; Lipa, M.; Agarici, G.; Basiuk, V.; Colas, L.; Courtois, X.; Dumont, R. J.; Ekedahl, A.; Gardarein, J. L.; Klepper, C Christopher; Martin, V.; Moncada, V.; Portafaix, C.; Rigollet, F.; Tawizgant, R.; Travere, J. M.; Valliez, K.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable and repetitive high power and long pulse tokamak operation is strongly dependant of the ability to secure the Plasma Facing Components (PFCs). In Tore Supra, a network of 7 infrared (IR) video cameras is routinely used to prevent PFCs overheating and damage in selected regions. Real time feedback control and offline analysis are essential for basic protection and understanding of abnormal thermal events. One important limitation detected by the IR real time feed-back loop during high power RF operation (injected power of 9.5 MW over 26 s and 12 MW over 10 s have been achieved respectively in 2006 and 2008) is due to the interaction between fast ions which increase the power flux density and flaking of the boron carbide coatings on the Faraday screen box of the ICRH antennas. An IR-based experimental procedure is proposed in order to detect new flakes during plasma operation. The thermal response of the B4C coating is studied with and without flaking during plasma operation. The experimental heat flux deposited by fast ion losses on the Faraday screen is calculated for high (3.8 T) and low magnetic field (2 T) during high RF power operation (with fundamental hydrogen minority and second harmonic ICRH heating schemes respectively). The paper addresses both thermal science issues applied to machine protection and limitation due to fast ions issues during high RF power, long pulse operation. Safety margin to critical heat flux and number of fatigue cycles under heat load are presented in the paper.

  7. Starlite figures of merit for tokamak current drive - economic analysis of pulsed and steady state power plants with various engineering and physics performance parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehst, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The physics efficiency of current drive ({gamma}{sub B} {proportional_to} n{sub e} I{sub o} R{sub o}/P{sub CD}), including the bootstrap effect, needs to exceed certain goals in order to provide economical steady state operation compared to pulsed power plants. The goal for {gamma}{sub B} depends not only on engineering performance of the current drive system, but also on normalized beta and the effective safety factor of the achievable MHD equilibrium.

  8. Investigation of the effects of a thin dielectric layer on low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharges driven by combined radio frequency and pulse power sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Jizhong; Fan, Yu; Zou, Ying; Wang, Dezhen; Stirner, Thomas

    2013-11-15

    Negative hydrogen ion sources, for instance for fusion devices, currently attract considerable attention. To generate the precursors—highly rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules—for negative hydrogen ions effectively by electron excitation, a thin dielectric layer is introduced to cover the surface of the electrically grounded electrode of two parallel metal plates in a low-pressure hydrogen capacitive discharge driven by combined rf and pulse power sources. To understand the characteristics of such discharges, particle-in-cell simulations are conducted to study the effects that the single dielectric layer would bring onto the discharges. The simulation results show that the dielectric layer leads to a much higher plasma density and a much larger production rate of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules compared to discharges without the dielectric layer on the electrode. Further investigation indicates that the nonlinear oscillation of the electrons induced by the nanosecond-pulse continues until it is finally damped down and does not show any dependence on the pulse plateau-time, which is in stark contrast to the case without the dielectric layer present. The physical reason for this phenomenon is explored and explained.

  9. Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, S.; Greczynski, G.; Jensen, J.; Hultman, L.; Czigany, Zs.

    2012-07-01

    Ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate discharges formed during high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a graphite target in Ar and Ar/N{sub 2} ambient. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were recorded in time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar{sup +}, C{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, N{sup +}, and C{sub x}N{sub y}{sup +} ions. An increase of N{sub 2} in the sputter gas (keeping the deposition pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and pulse energy constant) results for the HiPIMS discharge in a significant increase in C{sup +}, N{sup +}, and CN{sup +} ion energies. Ar{sup +}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, and C{sub 2}N{sup +} ion energies, in turn, did not considerably vary with the changes in working gas composition. The HiPIMS process showed higher ion energies and fluxes, particularly for C{sup +} ions, compared to DCMS. The time evolution of the plasma species was analyzed for HiPIMS and revealed the sequential arrival of working gas ions, ions ejected from the target, and later during the pulse-on time molecular ions, in particular CN{sup +} and C{sub 2}N{sup +}. The formation of fullerene-like structured CN{sub x} thin films for both modes of magnetron sputtering is explained by ion mass-spectrometry results and demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy as well as diffraction.

  10. Electrical system for pulse-width modulated control of a power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals and related operating methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welchko, Brian A.

    2012-02-14

    Systems and methods are provided for pulse-width modulated control of power inverter using phase-shifted carrier signals. An electrical system comprises an energy source and a motor. The motor has a first set of windings and a second set of windings, which are electrically isolated from each other. An inverter module is coupled between the energy source and the motor and comprises a first set of phase legs coupled to the first set of windings and a second set of phase legs coupled to the second set of windings. A controller is coupled to the inverter module and is configured to achieve a desired power flow between the energy source and the motor by modulating the first set of phase legs using a first carrier signal and modulating the second set of phase legs using a second carrier signal. The second carrier signal is phase-shifted relative to the first carrier signal.

  11. Application of Pulse Spark Discharges for Scale Prevention and Continuous Filtration Methods in Coal-Fired Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Young; Fridman, Alexander

    2012-06-30

    The overall objective of the present work was to develop a new scale-prevention technology by continuously precipitating and removing dissolved mineral ions (such as calcium and magnesium) in cooling water while the COC could be doubled from the present standard value of 3.5. The hypothesis of the present study was that if we could successfully precipitate and remove the excess calcium ions in cooling water, we could prevent condenser-tube fouling and at the same time double the COC. The approach in the study was to utilize pulse spark discharges directly in water to precipitate dissolved mineral ions in recirculating cooling water into relatively large suspended particles, which could be removed by a self-cleaning filter. The present study began with a basic scientific research to better understand the mechanism of pulse spark discharges in water and conducted a series of validation experiments using hard water in a laboratory cooling tower. Task 1 of the present work was to demonstrate if the spark discharge could precipitate the mineral ions in water. Task 2 was to demonstrate if the selfcleaning filter could continuously remove these precipitated calcium particles such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. Task 3 was to demonstrate if the scale could be prevented or minimized at condenser tubes with a COC of 8 or (almost) zero blowdown. In Task 1, we successfully completed the validation study that confirmed the precipitation of dissolved calcium ions in cooling water with the supporting data of calcium hardness over time as measured by a calcium ion probe. In Task 2, we confirmed through experimental tests that the self-cleaning filter could continuously remove precipitated calcium particles in a simulated laboratory cooling tower such that the blowdown could be eliminated or significantly reduced. In addition, chemical water analysis data were obtained which were used to confirm the COC calculation. In Task 3, we conducted a series

  12. Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometer electron density diagnostic for laser and pulsed power high energy density plasma experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Valdivia, M. P.; Stutman, D.; Stoeckl, C.; Mileham, C.; Begishev, I.; Theobald, W.; Bromage, J.; Regan, S. P.; Klein, S. R.; Munoz-Cordoves, G.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Talbot-Lau X-ray Deflectometry has been developed as an electron density diagnostic for High Energy Density plasmas. The technique can deliver x-ray refraction, attenuation, elemental composition, and scatter information from a single Moiré image. An 8 keV Talbot-Lau interferometer was deployed using laser and x-pinch backlighters. Grating survival and electron density mapping was demonstrated for 25-29 J, 8-30 ps laser pulses using copper foil targets. Moire pattern formation and grating survival was also observed using a copper x-pinch driven at 400 kA, ~1 kA/ns. Lastly, these results demonstrate the potential of TXD as an electron density diagnostic for HED plasmas.

  13. PROJECT PROFILE: Opportunistic Hybrid Communications Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    distributed solar power is added to the electric power grid and becomes an increasing proportion of total energy generation... a hybrid communications system to meet the needs of ...

  14. PULSE SORTER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-07-29

    An apparatus is described for counting and recording the number of electrical pulses occurring in each of a timed sequence of groups of pulses. The particular feature of the invention resides in a novel timing circuit of the univibrator type which provides very accurately timed pulses for opening each of a series of coincidence channels in sequence. The univibrator is shown incorporated in a pulse analyzing system wherein a series of pulse counting channels are periodically opened in order, one at a time, for a predetermtned open time interval, so that only one channel will be open at the time of occurrence of any of the electrical pulses to be sorted.

  15. Efficiency Improvement in an Over the Road Diesel Powered Engine System by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hybridization of heavy-duty truck propulsion with thermoelectric generator and potential efficiency enhancement

  16. Sandia Energy - Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article Home Renewable Energy Energy Partnership News EC Concentrating Solar Power Solar National Solar Thermal Test Facility Thermal Pulses for...

  17. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  18. Advanced, Energy-Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Advanced, Energy- Efficient Hybrid Membrane System for Industrial Water Reuse New Hybrid Membrane System Utilizes Industrial Waste Heat to Power Water Purification Process As...

  19. MHK Technologies/SMART Hybrid System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type Click here Hybrid Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 9: Commercial-Scale Production Application Technology Description Smart Hydro Power's hybrid system combines a...

  20. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF AN INTEGRATED PULSE MODULATED S-BAND POWER AMPLIFIER IN GALLIUM NITRIDE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STEVE SEDLOCK

    2012-04-04

    The design of power amplifiers in any semi-conductor process is not a trivia exercise and it is often encountered that the simulated solution is qualitatively different than the results obtained. Phenomena such as oscillation occurring either in-band or out of band and sometimes at subharmonic intervals, continuous spectrum noticed in some frequency bands, often referred to as chaos, and jumps and hysteresis effects can all be encountered and render a design useless. All of these problems might have been identified through a more rigorous approach to stability analysis. Designing for stability is probably the one area of amplifier design that receives the least amount of attention but incurs the most catastrophic of effects if it is not performed properly. Other parameters such as gain, power output, frequency response and even matching may suitable mitigation paths. But the lack of stability in an amplifier has no mitigating path. In addition to of loss of the design completely there are the increased production cycle costs, costs involved with investigating and resolving the problem and the costs involved with schedule slips or delays resulting from it. The Linville or Rollett stability criteria that many microwave engineers follow and rely exclusively on is not sufficient by itself to ensure a stable and robust design. It will be shown that the universal belief that unconditional stability is obtained through an analysis of the scattering matrix S to determine if 1 and |{Delta}{sub S}| < 1 is only part of the procedure and other tools must be used to validate the criteria. The research shown contributes to the state of the art by developing a more thorough stability design technique for designing amplifiers of any class, whether that be current mode or switch mode, than is currently undertaken with the goal of obtaining first pass design success.

  1. Hybrid wood-geothermal power plant, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California. Identification of environmental issues, second phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-08-14

    GeoProducts Corporation and the California Department of Water Resources have jointly proposed to develop a 55 MWe power plant in Lassen County, California. The proposed power plant is unique in that it will utilize geothermal heat and wood fuel to generate electrical power, the first attempt to utilize these resources together on a commercial scale. This report identifies requirements for new environmental information that must be generated for permit applications and for preparation of environmental documents required by CEOA and NEPA; presents a schedule for generating new environmental data, for preparing and submitting permit applications, and for obtaining permits; presents a budget for permitting, licensing and environmental assessments as required by applicable laws, regulations and procedures; and investigates the step needed to qualify for a Small Power Plant Exemption by the State Energy Commission.

  2. Long pulse EBW start-up experiments in MAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shevchenko, V. F.; Baranov, Y. F.; Bigelow, T.; Caughman, J. B.; Diem, S.; Dukes, C.; Finburg, P.; Hawes, J.; Gurl, C.; Griffiths, J.; Mailloux, J.; Peng, M.; Saveliev, A. N.; Takase, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Taylor, G.

    2015-03-12

    Start-up technique reported here relies on a double mode conversion (MC) for electron Bernstein wave (EBW) excitation. It consists of MC of the ordinary (O) mode, entering the plasma from the low field side of the tokamak, into the extraordinary (X) mode at a mirror-polarizer located at the high field side. The X mode propagates back to the plasma, passes through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and experiences a subsequent X to EBW MC near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR). Finally the excited EBW mode is totally absorbed at the Doppler shifted ECR. The absorption of EBW remains high even in cold rarefied plasmas. Furthermore, EBW can generate significant plasma current giving the prospect of a fully solenoid-free plasma start-up. First experiments using this scheme were carried out on MAST [1]. Plasma currents up to 33 kA have been achieved using 28 GHz 100kW 90ms RF pulses. Recently experimental results were extended to longer RF pulses showing further increase of plasma currents generated by RF power alone. A record current of 73kA has been achieved with 450ms RF pulse of similar power. The current drive enhancement was mainly achieved due to RF pulse extension and further optimisation of the start-up scenario.

  3. Long pulse EBW start-up experiments in MAST

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shevchenko, V. F.; Baranov, Y. F.; Bigelow, T.; Caughman, J. B.; Diem, S.; Dukes, C.; Finburg, P.; Hawes, J.; Gurl, C.; Griffiths, J.; et al

    2015-03-12

    Start-up technique reported here relies on a double mode conversion (MC) for electron Bernstein wave (EBW) excitation. It consists of MC of the ordinary (O) mode, entering the plasma from the low field side of the tokamak, into the extraordinary (X) mode at a mirror-polarizer located at the high field side. The X mode propagates back to the plasma, passes through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and experiences a subsequent X to EBW MC near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR). Finally the excited EBW mode is totally absorbed at the Doppler shifted ECR. The absorption of EBW remains high even inmore » cold rarefied plasmas. Furthermore, EBW can generate significant plasma current giving the prospect of a fully solenoid-free plasma start-up. First experiments using this scheme were carried out on MAST [1]. Plasma currents up to 33 kA have been achieved using 28 GHz 100kW 90ms RF pulses. Recently experimental results were extended to longer RF pulses showing further increase of plasma currents generated by RF power alone. A record current of 73kA has been achieved with 450ms RF pulse of similar power. The current drive enhancement was mainly achieved due to RF pulse extension and further optimisation of the start-up scenario.« less

  4. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  5. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  6. Effect of oxygen incorporation on the structure and elasticity of Ti-Al-O-N coatings synthesized by cathodic arc and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans, M. Baben, M. to; Music, D.; Ebenhch, J.; Schneider, J. M.; Primetzhofer, D.; Kurapov, D.; Arndt, M.; Rudigier, H.

    2014-09-07

    Ti-Al-O-N coatings were synthesized by cathodic arc and high power pulsed magnetron sputtering. The chemical composition of the coatings was determined by means of elastic recoil detection analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The effect of oxygen incorporation on the stress-free lattice parameters and Young's moduli of Ti-Al-O-N coatings was investigated by X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation, respectively. As nitrogen is substituted by oxygen, implications for the charge balance may be expected. A reduction in equilibrium volume with increasing O concentration is identified by X-ray diffraction and density functional theory calculations of Ti-Al-O-N supercells reveal the concomitant formation of metal vacancies. Hence, the oxygen incorporation-induced formation of metal vacancies enables charge balancing. Furthermore, nanoindentation experiments reveal a decrease in elastic modulus with increasing O concentration. Based on ab initio data, two causes can be identified for this: First, the metal vacancy-induced reduction in elasticity; and second, the formation of, compared to the corresponding metal nitride bonds, relatively weak Ti-O and Al-O bonds.

  7. History of HERMES III diode to z-pinch breakthrough and beyond : learning about pulsed power and z-pinch ICF.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, Thomas W. L.

    2013-04-01

    HERMES III and Z are two flagship accelerators of Sandia's pulsed-power program developed to generate intense-ray fields for the study of nuclear radiation effects, and to explore high energy-density physics (including the production of intense x-ray fields for Inertia Confinement Fusion [ICF]), respectively. A diode at the exit of HERMES III converts its 20-MeV electron beam into-rays. In contrast, at the center of Z, a z-pinch is used to convert its 20-MA current into an intense burst of x-rays. Here the history of how the HERMES III diode emerged from theoretical considerations to actual hardware is discussed. Next, the reverse process of how the experimental discovery of wire-array stabilization in a z-pinch, led to a better theory of wirearray implosions and its application to one of the ICF concepts on Z--the DH (Dynamic Hohlraum) is reviewed. Lastly, the report concludes with how the unexpected axial radiation asymmetry measured in the DH is understood. The first discussion illustrates the evolution of physics from theory-to-observationto- refinement. The second two illustrate the reverse process of observationto- theory-to refinement. The histories are discussed through the vehicle of my research at Sandia, illustrating the unique environment Sandia provides for personal growth and development into a scientific leader.

  8. Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

    2007-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

  9. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for

  10. Analog pulse processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  11. Full Hybrid: Starting

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    highlighted Low Speed button Cruising button Passing button Braking button Stopped button STARTING When a full hybrid vehicle is initially started, the battery typically powers all accessories. The gasoline engine only starts if the battery needs to be charged or the accessories require more power than available from the battery. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, generator, power split device, and electric motor visible. the car is stopped at an

  12. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31

    as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  13. PULSE AMPLIFIER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-06-17

    The improvement of pulse amplifiers used with scintillation detectors is described. The pulse amplifier circuit has the advantage of reducing the harmful effects of overloading cause by large signal inputs. In general the pulse amplifier circuit comprises two amplifier tubes with the input pulses applied to one amplifier grid and coupled to the second amplifier tube through a common cathode load. The output of the second amplifier is coupled from the plate circuit to a cathode follower tube grid and a diode tube in connected from grid to cathode of the cathode follower tube. Degenerative feedback is provided in the second amplifier by coupling a signal from the cathode follower cathode to the second amplifier grid. The circuit proqides moderate gain stability, and overload protection for subsequent pulse circuits.

  14. Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave Regenerated DPF for Auxiliary Power Units and Diesel Hybrid Vehicles Microwave regeneration ...

  15. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  16. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  17. Full Hybrid: Overview

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    highlighted Starting button Low Speed button Cruising button Passing button Braking button Stopped button OVERVIEW Full hybrids use a gasoline engine as the primary source of power, and an electric motor provides additional power when needed. In addition, full hybrids can use the electric motor as the sole source of propulsion for low-speed, low-acceleration driving, such as in stop-and-go traffic or for backing up. This electric-only driving mode can further increase fuel efficiency under some

  18. Adaptive control system for pulsed megawatt klystrons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolie, Victor W.

    1992-01-01

    The invention provides an arrangement for reducing waveform errors such as errors in phase or amplitude in output pulses produced by pulsed power output devices such as klystrons by generating an error voltage representing the extent of error still present in the trailing edge of the previous output pulse, using the error voltage to provide a stored control voltage, and applying the stored control voltage to the pulsed power output device to limit the extent of error in the leading edge of the next output pulse.

  19. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-16

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  20. Ultracapacitors and Batteries in Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Zolot, M.; Sprik, S.

    2005-08-01

    Using an ultracapacitor in conjunction with a battery in a hybrid vehicle combines the power performance of the former with the greater energy storage capability of the latter.

  1. International magnetic pulse compression

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.; Siemens, P.D.

    1991-04-01

    Although pulsed-power engineering traditionally has been practiced by a fairly small, close community in the areas of defense and energy research, it is becoming more common in high-power, high-energy commercial pursuits such as material processing and lasers. This paper is a synopsis of the Feb. 12--14, 1990 workshop on magnetic switching as it applies primarily to pulse compression (power transformation). During the course of the Workshop at Granlibakken, a great deal of information was amassed and a keen insight into both the problems and opportunities as to the use of this switching approach was developed. The segmented workshop format proved ideal for identifying key aspects affecting optimum performance in a variety of applications. Individual groups of experts addressed network and system modeling, magnetic materials, power conditioning, core cooling and dielectrics, and finally circuits and application. At the end, they came together to consolidate their input and formulate the workshop's conclusions, identifying roadblocks or suggesting research projects, particularly as they apply to magnetic switching's trump card -- its high-average-power-handling capability (at least on a burst-mode basis). The workshop was especially productive both in the quality and quantity of information transfer in an environment conducive to a free and open exchange of ideas. We will not delve into the organization proper of this meeting, rather we wish to commend to the interested reader this volume, which provides the definitive and most up-to-date compilation on the subject of magnetic pulse compression from underlying principles to current state of the art as well as the prognosis for the future of magnetic pulse compression as a consensus of the workshop's organizers and participants.

  2. Examination of the effect of system pressure ratio and heat recuperation on the efficiency of a coal based gas turbine fuel cell hybrid power generation system with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanOsdol, J.G.; Gemmen, R.S.; Liese, E.A

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines two coal-based hybrid configurations that employ separated anode and cathode streams for the capture and compression of CO2. One configuration uses a standard Brayton cycle, and the other adds heat recuperation ahead of the fuel cell. Results show that peak efficiencies near 55% are possible, regardless of cycle configuration, including the cost in terms of energy production of CO2 capture and compression. The power that is required to capture and compress the CO2 is shown to be approximately 15% of the total plant power.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  4. Downhole pulse radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  5. Downhole pulse radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  6. Numerical Simulations of Boiling Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.; Troshko, A.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores turbulent boiling jet impingement for cooling power electronic components in hybrid electric vehicles.

  7. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  8. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  9. Self-consistent fluid modeling and simulation on a pulsed microwave atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhaoquan; Yin, Zhixiang Chen, Minggong; Hong, Lingli; Hu, Yelin; Huang, Yourui; Xia, Guangqing; Liu, Minghai; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2014-10-21

    In present study, a pulsed lower-power microwave-driven atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet has been introduced with the type of coaxial transmission line resonator. The plasma jet plume is with room air temperature, even can be directly touched by human body without any hot harm. In order to study ionization process of the proposed plasma jet, a self-consistent hybrid fluid model is constructed in which Maxwell's equations are solved numerically by finite-difference time-domain method and a fluid model is used to study the characteristics of argon plasma evolution. With a Guass type input power function, the spatio-temporal distributions of the electron density, the electron temperature, the electric field, and the absorbed power density have been simulated, respectively. The simulation results suggest that the peak values of the electron temperature and the electric field are synchronous with the input pulsed microwave power but the maximum quantities of the electron density and the absorbed power density are lagged to the microwave power excitation. In addition, the pulsed plasma jet excited by the local enhanced electric field of surface plasmon polaritons should be the discharge mechanism of the proposed plasma jet.

  10. Pulsed hydrojet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohachevsky, I.O.; Torrey, M.D.

    1986-06-10

    An underwater pulsed hydrojet propulsion system is provided for accelerating and propelling a projectile or other vessel. A reactant, such as lithium, is fluidized and injected into a water volume. The resulting reaction produces an energy density in a time effective to form a steam pocket. Thrust flaps or baffles direct the pressure from the steam pocket toward an exit nozzle for accelerating a water volume to create thrust. A control system regulates the dispersion of reactant to control thrust characteristics.

  11. Hybrid CFx–Ag2V4O11 as a high-energy, power density cathode for application in an underwater acoustic microtransmitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meduri, Praveen; Chen, Honghao; Chen, Xilin; Xiao, Jie; Gross, Mark E.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Deng, Zhiqun

    2011-12-01

    This study demonstrates the excellent electrochemical performance of the hybrid carbon fluoride(CFx)/silver vanadium oxide(SVO)/graphene(G) cathode and its potential utilization in Acoustic Telemetry System Transmitter (ATST). The impedance increase issue caused by LiF formation from CFx is effectively addressed by the deposition of conductive silver metal from the reduction of SVO aided by the coexistence of graphene additive thus a prolonged operation voltage is observed with enhanced electronic conductivity throughout the whole discharge process. In particular, the hybrid shows capacity retention of {approx}462 mAhg-1 at 5C rate and 661 mAhg-1 at 1C rate. The peak current delivered from the as-designed hybrid cathode is improved compared with that of commercial Zn/Ag2O batteries suggesting the possibility of the further reduction on the size/weight of the micro batteries which is critical for the transmitters.

  12. Application of Yb:YAG short pulse laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Crane, John K.; Telford, Steve; Perry, Michael D.

    2004-07-06

    A diode pumped, high power (at least 20W), short pulse (up to 2 ps), chirped pulse amplified laser using Yb:YAG as the gain material is employed for material processing. Yb:YAG is used as the gain medium for both a regenerative amplifier and a high power 4-pass amplifier. A single common reflective grating optical device is used to both stretch pulses for amplification purposes and to recompress amplified pulses before being directed to a workpiece.

  13. PULSE COLUMN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  14. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  15. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  16. Pulsed ion beam source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenly, John B.

    1996-01-01

    An improved magnetically-confined anode plasma pulsed ion beam source. Beam rotation effects and power efficiency are improved by a magnetic design which places the separatrix between the fast field flux structure and the slow field structure near the anode of the ion beam source, by a gas port design which localizes the gas delivery into the gap between the fast coil and the anode, by a pre-ionizer ringing circuit connected to the fast coil, and by a bias field means which optimally adjusts the plasma formation position in the ion beam source.

  17. Suppressed-fission ICF hybrid reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, W.J.; Meier, W.R.

    1986-05-20

    A suppressed-fission ICF hybrid reactor has been designed to maximize the production of /sup 233/U. In this design, Be is used as a neutron multiplier. An annular array of Be columns surrounds the fusion pulse inside the reaction chember. The Be columns consist of short cylinders of Be joined together with steel snap rings. Vertical holes in the Be carry liquid lithium coolant and steel-clad thorium fuel pins. The lithium coolant is supplied at the top of the chamber, traverses through the Be columns and exits at the bottom. The columns are attached to top and bottom plates in such a way as to tolerate radiation-induced swelling and the vibrations resulting from each fusion pulse. A thin (10 cm) liquid Li fall region protects the Be columns from direct exposure to the X-rays and debris emitted by the fuel capsule. A neutronics study of this design indicates that the specific production of /sup 233/U fuel is increased by operating at relatively large thorium volume fractions. A design at a fertile fuel fraction of 30 vol % produces a total breeding ratio of over 2.1. The /sup 6/Li to /sup 7/Li ratio is adjusted to keep the tritium breeding ratio at about 1.0. In such a reactor, about 3400 kg of /sup 233/U can be produced per full power year at a fusion power level of 800 MW. Reactor support ratios greater than 13 can be achieved, leading to beneficial results even if the fusion reactor cost is significantly greater than that of a fission reactor.

  18. Controlling output pulse and prepulse in a resonant microwave pulse compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlapakovski, A.; Artemenko, S.; Chumerin, P.; Yushkov, Yu.

    2013-02-07

    A resonant microwave pulse compressor with a waveguide H-plane-tee-based energy extraction unit was studied in terms of its capability to produce output pulses that comprise a low-power long-duration (prepulse) and a high-power short-duration part. The application of such combined pulses with widely variable prepulse and high-power pulse power and energy ratios is of interest in the research area of electronic hardware vulnerability. The characteristics of output radiation pulses are controlled by the variation of the H-plane tee transition attenuation at the stage of microwave energy storage in the compressor cavity. Results of theoretical estimations of the parameters tuning range and experimental investigations of the prototype S-band compressor (1.5 MW, 12 ns output pulse; {approx}13.2 dB gain) are presented. The achievable maximum in the prepulse power is found to be about half the power of the primary microwave source. It has been shown that the energy of the prepulse becomes comparable with that of the short-duration (nanosecond) pulse, while the power of the latter decreases insignificantly. The possible range of variation of the prepulse power and energy can be as wide as 40 dB. In the experiments, the prepulse level control within the range of {approx}10 dB was demonstrated.

  19. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability.

  20. Single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-11-24

    A single mode pulsed dye laser oscillator is disclosed. The dye laser oscillator provides for improved power efficiency by reducing the physical dimensions of the overall laser cavity, which improves frequency selection capability. 6 figs.

  1. Simulation and Analysis of the Hybrid Operating Mode in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessel, C.E.; Budny, R.V.; Indireshkumar, K.

    2005-09-22

    The hybrid operating mode in ITER is examined with 0D systems analysis, 1.5D discharge scenario simulations using TSC and TRANSP, and the ideal MHD stability is discussed. The hybrid mode has the potential to provide very long pulses and significant neutron fluence if the physics regime can be produced in ITER. This paper reports progress in establishing the physics basis and engineering limitation for the hybrid mode in ITER.

  2. Evidence for breathing modes in direct current, pulsed, and high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Evidence for breathing modes in direct current, pulsed, and high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly...

  3. Wankel engine for hybrid powertrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butti, A.; Site, V.D.

    1995-12-31

    The Wankel engine is suited to be used to drive hybrid propulsion systems. The main disadvantage of hybrid propulsion systems is the complexity that causes a high weight and large dimensions. For these reason hybrid systems are more suitable for large size vehicle (buses, vans) rather than for small passenger cars. A considerable reduction of hybrid systems weight and dimensions can be obtained using a Wankel rotary engine instead of a conventional engine. The Wankel engine is light, compact, simple, and produces low noise and low vibrations. Therefore a Wankel engine powered hybrid system is suited to be used on small cars. In this paper a 1,000 kg parallel hybrid car with continuously variable transmission and a 6,000 kg series hybrid minibus both equipped with Wankel engines are considered. The Wankel engine works at steady state to minimize fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The simulation of the behavior of these two vehicles during a ECE + EUDC test cycle is presented in order to evaluate the performances of the systems.

  4. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  5. Energy Storage Systems Considerations for Grid-Charged Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2005-09-01

    This paper calculates battery power and energy requirements for grid-charged hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with different operating strategies.

  6. White Paper for U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force: Waste Heat Recovery with Thermoelectric and Lithium-Ion Hybrid Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-11-26

    By harvesting waste heat from engine exhaust and storing it in light-weight high-capacity modules, it is believed that the need for energy transport by convoys can be lowered significantly. By storing this power during operation, substantial electrical power can be provided during long periods of silent operation, while the engines are not operating. It is proposed to investigate the potential of installing efficient thermoelectric generators on the exhaust systems of trucks and other vehicles to generate electrical power from the waste heat contained in the exhaust and to store that power in advanced power packs comprised of polymer-gel lithium ion batteries. Efficient inexpensive methods for production of the thermoelectric generator are also proposed. The technology that exists at LLNL, as well as that which exists at industrial partners, all have high technology readiness level (TRL). Work is needed for integration and deployment.

  7. Isolated trigger pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, K.

    1980-02-19

    A trigger pulse generation system capable of delivering a multiplicity of isolated 100 kV trigger pulses with picosecond simultaneity. 2 figs.

  8. Isolated trigger pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

    1980-02-19

    A trigger pulse generation system capable of delivering a multiplicity of isolated 100 kV trigger pulses with picosecond simultaneity.

  9. JV between Paratransit Inc and Hybrid Technologies Inc | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Zip: 95822 Sector: Vehicles Product: JV to determine the utility of lithium powered vehicles produced by Hybrid Technologies for taxicabs and vehicles that are...

  10. System Advisor Model Includes Analysis of Hybrid CSP Option ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concepts related to power generation have been missing in the System Advisor Model (SAM). One such concept, until now, is a hybrid integrated solar combined-cycle (ISCC)...

  11. MHK Technologies/SMART Hybrid System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description Smart Hydro Power's hybrid system combines a micro hydro kinetic turbine with solar panels (and sometimes other sources) to provide clean, continuous energy year round....

  12. Optimizing Geothermal with Geo-Solar Hybrid Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    geothermal plant and solar photovoltaic field, for a total installed capacity of 60 MW. Source: Enel Green Power North America DOE is exploring the potential of using hybrid ...

  13. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... a synchronous brushless, permanent magnet motor (26-kW continuous power, 44-kW peak ... Hybrid-specific engine optimization and calibration might produce more consistent ...

  14. Hybrid powertrain controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankovic, Miroslava; Powell, Barry Kay

    2000-12-26

    A hybrid powertrain for a vehicle comprising a diesel engine and an electric motor in a parallel arrangement with a multiple ratio transmission located on the torque output side of the diesel engine, final drive gearing connecting drivably the output shaft of transmission to traction wheels of the vehicle, and an electric motor drivably coupled to the final drive gearing. A powertrain controller schedules fuel delivered to the diesel engine and effects a split of the total power available, a portion of the power being delivered by the diesel and the balance of the power being delivered by the motor. A shifting schedule for the multiple ratio transmission makes it possible for establishing a proportional relationship between accelerator pedal movement and torque desired at the wheels. The control strategy for the powertrain maintains drivability of the vehicle that resembles drivability of a conventional spark ignition vehicle engine powertrain while achieving improved fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions.

  15. Method and apparatus for improved high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre

    2013-11-05

    A high power impulse magnetron sputtering apparatus and method using a vacuum chamber with a magnetron target and a substrate positioned in the vacuum chamber. A field coil being positioned between the magnetron target and substrate, and a pulsed power supply and/or a coil bias power supply connected to the field coil. The pulsed power supply connected to the field coil, and the pulsed power supply outputting power pulse widths of greater that 100 .mu.s.

  16. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1994-08-02

    A method of producing a long output pulse from a short pump pulse is disclosed, using an elongated amplified fiber having a doped core that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding. A seed beam of the longer wavelength is injected into the core at one end of the fiber and a pump pulse of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding at the other end of the fiber. The counter-propagating seed beam and pump pulse will produce an amplified output pulse having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse through the fiber plus the length of the pump pulse. 3 figs.

  17. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing a long output pulse (SA) from a short pump pulse (P), using an elongated amplified fiber (11) having a doped core (12) that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding 13. A seed beam (S) of the longer wavelength is injected into the core (12) at one end of the fiber (11) and a pump pulse (P) of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding (13) at the other end of the fiber (11). The counter-propagating seed beam (S) and pump pulse (P) will produce an amplified output pulse (SA) having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse (P) through the fiber (11) plus the length of the pump pulse (P).

  18. PROJECT PROFILE: Opportunistic Hybrid Communications Systems for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed PV Coordination (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy PROJECT PROFILE: Opportunistic Hybrid Communications Systems for Distributed PV Coordination (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Opportunistic Hybrid Communications Systems for Distributed PV Coordination (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Systems Integration Location: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO SunShot Award Amount: $2,709,398 As more distributed solar power is added to the electric power grid and

  19. Joint Electromagnetic Pulse Resilience Strategy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electromagnetic Pulse Resilience Strategy Joint Electromagnetic Pulse Resilience Strategy The Joint Electromagnetic Pulse Resilience Strategy is a collaboration between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) that enhances coordination and guides future efforts to help meet the growing demands for electromagnetic pulse (EMP) guidance. The Joint Strategy lays out five strategic goals to guide DOE and EPRI to minimize EMP impacts and improve resilience: 1.

  20. Compensated pulsed alternator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weldon, William F.; Driga, Mircea D.; Woodson, Herbert H.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak outout. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit.

  1. Letter box line blackener for the HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wysocki, Frederick J.; Nickel, George H.

    2006-07-18

    A blackener for letter box lines associated with a HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid television transmission where the blackener counts horizontal sync pulses contained in the HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid television transmission and determines when the HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid television transmission is in letter-box lines: if it is, then the blackener sends substitute black signal to an output; and if it is not, then the blackener sends the HDTV/conventional-analog hybrid television transmission to the output.

  2. Pulsed depressed collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A

    2015-11-03

    A high power RF device has an electron beam cavity, a modulator, and a circuit for feed-forward energy recovery from a multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The electron beam cavity include a cathode, an anode, and the multi-stage depressed collector, and the modulator is configured to provide pulses to the cathode. Voltages of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are allowed to float as determined by fixed impedances seen by the electrode stages. The energy recovery circuit includes a storage capacitor that dynamically biases potentials of the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector and provides recovered energy from the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector to the modulator. The circuit may also include a step-down transformer, where the electrode stages of the multi-stage depressed collector are electrically connected to separate taps on the step-down transformer.

  3. Hybrid: Passing

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    button highlighted Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar PASSING During heavy accelerating or when additional power is needed, the gasoline engine and electric motor are both used to propel the vehicle. Additional power from the battery is used to power the electric motor as needed. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is passing another vehicle. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline

  4. Hybrid fiber-rod laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beach, Raymond J.; Dawson, Jay W.; Messerly, Michael J.; Barty, Christopher P. J.

    2012-12-18

    Single, or near single transverse mode waveguide definition is produced using a single homogeneous medium to transport both the pump excitation light and generated laser light. By properly configuring the pump deposition and resulting thermal power generation in the waveguide device, a thermal focusing power is established that supports perturbation-stable guided wave propagation of an appropriately configured single or near single transverse mode laser beam and/or laser pulse.

  5. A Self-Biasing Pulsed Depressed Collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jensen, Aaron; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC

    2014-05-29

    Depressed collectors have been utilized successfully for many years to improve the electrical efficiency of vacuum electron devices. Increasingly, pulsed, high-peak power accelerator applications are placing a premium on electrical efficiency. As RF systems are responsible for a large percentage of the overall energy usage at accelerator laboratories, methods to improve upon the state-of-the-art in pulsed high-power sources are desired. This paper presents a technique for self-biasing the stages in a multistage depressed collector. With this technique, the energy lost during the rise and fall times of the pulse can be recovered, separate power supplies are not needed, and existing modulators can be retrofitted. Calculations show that significant cost savings can be realized with the implementation of this device in high-power systems. In this paper, the technique is described along with experimental demonstration. (auth)

  6. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... TBD - DC coupled hybrid inverter will be considered PV String Inverter - TBD PowerHub SiC-based 4- quadrant Battery LG Chem TBD DESS Integrated Local Controller Eaton TBD - BEMS ...

  7. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  8. Helping HAN for hybrid rockets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramohalli, K.; Dowler, W.

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxyl amine nitrate (HAN) is a powerful oxidizer for hybrid rocket flight motors. Miscible with water up to 95% by mass, it also has high density and has been extensively characterized for materials compatibility, safety, transportation, storage and handling. Before any serious attempt to use the proposed oxidizer in hybrids, though, the usual performance figures must first be obtained. The simplest are time-independent, equilibrium rocket performance numbers that include chamber temperature, temperature at the nozzle throat, and key species in the exhaust. These numbers must be followed by several other important performance evaluation, including burning rates, pressure dependence, susceptibility to instabilities and temperature sensitivity.

  9. Fusion-fission hybrid studies in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Berwald, D.H.; Cheng, E.T.; Delene, J.G.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-05-20

    Systems and conceptual design studies have been carried out on the following three hybrid types: (1) The fission-suppressed hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced (Pu or /sup 233/U) per unit of total nuclear power by suppressing the fission process and multiplying neutrons by (n,2n) reactions in materials like beryllium. (2) The fast-fission hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced per unit of fusion power by maximizing fission of /sup 238/U (Pu is produced) in which twice the fissile atoms per unit of fusion power (but only a third per unit of nuclear power) are made. (3) The power hybrid, which amplifies power in the blanket for power production but does not produce fuel to sell. All three types must sell electrical power to be economical.

  10. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of ...

  11. Pulsed reactor experiments at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes dynamic experiments for 3 pulsed reactors. 1st reactor was pulsed from some average power by rotating a partial Be reflector past an unreflected core face; the other 2 reactors were pulsed by rapid insertion of a fuel rod into the unmoderated and unreflected reactor at essentially zero neutron level with no significant neutron source present. The first reactor was a mockup of an EURATOM design (never constructed) of the proposed SORA Reactor, and the other two were the Health Physics Research Reactor and the Army Pulse Radiation Facility Reactor (APRFR). This paper describes the experiments performed in initial testing of these systems, including destructive tests of APRFR, to set operating limits for this type of reactor in pulsed operation. All the experiments described were performed at the Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Facility.

  12. Digital gate pulse generator for cycloconverter control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klein, Frederick F.; Mutone, Gioacchino A.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention provides a digital gate pulse generator which controls the output of a cycloconverter used for electrical power conversion applications by determining the timing and delivery of the firing pulses to the switching devices in the cycloconverter. Previous gate pulse generators have been built with largely analog or discrete digital circuitry which require many precision components and periodic adjustment. The gate pulse generator of the present invention utilizes digital techniques and a predetermined series of values to develop the necessary timing signals for firing the switching device. Each timing signal is compared with a reference signal to determine the exact firing time. The present invention is significantly more compact than previous gate pulse generators, responds quickly to changes in the output demand and requires only one precision component and no adjustments.

  13. Hybrid Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generationmore » systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.« less

  14. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter. 2 figs.

  15. Laser pulse stacking method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moses, Edward I. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A laser pulse stacking method is disclosed. A problem with the prior art has been the generation of a series of laser beam pulses where the outer and inner regions of the beams are generated so as to form radially non-synchronous pulses. Such pulses thus have a non-uniform cross-sectional area with respect to the outer and inner edges of the pulses. The present invention provides a solution by combining the temporally non-uniform pulses in a stacking effect to thus provide a more uniform temporal synchronism over the beam diameter.

  16. Nerve-pulse interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Some recent experimental and theoretical results on mechanisms through which individual nerve pulses can interact are reviewed. Three modes of interactions are considered: (1) interaction of pulses as they travel along a single fiber which leads to velocity dispersion; (2) propagation of pairs of pulses through a branching region leading to quantum pulse code transformations; and (3) interaction of pulses on parallel fibers through which they may form a pulse assembly. This notion is analogous to Hebb's concept of a cell assembly, but on a lower level of the neural hierarchy.

  17. Multiple laser pulse ignition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Two or more laser light pulses with certain differing temporal lengths and peak pulse powers can be employed sequentially to regulate the rate and duration of laser energy delivery to fuel mixtures, thereby improving fuel ignition performance over a wide range of fuel parameters such as fuel/oxidizer ratios, fuel droplet size, number density and velocity within a fuel aerosol, and initial fuel temperatures.

  18. Multiple laser pulse ignition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.W.

    1998-05-26

    Two or more laser light pulses with certain differing temporal lengths and peak pulse powers can be employed sequentially to regulate the rate and duration of laser energy delivery to fuel mixtures, thereby improving fuel ignition performance over a wide range of fuel parameters such as fuel/oxidizer ratios, fuel droplet size, number density and velocity within a fuel aerosol, and initial fuel temperatures. 18 figs.

  19. Properties of water surface discharge at different pulse repetition rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruma,; Yoshihara, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R. Sakugawa, T.; Akiyama, H.; Akiyama, M.; Lukeš, P.

    2014-09-28

    The properties of water surface discharge plasma for variety of pulse repetition rates are investigated. A magnetic pulse compression (MPC) pulsed power modulator able to deliver pulse repetition rates up to 1000 Hz, with 0.5 J per pulse energy output at 25 kV, was used as the pulsed power source. Positive pulse with a point-to-plane electrode configuration was used for the experiments. The concentration and production yield of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) were quantitatively measured and orange II organic dye was treated, to evaluate the chemical properties of the discharge reactor. Experimental results show that the physical and chemical properties of water surface discharge are not influenced by pulse repetition rate, very different from those observed for under water discharge. The production yield of H₂O₂ and degradation rate per pulse of the dye did not significantly vary at different pulse repetition rates under a constant discharge mode on water surface. In addition, the solution temperature, pH, and conductivity for both water surface and underwater discharge reactors were measured to compare their plasma properties for different pulse repetition rates. The results confirm that surface discharge can be employed at high pulse repetition rates as a reliable and advantageous method for industrial and environmental decontamination applications.

  20. 2010 News | Concentrating Solar Power | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... First Hybrid CSP-Coal Power Plant is Fired Up in Colorado Concentrating solar power (CSP) is boosting the energy produced by a coal-fired power plant east of Grand Junction, ...

  1. Hybrid: Cruising

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Button Cruising button highlighted Passing Button Braking Button Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar CRUISING The gasoline engine powers the vehicle at cruising speeds and, if needed, provides power to the battery for later use. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is moving. There are red arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to the front wheels. There are blue arrows flowing from the gasoline engine to

  2. Series-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-06-05

    A high-power series-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, and a counterpulse capacitor. The local pulse is initiated simultaneously with the initiation of the counterpulse used to turn the opening switch off. There is no delay from command to output pulse. During the load pulse, the counterpulse capacitor is automatically charged with sufficient energy to accomplish the load counterpulse which terminates the load pulse and turns the load switch off. When the main opening switch is reclosed to terminate the load pulse, the counterpulse capacitor discharges through the load, causing a rapid, sharp cutoff of the load pulse as well as recovering any energy remaining in the load inductance. The counterpulse capacitor is recharged to its original condition by the main energy storage coil after the load pulse is over, not before it begins.

  3. Electrical pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norris, Neil J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for generating high-voltage, wide dynamic range, shaped electrical pulses in the nanosecond range. Two transmission lines are coupled together by resistive elements distributed along the length of the lines. The conductance of each coupling resistive element as a function of its position along the line is selected to produce the desired pulse shape in the output line when an easily produced pulse, such as a step function pulse, is applied to the input line.

  4. Victorville 2 Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Victorville 2 Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Victorville 2 Solar Power Plant Facility Victorville 2 Sector Solar Facility Type Hybrid Developer Inland Energy...

  5. Palmdale Project Solar Power Plant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Palmdale Project Solar Power Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name Palmdale Project Solar Power Plant Facility Palmdale Project Sector Solar Facility Type Hybrid Developer Inland...

  6. Pulsed Power Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The third morning will summarize these physics discussions and include some program and planning discussions. Workshop Agenda The workshop will be held at the Marriott hotel (see...

  7. Pulsed Power Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Information please contact: Daniel Dolan Technical POC dhdolan@sandia.gov Laveryn Apodaca Logistics POC lavapod@sandia.gov 2012 Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) Workshop...

  8. Pulsed Power Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    x-ray simulation source capable of producing 75 trillion watts in x rays. Hermes III Accelerator The High-Energy Radiation Megavolt Electron Source (HERMES) III...

  9. Pulsed Power Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Programs and Capabilities Experimental and Theoretical Programs Electromagnetic Technology at Sandia National Laboratories HEDP & ICF Simulation Codes ALEGRA Spect3D--A...

  10. Pulsed Power Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    For Information please contact: Thomas Mattsson Manager High Energy Density Physics Theory trmatts@sandia.gov Laveryn Apodaca Logistics POC (505) 284-6727 lavapod@sandia.gov...

  11. Pulsed Power Technology at Sandia National Laboratories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... my field of career opportunities Possibility of financial support for further education Ability to put classroom theory into workplace use Information on different projects ...

  12. Laser fusion pulse shape controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siebert, Larry D.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for controlling the pulse shape, i.e., the pulse duration and intensity pattern, of a pulsed laser system, and which is particularly well adapted for controlling the pellet ignition pulse in a laser-driven fusion reaction system. The apparatus comprises a laser generator for providing an optical control pulse of the shape desired, a pulsed laser triggered by the control pulse, and a plurality of optical Kerr-effect gates serially disposed at the output of the pulsed laser and selectively triggered by the control pulse to pass only a portion of the pulsed laser output generally corresponding in shape to the control pulse.

  13. Development of long pulse RF heating and current drive for H-mode scenarios with metallic walls in WEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekedahl, Annika Bourdelle, Clarisse; Artaud, Jean-François; Bernard, Jean-Michel; Bufferand, Hugo; Colas, Laurent; Decker, Joan; Delpech, Léna; Dumont, Rémi; Goniche, Marc; Helou, Walid; Hillairet, Julien; Lombard, Gilles; Magne, Roland; Mollard, Patrick; Nardon, Eric; Peysson, Yves; Tsitrone, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-10

    The longstanding expertise of the Tore Supra team in long pulse heating and current drive with radiofrequency (RF) systems will now be exploited in the WEST device (tungsten-W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) [1]. WEST will allow an integrated long pulse tokamak programme for testing W-divertor components at ITER-relevant heat flux (10-20 MW/m{sup 2}), while treating crucial aspects for ITER-operation, such as avoidance of W-accumulation in long discharges, monitoring and control of heat fluxes on the metallic plasma facing components (PFCs) and coupling of RF waves in H-mode plasmas. Scenario modelling using the METIS-code shows that ITER-relevant heat fluxes are compatible with the sustainment of long pulse H-mode discharges, at high power (up to 15 MW / 30 s at I{sub P} = 0.8 MA) or high fluence (up to 10 MW / 1000 s at I{sub P} = 0.6 MA) [2], all based on RF heating and current drive using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) and Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD). This paper gives a description of the ICRH and LHCD systems in WEST, together with the modelling of the power deposition of the RF waves in the WEST-scenarios.

  14. High average power scaling of optical parametric amplification through cascaded difference-frequency generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Igor; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-09-14

    A first pump pulse and a signal pulse are injected into a first optical parametric amplifier. This produces a first amplified signal pulse. At least one additional pump pulse and the first amplified signal pulse are injected into at least one additional optical parametric amplifier producing an increased power coherent optical pulse.

  15. PULSE DURATION LENGTHENER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aiken, W.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent pertains to pulse modifying apparatus and, more particularly, describes a device to provide a rise time and time base expander for signal pulses having a very short duration. The basic element of the device is a vacuum tube comprising a charged particie beam, grid control means, an accelerating electrode, a drift tube, and a collector electrode. As the short duration input pulse modulates the particle beam through the grid control means, the voltage between the drift tube and accelerating electrode is caused to vary, whereby the output signal from the collector is a pulse having longer rise time, expanded duration and proportionate characteristics of the original pulse. The invention is particuiarly useful where subsequent pulse circultry does not have the frequency bandwidth to handle the short duration pulse without distorting it.

  16. ELECTRICAL PULSE COUNTER APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaufman, W.M.; Jeeves, T.A.

    1962-09-01

    A progressive electrical pulse counter circuit rs designed for the counting of a chain of input pulses. The circuit employs a series of direct connected bistable counting stages simultaneously pulsed by each input pulse and a delay means connected between each of the stages. Each bistable stage has two d-c operative states, which stage, when in its initial state, prevents the next succeeding stage from changing its condition when the latter stage is pulsed. Since the delay circuits between the stages prevents the immediate decay of the d-c state of each stage when the stages are pulsed, only one stage will change its state for each input pulse, thereby providing progressive stage-by-stage counting. (AEC)

  17. Investigation of Fe:ZnSe laser in pulsed and repetitively pulsed regimes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velikanov, S D; Zaretskiy, N A; Zotov, E A; Maneshkin, A A; Chuvatkin, R S; Yutkin, I M; Kozlovsky, V I; Korostelin, Yu V; Krokhin, O N; Podmar'kov, Yu P; Savinova, S A; Skasyrsky, Ya K; Frolov, M P

    2015-01-31

    The characteristics of a Fe:ZnSe laser pumped by a single-pulse free-running Er : YAG laser and a repetitively pulsed HF laser are presented. An output energy of 4.9 J is achieved in the case of liquid-nitrogen cooling of the Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe active laser element longitudinally pumped by an Er:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 1 ms and an energy up to 15 J. The laser efficiency with respect to the absorbed energy is 47%. The output pulse energy at room temperature is 53 mJ. The decrease in the output energy is explained by a strong temperature dependence of the upper laser level lifetime and by pulsed heating of the active element. The temperature dependence of the upper laser level lifetime is used to determine the pump parameters needed to achieve high pulse energies at room temperature. Stable repetitively-pulsed operation of the Fe{sup 2+}:ZnSe laser at room temperature with an average power of 2.4 W and a maximum pulse energy of 14 mJ is achieved upon pumping by a 1-s train of 100-ns HF laser pulses with a repetition rate of 200 Hz. (lasers)

  18. EERE Success Story-Optimizing Geothermal with Geo-Solar Hybrid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    DOE is exploring the potential of using hybrid applications to raise powerplant outputs ... PPA penalties on the economics of the hybrid plant relative to the base CSP power plant. ...

  19. Evaluation of 2010 Urea-SCR Technology for Hybrid Vehicles using PSAT System Simulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Results of simulations of LDD hybrid vehicle under hybrid drive cycle conditions in PSAT show the potential impact of urea-SCR NOx controls on HEVs and PHEVs powered by lean-burn engines.

  20. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buying & Making Electricity » Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. According to many renewable energy experts,

  1. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buying & Making Electricity » Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. Because the peak operating times for wind and solar systems occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. According to many renewable energy experts,

  2. Merging photovoltaic hardware development with hybrid applications in the USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bower, W.

    1993-11-01

    The use of multi-source power systems, ``hybrids,`` is one of the fastest growing, potentially significant markets for photovoltaic (PV) system technology today. Cost-effective applications today include remote facility power, remote area power supplies, remote home and village power, and power for dedicated electrical loads such as communications systems. This market sector is anticipated to be one of the most important growth opportunities for PV over the next five years. The US Department of Energy (USDOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are currently engaged in an effort to accelerate the adoption of market-driven PV hybrid power systems and to effectively integrate PV with other energy sources. This paper provides details of this development and the ongoing hybrid activities in the United States. Hybrid systems are the primary focus of this paper.

  3. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slicker, James M.

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  4. Compact Power Inc CPI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Inc (CPI) Place: Troy, Michigan Zip: 48083 Sector: Vehicles Product: Producer of lithium-ion batteries for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) and non-automotive (commercial and...

  5. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    dioxide power cycles, hybrid systems matching renewables with nuclear or fossil, and energy storage. Advanced capabilities in materials, computing, and manufacturing can...

  6. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, G.W.; Jensen, A.S.

    1957-10-22

    A pulse-height analyzer system of improved design for sorting and counting a series of pulses, such as provided by a scintillation detector in nuclear radiation measurements, is described. The analyzer comprises a main transmission line, a cathode-ray tube for each section of the line with its deflection plates acting as the line capacitance; means to bias the respective cathode ray tubes so that the beam strikes a target only when a prearranged pulse amplitude is applied, with each tube progressively biased to respond to smaller amplitudes; pulse generating and counting means associated with each tube to respond when the beam is deflected; a control transmission line having the same time constant as the first line per section with pulse generating means for each tube for initiating a pulse on the second transmission line when a pulse triggers the tube of corresponding amplitude response, the former pulse acting to prevent successive tubes from responding to the pulse under test. This arrangement permits greater deflection sensitivity in the cathode ray tube and overcomes many of the disadvantages of prior art pulse-height analyzer circuits.

  7. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  8. PULSE RATE DIVIDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, H.C. Jr.

    1962-12-18

    A compact pulse-rate divider circuit affording low impedance output and high input pulse repetition rates is described. The circuit features a single secondary emission tube having a capacitor interposed between its dynode and its control grid. An output pulse is produced at the anode of the tube each time an incoming pulse at the control grid drives the tube above cutoff and the duration of each output pulse corresponds to the charging time of the capacitor. Pulses incoming during the time the grid bias established by the discharging capacitor is sufficiently negative that the pulses are unable to drive the tube above cutoff do not produce output pulses at the anode; these pulses are lost and a dividing action is thus produced by the circuit. The time constant of the discharge path may be vanied to vary in turn the division ratio of the circuit; the time constant of the charging circuit may be varied to vary the width of the output pulses. (AEC)

  9. Hybrid: Braking

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Button Stopped button highlighted subbanner graphic: gray bar STOPPED When the vehicle is stopped, such as at a red light, the gasoline engine and electric motor shut off automatically so that energy is not wasted in idling. The battery continues to power auxillary systems, such as the air conditioning and dashboard displays. stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See

  10. Hybrid: Braking

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Button Braking button highlighted Stopped Button subbanner graphic: gray bar BRAKING: PART 2 If additional stopping power is needed, conventional friction brakes (e.g., disc brakes) are also applied automatically. Go back… stage graphic: vertical blue rule Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Main stage: See through car with battery, engine, and electric motor visible. The car is stopped at an intersection. Battery:

  11. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-12

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a front-end amplification/processing circuit; a synchronization circuit coupled to the front-end amplification/processing circuit; a clock coupled to the synchronization circuit; a trigger signal generator coupled to the clock; and at least one higher-order time derivative pulse generator coupled to the trigger signal generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  12. Ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, M.J.; Hsu, D.K.; Thompson, D.O.; Wormley, S.J.

    1993-04-06

    An ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument uses active switches and a timing and drive circuitry to control electrical energy to a transducer, the discharging of the transducer, and the opening of an electrical pathway to the receiving circuitry for the returning echoes. The active switches utilize MOSFET devices along with decoupling circuitry to insure the preservation of the unipolar nature of the pulses, insure fast transition times, and maintain broad band width and time resolution. A housing contains the various circuitry and switches and allows connection to a power supply and a movable ultrasonic transducer. The circuitry maintains low impedance input to the transducer during transmitting cycles, and high impedance between the transducer and the receiving circuit during receive cycles to maintain the unipolar pulse shape. A unipolar pulse is valuable for nondestructive evaluation, a prime use for the present instrument.

  13. Ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Michael S.; Hsu, David K.; Thompson, Donald O.; Wormley, Samuel J.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument uses active switches and a timing and drive circuitry to control electrical energy to a transducer, the discharging of the transducer, and the opening of an electrical pathway to the receiving circuitry for the returning echoes. The active switches utilize MOSFET devices along with decoupling circuitry to insure the preservation of the unipolar nature of the pulses, insure fast transition times, and maintain broad band width and time resolution. A housing contains the various circuitry and switches and allows connection to a power supply and a movable ultrasonic transducer. The circuitry maintains low impedance input to the transducer during transmitting cycles, and high impedance between the transducer and the receiving circuit during receive cycles to maintain the unipolar pulse shape. A unipolar pulse is valuable for nondestructive evaluation, a prime use for the present instrument.

  14. Performance of a tapered pulse tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Allen, M.; Woolan, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    In a well instrumented pulse tube refrigerator having 1,500 W of cooling power at 125 K, the authors have measured the figure of merit of a tapered pulse tube at several operating points. At operating points near the operating point for which the taper was designed, the figure of merit is 0.96. This is close to the theoretical optimum figure of merit 0.97 calculated for this pulse tube considering only two loss mechanisms: heat conduction in the metal pulse tube wall and ordinary thermoacoustic heat transport in the gas within a few thermal penetration depths of the wall. At operating points farther from the design operating point, the measured figure of merit is much lower, as streaming driven convection adds a third loss mechanism.

  15. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenblatt, M.H.

    1958-03-25

    This patent pertains to pulse amplitude analyzers for sorting and counting a serles of pulses, and specifically discloses an analyzer which ls simple in construction and presents the puise height distribution visually on an oscilloscope screen. According to the invention, the pulses are applied to the vertical deflection plates of an oscilloscope and trigger the horizontal sweep. Each pulse starts at the same point on the screen and has a maximum amplitude substantially along the same vertical line. A mask is placed over the screen except for a slot running along the line where the maximum amplitudes of the pulses appear. After the slot has been scanned by a photocell in combination with a slotted rotating disk, the photocell signal is displayed on an auxiliary oscilloscope as vertical deflection along a horizontal time base to portray the pulse amplitude distribution.

  16. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYSERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, I.A.D.

    1956-05-15

    This patent pentains to an electrical pulse amplitude analyzer, capable of accepting input pulses having a separation between adjacent pulses in the order of one microsecond while providing a large number of channels of classification. In its broad aspect the described pulse amplitude analyzer utilizes a storage cathode ray tube und control circuitry whereby the amplitude of the analyzed pulses controls both the intensity and vertical defiection of the beam to charge particular spots in horizontal sectors of the tube face as the beam is moved horizontally across the tube face. As soon as the beam has swept the length of the tube the information stored therein is read out by scanning individually each horizontal sector corresponding to a certain range of pulse amplitudes and applying the output signal from each scan to separate indicating means.

  17. Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shane, Rodney

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the research that was completed under project title Advanced Power Batteries for Renewable Energy Applications 3.09, Award Number DE-EE0001112. The report details all tasks described in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The SOPO includes purchasing of test equipment, designing tooling, building cells and batteries, testing all variables and final evaluation of results. The SOPO is included. There were various types of tests performed during the project, such as; gas collection, float current monitoring, initial capacity, high rate partial state of charge (HRPSoC), hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC), high rate capacity, corrosion, software modeling and solar life cycle tests. The grant covered a period of two years starting October 1, 2009 and ending September 30, 2011.

  18. PULSED INDICATOR CIRCUIT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linlor, W.I.; Kerns, Q.A.

    1960-11-15

    A system is given for detecting incremental changes in a transducer impedance terminating a transmission line. Principal novelty resides in the transducer impedance terminating the line in a mismatch and a pulse generator being provided to apply discrete pulses to the input end of the line. The amplitudes of the pulses reflected to the input end of the line from the mismatched transducer impedance are then observed as a very accurate measure of the instantaneous value of the latter.

  19. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  20. PULSE SCALING SYSTEM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kandiah, K.

    1954-06-01

    Pulse scaling systems embodying multi-electrode gaseous-discharge tubes of the type having a plurality of stable discharge paths are described. The novelty of this particular system lies in the simplification of the stepping arrangement between successive tubes. In one form the invention provides a multistage scaler comprising a pulse generator, a first multi-electrode scaling tube of the type set forth coupled to said generator to receive transfer pulses therefrom and one or more succeeding multi-electrode scaling tubes each deriving its transfer pulses from preceding scaling tubes.

  1. Virgin Pulse Wellness Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to non-employee spouses. Employees and non-employee spouses can now embark on their fitness journey together. Join today Virgin Pulse resources Program Overview Provider...

  2. Electron beam switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pleasance, Lyn D.; Murray, John R.; Goldhar, Julius; Bradley, Laird P.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  3. Comparison of ferrite materials for pulse applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinkel, J.A.; Jensen, C.C.

    1993-06-01

    Materials are the limiting factor in many pulse power projects. The magnetic materials available from several manufacturers were experimentally compared for their usefulness in high speed magnetic field applications. This particular application is a high speed kicker magnet for manipulation of a charged particle beam.

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for Hybrid and Electric Drive

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy Hybrid and Electric Drive Systems Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for Hybrid and Electric Drive Systems The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is working to lower the cost and increase the convenience of electric drive vehicles, which include hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles. These vehicles use advanced power electronics and electric motors that face barriers because their subcomponents have specific material limitations. Novel propulsion materials

  5. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  6. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  7. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  8. Pulsed deuterium lithium nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, A.G.

    1980-01-08

    A nuclear reactor that burns hydrogen bomb material 6-lithium deuterotritide to helium in successive microexplosions which are ignited electrically and enclosed by this same molten material, and that permits the conversion of the reaction heat into useful electrical power. A specially-constructed high-current pulse machine is discharged via a thermally-preformed highly conducting path through a mass of the molten salt 6lid1-xtx (0pulse. At the end of the current pulse and magnetic confinement the filament desintegrates and the nuclear fire is extinguished in the surrounding cold matter. The energy set free is insufficient to convert the blanket into a hot plasma in which chain reactions could propagate and escalate. The liquid blanket also serves as a neutron radiation shield. The shock wave is attenuated in it by a curtain of rising deuterium bubbles. The heat shock is buffered by partial melting of the external solid crust. The reaction heat is carried by the liquid metal of the external cooling jacket to the heat exchanger of the associated turbo-generator. Every few seconds, a new pulse can take place.

  9. Pulse Tidal formerly Pulse Generation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    formerly Pulse Generation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pulse Tidal (formerly Pulse Generation) Place: Hull, England, United Kingdom Zip: HU5 3LP Product: UK-based developer of...

  10. ELECTRIC PULSE GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buntenbach, R.W.

    1959-06-01

    S>An electro-optical apparatus is described which produces electric pulses in programmed sequences at times and durations controlled with great accuracy. An oscilloscope CRT is supplied with signals to produce a luminous spot moving in a circle. An opaque mask with slots of variable width transmits light from the spot to a photoelectric transducer. For shorter pulse decay times a CRT screen which emits UV can be used with a UVtransmitting filter and a UV- sensitive photoelectric cell. Pulses are varied by changing masks or by using masks with variable slots. This device may be used in multiple arrangements to produce other pulse aT rangements, or it can be used to trigger an electronic pulse generator. (T.R.H.)

  11. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Asay, James R. (Los Lunas, NM); Hall, Clint A. (Albuquerque, NM); Konrad, Carl H. (Albuquerque, NM); Sauve, Gerald L. (Berthoud, CO); Shahinpoor, Mohsen (Albuquerque, NM); Susoeff, Allan R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasama blowby.

  12. Hybrid armature projectile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawke, R.S.; Asay, J.R.; Hall, C.A.; Konrad, C.H.; Sauve, G.L.; Shahinpoor, M.; Susoeff, A.R.

    1993-03-02

    A projectile for a railgun that uses a hybrid armature and provides a seed block around part of the outer surface of the projectile to seed the hybrid plasma brush. In addition, the hybrid armature is continuously vaporized to replenish plasma in a plasma armature to provide a tandem armature and provides a unique ridge and groove to reduce plasma blowby.

  13. Optically-Generated THz Pulses Emilio A. Nanni

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Powered with Optically-Generated THz Pulses Emilio A. Nanni SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University January 6, 2016 4:00 p.m. - Wilson Hall, One West Compact high-gradient accelerators operating at high repetition rates are of interest for a wide variety of applications such as ultrafast electron diffraction, free electron lasers and medical accelerators. We are exploring the use of intense optically-generated THz pulses to power accelerators efficiently and with high-

  14. High-voltage air-core pulse transformers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1981-08-01

    High voltage air core pulse transformers are best suited to applications outside the normal ranges of conventional magnetic core transformers. In general these include charge transfer at high power levels and fast pulse generation with comparatively low energy. When properly designed and constructed, they are capable of delivering high energy transfer efficiency and have demonstrated superior high voltage endurance. The general types designed for high voltage pulse generation and energy transfer applications are described. Special emphasis is given to pulse charging systems which operate up to the multi-megavolt range. (WHK)

  15. Planar slot coupled microwave hybrid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petter, Jeffrey K.

    1991-01-01

    A symmetrical 180.degree. microwave hybrid is constructed by opening a slot line in a ground plane below a conducting strip disposed on a dielectric substrate, creating a slot coupled conductor. Difference signals propagating on the slot coupled conductor are isolated on the slot line leaving sum signals to propagate on the microstrip. The difference signal is coupled from the slot line onto a second microstrip line for transmission to a desired location. The microstrip branches in a symmetrical fashion to provide the input/output ports of the 180.degree. hybrid. The symmetry of the device provides for balance and isolation between sum and difference signals, and provides an advantageous balance between the power handling capabilities and the bandwidth of the device.

  16. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Storage System Design: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses the design options for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, including power, energy, and operating strategy as they relate to the energy storage system.

  17. Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus Lands at Hickam AFB: Hydrogen Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid Bus Lands at Hickam AFB: Hydrogen Fuel Cell & Infrastructure Technologies Program, ... Power R&D Needs (Presentation) Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2016: ...

  18. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel; Den-Ben, Xos Lus

    2014-10-27

    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  19. LANSCE | News & Media | The Pulse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pulse 2012 AOT & LANSCE The Pulse December 2012 December | In This Issue From Alex's desk Gary Holladay: Taking action in working safely Design and manipulation of macroscopic...

  20. Dynamic pulse difference circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Gerald L.

    1978-01-01

    A digital electronic circuit of especial use for subtracting background activity pulses in gamma spectrometry comprises an up-down counter connected to count up with signal-channel pulses and to count down with background-channel pulses. A detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal when the up-down counter has completed one scaling sequence cycle of counts in the up direction. In an alternate embodiment, a detector responsive to the count position of the up-down counter provides a signal upon overflow of the counter.

  1. SHORT PULSE STRETCHER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branum, D.R.; Cummins, W.F.

    1962-12-01

    >A short pulse stretching circuit capable of stretching a short puise to enable it to be displayed on a relatively slow sweeping oscilloscope is described. Moreover, the duration of the pulse is increased by charging a capacitor through a diode and thereafter discharging the capacitor at such time as is desired. In the circuit the trigger pulse alone passes through a delay line, whereas the main signal passes through the diode only, and results in over-all circuit losses which are proportional to the low losses of the diode only. (AEC)

  2. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  3. An 8-GW long-pulse generator based on Tesla transformer and pulse forming network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Xibo; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang Sun, Xu; Wang, Limin; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Ying; Peng, Jianchang; Song, Xiaoxin

    2014-06-15

    A long-pulse generator TPG700L based on a Tesla transformer and a series pulse forming network (PFN) is constructed to generate intense electron beams for the purpose of high power microwave (HPM) generation. The TPG700L mainly consists of a 12-stage PFN, a built-in Tesla transformer in a pulse forming line, a three-electrode gas switch, a transmission line with a trigger, and a load. The Tesla transformer and the compact PFN are the key technologies for the development of the TPG700L. This generator can output electrical pulses with a width as long as 200 ns at a level of 8 GW and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. When used to drive a relative backward wave oscillator for HPM generation, the electrical pulse width is about 100 ns on a voltage level of 520 kV. Factors affecting the pulse waveform of the TPG700L are also discussed. At present, the TPG700L performs well for long-pulse HPM generation in our laboratory.

  4. Self-consistent evolution of plasma discharge and electromagnetic fields in a microwave pulse compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlapakovski, A. S.; Beilin, L.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Hadas, Y.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-07-15

    Nanosecond-scale evolution of plasma and RF electromagnetic fields during the release of energy from a microwave pulse compressor with a plasma interference switch was investigated numerically using the code MAGIC. The plasma was simulated in the scope of the gas conductivity model in MAGIC. The compressor embodied an S-band cavity and H-plane waveguide tee with a shorted side arm filled with pressurized gas. In a simplified approach, the gas discharge was initiated by setting an external ionization rate in a layer crossing the side arm waveguide in the location of the electric field antinode. It was found that with increasing ionization rate, the microwave energy absorbed by the plasma in the first few nanoseconds increases, but the absorption for the whole duration of energy release, on the contrary, decreases. In a hybrid approach modeling laser ignition of the discharge, seed electrons were set around the electric field antinode. In this case, the plasma extends along the field forming a filament and the plasma density increases up to the level at which the electric field within the plasma decreases due to the skin effect. Then, the avalanche rate decreases but the density still rises until the microwave energy release begins and the electric field becomes insufficient to support the avalanche process. The extraction of the microwave pulse limits its own power by terminating the rise of the plasma density and filament length. For efficient extraction, a sufficiently long filament of dense plasma must have sufficient time to be formed.

  5. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, Jr., Herbert A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The wave are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  6. Pulsed-neutron monochromator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mook, H.A. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In one aspect, the invention is an improved pulsed-neutron monochromator of the vibrated-crystal type. The monochromator is designed to provide neutron pulses which are characterized both by short duration and high density. A row of neutron-reflecting crystals is disposed in a neutron beam to reflect neutrons onto a common target. The crystals in the row define progressively larger neutron-scattering angles and are vibrated sequentially in descending order with respect to the size of their scattering angles, thus generating neutron pulses which arrive simultaneously at the target. Transducers are coupled to one end of the crystals to vibrate them in an essentially non-resonant mode. The transducers propagate transverse waves in the crystal which progress longitudinally therein. The waves are absorbed at the undriven ends of the crystals by damping material mounted thereon. In another aspect, the invention is a method for generating neutron pulses characterized by high intensity and short duration.

  7. High power neutron production targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wender, S.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes issues of concern in the design of targets and associated systems for high power neutron production facilities. The facilities include uses for neutron scattering, accelerator driven transmutation, accelerator production of tritium, short pulse spallation sources, and long pulse spallation sources. Each of these applications requires a source with different design needs and consequently different implementation in practise.

  8. Pulse measurement apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marciante, John R.; Donaldson, William R.; Roides, Richard G.

    2011-10-25

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a pulse measuring system that measures a characteristic of an input pulse under test, particularly the pulse shape of a single-shot, nano-second duration, high shape-contrast optical or electrical pulse. An exemplary system includes a multi-stage, passive pulse replicator, wherein each successive stage introduces a fixed time delay to the input pulse under test, a repetitively-gated electronic sampling apparatus that acquires the pulse train including an entire waveform of each replica pulse, a processor that temporally aligns the replicated pulses, and an averager that temporally averages the replicated pulses to generate the pulse shape of the pulse under test. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for measuring an optical or an electrical pulse shape. The method includes the steps of passively replicating the pulse under test with a known time delay, temporally stacking the pulses, and temporally averaging the stacked pulses. An embodiment of the invention is directed to a method for increasing the dynamic range of a pulse measurement by a repetitively-gated electronic sampling device having a rated dynamic range capability, beyond the rated dynamic range of the sampling device; e.g., enhancing the dynamic range of an oscilloscope. The embodied technique can improve the SNR from about 300:1 to 1000:1. A dynamic range enhancement of four to seven bits may be achieved.

  9. PULSE at Stanford University

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photon Science @ SLAC - LCLS - LUSI - SSRL - PULSE - Stanford University Go Search Home Publications Atomic & Molecular Physics Condensed Matter Physics Single Molecule Imaging Single-Shot Nanoscale Imaging Ultrafast Chemical Processes Ultrafast Magnetic Switching Contact Us Office of Science/U.S. DOE Ultrafast Center PULSE (Photon Ultrafast Laser Science and Engineering) is based on a remarkable new venture at SLAC/Stanford – the construction of the world’s first x-ray free electron

  10. Pulse magnetic welder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder is described for automated closure of fuel pins by a pulsed magnetic process in which the open end of a length of cladding is positioned within a complementary tube surrounded by a pulsed magnetic welder. Seals are provided at each end of the tube, which can be evacuated or can receive tag gas for direct introduction to the cladding interior. Loading of magnetic rings and end caps is accomplished automatically in conjunction with the welding steps carried out within the tube.

  11. Hybrid 320 Ton Off Highway Haul Truck: Quarterly Technical Status Report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salasoo, Lembit

    2003-02-11

    The mine proving ground to be used for the hybrid off highway vehicle (OHV) demonstration was visited, to obtain haul route profile data and OHV vehicle data. A 6500-ft haul mission with 7% average grade was selected. Enhancements made to a dynamic model of hybrid missions provided capability to analyze hybrid OHV performance. A benefits study defined relationships between fuel and productivity benefits and hybrid system parameters. OHV hybrid system requirements were established, and a survey of candidate energy storage technology characteristics was carried out. Testing of the performance of an existing power battery bank verified its suitability for use in the hybrid OHV demonstration.

  12. Passive Active Multi-Junction 3, 7 GHZ launcher for Tore-Supra Long Pulse Experiments. Manufacturing Process and Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guilhem, D.; Achard, J.; Bertrand, B.; Bej, Z.; Bibet, Ph.; Brun, C.; Chantant, M.; Delmas, E.; Delpech, L.; Doceul, Y.; Ekedahl, A.; Goletto, C.; Goniche, M.; Hatchressian, J. C.; Hillairet, J.; Houry, M.; Joubert, P.; Lipa, M.; Madeleine, S.; Martinez, A.

    2009-11-26

    The design and the fabrication of a new Lower Hybrid (LH) actively cooled antenna based on the passive active concept is a part of the CIMES project (Components for the Injection of Mater and Energy in Steady-state). The major objectives of Tore-Supra program is to achieve 1000 s pulses with this LH launcher, by coupling routinely >3 MW of LH wave at 3.7 GHz to the plasma with a parallel index n{sub ||} = 1.7 {sup {+-}}{sup 0.2}. The launcher is on its way to achieve its validation tests--low power Radio Frequency (RF) measurements, vacuum and hydraulic leak tests--and will be installed and commissioned on plasma during the fall of 2009.

  13. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  14. NREL Evaluates UPS Hybrid-Electric Van Performance - News Releases | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Evaluates UPS Hybrid-Electric Van Performance New trucks deliver more than 28% fuel savings December 22, 2009 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has collected and analyzed fuel economy, maintenance and other vehicle performance data from UPS's first generation hybrid diesel step delivery vans powered by an Eaton Corp. electric hybrid propulsion system. The diesel hybrid delivery vans improved the on-road fuel economy by 28.9 percent resulting

  15. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  16. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  17. Efficient optical pulse stacker system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seppala, Lynn G.; Haas, Roger A.

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus for spreading and angle-encoding each pulse of a multiplicity of small area, short pulses into several temporally staggered pulses by use of appropriate beam splitters, with the optical elements being arranged so that each staggered pulse is contiguous with one or two other such pulses, and the entire sequence of stacked pulses comprising a single, continuous long pulse. The single long pulse is expanded in area, and then doubly passed through a nonstorage laser amplifier such as KrF. After amplification, the physically separated, angle-encoded and temporally staggered pulses are recombined into a single pulse of short duration. This high intensity output beam is well collimated and may be propagated over long distance, or used for irradiating inertial confinement fusion targets.

  18. High voltage pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E.

    1977-03-08

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator has been provided which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of a first one of the rectifiers connected between the first and second of the plurality of charging capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. Alternate circuits are provided for controlling the application of the charging voltage from a charging circuit to be applied to the parallel capacitors which provides a selection of at least two different intervals in which the charging voltage is turned "off" to allow the SCR's connecting the capacitors in series to turn "off" before recharging begins. The high-voltage pulse-generating circuit including the N capacitors and corresponding SCR's which connect the capacitors in series when triggered "on" further includes diodes and series-connected inductors between the parallel-connected charging capacitors which allow sufficiently fast charging of the capacitors for a high pulse repetition rate and yet allow considerable control of the decay time of the high-voltage pulses from the pulse-generating circuit.

  19. Using shaped pulses to probe energy deposition during laser-induced damage of SiO2 surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, C W; Cross, D; Feit, M D; Bude, J D

    2008-10-24

    Laser-induced damage initiation in silica has been shown to follow a power-law behavior with respect to pulse-length. Models based on thermal diffusion physics can successfully predict this scaling and the effect of pulse shape for pulses between about 3ns and 10ns. In this work we use sophisticated new measurement techniques and novel pulse shape experiments to test the limits of this scaling. We show that simple pulse length scaling fails for pulses below about 3ns. Furthermore, double pulse initiation experiments suggest that energy absorbed by the first pulse is lost on time scales much shorter than would be predicted for thermal diffusion. This time scale for energy loss can be strongly modulated by maintaining a small but non-zero intensity between the pulses. By producing damage with various pulse shapes and pulse trains it is demonstrated that the properties of any hypothetical thermal absorber become highly constrained.

  20. Hybrid Poplar Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-09-01

    This Congressionally-mandated project focuses on characterizing and improving hybrid poplar plantation forestry systems with the ultimate goal of using poplars as a dedicated energy crop.

  1. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  2. Method and apparatus for stabilizing pulsed microwave amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, Donald B.

    1993-01-01

    Phase and amplitude variations at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier arising from instabilities of the driving electron beam are suppressed with a feed-forward system that can stabilize pulses which are too brief for regulation by conventional feedback techniques. Such variations tend to be similar during successive pulses. The variations are detected during each pulse by comparing the amplifier output with the low power input signal to obtain phase and amplitude error signals. This enables storage of phase and amplitude correction signals which are used to make compensating changes in the low power input signal during the following amplifier output pulse which suppress the variations. In the preferred form of the invention, successive increments of the correction signals for each pulse are stored in separate channels of a multi-channel storage. Sequential readout of the increments during the next pulse provides variable control voltages to a voltage controlled phase shifter and voltage controlled amplitude modulator in the amplifier input signal path.

  3. Method and apparatus for stabilizing pulsed microwave amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hopkins, D.B.

    1993-01-26

    Phase and amplitude variations at the output of a high power pulsed microwave amplifier arising from instabilities of the driving electron beam are suppressed with a feed-forward system that can stabilize pulses which are too brief for regulation by conventional feedback techniques. Such variations tend to be similar during successive pulses. The variations are detected during each pulse by comparing the amplifier output with the low power input signal to obtain phase and amplitude error signals. This enables storage of phase and amplitude correction signals which are used to make compensating changes in the low power input signal during the following amplifier output pulse which suppress the variations. In the preferred form of the invention, successive increments of the correction signals for each pulse are stored in separate channels of a multi-channel storage. Sequential readout of the increments during the next pulse provides variable control voltages to a voltage controlled phase shifter and voltage controlled amplitude modulator in the amplifier input signal path.

  4. Photoconductive circuit element pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, Christen

    1989-01-01

    A pulse generator for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test.

  5. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  6. Battery control system for hybrid vehicle and method for controlling a hybrid vehicle battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bockelmann, Thomas R.; Hope, Mark E.; Zou, Zhanjiang; Kang, Xiaosong

    2009-02-10

    A battery control system for hybrid vehicle includes a hybrid powertrain battery, a vehicle accessory battery, and a prime mover driven generator adapted to charge the vehicle accessory battery. A detecting arrangement is configured to monitor the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge. A controller is configured to activate the prime mover to drive the generator and recharge the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a first predetermined level, or transfer electrical power from the hybrid powertrain battery to the vehicle accessory battery in response to the vehicle accessory battery's state of charge falling below a second predetermined level. The invention further includes a method for controlling a hybrid vehicle powertrain system.

  7. Efficient laser amplifier using sequential pulses of different wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stark, Jr., Eugene E.; Kephart, John F.; Leland, Wallace T.; Reichelt, Walter H.

    1980-01-01

    A laser oscillator output pulse is separated into a plurality of separate beams which are temporally or spatially individually amplified by a power amplifier. The beams may then be recombined to provide a more powerful output than conventional single beam amplification.

  8. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-27

    The subMW hybrid DFC/T power plant facility was upgraded with a Capstone C60 microturbine and a state-of-the-art full size fuel cell stack. The integration of the larger microturbine extended the capability of the hybrid power plant to operate at high power ratings with a single gas turbine without the need for supplementary air. The objectives of this phase of subMW hybrid power plant tests are to support the development of process and control and to provide the insight for the design of the packaged subMW hybrid demonstration units. The development of the ultra high efficiency multi-MW power plants was focused on the design of 40 MW power plants with efficiencies approaching 75% (LHV of natural gas). The design efforts included thermodynamic cycle analysis of key gas turbine parameters such as compression ratio.

  9. Limits of ultrashort pulse generation in cw mode-locked dye lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, V.; Rudolph, W.; Stamm, U.; Wilhelmi, B.

    1989-08-01

    Essential mechanisms limiting the achievable pulse duration in synchronously pumped, hybrid-mode-locked, and passively mode-locked cw subpicosecond dye lasers are analyzed. The action of spontaneously emitted light is shown to be the detrimental factor in synchronous mode locking. The influence of this factor can be suppressed by a saturable absorber in the hybrid-mode-locked lasers. In this case as well as in the case of passive mode locking the combined action of group-velocity dispersion and Kerr-effect-type nonlinearity, though serving as an additional shortening mechanism, causes fluctuations of the pulse parameters and determines the limit of the steady-state regime.

  10. Laser pulse sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, C.

    1998-03-24

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera. 5 figs.

  11. Laser pulse sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, Charles

    1998-01-01

    The Laser Pulse Sampler (LPS) measures temporal pulse shape without the problems of a streak camera. Unlike the streak camera, the laser pulse directly illuminates a camera in the LPS, i.e., no additional equipment or energy conversions are required. The LPS has several advantages over streak cameras. The dynamic range of the LPS is limited only by the range of its camera, which for a cooled camera can be as high as 16 bits, i.e., 65,536. The LPS costs less because there are fewer components, and those components can be mass produced. The LPS is easier to calibrate and maintain because there is only one energy conversion, i.e., photons to electrons, in the camera.

  12. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, G.W.; Jensen, A.S.

    1958-06-01

    An analyzer system incorporating a cathode-ray tube and linearly spaced targets masked by a plate having slits at points corresponding to the location of the targets is described. The advantages of the system include reduction in the required amplified band width and also the reduction in possible double counting of a pulse by striking two targets. The system comprises integrating means for each pulse, the signal from which is applied to a pair of deflection plates, and a control circuit for turning on the electron beam when the pulse has almost reached its maximum value. The mask prevents the beam from overlapping on a target adjacent to the proper one, while a control circuit responsive to the target output signals acts to cut off the beam immediately after the beam strikes a target to permit the beam to impinge on only one target.

  13. Pulse shaping system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skeldon, Mark D.; Letzring, Samuel A.

    1999-03-23

    Temporally shaped electrical waveform generation provides electrical waveforms suitable for driving an electro-optic modulator (EOM) which produces temporally shaped optical laser pulses for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The temporally shaped electrical waveform generation is carried out with aperture coupled transmission lines having an input transmission line and an aperture coupled output transmission line, along which input and output pulses propagate in opposite directions. The output electrical waveforms are shaped principally due to the selection of coupling aperture width, in a direction transverse to the lines, which varies along the length of the line. Specific electrical waveforms, which may be high voltage (up to kilovolt range), are produced and applied to the EOM to produce specifically shaped optical laser pulses.

  14. Pulse shaping system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skeldon, M.D.; Letzring, S.A.

    1999-03-23

    Temporally shaped electrical waveform generation provides electrical waveforms suitable for driving an electro-optic modulator (EOM) which produces temporally shaped optical laser pulses for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The temporally shaped electrical waveform generation is carried out with aperture coupled transmission lines having an input transmission line and an aperture coupled output transmission line, along which input and output pulses propagate in opposite directions. The output electrical waveforms are shaped principally due to the selection of coupling aperture width, in a direction transverse to the lines, which varies along the length of the line. Specific electrical waveforms, which may be high voltage (up to kilovolt range), are produced and applied to the EOM to produce specifically shaped optical laser pulses. 8 figs.

  15. Pulsed neutron detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, deceased, J. Craig; Rowland, Mark S.

    1989-03-21

    A pulsed neutron detector and system for detecting low intensity fast neutron pulses has a body of beryllium adjacent a body of hydrogenous material the latter of which acts as a beta particle detector, scintillator, and moderator. The fast neutrons (defined as having En>1.5 MeV) react in the beryllium and the hydrogenous material to produce larger numbers of slow neutrons than would be generated in the beryllium itself and which in the beryllium generate hellium-6 which decays and yields beta particles. The beta particles reach the hydrogenous material which scintillates to yield light of intensity related to the number of fast neutrons. A photomultiplier adjacent the hydrogenous material (scintillator) senses the light emission from the scintillator. Utilization means, such as a summing device, sums the pulses from the photo-multiplier for monitoring or other purposes.

  16. Village power in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the electric power system in Thailand. 99% of the country is electrified, but much of this is with diesel generators which leaves high costs but a high level of service. The paper discusses renewable energy projects which have been sited in the country, and examples of hybrid systems which have been retrofit into existing diesel generator systems. Photovoltaic and hydroelectric power projects are described. Dedicated systems have been installed for water pumping and battery charging applications.

  17. International magnetic pulse compression workshop: (Proceedings)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.; Siemens, P.D.

    1991-04-01

    A few individuals have tried to broaden the understanding of specific and salient pulsed-power topics. One such attempt is this documentation of a workshop on magnetic switching as it applies primarily to pulse compression (power transformation), affording a truly international perspective by its participants under the initiative and leadership of Hugh Kirbie and Mark Newton of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and supported by other interested organizations. During the course of the Workshop at Granlibakken, a great deal of information was amassed and a keen insight into both the problems and opportunities as to the use of this switching approach was developed. The segmented workshop format proved ideal for identifying key aspects affecting optimum performance in a variety of applications. Individual groups of experts addressed network and system modeling, magnetic materials, power conditioning, core cooling and dielectrics, and finally circuits and application. At the end, they came together to consolidate their input and formulate the workshop's conclusions, identifying roadblocks or suggesting research projects, particularly as they apply to magnetic switching's trump card--its high-average-power-handling capability (at least on a burst-mode basis). The workshop was especially productive both in the quality and quantity of information transfer in an environment conducive to a free and open exchange of ideas. We will not delve into the organization proper of this meeting, rather we wish to commend to the interested reader this volume, which provides the definitive and most up-to-date compilation on the subject of magnetic pulse compression from underlying principles to current state of the art as well as the prognosis for the future of magnetic pulse compression as a consensus of the workshop's organizers and participants.

  18. Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Compositional Variation Within Hybrid Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 29 September 2010 00:00 The inherently high surface area...

  19. Map of Solar Power Plants | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Map of Solar Power Plants Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... "format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":"ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN","limit":2500,"offse...

  20. NREL: TroughNet - Parabolic Trough Power Plant Market, Economic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Overview The primary market for parabolic trough technology is large-scale bulk power. Because trough plants can be hybridized or can include thermal energy storage, they ...

  1. EERE PowerPoint 97-2004 Template: Green Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Risk Reduction via GeothermalSolar Hybrid Power Plants Daniel Wendt (INL) and Craig Turchi (NREL) Low Temperature Project Officer: Joshua Mengers Total Project Funding: 1200K May ...

  2. Efficiency Improvement in an Over the Road Diesel Powered Engine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration Efficiency Improvement in an Over the Road Diesel Powered Engine System by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric ...

  3. Axion Power International Inc formerly Tamboril | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    research and development of a new technology for supercapacitive hybrid electrical energy storage devices. References: Axion Power International Inc (formerly Tamboril)1 This...

  4. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty

    2000-01-01

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  5. SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walsh, David O; Grunewald, Elliot D

    2013-11-12

    Technologies applicable to SNMR pulse sequence phase cycling are disclosed, including SNMR acquisition apparatus and methods, SNMR processing apparatus and methods, and combinations thereof. SNMR acquisition may include transmitting two or more SNMR pulse sequences and applying a phase shift to a pulse in at least one of the pulse sequences, according to any of a variety cycling techniques. SNMR processing may include combining SNMR from a plurality of pulse sequences comprising pulses of different phases, so that desired signals are preserved and indesired signals are canceled.

  6. Power consumption and byproducts in electron beam and electrical discharge processing of volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Bardsley, J.N.

    1996-02-20

    Among the new methods being investigated for the post-process reduction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in atmospheric-pressure air streams are based on non-thermal plasmas. Electron beam, pulsed corona and dielectric-barrier discharge methods are among the more extensively investigated techniques for producing non-thermal plasmas. In order to apply non-thermal plasmas in an industrial scale, it is important to establish the electrical power requirements and byproducts of the process. In this paper the authors present experimental results using a compact electron beam reactor, a pulsed corona and a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. They have used these reactors to study the removal of a wide variety of VOCs. The effects of background gas composition and gas temperature on the decomposition chemistry have been studied. They present a description of the reactions that control the efficiency of the plasma process. They have found that pulsed corona and other types of electrical discharge reactors are most suitable only for processes requiring O radicals. For VOCs requiring copious amounts of electrons, ions, N atoms or OH radicals, the use of electron beam reactors is generally the best way of minimizing the electrical power consumption. Electron beam processing is remarkably more effective for all of the VOCs tested. For control of VOC emissions from dilute, large volume sources such as paint spray booths, cost analysis shows that the electron beam method is cost-competitive to thermal and catalytic methods that employ heat recovery or hybrid techniques.

  7. Passive and active pulse stacking scheme for pulse shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harney, Robert C.; Schipper, John F.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing a sequence of radiation pulses with a pulse envelope of time variation which is controllable by an external electromagnetic signal applied to an active medium or by a sectored reflector, through which the radiation passes.

  8. Power optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  9. Electron beam-switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pleasance, L.D.; Murray, J.R.; Goldhar, J.; Bradley, L.P.

    1979-12-11

    A method and apparatus are designed for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  10. Xenon plasma sustained by pulse-periodic laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudoy, I. G.; Solovyov, N. G.; Soroka, A. M.; Shilov, A. O.; Yakimov, M. Yu.

    2015-10-15

    The possibility of sustaining a quasi-stationary pulse-periodic optical discharge (POD) in xenon at a pressure of p = 10–20 bar in a focused 1.07-μm Yb{sup 3+} laser beam with a pulse repetition rate of f{sub rep} ⩾ 2 kHz, pulse duration of τ ⩾ 200 μs, and power of P = 200–300 W has been demonstrated. In the plasma development phase, the POD pulse brightness is generally several times higher than the stationary brightness of a continuous optical discharge at the same laser power, which indicates a higher plasma temperature in the POD regime. Upon termination of the laser pulse, plasma recombines and is then reinitiated in the next pulse. The initial absorption of laser radiation in successive POD pulses is provided by 5p{sup 5}6s excited states of xenon atoms. This kind of discharge can be applied in plasma-based high-brightness broadband light sources.

  11. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1987-02-10

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime. 10 figs.

  12. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1987-01-01

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  13. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalka, Alex M.

    1986-01-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  14. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-06-05

    A high power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  15. Nondegenerate optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Igor; Ebbers, Christopher A.

    2005-03-22

    A system provides an input pump pulse and a signal pulse. A first dichroic beamsplitter is highly reflective for the input signal pulse and highly transmissive for the input pump pulse. A first optical parametric amplifier nonlinear crystal transfers part of the energy from the input pump pulse to the input signal pulse resulting in a first amplified signal pulse and a first depleted pump pulse. A second dichroic beamsplitter is highly reflective for the first amplified signal pulse and highly transmissive for the first depleted pump pulse. A second optical parametric amplifier nonlinear crystal transfers part of the energy from the first depleted pump pulse to the first amplified signal pulse resulting in a second amplified signal pulse and a second depleted pump pulse. A third dichroic beamsplitter receives the second amplified signal pulse and the second depleted pump pulse. The second depleted pump pulse is discarded.

  16. Artificial mismatch hybridization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhen; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    An improved nucleic acid hybridization process is provided which employs a modified oligonucleotide and improves the ability to discriminate a control nucleic acid target from a variant nucleic acid target containing a sequence variation. The modified probe contains at least one artificial mismatch relative to the control nucleic acid target in addition to any mismatch(es) arising from the sequence variation. The invention has direct and advantageous application to numerous existing hybridization methods, including, applications that employ, for example, the Polymerase Chain Reaction, allele-specific nucleic acid sequencing methods, and diagnostic hybridization methods.

  17. Hybrid matrix fiber composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deteresa, Steven J.; Lyon, Richard E.; Groves, Scott E.

    2003-07-15

    Hybrid matrix fiber composites having enhanced compressive performance as well as enhanced stiffness, toughness and durability suitable for compression-critical applications. The methods for producing the fiber composites using matrix hybridization. The hybrid matrix fiber composites include two chemically or physically bonded matrix materials, whereas the first matrix materials are used to impregnate multi-filament fibers formed into ribbons and the second matrix material is placed around and between the fiber ribbons that are impregnated with the first matrix material and both matrix materials are cured and solidified.

  18. INL Hybrid Shuttle Buses

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INL Hybrid Shuttle Buses Four 28 to 36 passenger hybrid-electric shuttle buses, operated at the Idaho National Laboratory, were equipped with data loggers. The shuttle buses were delivered in 2010 with MaxxForce DT engines configured for 620 ft-lb of torque, and Eaton City-Delivery hybrid-electric systems, each containing a lithium-ion battery pack, electric motor, and Fuller six-speed automated manual transmission. Road speed, engine speed, and fueling data were gathered from the diagnostic

  19. Upgrading the TFTR Transrex Power Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. Lawson, R. Marsala, S. Ramakrishnan, X. Zhao, P. Sichta

    2009-05-29

    In order to provide improved and expanded experimental capabilities, the existing Transrex power supplies at PPPL are to be upgraded and modernized. Each of the 39 power supplies consists of two six pulse silicon controlled rectifier sections forming a twelve pulse power supply. The first modification is to split each supply into two independent six pulse supplies by replacing the existing obsolete twelve pulse firing generator with two commercially available six pulse firing generators. The second change replaces the existing control link with a faster system, with greater capacity, which will allow for independent control of all 78 power supply sections. The third change replaces the existing Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) based fault detector with an Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) compatible unit, eliminating the obsolete CAMAC modules. Finally the remaining relay logic and interfaces to the "Hardwired Control System" will be replaces with a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC).

  20. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  1. Series-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M.

    1986-01-01

    A high-power series-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, and a counterpulse capacitor. The load pulse is initiated simultaneously with the initiation of the counterpulse which is used to turn the opening switch off. There is no delay from command to output pulse. During the load pulse, the counterpulse capacitor is first discharged and then recharged in the opposite polarity with sufficient energy to accomplish the load counterpulse which terminates the load pulse and turns the load switch off. When the main opening switch is triggered closed again to terminate the load pulse, the counterpulse capacitor discharges in the reverse direction through the load switch and through the load, causing a rapid, sharp cutoff of the load pulse as well as recovering any energy remaining in the load inductance. The counterpulse capacitor is recharged to its original condition by the main energy storage coil after the load pulse is over, not before it begins.

  2. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacGowan, Brian J.; Matthews, Dennis L.; Trebes, James E.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulses of short duration (32). An ultraviolet or X-ray laser pulse of long duration (12) is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier (28), by a streaming plasma (22) that is produced by illuminating a solid target (16, 18) with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation (20). The short pulse of ultraviolet or X-ray laser radiation (32), which may be amplified to high power (40, 42), is separated out by passage through a slit aperture (30) in the opaque barrier (28).

  3. Method and apparatus for producing durationally short ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Trebes, J.E.

    1987-05-05

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for producing ultraviolet or x- ray laser pulses of short duration. An ultraviolet or x-ray laser pulse of long duration is progressively refracted, across the surface of an opaque barrier, by a streaming plasma that is produced by illuminating a solid target with a pulse of conventional line focused high power laser radiation. The short pulse of ultraviolet or x-ray laser radiation, which may be amplified to high power, is separated out by passage through a slit aperture in the opaque barrier.

  4. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  5. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lelevkin, V. M. Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  6. Laser pulse detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashburn, D.N.; Akerman, M.A.

    1979-08-13

    A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

  7. Laser pulse detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashburn, Douglas N.; Akerman, M. Alfred

    1981-01-01

    A laser pulse detector is provided which is small and inexpensive and has the capability of detecting laser light of any wavelength with fast response (less than 5 nanoseconds rise time). The laser beam is focused onto the receiving end of a graphite rod coaxially mounted within a close-fitting conductive, open-end cylindrical housing so that ablation and electric field breakdown of the resulting plasma occurs due to a bias potential applied between the graphite rod and housing. The pulse produced by the breakdown is transmitted through a matched impedance coaxial cable to a recording device. The cable is connected with its central lead to the graphite rod and its outer conductor to the housing.

  8. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  9. Nonlinear lower hybrid modeling in tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napoli, F.; Schettini, G.; Castaldo, C.; Cesario, R.

    2014-02-12

    We present here new results concerning the nonlinear mechanism underlying the observed spectral broadening produced by parametric instabilities occurring at the edge of tokamak plasmas in present day LHCD (lower hybrid current drive) experiments. Low frequency (LF) ion-sound evanescent modes (quasi-modes) are the main parametric decay channel which drives a nonlinear mode coupling of lower hybrid (LH) waves. The spectrum of the LF fluctuations is calculated here considering the beating of the launched LH wave at the radiofrequency (RF) operating line frequency (pump wave) with the noisy background of the RF power generator. This spectrum is calculated in the frame of the kinetic theory, following a perturbative approach. Numerical solutions of the nonlinear LH wave equation show the evolution of the nonlinear mode coupling in condition of a finite depletion of the pump power. The role of the presence of heavy ions in a Deuterium plasma in mitigating the nonlinear effects is analyzed.

  10. Fuelcell-Hybrid Mine loader (LHD)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James L Dippo; Tim Erikson; Kris Hess

    2009-07-10

    The fuel cell hybrid mine loader project, sponsored by a government-industry consortium, was implemented to determine the viability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells in underground mining applications. The Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored this project with cost-share support from industry. The project had three main goals: (1) to develop a mine loader powered by a fuel cell, (2) to develop associated metal-hydride storage and refueling systems, and (3) to demonstrate the fuel cell hybrid loader in an underground mine in Nevada. The investigation of a zero-emissions fuel cell power plant, the safe storage of hydrogen, worker health advantages (over the negative health effects associated with exposure to diesel emissions), and lower operating costs are all key objectives for this project.

  11. Pulsed gas laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Louis W.; Fitzsimmons, William A.

    1978-01-01

    A pulsed gas laser is constituted by Blumlein circuits wherein space metal plates function both as capacitors and transmission lines coupling high frequency oscillations to a gas filled laser tube. The tube itself is formed by spaced metal side walls which function as connections to the electrodes to provide for a high frequency, high voltage discharge in the tube to cause the gas to lase. Also shown is a spark gap switch having structural features permitting a long life.

  12. Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Seeding Yields High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation Print Researchers at Berkeley ... by femtoslicing (see "Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam"). ...

  13. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Transmission Line Monitoring Alphenaar, Bruce (2009) 39 Application of Pulse Spark Discharges for Scale Prevention and Continuous Filtration Methods in Coal-Fired Power Plant ...

  14. Radial flow pulse jet mixer (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radial flow pulse jet mixer Title: Radial flow pulse jet mixer The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing ...

  15. MULTICHANNEL PULSE-HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, J.T.; Lefevre, H.W.

    1958-01-21

    This patent deals with electronic computing circuits and more particularly to pulse-height analyzers used for classifying variable amplitude pulses into groups of different amplitudes. The device accomplishes this pulse allocation by by converting the pulses into frequencies corresponding to the amplitudes of the pulses, which frequencies are filtered in channels individually pretuned to a particular frequency and then detected and recorded in the responsive channel. This circuit substantially overcomes the disadvantages of prior annlyzers incorporating discriminators pre-set to respond to certain voltage levels, since small variation in component values is not as critical to satisfactory circuit operation.

  16. Quasi-Optical 34-GHz Rf Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2007-06-19

    Designs have been carried out on non-high-vacuum, low-power versions of three- and four-mirror quasi-optical passive and active Ka-band pulse compressors, and prototypes built and tested based on these designs. The active element is a quasi-optical grating employing gas discharge tubes in the gratings. Power gains of about 3:1 were observed experimentally for the passive designs, and about 7:1 with the active designs. High-power, high-vacuum versions of the three-and four-mirror quasi-optical pulse compressors were built and tested at low power. These now await installation and testing using multi-MW power from the 34-GHz magnicon.

  17. Studies on gas breakdown in pulsed radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huo, W. G. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China) [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Jian, S. J.; Yao, J.; Ding, Z. F., E-mail: zfding@dlut.edu.cn [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2014-05-15

    In pulsed RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the gas breakdown judged by the rapid drop in the amplitude of the pulsed RF voltage is no longer universally true. The steep increment of the plasma-absorbed RF power is proposed to determine the gas breakdown. The averaged plasma-absorbed RF power over a pulse period is used to evaluate effects of the preceding pulsed RF discharge on the breakdown voltage of the following one, finding that the breakdown voltage decreases with the increment in the averaged plasma-absorbed RF power under constant pulse duty ratio. Effects of the pulse off-time on the breakdown voltage and the breakdown delay time are also studied. The obtained dependence of the breakdown voltage on the pulse off-time is indicative of the transitional plasma diffusion processes in the afterglow. The breakdown voltage varies rapidly as the plasma diffuses fast in the region of moderate pulse off-time. The contribution of nitrogen atom recombination at the alumina surface is demonstrated in the prolonged memory effect on the breakdown delay time vs. the pulse off-time and experimentally validated by introducing a trace amount of nitrogen into argon at short and long pulse off-times.

  18. Hybrid Band effects program (Lockheed Martin shared vision CRADA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacon, L. D.

    2012-03-01

    Hybrid Band{trademark} (H-band) is a Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control (LMMFC) designation for a specific RF modulation that causes disruption of select electronic components and circuits. H-Band enables conventional high-power microwave (HPM) effects (with a center frequency of 1 to 2 GHz, for example) using a higher frequency carrier signal. The primary technical objective of this project was to understand the fundamental physics of Hybrid Band{trademark} Radio Frequency effects on electronic systems. The follow-on objective was to develop and validate a Hybrid Band{trademark} effects analysis process.

  19. LANSCE | News & Media | The Pulse

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Media Events Profiles Highlights Seminars Activity Reports The Pulse The Pulse 2014 The Pulse 2013 The Pulse 2012 The Pulse 2011 The Pulse 2010 The Pulse 2009 User Program Headlines News & Media dot line AOT & LANSCE - The Pulse 2016 LANSCE Focus Nuclear Science Successful run cycle showcases neutron science in all its diversity Download This Issue (pdf) From Gus's desk From Mary's desk LANSCE scientists in the news Mini-CAPTAIN snags first ionization track Redesigned LANSCE target to

  20. Laser beam pulse formatting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daly, Thomas P.; Moses, Edward I.; Patterson, Ralph W.; Sawicki, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    A method for formatting a laser beam pulse (20) using one or more delay loops (10). The delay loops (10) have a partially reflective beam splitter (12) and a plurality of highly reflective mirrors (14) arranged such that the laser beam pulse (20) enters into the delay loop (10) through the beam splitter (12) and circulates therein along a delay loop length (24) defined by the mirrors (14). As the laser beam pulse (20) circulates within the delay loop (10) a portion thereof is emitted upon each completed circuit when the laser beam pulse (20) strikes the beam splitter (12). The laser beam pulse (20) is thereby formatted into a plurality of sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56). The delay loops (10) are used in combination to produce complex waveforms by combining the sub-pulses (50, 52, 54 and 56) using additive waveform synthesis.

  1. Fast Response, Load-Matching Hybrid Fuel Cell: Final Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, T. S.; Sitzlar, H. E.; Geist, T. D.

    2003-06-01

    Hybrid DER technologies interconnected with the grid can provide improved performance capabilities compared to a single power source, and, add value, when matched to appropriate applications. For example, in a typical residence, the interconnected hybrid system could provide power during a utility outage, and also could compensate for voltage sags in the utility service. Such a hybrid system would then function as a premium power provider and eliminate the potential need for an uninterruptible power supply. In this research project, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is combined with an asymmetrical ultracapacitor to provide robust power response to changes in system loading. This project also considers the potential of hybrid DER technologies to improve overall power system compatibility and performance. This report includes base year accomplishments of a proposed 3-year-option project.

  2. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  3. High-speed pulse-shape generator, pulse multiplexer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burkhart, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    The invention combines arbitrary amplitude high-speed pulses for precision pulse shaping for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The circuitry combines arbitrary height pulses which are generated by replicating scaled versions of a trigger pulse and summing them delayed in time on a pulse line. The combined electrical pulses are connected to an electro-optic modulator which modulates a laser beam. The circuit can also be adapted to combine multiple channels of high speed data into a single train of electrical pulses which generates the optical pulses for very high speed optical communication. The invention has application in laser pulse shaping for inertial confinement fusion, in optical data links for computers, telecommunications, and in laser pulse shaping for atomic excitation studies. The invention can be used to effect at least a 10.times. increase in all fiber communication lines. It allows a greatly increased data transfer rate between high-performance computers. The invention is inexpensive enough to bring high-speed video and data services to homes through a super modem.

  4. Ultrashort pulse amplification in cryogenically cooled amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Backus, Sterling J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret Mary

    2004-10-12

    A laser amplifier system amplifies pulses in a single "stage" from .about.10.sup.-9 joules to more than 10.sup.-3 joules, with average power of 1-10 watts, and beam quality M.sup.2 <2. The laser medium is cooled substantially below room temperature, as a means to improve the optical and thermal characteristics of the medium. This is done with the medium inside a sealed, evacuated or purged cell to avoid moisture or other materials condensing on the surface. A "seed" pulse from a separate laser is passed through the laser medium, one or more times, in any of a variety of configurations including single-pass, multiple-pass, and regenerative amplifier configurations.

  5. Internal electron conversion of the isomeric {sup 57}Fe nucleus state with an energy of 14.4 keV excited by the radiation of the plasma of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golovin, G V; Savel'ev-Trofimov, Andrei B; Uryupina, D S; Volkov, Roman V

    2011-03-31

    We recorded the spectrum of delayed secondary electrons ejected from the target, which was coated with a layer of iron enriched with the {sup 57}Fe isotope to 98%, under its irradiation by fluxes of broadband X-ray radiation and fast electrons from the plasma produced by a femtosecond laser pulse at an intensity of 10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}. Maxima were identified at energies of 5.6, 7.2, and 13.6 keV in the spectrum obtained for a delay of 90 - 120 ns. The two last-listed maxima owe their origin to the internal electron conversion of the isomeric level with an energy of 14.4 keV and a lifetime of 98 ns to the K and L shells of atomic iron, respectively; the first-named level arises from a cascade K - L{sub 2}L{sub 3} Auger process. Photoexcitaion by the X-ray plasma radiation is shown to be the principal channel of the isomeric level excitation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  6. Quasi-linear modeling of lower hybrid current drive in ITER and DEMO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cardinali, A. Cesario, R.; Panaccione, L.; Santini, F.; Amicucci, L.; Castaldo, C.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Mirizzi, F.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2015-12-10

    First pass absorption of the Lower Hybrid waves in thermonuclear devices like ITER and DEMO is modeled by coupling the ray tracing equations with the quasi-linear evolution of the electron distribution function in 2D velocity space. As usually assumed, the Lower Hybrid Current Drive is not effective in a plasma of a tokamak fusion reactor, owing to the accessibility condition which, depending on the density, restricts the parallel wavenumber to values greater than n{sub ∥crit} and, at the same time, to the high electron temperature that would enhance the wave absorption and then restricts the RF power deposition to the very periphery of the plasma column (near the separatrix). In this work, by extensively using the “ray{sup star}” code, a parametric study of the propagation and absorption of the LH wave as function of the coupled wave spectrum (as its width, and peak value), has been performed very accurately. Such a careful investigation aims at controlling the power deposition layer possibly in the external half radius of the plasma, thus providing a valuable aid to the solution of how to control the plasma current profile in a toroidal magnetic configuration, and how to help the suppression of MHD mode that can develop in the outer part of the plasma. This analysis is useful not only for exploring the possibility of profile control of a pulsed operation reactor as well as the tearing mode stabilization, but also in order to reconsider the feasibility of steady state regime for DEMO.

  7. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Solar Power Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dioxide Capture and Storage Fast-spectrum Reactors Geothermal Power High Temperature Reactors Hybrid Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Hydropower Light Water Reactors Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Nuclear Fuel Cycles Solar Power Stationary Fuel Cells Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Wind Power ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Clean Power Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Solar Power Technologies Chapter 4: Technology Assessments Introduction Solar energy

  8. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Wind Power Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dioxide Capture and Storage Fast-spectrum Reactors Geothermal Power High Temperature Reactors Hybrid Nuclear-Renewable Energy Systems Hydropower Light Water Reactors Marine and Hydrokinetic Power Nuclear Fuel Cycles Solar Power Stationary Fuel Cells Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Wind Power ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Clean Power Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Wind Power Chapter 4: Technology Assessments NOTE: The 2015 U.S. Department of Energy

  9. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  10. SolarHybrid AG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    SolarHybrid AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: SolarHybrid AG Place: Germany Sector: Solar Product: Germany-based solar thermal hybrid product manufacturer References:...

  11. HL Green Power Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gyeonggi-do, Korea (Republic) Product: Korea(Republic)-based JV aimed at manufacturing Lithium ion car batteries for Hybrid and Electric cars. References: HL Green Power Co1 This...

  12. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  13. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  14. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  15. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  16. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  17. Hybrid baryons in QCD

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dudek, Jozef J.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-03-21

    In this study, we present the first comprehensive study of hybrid baryons using lattice QCD methods. Using a large basis of composite QCD interpolating fields we extract an extensive spectrum of baryon states and isolate those of hybrid character using their relatively large overlap onto operators which sample gluonic excitations. We consider the spectrum of Nucleon and Delta states at several quark masses finding a set of positive parity hybrid baryons with quantum numbersmore » $$N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{1/2^+},\\,N_{3/2^+},\\, N_{3/2^+},\\,N_{5/2^+},\\,$$ and $$\\Delta_{1/2^+},\\, \\Delta_{3/2^+}$$ at an energy scale above the first band of `conventional' excited positive parity baryons. This pattern of states is compatible with a color octet gluonic excitation having $$J^{P}=1^{+}$$ as previously reported in the hybrid meson sector and with a comparable energy scale for the excitation, suggesting a common bound-state construction for hybrid mesons and baryons.« less

  18. 14C "Bomb Pulse" Pulse Forensics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14c bomb pulse forensics 14C "Bomb Pulse" Pulse Forensics 14C "Bomb Pulse" dating as a Forensics Tool Traditionally, radiocarbon dating has been considered to be an archeological tool rather than a forensic one. Radiocarbon or carbon-14 (14C) is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions with nitrogen. Single carbon atoms in the atmosphere are quickly oxidized to carbon dioxide CO2. The atmospheric concentration of natural 14C with respect to all carbon

  19. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  20. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications.

  1. Beam dynamics in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekdahl, Carl; Abeyta, Epifanio O; Aragon, Paul; Archuleta, Rita; Cook, Gerald; Dalmas, Dale; Esquibel, Kevin; Gallegos, Robert A; Garnett, Robert; Harrison, James F; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Jacquez, Edward B; Mc Cuistian, Brian T; Montoya, Nicholas A; Nath, Subrato; Nielsen, Kurt; Oro, David; Prichard, Benjamin; Rose, Chris R; Sanchez, Manolito; Schauer, Martin M; Seitz, Gerald; Schulze, Martin; Bender, Howard A; Broste, William B; Carlson, Carl A; Frayer, Daniel K; Johnson, Douglas E; Tom, C Y; Trainham, C; Williams, John; Scarpetti, Raymond; Genoni, Thomas; Hughes, Thomas; Toma, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    The second axis of the Dual Axis Radiography of Hydrodynamic Testing (DARHT) facility produces up to four radiographs within an interval of 1.6 microseconds. It accomplishes this by slicing four micro-pulses out of a long 1.8-kA, 16.5-MeV electron beam pulse and focusing them onto a bremsstrahlung converter target. The long beam pulse is created by a dispenser cathode diode and accelerated by the unique DARHT Axis-II linear induction accelerator (LIA). Beam motion in the accelerator would be a problem for radiography. High frequency motion, such as from beam breakup instability, would blur the individual spots. Low frequency motion, such as produced by pulsed power variation, would produce spot to spot differences. In this article, we describe these sources of beam motion, and the measures we have taken to minimize it.

  2. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1997-11-18

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications. 5 figs.

  3. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-15

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  4. Apparatus for and method of operating a cylindrical pulsed induction mass launcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Duggin, Billy W.; Widner, Melvin M.

    1992-01-01

    An electromagnetic cylindrical projectile mass launcher and a method of operation is provided which includes a cylindrical projectile having a conducting armature, a cylindrical barrel in which the armature is received, a plurality of electromagnetic drive coil stages, a plurality of pulse energy sources, and a pulsed power arrangement for generating magnetic pulses forming a pulsed magnetic wave along the length of the launcher barrel. The pulsed magnetic wave provides a propelling force on the projectile along the drive coil. The pulsed magnetic wave of the drive coil stages is advanced along the armature faster than the projectile to thereby generate an induced current wave in the armature. The pulsed generation of the magnetic wave minimizes electromagnetic heating of the projectile and provides for smooth acceleration of the projectile through the barrel of the launcher.

  5. High Energy, Short Pulse Fiber Injection Lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2008-09-10

    A short pulse fiber injection laser for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system produces 100 {micro}J pulses with 5 nm of bandwidth centered at 1053 nm. The pulses are stretched to 2.5 ns and have been recompressed to sub-ps pulse widths. A key feature of the system is that the pre-pulse power contrast ratio exceeds 80 dB. The system can also precisely adjust the final recompressed pulse width and timing and has been designed for reliable, hands free operation. The key challenges in constructing this system were control of the signal to noise ratio, dispersion management and managing the impact of self phase modulation on the chirped pulse.

  6. Apparatus for and method of operating a cylindrical pulsed induction mass launcher

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Duggin, B.W.; Widner, M.M.

    1992-06-30

    An electromagnetic cylindrical projectile mass launcher and a method of operation is provided which includes a cylindrical projectile having a conducting armature, a cylindrical barrel in which the armature is received, a plurality of electromagnetic drive coil stages, a plurality of pulse energy sources, and a pulsed power arrangement for generating magnetic pulses forming a pulsed magnetic wave along the length of the launcher barrel. The pulsed magnetic wave provides a propelling force on the projectile along the drive coil. The pulsed magnetic wave of the drive coil stages is advanced along the armature faster than the projectile to thereby generate an induced current wave in the armature. The pulsed generation of the magnetic wave minimizes electromagnetic heating of the projectile and provides for smooth acceleration of the projectile through the barrel of the launcher. 2 figs.

  7. Village power options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lilienthal, P.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three different computer codes which have been written to model village power applications. The reasons which have driven the development of these codes include: the existance of limited field data; diverse applications can be modeled; models allow cost and performance comparisons; simulations generate insights into cost structures. The models which are discussed are: Hybrid2, a public code which provides detailed engineering simulations to analyze the performance of a particular configuration; HOMER - the hybrid optimization model for electric renewables - which provides economic screening for sensitivity analyses; and VIPOR the village power model - which is a network optimization model for comparing mini-grids to individual systems. Examples of the output of these codes are presented for specific applications.

  8. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  9. MERCURY CONTROL WITH ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller

    2005-05-01

    This project was awarded under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Program Solicitation DE-PS26-00NT40769 and specifically addressed Technical Topical Area 4-Testing Novel and Less Mature Control Technologies on Actual Flue Gas at the Pilot Scale. The project team included the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) as the main contractor; W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., as a technical and financial partner; and the Big Stone Power Plant operated by Otter Tail Power Company, host for the field-testing portion of the research. Since 1995, DOE has supported development of a new concept in particulate control called the advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC). The AHPC has been licensed to W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., and has been marketed as the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter by Gore. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a unique configuration, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter also appears to have unique advantages for mercury control over baghouses or ESPs as an excellent gas--solid contactor. The objective of the project was to demonstrate 90% total mercury control in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter at a lower cost than current mercury control estimates. The approach included bench-scale batch tests, larger-scale pilot testing with real flue gas on a coal-fired combustion system, and field demonstration at the 2.5-MW (9000-acfm) scale at a utility power plant to prove scale-up and demonstrate longer-term mercury control

  10. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-31

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  11. Lower Hybrid Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lower Hybrid Experiments on MST M.C. Kaufman, J.A. Goetz, M.A. Thomas, D.R. Burke and D.J. Clayton Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madision, WI 53706 Abstract. Current drive using RF waves has been proposed as a means to reduce the tearing fluctuations responsible for anomalous energy transport in the RFP. A traveling wave antenna op- erating at 800 MHz is being used to launch lower hybrid waves into MST to assess the feasibility of this approach. Parameter studies show that edge

  12. Plasma lenses for ultrashort multi-petawatt laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palastro, J. P.; Gordon, D.; Hafizi, B.; Johnson, L. A.; Peñano, J.; Hubbard, R. F.; Helle, M.; Kaganovich, D.

    2015-12-15

    An ideal plasma lens can provide the focusing power of a small f-number, solid-state focusing optic at a fraction of the diameter. An ideal plasma lens, however, relies on a steady-state, linear laser pulse-plasma interaction. Ultrashort multi-petawatt (MPW) pulses possess broad bandwidths and extreme intensities, and, as a result, their interaction with the plasma lens is neither steady state nor linear. Here, we examine nonlinear and time-dependent modifications to plasma lens focusing, and show that these result in chromatic and phase aberrations and amplitude distortion. We find that a plasma lens can provide enhanced focusing for 30 fs pulses with peak power up to ∼1 PW. The performance degrades through the MPW regime, until finally a focusing penalty is incurred at ∼10 PW.

  13. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bird, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits.

  14. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Roswitha S. (Knoxville, TN); Todd, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN)

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  15. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  16. Attosecond and zeptosecond x-ray pulses via nonlinear Thomson backscattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Wang Xinlin

    2005-12-15

    Nonlinear Thomson backscattering of an intense circularly polarized laser by a counterpropagating energetic electron is investigated. The results show that in the scattering of a non-tightly-focused laser pulse with an intensity around 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2} and a pulse duration of 100 fs full width at half maximum by a counterpropagating electron with an initial energy of 10 MeV, a crescent-shaped pulse with a pulse duration of 469 as and the photon energy ranging from 230 eV to 2.5 keV is generated in the backward direction. It is shown that the radiated pulse shape and monochromaticity can be modified by changing the laser beam waist, while in the case of a tightly focused laser field, a single peak pulse with a shorter duration and better monochromaticity can be obtained. With increase of the electron initial energy, the peak power of the radiated pulse increases and the pulse duration decreases. An isolated powerful zeptosecond (10{sup -21} s) pulse with a peak power of about 10{sup 10} W/rad{sup 2} and photon energy up to several MeV can be obtained with a 250 MeV electron.

  17. Influences of impedance matching network on pulse-modulated radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huo, W. G. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Technology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029 (China); Xu, K.; Sun, B.; Ding, Z. F. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Pulse-modulated RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APDGs) were investigated in recent years to reduce the thermal accumulation and extend the operation region of the stable alpha glow mode. Different pulse-modulated voltage and current waveforms were acquired in previous experiments, but no attention was paid to the interpretation. We investigated this issue and associated phenomenon via positive and negative feedback effects derived from varying the series capacitor in the inversely L-shaped matching network used in our pulse-modulated RF APGD source. The evolutions of pulse-modulated RF waveforms were found to be associated with the feedback region and the pulsed plasma absorbed RF power. In the positive feedback region, pulse-modulated RF APGDs are relatively stable. In the negative feedback region, wide spikes as well as undershoots occur in RF voltage and current waveforms and the plasma absorbed RF power. In case of a high RF power discharge with a low modulation frequency, the pulse-modulated RF APGD is extinguished and re-ignited due to the enhanced undershoot during the initial pulse phase. The pulse-modulated RF APGD can transit from positive to negative feedback region in a range of series capacitance. Experimental results are discussed by the aid of equivalent circuit, negative and positive feedback effects.

  18. Electric field determination in the plasma-antenna boundary of a lower-hybrid wave launcher in Tore Supra through dynamic Stark-effect spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Elijah H.; Goniche, M.; Klepper, C. Christopher; Hillairet, J.; Isler, Ralph C.; Bottereau, C.; Colas, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourie, B.; Lotte, Ph.; Colledani, G.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hillis, Donald Lee; Shannon, S.C.; Clairet, F.; Litaudon, X.

    2015-04-22

    Interaction of radio-frequency (RF) waves with the plasma in the near-field of a high-power wave launcher is now seen to be important, both in understanding the channeling of these waves through the plasma boundary and in avoiding power losses in the edge. In a recent Letter a direct non-intrusive measurement of a near antenna RF electric field in the range of lower hybrid (LH) frequencies ($E_{LH}$) was announced (Phys. Rev. Lett., 110:215005, 2013). The measurement was achieved through the fitting of Balmer series deuterium spectral lines utilizing a time dependent (dynamic) Stark effect model. In this article, the processing of the spectral data is discussed in detail and applied to a larger range of measurements and the accuracy and limitations of the experimental technique is investigated. We find through an analysis of numerous Tore Supra pulses that good quantitative agreement exists between the measured and full-wave modeled $E_{LH}$ when the launched power exceeds 0.5MW. For low power the measurement becomes formidable utilizing the implemented passive spectroscopic technique because the spectral noise overwhelms the effect of the RF electric field on the line profile. Additionally, effects of the ponderomotive force are suspected at sufficiently high power.

  19. Electric field determination in the plasma-antenna boundary of a lower-hybrid wave launcher in Tore Supra through dynamic Stark-effect spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martin, Elijah H.; Goniche, M.; Klepper, C. Christopher; Hillairet, J.; Isler, Ralph C.; Bottereau, C.; Colas, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Panayotis, S.; Pegourie, B.; et al

    2015-04-22

    Interaction of radio-frequency (RF) waves with the plasma in the near-field of a high-power wave launcher is now seen to be important, both in understanding the channeling of these waves through the plasma boundary and in avoiding power losses in the edge. In a recent Letter a direct non-intrusive measurement of a near antenna RF electric field in the range of lower hybrid (LH) frequencies (more » $$E_{LH}$$) was announced (Phys. Rev. Lett., 110:215005, 2013). The measurement was achieved through the fitting of Balmer series deuterium spectral lines utilizing a time dependent (dynamic) Stark effect model. In this article, the processing of the spectral data is discussed in detail and applied to a larger range of measurements and the accuracy and limitations of the experimental technique is investigated. We find through an analysis of numerous Tore Supra pulses that good quantitative agreement exists between the measured and full-wave modeled $$E_{LH}$$ when the launched power exceeds 0.5MW. For low power the measurement becomes formidable utilizing the implemented passive spectroscopic technique because the spectral noise overwhelms the effect of the RF electric field on the line profile. Additionally, effects of the ponderomotive force are suspected at sufficiently high power.« less

  20. Electric field determination in the plasma-antenna boundary of a lower-hybrid wave launcher in Tore Supra through dynamic Stark-effect spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Elijah H; Goniche, M.; Klepper, C Christopher; Hillairet, J.; Isler, Ralph C; Caughman, J. B. O.; Colas, L.; Ekedahl, A.; Colledani, G.; Lotte, Ph.; Litaudon, X; Hillis, Donald Lee; Harris, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of radio-frequency (RF) waves with the plasma in the near-field of a high-power wave launcher is now seen to be important, both in understanding the channeling of these waves through the plasma boundary and in avoiding power losses in the edge. In a recent Letter a direct non-intrusive measurement of a near antenna RF electric field in the range of lower hybrid (LH) frequencies ($E_{LH}$) was announced (Phys. Rev. Lett., 110:215005, 2013). The measurement was achieved through the fitting of Balmer series deuterium spectral lines utilizing a time dependent (dynamic) Stark effect model. In this article, the processing of the spectral data is discussed in detail and applied to a larger range of measurements and the accuracy and limitations of the experimental technique is investigated. It was found through an analysis of numerous Tore Supra pulses that good quantitative agreement exists between the measured and full-wave modeled $E_{LH}$ when the launched power exceeds 0.5MW. For low power the measurement becomes formidable utilizing the implemented passive spectroscopic technique because the spectral noise overwhelms the effect of the RF electric field on the line profile. Additionally, effects of the ponderomotive force are suspected at sufficiently high power.