Sample records for hybrid electric medium

  1. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation 2011 DOE...

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    arravt068vssmiyasato2011o .pdf More Documents & Publications SCAQMD:Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium-Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation Plug-In Hybrid...

  3. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington D.C. vssarravt068miyasato2010p.pdf More Documents & Publications Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation SCAQMD:Plug-In...

  4. Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Questions, Answers and Clarifications Used MediumDuty Electric Vehicle Repower Demonstration PON). Q5. A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle repower could provide some electric drive with an engine for extended range. Would a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an internal combustion engine be considered

  5. ECE 438 Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ECE 438 ­ Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Catalog Description: History of electric traction. Introduction to electric and hybrid-electric vehicle configurations. Vehicle mechanics. Energy sources and storage. Range prediction. Motor for HEVs. Electric drive components. Vehicle transmission system. Credits

  6. Module 8: Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This course covers hybrid electric vehicles, electric motors, auxiliary power units, generators, energy storage systems, regenerative braking, control systems

  7. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  8. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  9. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  10. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, R.G. Jr.; Boberg, E.S.; Lawrie, R.E.; Castaing, F.J.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration. 34 figs.

  11. Powertrain system for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Jr., Richard G. (Royal Oak, MI); Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Lawrie, Robert E. (Whitmore Lake, MI); Castaing, Francois J. (Bloomfield Township, MI)

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including an electric motor/generator drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of a transmission. The electric is utilized for synchronizing the rotation of the drive shaft with the driven shaft during gear shift operations. In addition, a mild hybrid concept is provided which utilizes a smaller electric motor than typical hybrid powertrain systems. Because the electric motor is drivingly engaged with the drive shaft of the transmission, the electric motor/generator is driven at high speed even when the vehicle speed is low so that the electric motor/generator provides more efficient regeneration.

  12. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.

    2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides an overview on the current status, long-term prospects, and key challenges in the development of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology.

  13. Development and Demonstration of a Low Cost Hybrid Drive Train for Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strangas, Elias; Schock, Harold; Zhu, Guoming; Moran, Kevin; Ruckle, Trevor; Foster, Shanelle; Cintron-Rivera, Jorge; Tariq, Abdul; Nino-Baron, Carlos

    2011-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE sponsored effort is part of a larger effort to quantify the efficiency of hybrid powertrain systems through testing and modeling. The focus of the DOE sponsored activity was the design, development and testing of hardware to evaluate the efficiency of the electrical motors relevant to medium duty vehicles. Medium duty hybrid powertrain motors and generators were designed, fabricated, setup and tested. The motors were a permanent magnet configuration, constructed at Electric Apparatus Corporation in Howell, Michigan. The purpose of this was to identify the potential gains in terms of fuel cost savings that could be realized by implementation of such a configuration. As the electric motors constructed were prototype designs, the scope of the project did not include calculation of the costs of mass production of the subject electrical motors or generator.

  14. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program...

  15. System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions Comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with gasoline and diesel engines will be conducted with focus on...

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for Hybrid and Electric...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Materials for Hybrid and Electric Drive Systems Vehicle Technologies Office: Materials for Hybrid and Electric Drive Systems The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is working to...

  17. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure), Vehicle Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP) Describes...

  18. Fact #875: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - Dataset Fact 875: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014...

  19. Wind/Hybrid Electricity Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDaniel, Lori

    2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind energy is widely recognized as the most efficient and cost effective form of new renewable energy available in the Midwest. New utility-scale wind farms (arrays of large turbines in high wind areas producing sufficient energy to serve thousands of homes) rival the cost of building new conventional forms of combustion energy plants, gas, diesel and coal power plants. Wind energy is not subject to the inflationary cost of fossil fuels. Wind energy can also be very attractive to residential and commercial electric customers in high wind areas who would like to be more self-sufficient for their energy needs. And wind energy is friendly to the environment at a time when there is increasing concern about pollution and climate change. However, wind energy is an intermittent source of power. Most wind turbines start producing small amounts of electricity at about 8-10 mph (4 meters per second) of wind speed. The turbine does not reach its rated output until the wind reaches about 26-28 mph (12 m/s). So what do you do for power when the output of the wind turbine is not sufficient to meet the demand for energy? This paper will discuss wind hybrid technology options that mix wind with other power sources and storage devices to help solve this problem. This will be done on a variety of scales on the impact of wind energy on the utility system as a whole, and on the commercial and small-scale residential applications. The average cost and cost-benefit of each application along with references to manufacturers will be given. Emerging technologies that promise to shape the future of renewable energy will be explored as well.

  20. Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles -Prediction horizon and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predictive energy management for hybrid electric vehicles - Prediction horizon and battery capacity of a combined hybrid electric vehicle. Keywords: Hybrid vehicles, Energy Management, Predictive control, Optimal predictive energy management realistic. This energy management strategy uses a dynamic programming algorithm

  1. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  2. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  3. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative agreements and their completion were problematic for the US and world economies. This resulted in the President and Congress implementing the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, abbreviated ARRA (Pub.L. 111-5), commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act. The stimulus money available for transportation projects encouraged the SCAQMD to seek additional funds. In August of 2009, they eventually were awarded an additional $45.5 M, and the scope of their project was expanded to 378 vehicles. However, as a consequence of the stimulus money and the inundation of DOE with applications for new project under the ARRA, the expected time table for producing and testing vehicles was significantly delayed. As a result, these vehicles were not available for validating the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium. Therefore, in April of 2011, the Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) for the project was revised, and limited to producing the draft protocol for PHEV certification as its deliverable.

  4. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moderate Hybrid-electric Vehicles. ESScap06, Switzerland,GH. SIMPLEV: A Simple Electric Vehicle Simulation Program-20 th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, Long Beach,

  5. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), all-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, they have great potential to cut U.S. petroleum use and vehicle emissions.

  6. Hybrid & electric vehicle technology and its market feasibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeon, Sang Yeob

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV), Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) and Electric Vehicle (EV) technology and their sales forecasts are discussed. First, the current limitations and the future potential ...

  7. Statistical Characterization of Medium-Duty Electric Vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new EVs. Within the medium- and heavy-duty commercial vehicle segment, both the Smith Electric Newton and Navistar eStar vehicles qualified for such funding opportunities....

  8. Hybrid Electric Systems: Goals, Strategies, and Top Accomplishments (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describes the work EERE is doing in the areas of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and all-electric vehicles.

  9. 2010 Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 Plug-In Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Research Center TRANSPORTATION ENERGY RESEARCH PIER The PlugIn and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Researc Center conducts research in: · Battery second life applications. Plugin hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are promising

  10. Electric-drive tractability indicator integrated in hybrid electric vehicle tachometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamai, Goro; Zhou, Jing; Weslati, Feisel

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An indicator, system and method of indicating electric drive usability in a hybrid electric vehicle. A tachometer is used that includes a display having an all-electric drive portion and a hybrid drive portion. The all-electric drive portion and the hybrid drive portion share a first boundary which indicates a minimum electric drive usability and a beginning of hybrid drive operation of the vehicle. The indicated level of electric drive usability is derived from at least one of a percent battery discharge, a percent maximum torque provided by the electric drive, and a percent electric drive to hybrid drive operating cost for the hybrid electric vehicle.

  11. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power Battery for Hybrid Vehicle Applications. ProceedingsAF. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Design and Performance.A, Thornton M. Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Analysis. NREL/MP-540-

  12. Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-Electric/Diesel Powertrain...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-ElectricDiesel Powertrain in a Class 4 Parcel Delivery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvements from a Hybrid-ElectricDiesel Powertrain in a Class 4...

  13. Tempe Transportation Division: LNG Turbine Hybrid Electric Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describes the performance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) turbine hybrid electric buses used in Tempe's Transportation Division.

  14. Modeling Grid-Connected Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using ADVISOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Wipke, K.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents an electric utility grid-connected energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR, a modeling tool.

  15. Ultracapacitor Applications and Evaluation for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Gonder, J.; Keyser, M.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describes the use of ultracapacitors in advanced hybrid and electric vehicles and discusses thermal and electrical testing of lithium ion capacitors for HEV applications.

  16. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure), Vehicle Technologies...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vehicle into an electric power source. Although electricity production may contribute to air pollution, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers EVs Hybrid and...

  17. Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    of battery bank can be reduced for optimum design. Keywords -- Silicon carbide (SiC), inverter, hybrid -- The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV has rapidly expanded. The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc

  18. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study IInntteerriimm RReeppoorrtt:: PPhhaassee 11 Government or any agency thereof. ORNL/TM-2008/076 #12;Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition 2009 i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study

  19. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 3:Phase 1, Task 3: Technic Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/068 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition The Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Proposition Study is a collaborative effort between

  20. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study Phase 1, Task 2: Select Value Propositions Government or any agency thereof. #12;ORNL/TM-2008/056 Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Value Propositions Workshop held in Washington, D.C. in December 2007

  1. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure), Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  2. Testing Electric Vehicle Demand in "Hybrid Households" Using a Reflexive Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S.; Turrentine, Thomas; Sperling, Daniel

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to a hybrid vehicle whichcombines multipleor 180 mile hybrid electric vehicle. Natural gas vehicles (1994) "Demand Electric Vehicles in Hybrid for Households:

  3. AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Tractor Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following set of reports describes data collected from hybrid-electric tractor vehicles in the Coca-Cola fleet. This research was conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. This page provides data on the hybrid electric versions of the Volkswagen Jetta, Ford C-Max, Chevrolet Malibu, Honda Civic, Hyundai Sonata, Honda CRZ, Honda Civic with Advanced Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery, Mercedes Benz, Toyota Prius Gen III, Ford Fusion, Honda Insight and Honda CR-Z.

  5. AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following set of reports describes data collected from testing on FedEx Express and UPS hybrid-electric delivery trucks. This research was conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  6. Power Conditioning for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farhangi, Babak

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) propel from the electric energy stored in the batteries and gasoline stored in the fuel tank. PHEVs and Electric Vehicles (EVs) connect to external sources to charge the batteries. Moreover, PHEVs can supply...

  7. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    batteries and ultracapacitors for electric vehicles. EVS24Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposiumpublications on electric and hybrid vehicle technology and

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWP RelatedCellulase C.Tier 2NorthAvailability toElectricHybrid

  9. Case Study: Ebus Hybrid Electric Buses and Trolleys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation focuses on the demonstration of hybrid electric buses and trolleys produced by Ebus Inc. at the Indianapolis Transportation Corporation and the Knoxville Area Transit.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Delivery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vehicles The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a...

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Tractor Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tractor Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Tractor Vehicles The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a...

  12. 2008 DOE Annual Merit Review Hybrid and Electric Systems and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Materials Technologies Plenary Session Overview 2008 DOE Annual Merit Review Hybrid and Electric Systems and Materials Technologies Plenary Session Overview Presentation from the...

  13. Toyota Gen III Prius Hybrid Electric Vehicle Accelerated Testing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    HEV Accelerated Testing - September 2011 Two model year 2010 Toyota Generation III Prius hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) entered Accelerated testing during July 2009 in a fleet in...

  14. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today's electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between refueling'' stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  15. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Technology: TOPTEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today, growing awareness of environmental and energy issues associated with the automobile has resulted in renewed interest in the electric vehicle. In recognition of this, the Society of Automotive Engineers has added a TOPTEC on electric vehicles to the series of technical symposia focused on key issues currently facing industry and government. This workshop on the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle provides an opportunity to learn about recent progress in these rapidly changing technologies. Research and development of both the vehicle and battery system has accelerated sharply and in fact, the improved technologies of the powertrain system make the performance of today`s electric vehicle quite comparable to the equivalent gasoline vehicle, with the exception of driving range between ``refueling`` stops. Also, since there is no tailpipe emission, the electric vehicle meets the definition of ``Zero Emission Vehicle: embodied in recent air quality regulations. The discussion forum will include a review of the advantages and limitations of electric vehicles, where the technologies are today and where they need to be in order to get to production level vehicles, and the service and maintenance requirements once they get to the road. There will be a major focus on the status of battery technologies, the various approaches to recharge of the battery systems and the activities currently underway for developing standards throughout the vehicle and infrastructure system. Intermingled in all of this technology discussion will be a view of the new relationships emerging between the auto industry, the utilities, and government. Since the electric vehicle and its support system will be the most radical change ever introduced into the private vehicle sector of the transportation system, success in the market requires an understanding of the role of all of the partners, as well as the new technologies involved.

  16. Ultracapacitors for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles - Performance Requirements, Status of the Technology, and R&D Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew F

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5. Burke, A.F. , Electric/Hybrid Vehicle Super Car Designsin Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, SAE Paper No. 951951,for Electric and Hybrid Vehicles - A Technology Update,

  17. Computer Aided Design Tool for Electric, Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskandari Halvaii, Ali

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This research is focused on designing a new generation of CAD tools that could help a ”hybrid vehicle” designer with the design process to come up with better vehicle configurations. The conventional design process for any type of hybrid...

  18. DOE Hybrid Electric Vehicle Test Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yimin

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the contract NT-42790 to the Department of Energy, “Plug-in Hybrid Ethanol Research Platform”, Advanced Vehicle Research Center (AVRC) Virginia has successfully developed the phase I electric drive train research platform which has been named as Laboratory Rapid Application Testbed (LabRAT). In phase II, LabRAT is to be upgraded into plug-in hybrid research platform, which will be capable of testing power systems for electric vehicles, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles running on conventional as well as alternative fuels. LabRAT is configured as a rolling testbed with plentiful space for installing various component configurations. Component connections are modularized for flexibility and are easily replaced for testing various mechanisms. LabRAT is designed and built as a full functional vehicle chassis with a steering system, brake system and four wheel suspension. The rear drive axle offers maximum flexibility with a quickly changeable gear ratio final drive to accommodate different motor speed requirements. The electric drive system includes an electric motor which is mechanically connected to the rear axle through an integrated speed/torque sensor. Initially, a 100 kW UQM motor and corresponding UQM motor controller is used which can be easily replaced with another motor/controller combination. A lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery pack is installed, which consists of 108 cells of 100 AH capacity, giving the total energy capacity of 32.5 kWh. Correspondingly, a fully functional battery management system (BMS) is installed to perform battery cell operation monitoring, cell voltage balancing, and reporting battery real time operating parameters to vehicle controller. An advanced vehicle controller ECU is installed for controlling the drive train. The vehicle controller ECU receives traction or braking torque command from driver through accelerator and brake pedal position sensors and battery operating signals from the BMS through CAN BUS, and then generates motor torque command (traction or braking) to the motor controller based on the control algorithm software embedded in the vehicle controller ECU. The vehicle controller ECU is a re-programmable electronic control unit. Any control algorithm software developed can be easily downloaded to vehicle controller ECU to test any newly developed control strategy. The flexibility of the control system significantly enhances the practical applicability of the LabRAT. A new test methodology has been developed for the LabRAT simulating any vehicles running on road with different weights from compact passenger car to light duty truck on an AC or eddy current dynamometers without much effort for modification of the system. LabRAT is equipped with a fully functional data acquisition system supplied by CyberMetrix. The measurement points along the drive train are DC electric power between battery pack and motor controller input, AC electric power between motor controller and electric motor, mechanical power between motor and rear axle. The data acquisition system is designed with more capability than current requirements in order to meet the requirements for phase II.

  19. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ultracapacitors, fuel cells and hybrid vehicle design. Dr.on electric and hybrid vehicle technology and applicationssupervises testing in the Hybrid Vehicle Propulsion Systems

  20. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rd International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exposition (Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications, Sandiaand Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options EPRI, Palo

  1. Project Overview: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes UPS second generation hybrid-electric delivery vehicles as compared to conventional delivery vehicles. Medium-duty commercial vehicles such as moving trucks, beverage-delivery trucks, and package-delivery vans consume almost 2,000 gal of fuel per year on average. United Parcel Service (UPS) operates hybrid-electric package-delivery vans to reduce the fuel use and emissions of its fleet. In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Fleet Test and Evaluation Team evaluated the first generation of UPS' hybrid delivery vans. These hybrid vans demonstrated 29%-37% higher fuel economy than comparable conventional diesel vans, which contributed to UPS' decision to add second-generation hybrid vans to its fleet. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team is now evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 second-generation hybrid vans and 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operated by UPS in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The evaluation also includes testing fuel economy and emissions at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory and comparing diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration. In addition, a followup evaluation of UPS' first-generation hybrid vans will show how those vehicles performed over three years of operation. One goal of this project is to provide a consistent comparison of fuel economy and operating costs between the second-generation hybrid vans and comparable conventional vans. Additional goals include quantifying the effects of hybridization on DPF regeneration and helping UPS select delivery routes for its hybrid vans that maximize the benefits of hybrid technology. This document introduces the UPS second-generation hybrid evaluation project. Final results will be available in mid-2012.

  2. Fact #796: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales History Fact 796: September 9, 2013 Electric Vehicle and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales...

  3. Model-Based Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R. A.; Brooker, A. D.; Ramroth, L.

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Medium-duty vehicles are used in a broad array of fleet applications, including parcel delivery. These vehicles are excellent candidates for electric drive applications due to their transient-intensive duty cycles, operation in densely populated areas, and relatively high fuel consumption and emissions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a robust assessment of parcel delivery routes and completed a model-based techno-economic analysis of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle configurations. First, NREL characterized parcel delivery vehicle usage patterns, most notably daily distance driven and drive cycle intensity. Second, drive-cycle analysis results framed the selection of drive cycles used to test a parcel delivery HEV on a chassis dynamometer. Next, measured fuel consumption results were used to validate simulated fuel consumption values derived from a dynamic model of the parcel delivery vehicle. Finally, NREL swept a matrix of 120 component size, usage, and cost combinations to assess impacts on fuel consumption and vehicle cost. The results illustrated the dependency of component sizing on drive-cycle intensity and daily distance driven and may allow parcel delivery fleets to match the most appropriate electric drive vehicle to their fleet usage profile.

  4. Testing Electric Vehicle Demand in `Hybrid Households' Using a Reflexive Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth; Turrentine, Thomas; Sperling, Daniel

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    travel by electric and hybrid vehicles. SAE Technical PapersIn contrast to a hybrid vehicle which combines multipleElectric, Hybrid and Other Alternative Vehicles. A r t h u r

  5. Optimally controlling hybrid electric vehicles using path forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katsargyri, Georgia-Evangelina

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) with path-forecasting belong to the class of fuel efficient vehicles, which use external sensory information and powertrains with multiple operating modes in order to increase fuel economy. ...

  6. Optimized control studies of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bougler, Benedicte Bernadette

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis addresses the development of a control scheme to maximize automobile fuel economy and battery state-of-charge (SOC) while meeting exhaust emission standards for parallel hybrid electric vehicles, which are an alternative to conventional...

  7. 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy National...

  8. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Mathew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  9. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  10. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    6 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  11. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    9679 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk Jeffrey Wishart July 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department...

  12. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Matthew Shirk January 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S. Department of Energy...

  13. Optimally Controlling Hybrid Electric Vehicles using Path Forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

    The paper examines path-dependent control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). In this approach we seek to improve HEV fuel economy by optimizing charging and discharging of the vehicle battery depending on the forecasted ...

  14. Path dependent receding horizon control policies for hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

    Future hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) may use path-dependent operating policies to improve fuel economy. In our previous work, we developed a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm for prescribing the battery state of charge ...

  15. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    9. Burke A, Miller M. Supercapacitors for Hybrid-electricP/E P/E voltage Wh/kg Carbon/carbon supercapacitors Hybridcarbon supercapacitors Lithium-ion batteries Iron phosphate

  16. 2007 Toyota Camry-6330 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K673006330). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct AVTA for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. 2007 Nissan Altima-7982 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Grey; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number 1N4CL21E27C177982). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. 2006 Toyota Highlander-5681 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Highlander hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTEDW21A860005681). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. 2007 Toyota Camry-7129 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTNBB46K773007129). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Simulating the Household Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Distribution and its Electric Distribution Network Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Hoe Kyoung [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for modeling spatial distribution of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ownership at local residential level, discovering plug-in hybrid electric vehicle hot zones where ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and estimating the impacts of the increasing plug-in hybrid electric vehicle ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. We use Knox County, Tennessee as a case study to highlight the simulation results of the agent-based simulation framework.

  1. Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Axsen, Jonn; Caperello, Nicolette; Davies, Jamie; Stillwater, Tai

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and thetechnology: California's electric vehicle program. Scienceand Impacts of Hybrid Electric Vehicle Options for a Compact

  2. Analysis of data from electric and hybrid electric vehicle student competitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wipke, K.B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Hill, N.; Larsen, R.P. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy sponsored several student engineering competitions in 1993 that provided useful information on electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The electrical energy usage from these competitions has been recorded with a custom-built digital meter installed in every vehicle and used under controlled conditions. When combined with other factors, such as vehicle mass, speed, distance traveled, battery type, and type of components, this information provides useful insight into the performance characteristics of electrics and hybrids. All the vehicles tested were either electric vehicles or hybrid vehicles in electric-only mode, and had an average energy economy of 7.0 km/kwh. Based on the performance of the ``ground-up`` hybrid electric vehicles in the 1993 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge, data revealed a I km/kwh energy economy benefit for every 133 kg decrease in vehicle mass. By running all the electric vehicles at a competition in Atlanta at several different constant speeds, the effects of rolling resistance and aerodynamic drag were evaluated. On average, these vehicles were 32% more energy efficient at 40 km/h than at 72 km/h. The results of the competition data analysis confirm that these engineering competitions not only provide an educational experience for the students, but also show technology performance and improvements in electric and hybrid vehicles by setting benchmarks and revealing trends.

  3. Topology, design, analysis and thermal management of power electronics for hybrid electric vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    an important role in the success of electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles. Typical power electronics circuits/DC converter; electric drives; electric vehicles; fuel cell; hybrid electric vehicles; power electronics, motor for fuel cells and advanced heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles. He also has experience with alternative

  4. Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Karner

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) testing in order to provide benchmark data for technology modeling and research and development programs, and to be an independent source of test data for fleet managers and other early adaptors of advanced-technology vehicles. To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on 12 HEV models and accumulated 2.7 million fleet testing miles on 35 HEVs. The HEV baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed-track testing to document HEV performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model accumulate 160,000 test miles within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events and fuel use were recorded. Three models of PHEVs, from vehicle converters Energy CS and Hymotion and the original equipment manufacturer Renault, are currently in testing. The PHEV baseline performance testing includes 5 days of dynamometer testing with a minimum of 26 test drive cycles, including the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule, the Highway Fuel Economy Driving Schedule, and the US06 test cycle, in charge-depleting and charge-sustaining modes. The PHEV accelerated testing is conducted with dedicated drivers for 4,240 miles, over a series of 132 driving loops that range from 10 to 200 miles over various combinations of defined 10-mile urban and 10-mile highway loops, with 984 hours of vehicle charging. The AVTA is part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities were conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Applications, with dynamometer testing conducted at Argonne National Laboratory. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

  5. Physical model of a hybrid electric drive train

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Brady W. (Brady William)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A motor and flywheel system was designed to simulate the dynamics of the electric drive train and inertial mass of a hybrid electric vehicle. The model will serve as a test bed for students in 2.672 to study the energy ...

  6. LEARN MORE @ HYBRID ELECTRIC SAVING FUEL = SAVING MONEY = CLEANER AIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . PROJECT PARTNERS Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) combine the benefits of an internal combustion engine the combustion engine is assisted by the electric motor, allowing the engine to run at more optimal operating. Diesel engines are more efficient and diesel fuel has more energy per gallon than gasoline. www

  7. Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics - opportunities and challenges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Williams, Stuart J. [University of Louisville, Louisville; Chuang, Han-sheng [University of Pennsylvania; Green, Nicolas [University of Southampton, England; Wereley, Steven G. [Purdue University

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid opto-electric manipulation in microfluidics/nanofluidics refers to a set of technologies that employ both optical and electrical forces to achieve particle or fluid manipulation at the micro and nano scale. These technologies, which have emerged primarily over the last decade, have provided a revolutionary and fresh perspective at fundamental electrokinetic processes, as well as have engendered a novel applications and devices. Hybrid opto-electric techniques have been utilized to manipulate objects ranging in diversity from millimeter-sized droplets to nano-particles. This review article discusses the underlying principles, applications and future perspectives of various techniques that have emerged over the last decade under a unified umbrella.

  8. An Optimization Model for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The necessity for environmentally conscious vehicle designs in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change have induced significant investment towards enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. More recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have held great intuitive appeal and have attracted considerable attention. PHEVs have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the commercial transportation sector. They are especially appealing in situations where daily commuting is within a small amount of miles with excessive stop-and-go driving. The research effort outlined in this paper aims to investigate the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium-duty PHEV. An optimization framework is developed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, e.g., pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the optimal design with respect to motor/generator and battery size. A comparison between the conventional and PHEV configurations with equivalent size and performance under the same driving conditions is conducted, thus allowing an assessment of the fuel economy and GHG emissions potential improvement. The post-transmission parallel configuration yields higher fuel economy and less GHG emissions compared to pre-transmission configuration partly attributable to the enhanced regenerative braking efficiency.

  9. Computer Aided Design Tool for Electric, Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskandari Halvaii, Ali

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 ix LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I Average power with full and no regenerative braking for different drive cycles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 x LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Electric vehicle structure. A.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 66 The power required to run the vehicle: instantaneous, average with and average without regenerative braking. . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 67 Engine operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 68 Power sent...

  10. Testing hybrid electric vehicle emissions and fuel economy at the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duoba, M.; Quong, S.; LeBlanc, N.; Larsen, R.P.

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From June 12--20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, they were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.

  11. Analysis of Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Truck Technologies Using Diesel, LNG, Electricity, and Hydrogen, as the Fuel for Various Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Table 11. For the hybrid vehicle economic comparisons,aspects of electric and hybrid vehicle design, analysis, andfuel cells and hybrid vehicle design. Dr. Burke has authored

  12. Symbolism in California’s Early Market for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. The Dollars and Sense of Hybrid Cars. AvailableSurvey of Oregon Hybrid Gas-Electric Car Owners. Portland.cars/new-cars/ high-cost-of-hybrid-vehicles-406/overview.htm

  13. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    hybrid vehicle applications ultracap energy stored Wh ultracap peak power kW systemhybrid-electric vehicles Type of hybrid System Useable energysystem. In the case of a charge sustaining hybrid, the useable energy

  14. In-Use Performance Results of Medium Duty Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes a DOE program to monitor and report on vehicle performance and energy utilization of medium-duty and heavy-duty electric vehicles.

  15. FreedomCAR :electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Crafts, Chris C.

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual defines a complete body of abuse tests intended to simulate actual use and abuse conditions that may be beyond the normal safe operating limits experienced by electrical energy storage systems used in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The tests are designed to provide a common framework for abuse testing various electrical energy storage systems used in both electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. The manual incorporates improvements and refinements to test descriptions presented in the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice SAE J2464 ''Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing'' including adaptations to abuse tests to address hybrid electric vehicle applications and other energy storage technologies (i.e., capacitors). These (possibly destructive) tests may be used as needed to determine the response of a given electrical energy storage system design under specifically defined abuse conditions. This manual does not provide acceptance criteria as a result of the testing, but rather provides results that are accurate and fair and, consequently, comparable to results from abuse tests on other similar systems. The tests described are intended for abuse testing any electrical energy storage system designed for use in electric or hybrid electric vehicle applications whether it is composed of batteries, capacitors, or a combination of the two.

  16. Development and Deployment of Generation 3 Plug-In Hybrid Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation 3 Plug-In Hybrid Electric School Buses Development and Deployment of Generation 3 Plug-In Hybrid Electric School Buses 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and...

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, A.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comparison of vehicle purchase and energy costs, and fuel-saving benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles relative to hybrid electric and conventional vehicles.

  18. Electric machine for hybrid motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John Sheungchun (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A power system for a motor vehicle having an internal combustion engine and an electric machine is disclosed. The electric machine has a stator, a permanent magnet rotor, an uncluttered rotor spaced from the permanent magnet rotor, and at least one secondary core assembly. The power system also has a gearing arrangement for coupling the internal combustion engine to wheels on the vehicle thereby providing a means for the electric machine to both power assist and brake in relation to the output of the internal combustion engine.

  19. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 3539 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Shirk; Tyler Gray; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicle batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid (VIN KMHEC4A47BA003539). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. eVMTeVMT Analysis of OnAnalysis of OnRoad Data fromRoad Data from PlugPlugIn Hybrid Electric andIn Hybrid Electric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    In Hybrid Electric and gov PlugPlug In Hybrid Electric andIn Hybrid Electric and AllAllElectric Vehicles traveled (eVMT) for· Calculated electric vehicle miles traveled (eVMT) for plug-in hybrid electric vehicleseVMTeVMT Analysis of OnAnalysis of OnRoad Data fromRoad Data from PlugPlugIn Hybrid Electric and

  1. Driving Pattern Recognition for Control of Hybrid Electric Trucks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Driving Pattern Recognition for Control of Hybrid Electric Trucks CHAN-CHIAO LIN1 , SOONIL JEON2 strategy is to minimize fuel consumption and engine-out NOx and PM emissions on a set of diversified trucks. The 21st Century Truck program in the US, spearheaded by two government agencies, Department

  2. United Parcel Service Evaluates Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet Test and Evaluation team evaluated the 12-month, in-service performance of six Class 4 hybrid electric delivery vans - fueled by regular diesel - and six comparable conventional diesel vans operated by the United Parcel Service.

  3. Reinforcement Learning Based Power Management for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    combustion engine (ICE) propelled vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) can achieve both higher fuel combustion engine (ICE) propelled vehicles, HEVs can simultaneously achieve higher fuel economy and lower that applies the reinforcement learning technique to the HEV power management problem. Simulation results over

  4. Energy Storage System Considerations for Grid-Charged Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides an overview of a study regarding energy storage system considerations for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle.

  5. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents a cost-benefit of analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle technology, including potential petroleum use reduction.

  6. Energy Storage Systems Considerations for Grid-Charged Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Simpson, A.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper calculates battery power and energy requirements for grid-charged hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) with different operating strategies.

  7. Project Startup: Evaluating Coca-Cola's Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Delivery Trucks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describing the project startup for evaluating Coca-Cola's Class 8 hybrid-electric delivery trucks.

  8. Neural Network Based Energy Storage System Modeling for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatikar, S. R.; Mahajan, R. L.; Wipke, K.; Johnson, V.

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demonstrates the application of an artificial neural network (ANN) for modeling the energy storage system of a hybrid electric vehicle.

  9. The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leung, Ka-Cheong

    INVITED P A P E R The State of the Art of Electric, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles, and constraints on energy resources, the electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles have attracted more and more the state of the art of electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles. The topologies for each category

  10. Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States: A General Equilibrium Analysis, Technology and Policy Program #12;#12;3 Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States Engineering ABSTRACT The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions

  11. Probabilistic Modelling of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Impacts on Distribution Networks in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Probabilistic Modelling of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Impacts on Distribution Networks Committee Probabilistic Modelling of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Impacts on Distribution Networks) Departmental Member Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent a promising future direction

  12. Design of Electric or Hybrid vehicle alert sound system for pedestrian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Design of Electric or Hybrid vehicle alert sound system for pedestrian J.-C. Chamard and V, France 1691 #12;The arrival of fully or hybrid electric vehicles raised safety problems respect the environment to warn of his approach. However, hybrid and electric vehicles can potentially be dangerous

  13. An Optimal Fuzzy Logic Power Sharing Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    An Optimal Fuzzy Logic Power Sharing Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles F. Khoucha1 presents a fuzzy logic controller for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The PHEV required driving economy, and emissions. Index Terms--Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), Internal Combustion Engine

  14. City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The City of Las Vegas was awarded Department of Energy (DOE) project funding in 2009, for the City of Las Vegas Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Program. This project allowed the City of Las Vegas to purchase electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and associated electric vehicle charging infrastructure. The City anticipated the electric vehicles having lower overall operating costs and emissions similar to traditional and hybrid vehicles.

  15. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  16. Electric and hybrid electric vehicles: A technology assessment based on a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A.D.; Ng, H.K.; Santini, D.J.; Anderson, J.L.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To address the uncertainty regarding future costs and operating attributes of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, a two stage, worldwide Delphi study was conducted. Expert opinions on vehicle attributes, current state of the technology, possible advancements, costs, and market penetration potential were sought for the years 2000, 2010, and 2020. Opinions related to such critical components as batteries, electric drive systems, and hybrid vehicle engines, as well as their respective technical and economic viabilities, were also obtained. This report contains descriptions of the survey methodology, analytical approach, and results of the analysis of survey data, together with a summary of other factors that will influence the degree of market success of electric and hybrid electric vehicle technologies. Responses by industry participants, the largest fraction among all the participating groups, are compared with the overall responses. An evaluation of changes between the two Delphi stages is also summarized. An analysis of battery replacement costs for various types is summarized, and variable operating costs for electric and hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles. A market penetration analysis is summarized, in which projected market shares from the survey are compared with predictions of shares on the basis of two market share projection models that use the cost and physical attributes provided by the survey. Finally, projections of market shares beyond the year 2020 are developed by use of constrained logit models of market shares, statistically fitted to the survey data.

  17. The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by electric and hybrid vehicles", SAE Technical Papers No.household response to hybrid vehicles. Finally, we suggestas electric or hybrid vehicles. Transitions in choices of

  18. DSP Based Ultracapacitor System for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles Juan W. Dixon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    DSP Based Ultracapacitor System for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles Juan W. Dixon Department of Electrical to an electric vehicle at the Universidad Católica de Chile. These results will lead to conclusions about of primary source in hybrid-electric vehicles. The efficiency gain is being monitored at the ultracapacitor

  19. Effects of Vehicle Image in Gasoline-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Images of Hybrid Vehicles Each of the householdsbetween hybrid and non-hybrid vehicles was observed in smallowned Honda Civic Hybrids, vehicles that are virtually

  20. Adaptive powertrain control for plugin hybrid electric vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kedar-Dongarkar, Gurunath; Weslati, Feisel

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A powertrain control system for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle. The system comprises an adaptive charge sustaining controller; at least one internal data source connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller; and a memory connected to the adaptive charge sustaining controller for storing data generated by the at least one internal data source. The adaptive charge sustaining controller is operable to select an operating mode of the vehicle's powertrain along a given route based on programming generated from data stored in the memory associated with that route. Further described is a method of adaptively controlling operation of a plugin hybrid electric vehicle powertrain comprising identifying a route being traveled, activating stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming for the identified route and controlling operation of the powertrain along the identified route by selecting from a plurality of operational modes based on the stored adaptive charge sustaining mode programming.

  1. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  2. Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey R. Belt

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Program. It is based on technical targets established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, a revision including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures is expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices.

  3. 2011 Hyundai Sonata 4932 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid HEV (VIN KMHEC4A43BA004932). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  4. DOES ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ENABLE THE UPTAKE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 DOES ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY ENABLE THE UPTAKE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN SOUTH AFRICA? G to electricity. The socio-political benefits of the national electrification programme are documented correlation of SMMEs and electricity access in poor rural areas does sem apparent. 1. INTRODUCTION The South

  5. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2002-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  6. Energy control strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An energy control strategy (10) for a hybrid electric vehicle that controls an electric motor during bleed and charge modes of operation. The control strategy (10) establishes (12) a value of the power level at which the battery is to be charged. The power level is used to calculate (14) the torque to be commanded to the electric motor. The strategy (10) of the present invention identifies a transition region (22) for the electric motor's operation that is bounded by upper and lower speed limits. According to the present invention, the desired torque is calculated by applying equations to the regions before, during and after the transition region (22), the equations being a function of the power level and the predetermined limits and boundaries.

  7. NREL: Transportation Research - Hybrid Electric Fleet Vehicle Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid IntegrationReportTransmissionResearch CutawayHybrid Electric

  8. Hybrid-electric propulsion for automotive and aviation applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedrich, C; Robertson, P. A.

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    scenario. Based on that definition, a scenario of 100 % saving in fuel is possible when using a purely electric powertrain (HF = 100 %) and freely available energy to charge the batteries such as from a solar panel or wind turbine (neglecting the energy... , reduced take-off noise, and a reduced heat signature. Small-scale hybrid-electric systems have been mainly applied in the automotive sector and represent a novel concept in the aviation sector. The architecture of HEPS can be classified into four main...

  9. Hybrid opto-electric techniques for molecular diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haque, Aeraj Ul [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid optoelectric techniques reflect a new paradigm in microfluidics. In essence, these are microfluidic techniques that employ a synergistic combination of optical and electrical forces to enable noninvasive manipulation of fluids and/or particle-type entities at the micro/nano-scale [1]. Synergy between optical and electrical forces bestows these techniques with several unique features that are promising to bring new opportunities in molecular diagnostics. Within the scope of molecular diagnostics, several aspects of optoelectric techniques promise to play a relevant role. These include, but are not limited to, sample preparation, sorting, purification, amplification and detection.

  10. 246 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011 Copyright 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    246 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Inderscience@ieee.org *Corresponding author Abstract: This paper studies the power management of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle-based strategy; quadratic programming; QP; plug-in hybrid electric vehicle; PHEV; electric and hybrid vehicles

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck Demonstration and Evaluation Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by SCAQMD at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about plug-in hybrid medium-duty truck...

  12. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power Systems EPCOS EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicleelectric vehicles Type of hybrid System Useable energy Maximum pulse Cycle life driveline voltage storage powerPower Systems Laboratory and performs research and teaches graduate courses on advanced electric driveline technologies, specializing in batteries, ultracapacitors, fuel cells and hybrid vehicle

  13. Energy Management System for an Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Using Ultracapacitors and Neural Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Energy Management System for an Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Using Ultracapacitors and Neural Networks and specific energy contained in most electric batteries compared to that of gasoline, is resolved in hybrid to accept energy from regenerative braking. For this reason, hybrid systems use an auxiliary energy system

  14. Driving Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Reports from U.S. Drivers of HEVs converted to PHEVs, circa 2006-07

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Heffner, Reid R.; Turrentine, Tom

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Assessment for Battery Electric Vehicles, PowerAssist Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles. EPRI: Palo Alto, CA.

  15. Twelve-Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid Electric Delivery Vans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of an NREL study of a parallel hybrid electric-diesel propulsion system in United Parcel Service-operated delivery vans show that the hybrids had higher fuel economy than standard diesel vans.

  16. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MODES IN HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES FOR USE IN HYBRIDof high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electricthe development of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric

  17. Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage massimo.poncino@polito.it Abstract-- Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems consist of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements that are connected to each other through

  18. Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    Optimization and Comparison of Heuristic Control Strategies for Parallel Hybrid-Electric Vehicles consumption". As a constraint for the optimization, the state of charge (SOC) of the electrical energy storage-electric vehicle (HEV), control strategies, optimization. 1. Introduction Due to the structure of hybrid

  19. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The parallel hybrid passenger car (VW Golf) combined an EDLCpassenger cars using the ultracapacitors in micro-hybrid,passenger car using both carbon/carbon and hybrid carbon

  20. Evaluation Of Potential Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications: Vol I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gris, Arturo E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicle Symposium, "The Hybrid Vehicle Revisited", OctoberBus Hv REFERENCES “Hybrid Vehicle Assessment, Phase I,Laboratory, March 1984 “Hybrid Vehicle Engineering Task”

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Data on the plug-in hybrid electric version of the following vehicles is available: 2013 Ford Fusion Energi, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi Fleet, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi, 2012 Chevrolet Volt, 2012 Toyota Prius, 2013 Toyota Prius, 2013 Chevrolet Volt, 2011 Chrysler Town & Country, 2010 Quantum Escape, and 2010 Ford Escape Advanced Research Vehicle.

  2. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tamor, Michael Alan (Toledo, OH)

    2001-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Several control methods are presented for application in a hybrid electric vehicle powertrain including in various embodiments an engine, a motor/generator, a transmission coupled at an input thereof to receive torque from the engine and the motor generator coupled to augment torque provided by the engine, an energy storage device coupled to receive energy from and provide energy to the motor/generator, an engine controller (EEC) coupled to control the engine, a transmission controller (TCM) coupled to control the transmission and a vehicle system controller (VSC) adapted to control the powertrain.

  3. Control system design for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buntin, David Leighton

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and possibly frequency settings. Finally, brake torque commands (Ts, ) must cause the appropriate displacement in the brake pads a. nd shoes. These considerations of the control requirements for the hybrid electric vehicle lead to the following need... of motion: =1 2 i' = (T + T ? Ts ? Tt) (rad)'sec ) J, q ('2. 1) Fquation 2. 1 leads to a definition of the drive shaft, speed (~) as the first state variable of tlie model. As it turiis out, Equation rhl is the mosi, dominant state equation...

  4. Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low carbon electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Synthesis of energy technology medium-term projections Alternative fuels for transport and low on the costs of a range of `alternative' energy sources for electricity generation and transport markets;Alternative fuels for transport and electricity generation: A technical note on costs and cost projections

  5. Battery Requirements for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles -- Analysis and Rationale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Markel, T.; Tataria, H. S.; Howell, D.

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents analysis, discussions, and resulting requirements for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle batteries adopted by the US Advanced Battery Consortium.

  6. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid- Electric Vehicles:uncertainty regarding the energy storage technologies.Whether a particular energy storage technology is suitable

  7. Cold-Start and Warm-Up Driveability Performance of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using Oxygenated Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thornton, M.; Jorgensen, S.; Evans, B.; Wright, K.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Provides analysis and results of the driveability performance testing from four hybrid electric vehicles--Honda Civic, Toyota Prius, and two Honda Insights--that used oxygenated fuels.

  8. Optimal Control of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Market ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai Wei

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 13, 2014 ... Optimal Control of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Market Impact and Risk Attitude. Lai Wei (laiwei ***at*** ufl.edu) Yongpei Guan (guan ...

  9. New York City Transit Diesel Hybrid-Electric Buses Final Results...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emission characteristics of diesel hybrid-electric systems as one alternative to conventional diesel engines for heavy-duty transit...

  10. Measuring and Reporting Fuel Economy of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Simpson, A.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews techniques used to characterize plug-in hybrid electric vehicle fuel economy, discussing their merits, limitations, and best uses.

  11. 2007 Nissan Altima-2351 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and the battery testing results for the 2007 Nissan Altima HEV, number 2351 (VIN 1N4CL21E87C172351). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec). The Idaho National Laboratory and eTec conduct the AVTA for DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program.

  12. Evaluation of 2005 Honda Accord Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.; Burress, T.A.; Marlino, L.D.

    2006-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) program officially began in 1993 as a five-year, cost-shared partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and American auto manufacturers: General Motors, Ford, and Daimler Chrysler. Currently, HEV research and development is conducted by DOE through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of the FCVT program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally friendly highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, demonstration, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are aimed at developing technologies that can be domestically produced in a clean and cost-competitive manner. The vehicle systems technologies subprogram, which is one of four subprograms under the FCVT program, supports the efforts of the FreedomCAR through a three-phase approach [1] intended to: (1) Identify overall propulsion and vehicle-related needs by analyzing programmatic goals and reviewing industry's recommendations and requirements, then develop the appropriate technical targets for systems, subsystems, and component research and development activities; (2) Develop and validate individual subsystems and components, including electric motors, emission control devices, battery systems, power electronics, accessories, and devices to reduce parasitic losses; and (3) Determine how well the components and subassemblies work together in a vehicle environment or as a complete propulsion system and whether the efficiency and performance targets at the vehicle level have been achieved. The research performed under the vehicle systems subprogram will help remove technical and cost barriers to enable technology for use in such advanced vehicles as hybrid electric, plug-in electric, and fuel-cell-powered vehicles.

  13. Magnetic and electric contributions to the energy loss in a dynamical QCD medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2011-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The computation of radiative energy loss in a finite size QCD medium with dynamical constituents is a key ingredient for obtaining reliable predictions for jet quenching in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. It was previously shown that energy loss in dynamical QCD medium is significantly higher compared to static QCD medium. To understand this difference, we here analyze magnetic and electric contributions to energy loss in dynamical QCD medium. We find that the significantly higher energy loss in the dynamical case is entirely due to appearance of magnetic contribution in the dynamical medium. While for asymptotically high energies, the energy loss in static and dynamical medium approach the same value, we find that the physical origin of the energy loss in these two cases is different.

  14. A simulation-based assessment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sotingco, Daniel (Daniel S.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are vehicles that utilize power from both an internal combustion engine and an electric battery that can be recharged from the grid. Simulations of series, parallel, and split-architecture ...

  15. P1.2 -- Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Lithium Polymer NEV Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity tests hybrid electric, pure electric, and other advanced technology vehicles. As part of this testing, 28 hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are being tested in fleet, dynamometer, and closed track environments. This paper discusses some of the HEV test results, with an emphasis on the battery performance of the HEVs. It also discusses the testing results for a small electric vehicle with a lithium polymer traction battery.

  16. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boberg, Evan S. (Hazel Park, MI); Gebby, Brian P. (Hazel Park, MI)

    1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  17. A Stochastic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Chan-Chiao Lin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    A Stochastic Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Chan-Chiao Lin1 , Huei Peng1 , and J-2122 grizzle@umich.edu Abstract The supervisory control strategy of a hybrid vehicle coordinates the operation-based control strategy trained from deterministic DP results. 1. Introduction Hybrid vehicle powertrains have

  18. Hybrid single-electron transistor as a source of quantized electric current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    system is that hybrid tunnel junctions suppress tunnelling in an energy range determined by the gapLETTERS Hybrid single-electron transistor as a source of quantized electric current JUKKA P. PEKOLA of a hybrid normal-metal­ superconductor turnstile in the form of a one-island single- electron transistor

  19. Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks: Five Perspectives on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Participants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    promoted electric and hybrid vehicles to reduce urban airthe vehicle, and from hybrid vehicles, i.e. , adding batteryHaving researched hybrid vehicle and other pro-environmental

  20. Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Model-Free Learning-Based Online Management of Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems in Electric@elpl.snu.ac.kr Abstract--To improve the cycle efficiency and peak output power density of energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EVs), supercapacitors have been proposed as auxiliary energy storage elements

  1. Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems Massoud Pedram, Naehyuck Chang, Younghyun Kim, and Yanzhi Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems Massoud Pedram, Naehyuck Chang, Younghyun Kim, and Yanzhi of EES element fulfills high energy density, high power delivery capacity, low cost per unit of storage Descriptors B.0 [General] General Terms Design Keywords Energy, Energy storage, Electrical storage, Hybrid

  2. Principles and Efficient Implementation of Charge Replacement in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    1 Principles and Efficient Implementation of Charge Replacement in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage--Hybrid electrical energy storage systems (HEES) are comprised of multiple banks of inhomogeneous EES elements storage device, i.e., high energy capacity, high output power level, low self-discharge, low cost

  3. On-Board Diesel & Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit Bus PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holmén, Britt A.

    On-Board Diesel & Hybrid Diesel-Electric Transit Bus PM Mass and Size-Resolved Number Emissions AND cost-effective ­ 2003 -- Purchase 2 hybrid diesel-electric buses ­ Emissions Testing ­ gases Particulate Mass -- filter #12;Motivation · Ultrafine (UF) particle health effects · Diesel vehicle exhaust

  4. Engine optimal operation lines for power-split hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    . Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle, power split, energy management strategy, optimal operation lineEngine optimal operation lines for power-split hybrid electric vehicles Kukhyun Ahn* and P Y of degrees of freedom in energy management. Optimization problems for the two operation modes are formulated

  5. An Activity-Based Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions Using One-Day Travel Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recker, W. W.; Kang, J. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technology, Nationalof Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissionsof Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions

  6. 2010 Honda Civic Hybrid UltraBattery Conversion 5577 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Civic HEV UltraBattery Conversion (VIN JHMFA3F24AS005577). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  7. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL; Chiasson, J. N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Burress, Timothy A [ORNL; Marlino, Laura D [ORNL

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  8. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.; Ayers, C.W.; Chiasson, J.N. (U Tennessee-Knoxville); Burress, B.A. (ORISE); Marlino, L.D.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2004 Toyota Prius is a hybrid automobile equipped with a gasoline engine and a battery- and generator-powered electric motor. Both of these motive-power sources are capable of providing mechanical-drive power for the vehicle. The engine can deliver a peak-power output of 57 kilowatts (kW) at 5000 revolutions per minute (rpm) while the motor can deliver a peak-power output of 50 kW over the speed range of 1200-1540 rpm. Together, this engine-motor combination has a specified peak-power output of 82 kW at a vehicle speed of 85 kilometers per hour (km/h). In operation, the 2004 Prius exhibits superior fuel economy compared to conventionally powered automobiles. To acquire knowledge and thereby improve understanding of the propulsion technology used in the 2004 Prius, a full range of design characterization studies were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the 2004 Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. These characterization studies included (1) a design review, (2) a packaging and fabrication assessment, (3) bench-top electrical tests, (4) back-electromotive force (emf) and locked rotor tests, (5) loss tests, (6) thermal tests at elevated temperatures, and most recently (7) full-design-range performance testing in a controlled laboratory environment. This final test effectively mapped the electrical and thermal results for motor/inverter operation over the full range of speeds and shaft loads that these assemblies are designed for in the Prius vehicle operations. This testing was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program through its vehicle systems technologies subprogram. The thermal tests at elevated temperatures were conducted late in 2004, and this report does not discuss this testing in detail. The thermal tests explored the derating of the Prius motor design if operated at temperatures as high as is normally encountered in a vehicle engine. The continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures are projected from test data at 900 rpm. A separate, comprehensive report on this thermal control study is available [1].

  9. The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis -- A Reflexively Designed Survey of New-Car-Buying Multi-Vehicle California Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by electric and hybrid vehicles", SAETechmcal Papers No.$ not Q 4. If you chose the Hybrid Vehicle - can you specifymay response to hybrid vehicles Finally, we suggest that

  10. Assessing the Battery Cost at Which Plug-In Hybrid Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles Become Cost-Effective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J. D.; Brooker, A. D.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validated diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid medium-duty parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reductions and cost implications of hybrid and plug-in hybrid diesel variants. The hybrid and plug-in hybrid variants are run on a field data-derived design matrix to analyze the effect of drive cycle, distance, engine downsizing, battery replacements, and battery energy on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. For an array of diesel fuel costs, the battery cost per kilowatt-hour at which the hybridized configuration becomes cost-effective is calculated. This builds on a previous analysis that found the fuel savings from medium duty plug-in hybrids more than offset the vehicles' incremental price under future battery and fuel cost projections, but that they seldom did so under present day cost assumptions in the absence of purchase incentives. The results also highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle specific daily distance and kinetic intensity.

  11. Evaluation of a Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) for Full-Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Ireland, J.; Cosgrove, J.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the evaluation of a lower-energy energy storage system for full-hybrid electric vehicles.

  12. Influence of driving patterns on life cycle cost and emissions of hybrid and plug-in electric vehicle powertrains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    assessment Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles a b s t r a c t We compare the potential of hybrid, extended-range plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles to reduce lifetime cost and life cycle greenhouse gas) reduces the all-electric range of plug-in vehicles by up to 45% compared to milder test cycles (like HWFET

  13. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fleet and Baseline Performance Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) conducts baseline performance and fleet testing of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). To date, the AVTA has completed baseline performance testing on seven HEV models and accumulated 1.4 million fleet testing miles on 26 HEVs. The HEV models tested or in testing include: Toyota Gen I and Gen II Prius, and Highlander; Honda Insight, Civic and Accord; Chevrolet Silverado; Ford Escape; and Lexus RX 400h. The baseline performance testing includes dynamometer and closed track testing to document the HEV’s fuel economy (SAE J1634) and performance in a controlled environment. During fleet testing, two of each HEV model are driven to 160,000 miles per vehicle within 36 months, during which maintenance and repair events, and fuel use is recorded and used to compile life-cycle costs. At the conclusion of the 160,000 miles of fleet testing, the SAE J1634 tests are rerun and each HEV battery pack is tested. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory, Electric Transportation Applications, and Exponent Failure Analysis Associates. This paper discusses the testing methods and results.

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Electricity Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) have the potential to increase the use of electricity to fuel the U.S. transportation needs. The effect of this additional demand on the electric system will depend on the amount and timing of the vehicles' periodic recharging on the grid. We used the ORCED (Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch) model to evaluate the impact of PHEVs on the Virginia-Carolinas (VACAR) electric grid in 2018. An inventory of one million PHEVs was used and charging was begun in early evening and later at night for comparison. Different connection power levels of 1.4 kW, 2 kW, and 6 kW were used. The results include the impact on capacity requirements, fuel types, generation technologies, and emissions. Cost information such as added cost of generation and cost savings versus use of gasoline were calculated. Preliminary results of the expansion of the study to all regions of the country are also presented. The results show distinct differences in fuels and generating technologies when charging times are changed. At low specific power and late in the evening, coal was the major fuel used, while charging more heavily during peak times led to more use of combustion turbines and combined cycle plants.

  15. Charge Migration Efficiency Optimization in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage (HEES) Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Charge Migration Efficiency Optimization in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage (HEES) Systems the excessive electric energy in the electrical energy storage (EES) rather than converting into a different) are typically not balanced with each other. Storage of excessive en- ergy and compensation of the energy

  16. The challenges and policy options for integrating plug-in hybrid electric vehicle into the electric grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Anurag K.; Annabathina, Bharath; Kamalasadan, Sukumar

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle may be prime candidates for the next generation of vehicles, but they offer several technological and economical challenges. This article assesses current progress in PHEV technology, market trends, research needs, challenges ahead and policy options for integrating PHEVs into the electric grid. (author)

  17. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, David W. (Knoxville, TN); Tsouris, Constantinos (Oak Ridge, TN); Feng, James Q. (Fairport, NY)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway.

  18. Method for electrically producing dispersions of a nonconductive fluid in a conductive medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePaoli, D.W.; Tsouris, C.; Feng, J.Q.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for use in electrically forming dispersions of a nonconducting fluid in a conductive medium that minimizes power consumption, gas generation, and sparking between the electrode of the nozzle and the conductive medium. The method utilizes a nozzle having a passageway, the wall of which serves as the nozzle electrode, for the transport of the nonconducting fluid into the conductive medium. A second passageway provides for the transport of a flowing low conductivity buffer fluid which results in a region of the low conductivity buffer fluid immediately adjacent the outlet from the first passageway to create the necessary protection from high current drain and sparking. An electrical potential difference applied between the nozzle electrode and an electrode in contact with the conductive medium causes formation of small droplets or bubbles of the nonconducting fluid within the conductive medium. A preferred embodiment has the first and second passageways arranged in a concentric configuration, with the outlet tip of the first passageway withdrawn into the second passageway. 4 figs.

  19. Control system and method for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vehicle system controller (20) is presented for a LSR parallel hybrid electric vehicle having an engine (10), a motor (12), wheels (14), a transmission (16) and a battery (18). The vehicle system controller (20) has a state machine having a plurality of predefined states (22-32) that represent operating modes for the vehicle. A set of rules is defined for controlling the transition between any two states in the state machine. The states (22-32) are prioritized according to driver demands, energy management concerns and system fault occurrences. The vehicle system controller (20) controls the transitions from a lower priority state to a higher priority state based on the set of rules. In addition, the vehicle system controller (20) will control a transition to a lower state from a higher state when the conditions no longer warrant staying in the current state. A unique set of output commands is defined for each state for the purpose of controlling lower level subsystem controllers. These commands serve to achieve the desire vehicle functionality within each state and insure smooth transitions between states.

  20. Simulation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, A.F.; Cole, G.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer programs for the simulation of the operation of electric vehicles with hybrid power systems are described. These programs treat cases in which high energy density ultracapacitors or high power density pulse batteries are used to load level the main energy storage battery in the vehicle. A generalized control strategy for splitting the power between the main battery and the pulse power devices is implemented such that the user can specify the nominal battery power as a function of the state-of-charge of the ultracapacitor or pulse power battery. The programs display graphically on the screen, as they run, the power from both the main battery and the pulse power device and the state-of-charge of the pulse power device. After each run is completed, a summary is printed out from which the effect of load leveling the battery on vehicle range and energy consumption can be determined. Default input files are provided with the programs so various combinations of vehicles, driveline components, and batteries of special current interest to the EV community can be run with either type of pulse power device. Typical simulation results are shown including cases in which the pulse power devices are connected in parallel with the main battery without interface electronics. 2 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States : a general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karplus, Valerie Jean

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) could significantly contribute to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from personal vehicle transportation in the United States over the next century, depending on the ...

  2. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2-29678 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results Tyler Gray Jeffrey Wishart Matthew Shirk July 2013 The Idaho National Laboratory is a U.S....

  3. An analysis of hybrid-electric vehicles as the car of the future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Heejay

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis will examine the validity of the benefits of the Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV). With the recent focus on energy initiatives, reflected through Bush's state of the union, as well as President Hockfield's MIT ...

  4. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to assist the energy storage battery (12 kWh) in providingbattery and ultracapacitors in the vehicles when the characteristics of the energy storageBattery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium the energy storage

  5. A Development of Design and Control Methodology for Next Generation Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Lin

    2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercially available Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have been around for more than ten years. However, their market share remains small. Focusing only on the improvement of fuel economy, the design tends to reduce the size of the internal...

  6. A Development of Design and Control Methodology for Next Generation Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Lin

    2013-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercially available Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have been around for more than ten years. However, their market share remains small. Focusing only on the improvement of fuel economy, the design tends to reduce the size of the internal...

  7. 2006 Lexus RX400h-2575 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660002575). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. 2006 Lexus RX400h-4807 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Chester Motloch; James Francfort

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity conducts several different types of tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing hybrid electric vehicles batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new, and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of accelerated testing. This report documents the battery testing performed and battery testing results for the 2007 Lexus RX900h hybrid electric vehicle (Vin Number JTJHW31U660004807). Testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program. The Idaho National Laboratory and the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation conduct Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultracapacitor vs. a High Power Battery for Hybrid Vehiclevarious ranges and motor power Battery 200 Wh/kg 100 Wh/kg

  10. Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Gas Emissions In the most comprehensive environmental assessment of electric transportation to date, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Natural Resources...

  11. An Activity-Based Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions Using One-Day Travel Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recker, W. W.; Kang, J. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solely from stored electric energy during the day. With theIn Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions UsingIn Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions Using

  12. OBSERVED HYBRID OSCILLATIONS IN AN ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM Vaibhav Donde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . 1 therefore provide an example of a hybrid limit cycle.1 Analysis of power system large disturbance-changing transformers and switched capacitors. Analysis required a hybrid systems framework, due to the non from usual power system oscillations [1]: 1) behav- iour was quite non-smooth, and 2) the oscillation

  13. How green are electric vehicles? It is thought plug-in hybrids and other electric vehicles are more environmental friendly and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    environmental friendly and produce less pollution. Examining other aspects of electric vehicles besides tailpipe electricity generation Majority of electricity in the United States from coal and natural gas CoalHow green are electric vehicles? It is thought plug-in hybrids and other electric vehicles are more

  14. Designing a Residential Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System Based on the Energy Buffering Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    such as the Consolidated Edison Company of New York (conEdison) employ time-of-day pricing policy [2], with higher unitDesigning a Residential Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System Based on the Energy Buffering companies generally raise electrical energy price during periods of high load demand. A grid

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle project. Quarterly report of private-sector operations, first quarter 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As of January 1, 1982 sixteen private-sector site operators at 30 sites in the US were involved in electric and hybrid electric-powered vehicle demonstration programs. Data for 1981 and the first quarter of 1982 are presented on vehicle selection, miles accumulated, energy usage, maintenance requirements, reliability and operating performance for demonstration vehicles at each site. (LCL)

  16. Modelling and Design Optimization of Low Speed Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Modelling and Design Optimization of Low Speed Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Matthew Blair electric vehicles, empirical fuel cell system data has been incorporated into the NREL's vehicle design and simulation tool, ADVISOR (ADvanced Vehicle SimulatOR), to predict the performance of a low-speed, fuel cell

  17. EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 Stavanger, Norway, May 13-16, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 EVS24 Stavanger and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition, Stavanger : Norway (2009)" #12;EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 2 that Discrete MDCM (Multi Criteria Decision

  18. Boost Converters for Gas Electric and Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, JW

    2005-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are driven by at least two prime energy sources, such as an internal combustion engine (ICE) and propulsion battery. For a series HEV configuration, the ICE drives only a generator, which maintains the state-of-charge (SOC) of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. For a parallel HEV configuration, the ICE is mechanically connected to directly drive the wheels as well as the generator, which likewise maintains the SOC of propulsion and accessory batteries and drives the electric traction motor. Today the prime energy source is an ICE; tomorrow it will very likely be a fuel cell (FC). Use of the FC eliminates a direct drive capability accentuating the importance of the battery charge and discharge systems. In both systems, the electric traction motor may use the voltage directly from the batteries or from a boost converter that raises the voltage. If low battery voltage is used directly, some special control circuitry, such as dual mode inverter control (DMIC) which adds a small cost, is necessary to drive the electric motor above base speed. If high voltage is chosen for more efficient motor operation or for high speed operation, the propulsion battery voltage must be raised, which would require some type of two-quadrant bidirectional chopper with an additional cost. Two common direct current (dc)-to-dc converters are: (1) the transformer-based boost or buck converter, which inverts a dc voltage, feeds the resulting alternating current (ac) into a transformer to raise or lower the voltage, and rectifies it to complete the conversion; and (2) the inductor-based switch mode boost or buck converter [1]. The switch-mode boost and buck features are discussed in this report as they operate in a bi-directional chopper. A benefit of the transformer-based boost converter is that it isolates the high voltage from the low voltage. Usually the transformer is large, further increasing the cost. A useful feature of the switch mode boost converter is its simplicity. Its inductor must handle the entire current, which is responsible for its main cost. The new Z-source inverter technology [2,3] boosts voltage directly by actively using the zero state time to boost the voltage. In the traditional pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter, this time is used only to control the average voltage by disconnecting the supply voltage from the motor. The purpose of this study is to examine the Z-source's potential for reducing the cost and improving the reliability of HEVs.

  19. Benchmarking of OEM Hybrid Electric Vehicles at NREL: Milestone Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, K. J.; Rajagopalan, A.

    2001-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A milestone report that describes the NREL's progress and activities related to the DOE FY2001 Annual Operating Plan milestone entitled ''Benchmark 2 new production or pre-production hybrids with ADVISOR.''

  20. Ultracapacitor Technologies and Application in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AF. Comparisons of Lithium-ion Batteries and UltracapacitorsResults with Lithium-ion Batteries. EET- 2008 European Ele-Comparisons with Lithium- ion Batteries for Hybrid vehicle

  1. Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

    2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

  2. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Anthony Mark (Northville, MI); Blankenship, John Richard (Dearborn, MI); Bailey, Kathleen Ellen (Dearborn, MI); Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  3. Eighteen-Month Final Evaluation of UPS Second Generation Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A parallel hybrid-electric diesel delivery van propulsion system was evaluated at a UPS facility in Minneapolis using on-vehicle data logging, fueling, and maintenance records. Route and drive cycle analysis showed different duty cycles for hybrid vs. conventional delivery vans; routes were switched between the study groups to provide a valid comparison. The hybrids demonstrated greater advantage on the more urban routes; the initial conventional vans' routes had less dense delivery zones. The fuel economy of the hybrids on the original conventional group?s routes was 10.4 mpg vs. 9.2 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year earlier. The hybrid group's fuel economy on the original hybrid route assignments was 9.4 mpg vs. 7.9 mpg for the conventional group on those routes a year later. There was no statistically significant difference in total maintenance cost per mile or for the vehicle total cost of operation per mile. Propulsion-related maintenance cost per mile was 77% higher for the hybrids, but only 52% more on a cost-per-delivery-day basis. Laboratory dynamometer testing demonstrated 13%-36% hybrid fuel economy improvement, depending on duty cycle, and up to a 45% improvement in ton-mi/gal. NOx emissions increased 21%-49% for the hybrids in laboratory testing.

  4. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  5. Prospects for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the United States and Japan: A General Equilibrium Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, John M.

    The plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) may offer a potential near term, low carbon alternative to today's gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles. A representative vehicle technology that runs on electricity in addition ...

  6. Stochastic Optimal Control for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing demand for improving fuel economy and reducing emissions has stimulated significant research and investment in hybrid propulsion systems. In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing online the supervisory control in a series hybrid configuration by modeling its operation as a controlled Markov chain using the average cost criterion. We treat the stochastic optimal control problem as a dual constrained optimization problem. We show that the control policy that yields higher probability distribution to the states with low cost and lower probability distribution to the states with high cost is an optimal control policy, defined as an equilibrium control policy. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed controller in a series hybrid configuration and compare it with a thermostat-type controller.

  7. Electromagnetic gearing applications in hybrid-electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sodhi, Sameer

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    switched reluctance electromagnetic gear in mode 2b. . . . . 67 3. 12 Mode 2c. m, = 0, m, & 0, T, & 0. 68 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure Page 3. 13 Mode 2d. ca, = 0, c0, & 0, T, & 0. 69 3. 14 a). Phase A-A' is permanently energized. Rotor poles 1...-up of the transmotor hybrid. 127 5. 10 Engine runs at no load and the transmotor is de-energized. . . . 128 5. 11 Forward motion of the transmotor hybrid. 129 5. 12 Forward braking of the vehicle. 133 5. 13 Reverse direction motion of the vehicle. 135 5. 14...

  8. PNGV Battery Testing Procedures and Analytical Methodologies for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motloch, Chester George; Belt, Jeffrey R; Christophersen, Jon Petter; Wright, Randy Ben; Hunt, Gary Lynn; Haskind, H. J.; Tartamella, T.; Sutula, R.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel testing procedures and analytical methodologies to assess the performance of hybrid electric vehicle batteries have been developed. Tests include both characterization and cycle life and/or calendar life, and have been designed for both Power Assist and Dual Mode applications. Analytical procedures include a battery scaling methodology, the calculation of pulse resistance, pulse power, available energy, and differential capacity, and the modeling of calendar and cycle life data. Representative performance data and examples of the application of the analytical methodologies including resistance growth, power fade, and cycle and calendar life modeling for hybrid electric vehicle batteries are presented.

  9. Preliminary Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Wind Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Short, W.; Denholm, P.

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.

  10. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  11. Driving Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Reports from U.S. Drivers of HEVs converted to PHEVs, circa 2006-07

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Heffner, Reid R.; Turrentine, Tom

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A.A. (2007) “Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles for a SustainableAssessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on Electric UtilitiesWould You Buy a Hybrid Vehicle? Study #715238, conducted for

  12. The Potential of Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles as Grid Resources: the Case of a Gas and Petroleum Oriented Elecricity Generation System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greer, Mark R

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferdowsi, M. (2007). Plug-hybrid vehicles – A vision for thepower: battery, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles as resources2010). Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power

  13. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 54, NO. 3, MAY 2005 837 Modeling of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    -down system. Index Terms--Bond Graphs, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), mechatronics, modeling, powertrain testIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 54, NO. 3, MAY 2005 837 Modeling of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain Test Cell Using Bond Graphs Mariano Filippa, Student Member, IEEE, Chunting Mi

  14. BOOK CHAPTERS 1. B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, "A roadmap to understand battery performance in electric and hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and hybrid vehicle operation," in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Power Sources, Models, SustainabilityBOOK CHAPTERS 1. B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, "A roadmap to understand battery performance in electric, Infrastructure and the Market, G. Pistoia, ed., Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2010. Chapter 15, pp

  15. SIMES: A Simulator for Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems Siyu Yue, Di Zhu, Yanzhi Wang, and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    SIMES: A Simulator for Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems Siyu Yue, Di Zhu, Yanzhi Wang the value and usefulness of SIMES for designing energy-aware facili- ties and products. Keywords Hybrid State-of-the-art electrical energy storage (EES) systems are mainly homogeneous, i.e., they consist

  16. Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing and Pontryagin's minimum principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Energy management of power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicles based on simulated annealing Accepted 14 August 2014 Available online 27 August 2014 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles Fuel-rate Pontryagin's minimum principle Simulated annealing State of health a b s t r a c t In this paper, an energy

  17. 240 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010 Simulation and analysis of powertrain hybridisation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    systems, including hybrid electric and hydraulic vehicles, fuel cells and hydrogen. John Shepherd, particularly to autonomous vehicles. He also has a long-standing interest in the modelling of dynamic systems240 Int. J. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2010 Simulation and analysis of powertrain

  18. Economics of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-In hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained significant attention in recent years, as concerns about energy, environmental, and economic securityincluding rising gasoline prices have prompted efforts to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. PHEVs are particularly well suited to meet these objectives, because they have the potential to reduce petroleum consumption both through fuel economy gains and by substituting electric power for gasoline use.

  19. Integrated Hybrid-Simulation of Electric Power and Communications Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Miller, Laurie E [ORNL; Mullen, Sara [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The modern power grid is strongly integrated with its communication network. While a power system primarily consists of elements that are modeled by continuous equations, a communication system has discrete event dynamics. We model the integrated operation of these two systems with a hybrid modeling and simulation technique. Systematically combining continuous and discrete event system models is necessary for correctly simulating critical system behaviors. This paper discusses an approach based on the discrete event system specification (DEVS) that characterizes the interaction of the two systems formally to preserve simulation correctness. We demonstrate the implementation of our integrated hybrid simulation technique with detailed generator and network models in a wide-area cooperative automatic load-control scenario.

  20. Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diagnostic Characterization of High Power Lithium-Ion Batteries for Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for perfor- mance characterization of these batteries in HEV applications in contrast to the constant microscopy, atomic force microscopy, gas chromatography, etc., were used to characterize the anode, cathode

  1. Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diagnostic Characterization of High-Power Lithium-Ion Batteries For Use in Hybrid Electric Vehicles generated specifically for performance characterization of these batteries in HEV applications in contrast to the constant-current profiles typically used in the characterization of lithium-ion batteries for portable

  2. Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    Optimal Energy Management for a Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles Based are used as energy storage. The size of the battery depends not only on the driving range, but also Deterministic Dynamic Programming. To determine an energy management to control the power flows to the storage

  3. Multi-Disciplinary Decision Making and Optimization for Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoultout, Mohamed L. [University of Texas at Austin; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Chen, Dongmei [University of Texas at Austin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we investigate the trade-offs among the subsystems of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), e.g., the engine, motor, and the battery, and discuss the related im- plications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences.

  4. Energy Management Strategy for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Truck Chan-Chiao Lin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    Energy Management Strategy for a Parallel Hybrid Electric Truck Chan-Chiao Lin1 , Jun-Mo Kang2 , J efficiency. This paper presents a procedure for improving the energy management strategy for a parallel, control strategies based on engineering intuition frequently fail to achieve satisfactory overall system

  5. FedEx Express Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 12-Month Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the data obtained in a 12-month comparison of three gasoline hybrid electric delivery vehicles with three comparable diesel vehicles. The data show that there was no statistical difference between operating cost per mile of the two groups of vehicles. As expected, tailpipe emissions were considerably lower across all drive cycles for the gHEV than for the diesel vehicle.

  6. Environmental Assessment of the US Department of Energy Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.K.; Bernard, M.J. III; Walsh, R.F

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This environmental assessment (EA) focuses on the long-term (1985-2000) impacts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) program. This program has been designed to accelerate the development of EHVs and to demonstrate their commercial feasibility as required by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-413), as amended (P.L. 95-238). The overall goal of the program is the commercialization of: (1) electric vehicles (EVs) acceptable to broad segments of the personal and commercial vehicle markets, (2) hybrid vehicles (HVs) with range capabilities comparable to those of conventional vehicles (CVs), and (3) advanced EHVs completely competitive with CVs with respect to both cost and performance. Five major EHV projects have been established by DOE: market demonstration, vehicle evaluation and improvement, electric vehicle commercialization, hybrid vehicle commercialization, and advanced vehicle development. Conclusions are made as to the effects of EV and HV commercialization on the: consumption and importation of raw materials; petroleum and total energy consumption; ecosystems impact from the time of obtaining raw material through vehicle use and materials recycling; environmental impacts on air and water quality, land use, and noise; health and safety aspects; and socio-economic factors. (LCL)

  7. A STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL CONTROL APPROACH FOR POWER MANAGEMENT IN PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    A STOCHASTIC OPTIMAL CONTROL APPROACH FOR POWER MANAGEMENT IN PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES on optimizing PHEV power management for fuel economy, subject to charge sustenance constraints, over individual dynamic programming to optimize PHEV power management over a distribution of drive cycles, rather than

  8. 2001-01-1334 Integrated, Feed-Forward Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    of approach is based on static optimization methods. Commonly, to calculate the cost of energy, the electric energy is translated into an equivalent amount of fuel [3 and 4]. The optimization scheme then figures is to develop an integrated hybrid vehicle simulation tool and use it for the design of #12;2 energy management

  9. Dynamic Reconfiguration of Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Dynamic Reconfiguration of Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting System in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Yanzhi, xuelin, pedram}@usc.edu, 2 {naehyuck}@elpl.snu.ac.kr ABSTRACT Photovoltaic (PV) energy harvesting system and Reliability]: Performance Analysis and Design Aids. General Terms Algorithms, Design, Management, Performance

  10. Driving Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Reports from U.S. Drivers of HEVs converted to PHEVs, circa 2006-07

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Heffner, Reid R.; Turrentine, Tom

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Vehicles. EPRI: Palo Alto, CA. Report1009299. [9]Popular Science. July. [4] EPRI (2001) Comparing theHybrid Electric Vehicle Options. EPRI: Palo Alto, CA. Report

  11. Coca-Cola Refreshments Class 8 Diesel Electric Hybrid Tractor Evaluation: 13-Month Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.; Lammert, M.; Curran, P.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 13-month evaluation used five Kenworth T370 hybrid tractors and five Freightliner M2106 standard diesel tractors at a Coca Cola Refreshments facility in Miami, Florida. The primary objective was to evaluate the fuel economy, emissions, and operational field performance of hybrid electric vehicles when compared to similar-use conventional diesel vehicles. A random dispatch system ensures the vehicles are used in a similar manner. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records and laboratory dynamometer testing are used to evaluate the performance of these hybrid tractors. Both groups drive similar duty cycles with similar kinetic intensity (0.95 vs. 0.69), average speed (20.6 vs. 24.3 mph), and stops per mile (1.9 vs. 1.5). The study demonstrated the hybrid group had a 13.7% fuel economy improvement over the diesel group. Laboratory fuel economy and field fuel economy study showed similar trends along the range of KI and stops per mile. Hybrid maintenance costs were 51% lower per mile; hybrid fuel costs per mile were 12% less than for the diesels; and hybrid vehicle total cost of operation per mile was 24% less than the cost of operation for the diesel group.

  12. Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid System Economic Basis for Electricity, Fuel, and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Forsberg; Steven Aumeier

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns about climate change and altering the ocean chemistry are likely to limit the use of fossil fuels. That implies a transition to a low-carbon nuclear-renewable electricity grid. Historically variable electricity demand was met using fossil plants with low capital costs, high operating costs, and substantial greenhouse gas emissions. However, the most easily scalable very-low-emissions generating options, nuclear and non-dispatchable renewables (solar and wind), are capital-intensive technologies with low operating costs that should operate at full capacities to minimize costs. No combination of fully-utilized nuclear and renewables can meet the variable electricity demand. This implies large quantities of expensive excess generating capacity much of the time. In a free market this results in near-zero electricity prices at times of high nuclear renewables output and low electricity demand with electricity revenue collapse. Capital deployment efficiency—the economic benefit derived from energy systems capital investment at a societal level—strongly favors high utilization of these capital-intensive systems, especially if low-carbon nuclear renewables are to replace fossil fuels. Hybrid energy systems are one option for better utilization of these systems that consumes excess energy at times of low prices to make some useful product.The economic basis for development of hybrid energy systems is described for a low-carbon nuclear renewable world where much of the time there are massivequantities of excess energy available from the electric sector.Examples include (1) high-temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for non-fossil liquid fuels, direct use as a transport fuel, metal reduction, etc. and (2) biorefineries.Nuclear energy with its concentrated constant heat output may become the enabling technology for economically-viable low-carbon electricity grids because hybrid nuclear systems may provide an economic way to produce dispatachable variable electricity with economic base-load operation of the reactor.

  13. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Holloway

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Beginning the fall semester of 1999, The University of Maryland, Departments of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering and the Institute for Systems Research served as a U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center for Hybrid Electric Drivetrains and Control Strategies. A key goal was to produce a graduate level education program that educated and prepared students to address the technical challenges of designing and developing hybrid electric vehicles, as they progressed into the workforce. A second goal was to produce research that fostered the advancement of hybrid electric vehicles, their controls, and other related automotive technologies. Participation ended at the University of Maryland after the 2004 fall semester. Four graduate courses were developed and taught during the course of this time, two of which evolved into annually-taught undergraduate courses, namely Vehicle Dynamics and Control Systems Laboratory. Five faculty members from Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, and the Institute for Systems Research participated. Four Ph.D. degrees (two directly supported and two indirectly supported) and seven Master's degrees in Mechanical Engineering resulted from the research conducted. Research topics included thermoelectric waste heat recovery, fuel cell modeling, pre- and post-transmission hybrid powertrain control and integration, hybrid transmission design, H{sub 2}-doped combustion, and vehicle dynamics. Many of the participating students accepted positions in the automotive industry or government laboratories involved in automotive technology work after graduation. This report discusses the participating faculty, the courses developed and taught, research conducted, the students directly and indirectly supported, and the publication list. Based on this collection of information, the University of Maryland firmly believes that the key goal of the program was met and that the majority of the participating students are now contributing to the advancement of automotive technology in this country.

  14. Hybrid and Electric Traction Motor | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) HarmonicbetandEnergyCorrective ActionHybrid Wind andA

  15. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPowerHome| DepartmentPumpHome OfficeConsume?aYourHybrid

  16. Hybrid Wind and Solar Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar PowerCommercialEnergySandy-Nor'easterHybrid Wind and Solar

  17. NREL: Learning - Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NREL isDataWorking withFuel CellPlug-In Hybrid

  18. A calculation method of running range of electric vehicle with battery hybrid system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohmae, T.; Naito, S.; Ishizuka, M.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much attention is being paid to electric vehicles from environmental standpoints. One disadvantage of the electric vehicle is that its operative range is short. A means to overcome this difficulty is to use a hybrid battery which consist of a energy battery and a power battery. A method to make it possible to calculate the discharge characteristics of the battery hybrid system taking into account the charging behavior from the energy battery to the power battery is presented. In the proposed method, first the output voltage and the output current of an equivalent battery, which is required for realizing the given operating pattern are calculated. Next, the conduction ratio of the main chopper and the equivalent discharge of electric charge of each battery are calculated. These calculated data are used to calculate the operating range.

  19. Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

  20. Evaluation of 2004 Toyota Prius Hybrid Electric Drive System Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayers, C.W.

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the electrical and mechanical performance of the 2004 Toyota Prius and its hybrid electric drive system. As a hybrid vehicle, the 2004 Prius uses both a gasoline-powered internal combustion engine and a battery-powered electric motor as motive power sources. Innovative algorithms for combining these two power sources results in improved fuel efficiency and reduced emissions compared to traditional automobiles. Initial objectives of the laboratory tests were to measure motor and generator back-electromotive force (emf) voltages and determine gearbox-related power losses over a specified range of shaft speeds and lubricating oil temperatures. Follow-on work will involve additional performance testing of the motor, generator, and inverter. Information contained in this interim report summarizes the test results obtained to date, describes preliminary conclusions and findings, and identifies additional areas for further study.

  1. Impact of Component Sizing in Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Energy Resource and Greenhouse Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Widespread use of alternative hybrid powertrains currently appears inevitable and many opportunities for substantial progress remain. The necessity for environmentally friendly vehicles, in conjunction with increasing concerns regarding U.S. dependency on foreign oil and climate change, has led to significant investment in enhancing the propulsion portfolio with new technologies. Recently, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector. PHEVs are especially appealing for short daily commutes with excessive stop-and-go driving. However, the high costs associated with their components, and in particular, with their energy storage systems have been significant barriers to extensive market penetration of PEVs. In the research reported here, we investigated the implications of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions in a medium duty PHEV. An optimization framework is proposed and applied to two different parallel powertrain configurations, pre-transmission and post-transmission, to derive the Pareto frontier with respect to motor/generator and battery size. The optimization and modeling approach adopted here facilitates better understanding of the potential benefits from proper selection of motor/generator and battery size on fuel economy and GHG emissions. This understanding can help us identify the appropriate sizing of these components and thus reducing the PHEV cost. Addressing optimal sizing of PHEV components could aim at an extensive market penetration of PHEVs.

  2. Modeling and Simulation of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    an important role in the diagnostics of the operating components. For example, running an embedded fuel cell, and fuel cell vehicles, such as electric machines, power electronics, electronic continuously variable converters, such as Li- ion batteries, ultracapacitors, and fuel cells, are introduced in the next generation

  3. Supervisory Power Management Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The growing necessity for environmentally benign hybrid propulsion systems has led to the development of advanced power management control algorithms to maximize fuel economy and minimize pollutant emissions. This paper surveys the control algorithms for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs) that have been reported in the literature to date. The exposition ranges from parallel, series, and power split HEVs and PHEVs and includes a classification of the algorithms in terms of their implementation and the chronological order of their appearance. Remaining challenges and potential future research directions are also discussed.

  4. IMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    National Laboratory(a) ABSTRACT The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset.S. electric infrastructure is designed to meet the highest expected demand for power and, as a resultIMPACTS ASSESSMENT OF PLUG-IN HYBRID VEHICLES ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES AND REGIONAL U.S. POWER GRIDS

  5. Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the United States. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: (1) Advancement of electric vehicle technologies; (2) Development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and (3) Increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. Table 1 indicates the EVs in each of the Site Operator fleets. Table 2 provides baseline information on several EVs currently in use by the Site Operators, or which have evolved to the point that they may be introduced in the near future. The Program is currently managed by personnel of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The current principal management functions include: Coordination of Site Operator efforts in the areas of public awareness and infrastructure development (program-related meetings, and educational presentations).

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUEValidation of& SystemsDepartment of Energy

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Tractor Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUEValidation of& SystemsDepartment of

  8. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  9. Interim Project Results: United Parcel Service's Second-Generation Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the performance evaluation of United Parcel Service's second-generation hybrid-electric delivery vans. The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the 18-month, in-service performance of 11 of these vans along with 11 comparable conventional diesel vans operating in Minneapolis, Minnesota. As a complement to the field study, the team recently completed fuel economy and emissions testing at NREL's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) laboratory.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Hybrid Electric Vehicles Performance and Testing Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. This page provides data on the hybrid electric versions of the Volkswagen Jetta, Ford C-Max, Chevrolet Malibu, Honda Civic, Hyundai Sonata, Honda CRZ, Honda Civic with Advanced Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery, Mercedes Benz, Toyota Prius Gen III, Ford Fusion, Honda Insight and Honda CR-Z.

  11. Development of Low Cost Carbonaceous Materials for Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barsukov, Igor V.

    2002-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Final report on the US DOE CARAT program describes innovative R & D conducted by Superior Graphite Co., Chicago, IL, USA in cooperation with researchers from the Illinois Institute of Technology, and defines the proper type of carbon and a cost effective method for its production, as well as establishes a US based manufacturer for the application of anodes of the Lithium-Ion, Lithium polymer batteries of the Hybrid Electric and Pure Electric Vehicles. The three materials each representing a separate class of graphitic carbon, have been developed and released for field trials. They include natural purified flake graphite, purified vein graphite and a graphitized synthetic carbon. Screening of the available on the market materials, which will help fully utilize the graphite, has been carried out.

  12. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

  13. IMPACT OF FUEL CELL BASED HYBRID DISTRIBUTED GENERATION IN AN ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Recent developments in distributed generation technologies have enabled new options for supplying electrical energy in remote and off-grid areas. The importance of fuel cells has increased during the past decade due to the extensive use of fossil fuels for electrical power has resulted in many negative consequences. Fuel cells are now closer to commercialization than past and they have the ability to fulfill all of the global power needs while meeting the economic and environmental expectations..The objective of this paper is to study the economic performance and operation of a fuel cell distributed generation and to provide an assessment of the economic issues associated in electrical network. In this study, with HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables) software, NREL’s micro power optimization model performed a range of equipment options over varying constraints and sensitivities to optimize small power distribution systems. Its flexibility makes it useful in the evaluation of design issues in the planning and early decision-making phase of rural electrification projects. This study concludes that fuel cell systems appear competitive today if is connected with proposed hybrid DG in an AC distribution grid. The overall energy management strategy for coordinating the power flows among the different energy sources is presented with cost-effective approach.

  14. Medium-pressure clathrate hydrate/membrane hybrid process for postcombustion capture of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Praveen Linga; Adebola Adeyemo; Peter Englezos [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a medium-pressure CO{sub 2} capture process based on hydrate crystallization in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). THF reduces the incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions from a CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} gas mixture. Relevant thermodynamic data at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mol % THF were obtained and reported. In addition, the kinetics of hydrate formation from the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}/THF system as well as the CO{sub 2} recovery and separation efficiency were also determined experimentally at 273.75 K. The above data were utilized to develop the block flow diagram of the proposed process. The process involves three hydrate stages coupled with a membrane-based gas separation process. The three hydrate stages operate at 2.5 MPa and 273.75 K. This operating pressure is substantially less than the pressure required in the absence of THF and hence the compression costs are reduced from 75 to 53% of the power produced for a typical 500 MW power plant. 21 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  16. EVS27 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 Barcelona, Spain, November 17-20, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EVS27 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1 EVS27 Barcelona and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 2 However, for embedded systems, studies look for simple signals for the diagnosis of electrochemical generators (batteries or fuel cell). It is now possible to acquire

  17. Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure investment for reducing US gasoline consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    Cost-effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery capacity and charging infrastructure online 22 October 2012 Keywords: Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle Charging infrastructure Battery size a b s t r a c t Federal electric vehicle (EV) policies in the United States currently include vehicle

  18. SCAQMD:Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium-Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Control System Development for an Advanced-Technology Medium-Duty Hybrid Electric Truck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grizzle, Jessy W.

    Chan-Chiao Lin, Huei Peng and J. W. Grizzle University of Michigan Jason Liu and Matt Busdiecker Eaton Corporation Copyright © 2003 SAE International ABSTRACT The power management control system development management control system for the prototype truck produced by the Eaton Innovation Center

  20. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of EnergyPlanned

  1. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1Department of EnergyPlannedEvaluation | Department of

  2. Assessment of the Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Potential of Ultra-Clean Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, A.F.; Miller, M.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Table ES-3: Summaryof Hybrid Vehicle Fuel Economy Results onmal ICE and Series Hybrid Vehicles (t) Vehicle Test Weight (I) Conventional and Series Hybrid Vehicles had same weight,

  3. Optimizing and Diversifying the Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles for U.S. Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To provide useful information for automakers to design successful plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) products and for energy and environmental analysts to understand the social impact of PHEVs, this paper addresses the question of how many of the U.S. consumers, if buying a PHEV, would prefer what electric ranges. The Market-oriented Optimal Range for PHEV (MOR-PHEV) model is developed to optimize the PHEV electric range for each of 36,664 sampled individuals representing U.S. new vehicle drivers. The optimization objective is the minimization of the sum of costs on battery, gasoline, electricity and refueling hassle. Assuming no battery subsidy, the empirical results suggest that: 1) the optimal PHEV electric range approximates two thirds of one s typical daily driving distance in the near term, defined as $450/kWh battery delivered price and $4/gallon gasoline price. 2) PHEVs are not ready to directly compete with HEVs at today s situation, defined by the $600/kWh battery delivered price and the $3-$4/gallon gasoline price, but can do so in the near term. 3) PHEV10s will be favored by the market over longer-range PHEVs in the near term, but longer-range PHEVs can dominate the PHEV market if gasoline prices reach as high as $5-$6 per gallon and/or battery delivered prices reach as low as $150-$300/kWh. 4) PHEVs can become much more attractive against HEVs in the near term if the electric range can be extended by only 10% with multiple charges per day, possible with improved charging infrastructure or adapted charging behavior. 5) the impact of a $100/kWh decrease in battery delivered prices on the competiveness of PHEVs against HEVs can be offset by about $1.25/gallon decrease in gasoline prices, or about 7/kWh increase in electricity prices. This also means that the impact of a $1/gallon decrease in gasoline prices can be offset by about 5/kWh decrease in electricity prices.

  4. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Francfort

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Fuel Use Reporting Methods and Results report provides real world test results from PHEV operations and testing in 20 United States and Canada. Examples are given that demonstrate the significant variations operational parameters can have on PHEV petroleum use. In addition to other influences, PHEV mpg results are significantly impacted by driver aggressiveness, cold temperatures, and whether or not the vehicle operator has charged the PHEV battery pack. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) has been testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for several years. The AVTA http://avt.inl.gov/), which is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technology Program, also tests other advanced technology vehicles, with 12 million miles of total test vehicle and data collection experience. The Idaho National Laboratory is responsible for conducting the light-duty vehicle testing of PHEVs. Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation also supports the AVTA by conducting PHEV and other types of testing. To date, 12 different PHEV models have been tested, with more than 600,000 miles of PHEV operations data collected.

  5. Commuter simulation of lithium-ion battery performance in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P. A.; Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.

    2000-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, a lithium-ion battery was designed for a hybrid electric vehicle, and the design was tested by a computer program that simulates driving of a vehicle on test cycles. The results showed that the performance goals that have been set for such batteries by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles are appropriate. The study also indicated, however, that the heat generation rate in the battery is high, and that the compact lithium-ion battery would probably require cooling by a dielectric liquid for operation under conditions of vigorous vehicle driving.

  6. Correlating Dynamometer Testing to In-Use Fleet Results of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John G. Smart; Sera White; Michael Duoba

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard dynamometer test procedures are currently being developed to determine fuel and electrical energy consumption of plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV). To define a repeatable test procedure, assumptions were made about how PHEVs will be driven and charged. This study evaluates these assumptions by comparing results of PHEV dynamometer testing following proposed procedures to actual performance of PHEVs operating in the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) North American PHEV Demonstration fleet. Results show PHEVs in the fleet exhibit a wide range of energy consumption, which is not demonstrated in dynamometer testing. Sources of variation in performance are identified and examined.

  7. A Consumer-Oriented Control Framework for Performance Analysis in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shoultout, Mohamed L. [University of Texas at Austin; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Chen, Dongmei [University of Texas at Austin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have attracted considerable attention due to their potential to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. The objective of this paper is to enhance our understanding of the associated tradeoffs among the HEV subsystems, e.g., the engine, the motor, and the battery, and investigate the related implications for fuel consumption and battery capacity and lifetime. Addressing this problem can provide insights on how to prioritize these objectives based on consumers needs and preferences. The results of the proposed optimization approach can also be used to investigate the implications for HEV costs related to ownership and warranty.

  8. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Seventeenth annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program, in cooperation with industry, is conducting research, development, testing, and evaluation activities to develop the technologies that would lead to production and introduction of low-and zero-emission electric and hybrid vehicles into the Nation`s transportation fleet. This annual report describes program activities in the areas of advanced battery, fuel cell, and propulsion systems development. Testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and laboratories are also provided. Also presented is status on incentives (CAFE, 1992 Energy Policy Act) and use of foreign components, and a listing of publications by DOE, national laboratories, and contractors.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA- Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Performance and Testing Data

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) uses standard procedures and test specifications to test and collect data from vehicles on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. Data on the plug-in hybrid electric version of the following vehicles is available: 2013 Ford Fusion Energi, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi Fleet, 2013 Ford C-Max Energi, 2012 Chevrolet Volt, 2012 Toyota Prius, 2013 Toyota Prius, 2013 Chevrolet Volt, 2011 Chrysler Town & Country, 2010 Quantum Escape, and 2010 Ford Escape Advanced Research Vehicle.

  10. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program. Sixteenth annual report to Congress for fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the progress achieved in developing electric and hybrid vehicle technologies, beginning with highlights of recent accomplishments in FY 1992. Detailed descriptions are provided of program activities during FY 1992 in the areas of battery, fuel cell, and propulsion system development, and testing and evaluation of new technology in fleet site operations and in laboratories. This Annual Report also contains a status report on incentives and use of foreign components, as well as a list of publications resulting from the DOE program.

  11. High voltage bus and auxiliary heater control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murty, Balarama Vempaty (West Bloomfield, MI)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for an electric or hybrid electric vehicle includes a vehicle system controller and a control circuit having an electric immersion heater. The heater is electrically connected to the vehicle's high voltage bus and is thermally coupled to a coolant loop containing a heater core for the vehicle's climate control system. The system controller responds to cabin heat requests from the climate control system by generating a pulse width modulated signal that is used by the control circuit to operate the heater at a duty cycle appropriate for the amount of cabin heating requested. The control system also uses the heater to dissipate excess energy produced by an auxiliary power unit and to provide electric braking when regenerative braking is not desirable and manual braking is not necessary. The control system further utilizes the heater to provide a safe discharge of a bank of energy storage capacitors following disconnection of the battery or one of the high voltage connectors used to transmit high voltage operating power to the various vehicle systems. The control circuit includes a high voltage clamping circuit that monitors the voltage on the bus and operates the heater to clamp down the bus voltage when it exceeds a pre-selected maximum voltage. The control system can also be used to phase in operation of the heater when the bus voltage exceeds a lower threshold voltage and can be used to phase out the auxiliary power unit charging and regenerative braking when the battery becomes fully charged.

  12. The prospects for electric and hybrid electric vehicles: Second-stage results of a two-stage Delphi study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, H.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Santini, D.J.; Vyas, A.D.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to collect information for a technical and economic assessment of electric (EV) and hybrid (HEV) vehicles. The first-stage worldwide survey was completed in fall 1994, while the second-stage was completed by summer 1995. The paper reports results from the second round of the survey and major differences between the two rounds. This second-stage international survey obtained information from 93 expert respondents from the automotive technology field. Key results: EVs will penetrate the market first, followed by internal combustion engine HEVs, while gas turbine and fuel cell HEVs will come after 2020. By 2020, EVs and internal combustion engine HEVs will have a 15% share of the new vehicle market; they will also cost 18-50% more and will be slightly inferior to 1993 gasoline cars. AC induction motor is projected to be superior to DC and DC brushless motors by 2020, although the DC motor will be less expensive in 2000. DC brushless motors are projected to be the most expensive. Though generally declining, battery costs will remain high. EVs are believed to be effective in reducing urban emissions; however, their costs must be reduced drastically. Petroleum is expected to be the predominant fuel for hybrid vehicles through 2020. Mean energy equivalent fuel economy of electric drivetrain vehicles is projected to be 20-40% greater than for conventional vehicles in 2000, and to rise a few percents during the projection period. Respondents anticipate only a 16% increase in conventional vehicle fuel economy from 2000 to 2020.

  13. Integration Issues of Cells into Battery Packs for Plug-in and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A. A.; Kim, G. H.; Keyser, M.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main barriers to increased market share of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and commercialization of plug-in HEVs are the cost, safety, and life of lithium ion batteries. Significant effort is being directed to address these issues for lithium ion cells. However, even the best cells may not perform as well when integrated into packs for vehicles because of the environment in which vehicles operate. This paper discusses mechanical, electrical, and thermal integration issues and vehicle interface issues that could impact the cost, life, and safety of the system. It also compares the advantages and disadvantages of using many small cells versus a few large cells and using prismatic cells versus cylindrical cells.

  14. 2011 Chevrolet Volt VIN 0815 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), including testing the PHEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 12,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Chevrolet Volt PHEV (VIN 1G1RD6E48BU100815). The battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation (eTec) dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the AVTA for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the DOE.

  15. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 6063 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN JTDKN3DU5A0006063). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 1748 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H59AS011748). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. 2010 Toyota Prius VIN 0462 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Toyota Prius HEV (VIN: JTDKN3DU2A5010462). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. 2010 Honda Insight VIN 0141 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing the HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Honda Insight HEV (VIN: JHMZE2H78AS010141). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. 2010 Ford Fusion VIN 4757 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), including testing HEV batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2010 Ford Fusion HEV (VIN: 3FADP0L34AR144757). Battery testing was performed by the Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation dba ECOtality North America. The Idaho National Laboratory and ECOtality North America collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  20. Evaluation of Utility System Impacts and Benefits of Optimally Dispatched Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Short, W.

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.

  1. Quantifying the fuel use and greenhouse gas reduction potential of electric and hybrid vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; Wang, M.; Hazard, N.; Lewis, G.; Energy Systems; Northeast Sustainable Energy Association; Univ. of Michigan

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1989, the Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NESEA) has organized the American Tour de Sol in which a wide variety of participants operate electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) for several hundred miles under various roadway conditions (e.g., city center and highway). The event offers a unique opportunity to collect on-the-road energy efficiency data for these EVs and HEVs as well as comparable gasoline-fueled conventional vehicles (CVs) that are driven under the same conditions. NESEA and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) collaborated on collecting and analyzing vehicle efficiency data during the 1998 and 1999 NESEA American Tour de Sols. Using a transportation fuel-cycle model developed at ANL with data collected on vehicle fuel economy from the two events as well as electric generation mix data from the utilities that provided the electricity to charge the EVs on the two Tours, we estimated full fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emissions of EVs and CVs. This paper presents the data, methodology, and results of this study, including the full fuel-cycle energy use and GHG emission reduction potential of the EVs operating on the Tour.

  2. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The purpose of this project is to identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome this market barrier. Candidate value propositions for the initial case study were chosen to enhance consumer acceptance of PHEVs and/or compatibility with the grid. Potential benefits of such grid-connected vehicles include the ability to supply peak load or emergency power requirements of the grid, enabling utilities to size their generation capacity and contingency resources at levels below peak. Different models for vehicle/battery ownership, leasing, financing and operation, as well as the grid, communications, and vehicle infrastructure needed to support the proposed value-added functions were explored during Phase 1. Rigorous power system, vehicle, financial and emissions modeling were utilized to help identify the most promising value propositions and market niches to focus PHEV deployment initiatives.

  3. Proceedings of the 2002 Advanced Vehicle Control Conference, Hiroshima, Japan, September 2002 Control of a Hybrid Electric Truck Based on Driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    initiated, aiming to duplicate the success of hybrid powertrain on passenger cars to light and heavy trucks demonstrated by several prototype hybrid passenger cars, produced by the PNGV program, will be an unrealistic Control of a Hybrid Electric Truck Based on Driving Pattern Recognition Chan-Chiao Lin, Huei Peng Soonil

  4. Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction – Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #843: Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales are Two and a Half Times Higher than Hybrid Electric Vehicle Sales in the First 45 Months since Market Introduction

  5. Composit, Nanoparticle-Based Anode material for Li-ion Batteries Applied in Hybrid Electric (HEV's)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Malgorzata Gulbinska

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion batteries are promising energy storage devices in hybrid and electric vehicles with high specific energy values ({approx}150 Wh/kg), energy density ({approx}400 Wh/L), and long cycle life (>15 years). However, applications in hybrid and electric vehicles require increased energy density and improved low-temperature (<-10 C) performance. Silicon-based anodes are inexpensive, environmentally benign, and offer excellent theoretical capacity values ({approx}4000 mAh/g), leading to significantly less anode material and thus increasing the overall energy density value for the complete battery (>500 Wh/L). However, tremendous volume changes occur during cycling of pure silicon-based anodes. The expansion and contraction of these silicon particles causes them to fracture and lose electrical contact to the current collector ultimately severely limiting their cycle life. In Phase I of this project Yardney Technical Products, Inc. proposed development of a carbon/nano-silicon composite anode material with improved energy density and silicon's cycleability. In the carbon/nano-Si composite, silicon nanoparticles were embedded in a partially-graphitized carbonaceous matrix. The cycle life of anode material would be extended by decreasing the average particle size of active material (silicon) and by encapsulation of silicon nanoparticles in a ductile carbonaceous matrix. Decreasing the average particle size to a nano-region would also shorten Li-ion diffusion path and thus improve rate capability of the silicon-based anodes. Improved chemical inertness towards PC-based, low-temperature electrolytes was expected as an additional benefit of a thin, partially graphitized coating around the active electrode material.

  6. Type Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical and electrical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of a study, dealing with the topic of Type Toyota Management Systems. In the survey SMEs in mechanicalType Toyota Management Systems (MSTT) of small and medium-sized enterprises in mechanical; Institute of Industrial Manufacturing and Management (IFF), University of Stuttgart, Nobelstr. 12, D-70569

  7. El Paso Electric Company- Small and Medium System Renewable Energy Certificate Purchase Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Effective January 1, 2010, El Paso Electric is purchasing renewable energy certificates (RECs) from its New Mexico customers who install small photovoltaic (PV) systems and wind systems up to 10...

  8. Semiotics and Advanced Vehicles: What Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Mean and Why it Matters to Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bradford, S. (2003) Are Hybrid Cars Worth It? Smartmoney 28p. C1. Hakim, D. (2005b) Hybrid-Car Tinkerers Scoff at No-Dollars and Sense of Hybrid Cars. Available from: http://

  9. Semiotics and Advanced Vehicles: What Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Mean and Why it Matters to Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as the Toyota Prius and Honda Civic Hybrid. The objectiveof performance HEVs (such as the Honda Accord Hybrid) andin the HEV. For this owner, the Honda Accord Hybrid offered

  10. Semiotics and Advanced Vehicles: What Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Mean and Why it Matters to Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Would You Buy a Hybrid Vehicle? Study #715238, conducted forcars/high-cost-of-hybrid-vehicles- 406/overview.htm ConsumerRelease. (2005) Most Hybrid Vehicles Not as Cost-Effective

  11. Symbolism in California’s Early Market for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    new-cars/ high-cost-of-hybrid-vehicles-406/overview.htm>.For Tony and Ellen, a hybrid vehicle category exists thata larger category of hybrid vehicles, which includes compact

  12. Semiotics and Advanced Vehicles: What Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Mean and Why it Matters to Consumers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid Vehicle? Study #715238, conducted for National Renewableand Renewable Energy, Report DOE/EE-0314 Valdes-Dapena, P. (2005) Hybrids:

  13. FedEx Gasoline Hybrid Electric Delivery Truck Evaluation: 6-Month Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnitt, R.

    2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This interim report presents partial (six months) results for a technology evaluation of gasoline hybrid electric parcel delivery trucks operated by FedEx in and around Los Angeles, CA. A 12 month in-use technology evaluation comparing in-use fuel economy and maintenance costs of GHEVs and comparative diesel parcel delivery trucks was started in April 2009. Comparison data was collected and analyzed for in-use fuel economy and fuel costs, maintenance costs, total operating costs, and vehicle uptime. In addition, this interim report presents results of parcel delivery drive cycle collection and analysis activities as well as emissions and fuel economy results of chassis dynamometer testing of a gHEV and a comparative diesel truck at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ReFUEL laboratory. A final report will be issued when 12 months of in-use data have been collected and analyzed.

  14. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF HYBRID ELECTRIC FUEL CELL VEHICLES UNDER UNCERTAINTY AND ENTERPRISE CONSIDERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeongwoo Han; Panos Papalambros

    System research on Hybrid Electric Fuel Cell Vehicles (HEFCV) explores the tradeoffs among safety, fuel economy, acceleration, and other vehicle attributes. In addition to engineering considerations, inclusion of business aspects is important in a preliminary vehicle design optimization study. For a new technology, such as fuel cells, it is also important to include uncertainties stemming from manufacturing variability to market response to fuel price fluctuations. This paper applies a decomposition-based multidisciplinary design optimization strategy to an HEFCV. Uncertainty propagated throughout the system is accounted for in a computationally efficient manner. The latter is achieved with a new coordination strategy based on sequential linearizations. The hierarchically partitioned HEFCV design model includes enterprise, powertrain, fuel cell, and battery subsystem models. In addition to engineering uncertainties, the model takes into account uncertain behavior by consumers, and the expected maximum profit is calculated using probabilistic consumer preferences while satisfying engineering feasibility constraints. 1

  15. Reliability Analysis of Electric Power Systems Using an Object-oriented Hybrid Modeling Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schläpfer, Markus; Kröger, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ongoing evolution of the electric power systems brings about the need to cope with increasingly complex interactions of technical components and relevant actors. In order to integrate a more comprehensive spectrum of different aspects into a probabilistic reliability assessment and to include time-dependent effects, this paper proposes an object-oriented hybrid approach combining agent-based modeling techniques with classical methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Objects represent both technical components such as generators and transmission lines and non-technical components such as grid operators. The approach allows the calculation of conventional reliability indices and the estimation of blackout frequencies. Furthermore, the influence of the time needed to remove line overloads on the overall system reliability can be assessed. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated by performing simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System 1996 and on a model of the Swiss high-voltage grid.

  16. 2011 Honda CR-Z 4466 - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler Gray; Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C67BS004466). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. 2011 HONDA CR-Z 2982 - HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE BATTERY TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, Tyler [Interek; Shirk, Matthew [Idaho National Laboratory; Wishart, Jeffrey [Interek

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity Program consists of vehicle, battery, and infrastructure testing on advanced technology related to transportation. The activity includes tests on hybrid electric vehicles, including testing traction batteries when both the vehicles and batteries are new and at the conclusion of 160,000 miles of on-road fleet testing. This report documents battery testing performed for the 2011 Honda CR-Z (VIN JHMZF1C64BS002982). Battery testing was performed by Intertek Testing Services NA. The Idaho National Laboratory and Intertek collaborate on the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity for the Vehicle Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Impact of SiC Power Electronic Devices for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Leon M. Tolbert1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    02FCC-37 Impact of SiC Power Electronic Devices for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Leon M. Tolbert1 properties of silicon carbide (SiC) power electronic devices compared with silicon (Si) are expected to have characteristics of Si and SiC are used to develop a simulation model for SiC power electronics devices. The main

  19. The Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    and wind power in three Canadian jurisdictions, namely British Columbia, Ontario and Alberta. An Optimal baseload mixtures. The large premium paid for displacing hydro or nuclear power with wind power does littleThe Techno-economic Impacts of Using Wind Power and Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles for Greenhouse

  20. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  1. Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Program 18th annual report to Congress for Fiscal Year 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department remains focused on the technologies that are critical to making electric and hybrid vehicles commercially viable and competitive with current production gasoline-fueled vehicles in performance, reliability, and affordability. During Fiscal Year 1994, significant progress was made toward fulfilling the intent of Congress. The Department and the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (a partnership of the three major domestic automobile manufacturers) continued to work together and to focus the efforts of battery developers on the battery technologies that are most likely to be commercialized in the near term. Progress was made in industry cost-shared contracts toward demonstrating the technical feasibility of fuel cells for passenger bus and light duty vehicle applications. Two industry teams which will develop hybrid vehicle propulsion technologies have been selected through competitive procurement and have initiated work, in Fiscal Year 1994. In addition, technical studies and program planning continue, as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, to achieve the goals of reducing the transportation sector dependence on imported oil, reducing the level of environmentally harmful emissions, and enhancing industrial productivity and competitiveness.

  2. Costs and Emissions Associated with Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging in the Xcel Energy Colorado Service Territory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parks, K.; Denholm, P.; Markel, T.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combination of high oil costs, concerns about oil security and availability, and air quality issues related to vehicle emissions are driving interest in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs are similar to conventional hybrid electric vehicles, but feature a larger battery and plug-in charger that allows electricity from the grid to replace a portion of the petroleum-fueled drive energy. PHEVs may derive a substantial fraction of their miles from grid-derived electricity, but without the range restrictions of pure battery electric vehicles. As of early 2007, production of PHEVs is essentially limited to demonstration vehicles and prototypes. However, the technology has received considerable attention from the media, national security interests, environmental organizations, and the electric power industry. The use of PHEVs would represent a significant potential shift in the use of electricity and the operation of electric power systems. Electrification of the transportation sector could increase generation capacity and transmission and distribution (T&D) requirements, especially if vehicles are charged during periods of high demand. This study is designed to evaluate several of these PHEV-charging impacts on utility system operations within the Xcel Energy Colorado service territory.

  3. Medium- and Heavy-Duty Electric Drive Vehicle Simulation and Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311, 3312), October 20122Technologies61-2008Medium- and Heavy-Duty

  4. Modeling, Simulation Design and Control of Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giorgio Rizzoni

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio State University (OSU) is uniquely poised to establish such a center, with interdisciplinary emphasis on modeling, simulation, design and control of hybrid-electric drives for a number of reasons, some of which are: (1) The OSU Center for Automotive Research (CAR) already provides an infrastructure for interdisciplinary automotive research and graduate education; the facilities available at OSU-CAR in the area of vehicle and powertrain research are among the best in the country. CAR facilities include 31,000 sq. feet of space, multiple chassis and engine dynamometers, an anechoic chamber, and a high bay area. (2) OSU has in excess of 10 graduate level courses related to automotive systems. A graduate level sequence has already been initiated with GM. In addition, an Automotive Systems Engineering (ASE) program cosponsored by the mechanical and electrical engineering programs, had been formulated earlier at OSU, independent of the GATE program proposal. The main objective of the ASE is to provide multidisciplinary graduate education and training in the field of automotive systems to Masters level students. This graduate program can be easily adapted to fulfill the spirit of the GATE Center of Excellence. (3) A program in Mechatronic Systems Engineering has been in place at OSU since 1994; this program has a strong emphasis on automotive system integration issues, and has emphasized hybrid-electric vehicles as one of its application areas. (4) OSU researchers affiliated with CAR have been directly involved in the development and study of: HEV modeling and simulation; electric drives; transmission design and control; combustion engines; and energy storage systems. These activities have been conducted in collaboration with government and automotive industry sponsors; further, the same researchers have been actively involved in continuing education programs in these areas with the automotive industry. The proposed effort will include: (1) The development of a laboratory facility that will include: electric drive and IC engine test benches; a test vehicle designed for rapid installation of prototype drives; benches for the measurement and study of HEV energy storage components (batteries, ultra-capacitors, flywheels); hardware-in-the-loop control system development tools. (2) The creation of new courses and upgrades of existing courses on subjects related to: HEV modeling and simulation; supervisory control of HEV drivetrains; engine, transmission, and electric drive modeling and control. Specifically, two new courses (one entitled HEV Component Analysis: and the other entitled HEV System Integration and Control) will be developed. Two new labs, that will be taught with the courses (one entitled HEV Components Lab and one entitled HEV Systems and Control lab) will also be developed. (3) The consolidation of already existing ties among faculty in electrical and mechanical engineering departments. (4) The participation of industrial partners through: joint laboratory development; internship programs; continuing education programs; research project funding. The proposed effort will succeed because of the already exceptional level of involvement in HEV research and in graduate education in automotive engineering at OSU, and because the PIs have a proven record of interdisciplinary collaboration as evidenced by joint proposals, joint papers, and co-advising of graduate students. OSU has been expanding its emphasis in Automotive Systems for quite some time. This has led to numerous successes such as the establishment of the Center of Automotive Research, a graduate level course sequence with GM, and numerous grants and contracts on automotive research. The GATE Center of Excellence is a natural extension of what educators at OSU already do well.

  5. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Regional Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world, with much work aiming to optimize engine and battery for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, the general expectation has been that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of PHEVs because the recharging will occur during off-peak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough so that capacity planning will respond adequately. This expectation does not consider that drivers will control the timing of recharging, and their inclination will be to plug in when convenient, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of adding load from PHEVs onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require the addition of new electric capacity and increase the utilization of existing capacity. Usage patterns of local distribution grids will change, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to meet the demand for recharging PHEVs will depend on the region of the country and the timing of recharging. This paper analyzes the potential impacts of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and associated emission levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 regions specified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), and on which the data and analysis in EIA's Annual Energy Outlook 2007 are based (Figure ES-1). The estimates of power plant supplies and regional hourly electricity demand come from publicly available sources from EIA and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Electricity requirements for PHEVs are based on analysis from the Electric Power Research Institute, with an optimistic projection of 25% market penetration by 2020, involving a mixture of sedans and sport utility vehicles. The calculations were done using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model, a model developed over the past 12 years to evaluate a wide variety of critical electricity sector issues. Seven scenarios were run for each region for 2020 and 2030, for a total of 182 scenarios. In addition to a base scenario of no PHEVs, the authors modeled scenarios assuming that vehicles were either plugged in starting at 5:00 p.m. (evening) or at 10:00 p.m.(night) and left until fully charged. Three charging rates were examined: 120V/15A (1.4 kW), 120V/20A (2 kW), and 220V/30A (6 kW). Most regions will need to build additional capacity or utilize demand response to meet the added demand from PHEVs in the evening charging scenarios, especially by 2030 when PHEVs have a larger share of the installed vehicle base and make a larger demand on the system. The added demands of evening charging, especially at high power levels, can impact the overall demand peaks and reduce the reserve margins for a region's system. Night recharging has little potential to influence peak loads, but will still influence the amount and type of generation.

  6. Promoting the Market for Plug-in Hybrid and Battery Electric Vehicles: Role of Recharge Availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much recent attention has been drawn to providing adequate recharge availability as a means to promote the battery electric vehicle (BEV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) market. The possible role of improved recharge availability in developing the BEV-PHEV market and the priorities that different charging options should receive from the government require better understanding. This study reviews the charging issue and conceptualizes it into three interactions between the charge network and the travel network. With travel data from 3,755 drivers in the National Household Travel Survey, this paper estimates the distribution among U.S. consumers of (a) PHEV fuel-saving benefits by different recharge availability improvements, (b) range anxiety by different BEV ranges, and (c) willingness to pay for workplace and public charging in addition to home recharging. With the Oak Ridge National Laboratory MA3T model, the impact of three recharge improvements is quantified by the resulting increase in BEV-PHEV sales. Compared with workplace and public recharging improvements, home recharging improvement appears to have a greater impact on BEV-PHEV sales. The impact of improved recharging availability is shown to be amplified by a faster reduction in battery cost.

  7. Impact of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles on the Electric Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed around the world; much work is going on to optimize engine and battery operations for efficient operation, both during discharge and when grid electricity is available for recharging. However, there has generally been the expectation that the grid will not be greatly affected by the use of the vehicles, because the recharging would only occur during offpeak hours, or the number of vehicles will grow slowly enough that capacity planning will respond adequately. But this expectation does not incorporate that endusers will have control of the time of recharging and the inclination for people will be to plug in when convenient for them, rather than when utilities would prefer. It is important to understand the ramifications of introducing a number of plug-in hybrid vehicles onto the grid. Depending on when and where the vehicles are plugged in, they could cause local or regional constraints on the grid. They could require both the addition of new electric capacity along with an increase in the utilization of existing capacity. Local distribution grids will see a change in their utilization pattern, and some lines or substations may become overloaded sooner than expected. Furthermore, the type of generation used to recharge the vehicles will be different depending on the region of the country and timing when the PHEVs recharge. We conducted an analysis of what the grid impact may be in 2018 with one million PHEVs added to the VACAR sub-region of the Southeast Electric Reliability Council, a region that includes South Carolina, North Carolina, and much of Virginia. To do this, we used the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch model, which simulates the hourly dispatch of power generators to meet demand for a region over a given year. Depending on the vehicle, its battery, the charger voltage level, amperage, and duration, the impact on regional electricity demand varied from 1,400 to 6,000 MW. If recharging occurred in the early evening, then peak loads were raised and demands were met largely by combustion turbines and combined cycle plants. Nighttime recharging had less impact on peak loads and generation adequacy, but the increased use of coal-fired generation changed the relative amounts of air emissions. Costs of generation also fluctuated greatly depending on the timing. However, initial analysis shows that even charging at peak times may be less costly than using gasoline to operate the vehicles. Even if the overall region may have sufficient generating power, the region's transmission system or distribution lines to different areas may not be large enough to handle this new type of load. A largely residential feeder circuit may not be sized to have a significant proportion of its customers adding 1.4 to 6 kW loads that would operate continuously for two to six hours beginning in the early evening. On a broader scale, the transmission lines feeding the local substations may be similarly constrained if they are not sized to respond to this extra growth in demand. This initial analysis identifies some of the complexities in analyzing the integrated system of PHEVs and the grid. Depending on the power level, timing, and duration of the PHEV connection to the grid, there could be a wide variety of impacts on grid constraints, capacity needs, fuel types used, and emissions generated. This paper provides a brief description of plug-in hybrid vehicle characteristics in Chapter 2. Various charging strategies for vehicles are discussed, with a consequent impact on the grid. In Chapter 3 we describe the future electrical demand for a region of the country and the impact on this demand with a number of plug-in hybrids. We apply that demand to an inventory of power plants for the region using the Oak Ridge Competitive Electricity Dispatch (ORCED) model to evaluate the change in power production and emissions. In Chapter 4 we discuss the impact of demand increases on local distribution systems. In Chapter 5 we conclude and provide insights into the impacts of plug-ins. Future

  8. Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

  9. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Volume 9, Number 1, June 2011 Uncontrolled Generation of Traciton Motors in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) are provided with advantages of small size, light weight, and high power density, therefore PMSM are primary choice as traction motors in hybrid vehicles. In addition hybrid vehicles use PMSM [Kassakian , 2000]. However, interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM

  10. Electrochemical Capacitors as Energy Storage in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles: Present Status and Future Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    passenger cars using the ultracapacitors in micro-hybrid,passenger car using both carbon/carbon and hybrid carbonhybrid vehicle designs and operating strategies are shown in Table 1 for a mid-size passenger car.

  11. Advanced Hybrid Propulsion and Energy Management System for High Efficiency, Off Highway, 240 Ton Class, Diesel Electric Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richter, Tim; Slezak, Lee; Johnson, Chris; Young, Henry; Funcannon, Dan

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to reduce the fuel consumption of off-highway vehicles, specifically large tonnage mine haul trucks. A hybrid energy storage and management system will be added to a conventional diesel-electric truck that will allow capture of braking energy normally dissipated in grid resistors as heat. The captured energy will be used during acceleration and motoring, reducing the diesel engine load, thus conserving fuel. The project will work towards a system validation of the hybrid system by first selecting an energy storage subsystem and energy management subsystem. Laboratory testing at a subscale level will evaluate these selections and then a full-scale laboratory test will be performed. After the subsystems have been proven at the full-scale lab, equipment will be mounted on a mine haul truck and integrated with the vehicle systems. The integrated hybrid components will be exercised to show functionality, capability, and fuel economy impacts in a mine setting.

  12. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Mountain, Dean C.; Jaccard, Mark

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D R.L. Polk & Co. , 2006. Hybrid Vehicle Registrations Morecapital cost of the hybrid vehicle, subsidy providedfor the hybrid vehicle, horsepower of the hybrid vehicle,

  13. Performance of reduced wall EPR insulated medium voltage power cables. Pat 1: Electrical characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinquemani, P.L.; Wen, Y.; Kuchta, F.L.; Doench, C. [Pirelli Cable Corp., Lexington, SC (United States)] [Pirelli Cable Corp., Lexington, SC (United States)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper insulated lead covered cables (PILC) have had a long and successful heritage. After almost 100 years, this design of cable is still in operation and continues to be manufactured. However, utilities are now looking for a reliable replacement for PILC cables. This is due to two primary reasons: (1) difficulty in installing and maintaining this type of cable and (2) increasing pressure to replace these cables due to environmental concerns. To date diameter limitations of conventional extruded dielectric cables has impeded their replacement in existing PILC conduits. This paper describes a study for the evaluation for reliably reducing the insulation thickness to achieve a lower diameter cable to effectively replace PILC cable in existing conduits. Part 1 of the investigation reviews the theory of insulation wall determination and the test program carried out to evaluate electrical performance of reduced wall EPR cables. Additionally, cable design concepts and constructions are discussed. In Part 2 the mechanical performance on conventional and reduced wall EPR insulated cables are evaluated. This is reported in a separate paper.

  14. RD&D Cooperation for the Development of Fuel Cell, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles within the International Energy Agency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telias, G.; Day, K.; Dietrich, P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annex XIII on 'Fuel Cell Vehicles' of the Implementing Agreement Hybrid and Electric Vehicles of the International Energy Agency has been operating since 2006, complementing the ongoing activities on battery and hybrid electric vehicles within this group. This paper provides an overview of the Annex XIII final report for 2010, compiling an up-to-date, neutral, and comprehensive assessment of current trends in fuel cell vehicle technology and related policy. The technological description includes trends in system configuration as well as a review of the most relevant components including the fuel cell stack, batteries, and hydrogen storage. Results from fuel cell vehicle demonstration projects around the world and an overview of the successful implementation of fuel cells in specific transport niche markets will also be discussed. The final section of this report provides a detailed description of national research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) efforts worldwide.

  15. On-road evaluation of advanced hybrid electric vehicles over a wide range of ambient temperatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, R.; Duoba, M. J.; Bocci, D.; Lohse-Busch, H. (Energy Systems)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV's) have become a production viable and effective mode of efficient transportation. HEV's can provide increased fuel economy over convention technology vehicle, but these advantages can be affected dramatically by wide variations in operating temperatures. The majority of data measured for benchmarking HEV technologies is generated from ambient test cell temperatures at 22 C. To investigate cold and hot temperature affects on HEV operation and efficiency, an on-road evaluation protocol is defined and conducted over a six month study at widely varying temperatures. Two test vehicles, the 2007 Toyota Camry HEV and 2005 Ford Escape HEV, were driven on a pre-defined urban driving route in ambient temperatures ranging from -14 C to 31 C. Results from the on-road evaluation were also compared and correlated to dynamometer testing of the same drive cycle. Results from this on-road evaluation show the battery power control limits and engine operation dramatically change with temperature. These changes decrease fuel economy by more than two times at -14 C as compared to 25 C. The two vehicles control battery temperature in different manners. The Escape HEV uses the air conditioning system to provide cool air to the batteries at high temperatures and is therefore able to maintain battery temperature to less than 33 C. The Camry HEV uses cabin air to cool the batteries. The observed maximum battery temperature was 44 C.

  16. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105?C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  17. Electric and hybrid vehicle program site operator program. Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994 (First quarter of FY-95)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three ma or activity categories: (1) Advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies, (2) Development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and (3) Increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 13 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified in Table ES-1. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized in Table ES-2.

  18. Electric-Drive Vehicle Basics (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Describes the basics of electric-drive vehicles, including hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, all-electric vehicles, and the various charging options.

  19. 912 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 47, NO. 2, MARCH/APRIL 2011 Impact of SiC Devices on Hybrid Electric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    ; in particular, the size of the battery bank can be reduced for optimum design. Index Terms--Efficiency, hybrid (SiC) devices as battery interface, motor controller, etc., in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV]­[5]. The application of SiC devices (as battery interface, motor controller, etc.) in a HEV has merit because

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 56, NO. 2, MARCH 2007 557 Modeling of a Series Hybrid Electric High-Mobility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    to reduce fuel costs and gas emissions, the U.S. Army is looking into replacing their diesel high (HMMWV), use diesel engines that are very noisy. By using the battery in the hybrid system, the vehicle]. The demand for HEVs is expected to increase in the future. The hybrid electric HMMWV (HE-HMMWV) is one

  1. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles-in hybrid electric vehicles D M Lemoine1 , D M Kammen1,2,3 and A E Farrell1,4,5 1 Energy and Resources Group.iop.org/ERL/3/014003 Abstract Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity

  2. Thirty-Six Month Evaluation of UPS Diesel Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This evaluation compared six hybrids and six standard diesels in UPS facilities in Phoenix, Arizona. Dispatch and maintenance practices are the same at both facilities. GPS logging, fueling, and maintenance records are used to evaluate the performance of these step delivery vans. The hybrids' average monthly mileage rate was 18% less than the diesel vans. The hybrids consistently were driven a fewer number of miles throughout the evaluation period. The hybrids idled more and operating at slower speeds than the diesels, and the diesels spent slightly more time operating at greater speeds, accounting for much of the hybrids fewer monthly miles. The average fuel economy for the hybrid vans is 13.0 mpg, 23% greater than the diesel vans 10.6 mpg. Total hybrid maintenance cost/mile of $0.141 was 9% more than the $0.130 for the diesel vans. Propulsion-related maintenance cost/mile of $0.037 for the hybrid vans was 25% more than the $0.029 for the diesel vans. Neither difference was found to be statistically significant. The hybrid group had a cumulative average of 96.3% uptime, less than the diesel group's 99.0% uptime. The hybrids experienced troubleshooting and recalibration issues related to prototype components that were primarily responsible for the lower uptime figures.

  3. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, Robert H [ORNL; Hsu, John S [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near-term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  4. Barriers to the Application of High-Temperature Coolants in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, J.S.; Staunton, M.R.; Starke, M.R.

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to identify practical approaches, technical barriers, and cost impacts to achieving high-temperature coolant operation for certain traction drive subassemblies and components of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). HEVs are unique in their need for the cooling of certain dedicated-traction drive subassemblies/components that include the electric motor(s), generators(s), inverter, dc converter (where applicable), and dc-link capacitors. The new coolant system under study would abandon the dedicated 65 C coolant loop, such as used in the Prius, and instead rely on the 105 C engine cooling loop. This assessment is important because automotive manufacturers are interested in utilizing the existing water/glycol engine cooling loop to cool the HEV subassemblies in order to eliminate an additional coolant loop with its associated reliability, space, and cost requirements. In addition, the cooling of power electronic devices, traction motors, and generators is critical in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technology (FCVT) goals for power rating, volume, weight, efficiency, reliability, and cost. All of these have been addressed in this study. Because there is high interest by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in reducing manufacturing cost to enhance their competitive standing, the approach taken in this analysis was designed to be a positive 'can-do' approach that would be most successful in demonstrating the potential or opportunity of relying entirely on a high-temperature coolant system. Nevertheless, it proved to be clearly evident that a few formidable technical and cost barriers exist and no effective approach for mitigating the barriers was evident in the near term. Based on comprehensive thermal tests of the Prius reported by ORNL in 2005 [1], the continuous ratings at base speed (1200 rpm) with different coolant temperatures were projected from test data at 900 rpm. They are approximately 15 kW with 103 C coolant and 20 kW with 50 C coolant. To avoid this 25% drop1 in continuous power, design changes for improved heat dissipation and carefully managed changes in allowable thermal limits would be required in the hybrid subsystems. This study is designed to identify the technical barriers that potentially exist in moving to a high-temperature cooling loop prior to addressing the actual detailed design. For operation at a significantly higher coolant temperature, there were component-level issues that had to be addressed in this study. These issues generally pertained to the cost and reliability of existing or near term components that would be suitable for use with the 105 C coolant. The assessed components include power electronic devices/modules such as diodes and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), inverter-grade high-temperature capacitors, permanent magnets (PM), and motor-grade wire insulation. The need for potentially modifying/resizing subassemblies such as inverters, motors, and heat exchangers was also addressed in the study. In order to obtain pertinent information to assist ORNL researchers address the thermal issues at the component, module, subassembly, and system levels, pre-existing laboratory test data conducted at varying temperatures was analyzed in conjunction with information obtained from technical literature searches and industry sources.

  5. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Market Introduction Study: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Gross, Thomas [Sentech, Inc.; Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Sullivan, John [University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.; Ward, Jake [U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sentech, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)/University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Market Introduction Study to identify and assess the effect of potential policies, regulations, and temporary incentives as key enablers for a successful market debut. The timeframe over which market-stimulating incentives would be implemented - and the timeframe over which they would be phased out - are suggested. Possible sources of revenue to help fund these mechanisms are also presented. In addition, pinch points likely to emerge during market growth are identified and proposed solutions presented. Finally, modeling results from ORNL's Market Acceptance of Advanced Automotive Technologies (MA3T) Model and UMTRI's Virtual AutoMotive MarketPlace (VAMMP) Model were used to quantify the expected effectiveness of the proposed policies and to recommend a consensus strategy aimed at transitioning what begins as a niche industry into a thriving and sustainable market by 2030. The primary objective of the PHEV Market Introduction Study is to identify the most effective means for accelerating the commercialization of PHEVs in order to support national energy and economic goals. Ideally, these mechanisms would maximize PHEV sales while minimizing federal expenditures. To develop a robust market acceleration program, incentives and policies must be examined in light of: (1) clarity and transparency of the market signals they send to the consumer; (2) expenditures and resources needed to support them; (3) expected impacts on the market for PHEVs; (4) incentives that are compatible and/or supportive of each other; (5) complexity of institutional and regulatory coordination needed; and (6) sources of funding.

  6. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies office has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The DOE FreedomCAR program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and hopefully lead to a near-term request for proposals (RFP) for a to-be-determined level of initial production. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This report summarizes the results of these activities as of September 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched-reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the IPM machine reflects industry's confidence in this market-proven design that exhibits a high power density.

  7. PM Motor Parametric Design Analyses for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive Application: Interim Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR (Cooperative Automotive Research) and Vehicle Technologies has a strong interest in making rapid progress in permanent magnet (PM) machine development. The program is directing various technology development projects that will advance the technology and lead to request for proposals (RFP) for manufacturer prototypes. This aggressive approach is possible because the technology is clearly within reach and the approach is deemed essential, based on strong market demand, escalating fuel prices, and competitive considerations. In response, this study began parallel development paths that included a literature search/review, development and utilization of multiple parametric models to determine the effects of design parameters, verification of the modeling methodology, development of an interior PM (IPM) machine baseline design, development of alternative machine baseline designs, and cost analyses for several candidate machines. This interim progress report summarizes the results of these activities as of June 2004. This report provides background and summary information for recent machine parametric studies and testing programs that demonstrate both the potential capabilities and technical limitations of brushless PM machines (axial gap and radial gap), the IPM machine, the surface-mount PM machines (interior or exterior rotor), induction machines, and switched reluctance machines. The FreedomCAR program, while acknowledging the progress made by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Delphi, Delco-Remy International, and others in these programs, has redirected efforts toward a ''short path'' to a marketable and competitive PM motor for hybrid electric vehicle traction applications. The program has developed a set of performance targets for the type of traction machine desired. The short-path approach entails a comprehensive design effort focusing on the IPM machine and meeting the performance targets. The selection of the IPM machine reflects industry's confidence in this market-proven design that exhibits a power density surpassed by no other machine design.

  8. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in batteries, ultracapacitors, fuel cells and hybrid vehicleBattery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle SymposiumBattery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium

  9. Electrically heated particulate filter regeneration methods and systems for hybrid vehicles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V. (Pinckney, MI); Paratore, Jr., Michael J. (Howell, MI)

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for controlling regeneration of a particulate filter for a hybrid vehicle is provided. The system generally includes a regeneration module that controls current to the particulate filter to initiate regeneration. An engine control module controls operation of an engine of the hybrid vehicle based on the control of the current to the particulate filter.

  10. A versatile computer model for the design and analysis of electric and hybrid vehicles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Kenneth Michael

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of the work reported in this thesis was to develop a versatile computer model to facilitate the design and analysis of hybrid vehicle drive-trains. A hybrid vehicle is one in which power for propulsion comes from two distinct...

  11. Finding Ultimate Limits of Performance for Hybrid Electric Edward D. Tate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    automobiles. By recovering kinetic energy during braking and optimizing the engine operation to reduce fuel to achieving maximum fuel economy. In this paper we introduce the application of convex optimization to hybrid, optimization of emissions and extensions to other hybrid vehicle architectures. INTRODUCTION Two areas

  12. A versatile computer model for the design and analysis of electric and hybrid vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Kenneth Michael

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary purpose of the work reported in this thesis was to develop a versatile computer model to facilitate the design and analysis of hybrid vehicle drive-trains. A hybrid vehicle is one in which power for propulsion comes from two distinct...

  13. Assessing Energy Impact of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Significance of Daily Distance Variation over Time and Among Drivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate assessment of the impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) on petroleum and electricity consumption is a necessary step toward effective policies. Variations in daily vehicle miles traveled (VMT) over time and among drivers affect PHEV energy impact, but the significance is not well understood. This paper uses a graphical illustration, a mathematical derivation, and an empirical study to examine the cause and significance of such an effect. The first two methods reveal that ignoring daily variation in VMT always causes underestimation of petroleum consumption and overestimation of electricity consumption by PHEVs; both biases increase as the assumed PHEV charge-depleting (CD) range moves closer to the average daily VMT. The empirical analysis based on national travel survey data shows that the assumption of uniform daily VMT over time and among drivers causes nearly 68% underestimation of expected petroleum use and nearly 48% overestimation of expected electricity use by PHEVs with a 40-mi CD range (PHEV40s). Also for PHEV40s, consideration of daily variation in VMT over time but not among drivers similar to the way the utility factor curve is derived in SAE Standard SAE J2841 causes underestimation of expected petroleum use by more than 24% and overestimation of expected electricity use by about 17%. Underestimation of petroleum use and overestimation of electricity use increase with larger-battery PHEVs.

  14. Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Axsen, Jonn; Caperello, Nicolette; Davies, Jamie; Stillwater, Tai

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T. et al. (2006), Plug-in hybrid vehicle analysis, Milestonein conversions of hybrid vehicles are being made availablein Table 3: household hybrid vehicle ownership, respondents’

  15. Batteries for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals and the State of Technology circa 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Burke, Andy; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    detour? Presentation at SAE 2008 Hybrid Vehicle Technologiesdrive vehicles, including plug-in hybrid vehicles. -vi-including plug-in hybrid vehicles. 7.0 References Anderman,

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program: Battery Test Manual For Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jon P. Christophersen

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This battery test procedure manual was prepared for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office. It is based on technical targets for commercial viability established for energy storage development projects aimed at meeting system level DOE goals for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV). The specific procedures defined in this manual support the performance and life characterization of advanced battery devices under development for PHEV’s. However, it does share some methods described in the previously published battery test manual for power-assist hybrid electric vehicles. Due to the complexity of some of the procedures and supporting analysis, future revisions including some modifications and clarifications of these procedures are expected. As in previous battery and capacitor test manuals, this version of the manual defines testing methods for full-size battery systems, along with provisions for scaling these tests for modules, cells or other subscale level devices. The DOE-United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC), Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) supported the development of the manual. Technical Team points of contact responsible for its development and revision are Renata M. Arsenault of Ford Motor Company and Jon P. Christophersen of the Idaho National Laboratory. The development of this manual was funded by the Unites States Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Technical direction from DOE was provided by David Howell, Energy Storage R&D Manager and Hybrid Electric Systems Team Leader. Comments and questions regarding the manual should be directed to Jon P. Christophersen at the Idaho National Laboratory (jon.christophersen@inl.gov).

  17. Failure modes in high-power lithium-ion batteries for use in hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for ATD 18650 GEN 1 lithium ion cells, Revision 4, DecemberFAILURE MODES IN HIGH-POWER LITHIUM-ION BATTERIES FOR USE INdevelopment of high-power lithium-ion batteries for hybrid

  18. Symbolism in California’s Early Market for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Turrentine, Tom

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that includes the Toyota Prius and Honda Civic Hybrid.The Honda Insight, which Tony deems ‘‘wimpy, ugly, Fig. 2.25 households that purchased a Honda Insight, Honda Civic

  19. Soft and hybrid-doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} ceramics under stress, electric field, and temperature loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suchanicz, J.; Kim-Ngan, N.-T.; Konieczny, K.; Jankowska-Sumara, I. [Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow (Poland); Balogh, A. G. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the influence of uniaxial pressure (0-1000 bars) applied parallelly or perpendicularly to the ac or dc electric field (in a one-dimensional or two-dimensional manner) on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of selected soft and hybrid-doped PZT ceramics (1 mol. % Gd, 1 mol. % La and 1 mol. % (La+Fe)-doped Pb(Zr{sub 0.54}Ti{sub 0.46}) O{sub 3}). Applying uniaxial pressure leads to a reduction of the peak intensity of the electric permittivity ({epsilon}), of the frequency dispersion, and of the dielectric hysteresis. The peak intensity of {epsilon} becomes diffused and shifts to a higher temperatures with increasing pressure. Simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and dc electric field (perpendicular to each other) in the poling process implies in improvement of the ferroelectric properties, indicating a new possibility for poling materials with a high coercive field and/or high electric conductivity. It was also found that simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and dc electric field (perpendicular to each other) allowed observation of the space charge in the depolarization process. The electrostrictive coefficient Q{sub 11} and differential permittivity were evaluated from obtained data. Our results show that applying uniaxial pressure induces similar effects as increasing the Ti-ion concentration in the PZT system. We interpreted our results based on the Cochran soft-mode and domain switching processes under the action of pressure.

  20. Integrated Testing, Simulation and Analysis of Electric Drive Options for Medium-Duty Parcel Delivery Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramroth, L. A.; Gonder, J.; Brooker, A.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory verified diesel-conventional and diesel-hybrid parcel delivery vehicle models to evaluate petroleum reduction and cost implications of plug-in hybrid gasoline and diesel variants. These variants are run on a field-data-derived design matrix to analyze the effects of drive cycle, distance, battery replacements, battery capacity, and motor power on fuel consumption and lifetime cost. Two cost scenarios using fuel prices corresponding to forecasted highs for 2011 and 2030 and battery costs per kilowatt-hour representing current and long-term targets compare plug-in hybrid lifetime costs with diesel conventional lifetime costs. Under a future cost scenario of $100/kWh battery energy and $5/gal fuel, plug-in hybrids are cost effective. Assuming a current cost of $700/kWh and $3/gal fuel, they rarely recoup the additional motor and battery cost. The results highlight the importance of understanding the application's drive cycle, daily driving distance, and kinetic intensity. For instances in the current-cost scenario where the additional plug-in hybrid cost is regained in fuel savings, the combination of kinetic intensity and daily distance travelled does not coincide with the usage patterns observed in the field data. If the usage patterns were adjusted, the hybrids could become cost effective.

  1. Strain and electric field induced electronic properties of two-dimensional hybrid bilayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Munish, E-mail: munishsharmahpu@live.com, E-mail: pk-ahluwalia7@yahoo.com; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K., E-mail: munishsharmahpu@live.com, E-mail: pk-ahluwalia7@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla 171005 (India); Pandey, Ravindra [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Tunability of the electronic properties of two-dimensional bilayer hetero structures of transition-metal dichalcogenides (i.e., MX{sub 2}-M?X?{sub 2} with (M, M??=?Mo, W; X, X??=?S, Se) is investigated. Application of both strain and electric field is found to modify the band gap and carrier effective mass in the hybrid bilayers considered. The calculated results based on density functional theory suggest that the tensile strain considerably changes the band gap of semiconducting bilayers; it makes the band gap to be indirect, and later initiates the semiconductor-to-metal transition. Application of the external electric fields, on the other hand, shows asymmetric variation in the band gap leading to the closure of the gap at about 0.5–1.0?V/Å. Tuning of the band gap and carrier effective mass in such a controlled manner makes the hybrid bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides to be promising candidates for application in electronic devices at nanoscale.

  2. Emissions Impacts and Benefits of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Vehicle-to-Grid Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have been promoted as a potential technology to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants by using electricity instead of petroleum, and by improving electric system efficiency by providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services. We use an electric power system model to explicitly evaluate the change in generator dispatches resulting from PHEV deployment in the Texas grid, and apply fixed and non-parametric estimates of generator emissions rates, to estimate the resulting changes in generation emissions. We find that by using the flexibility of when vehicles may be charged, generator efficiency can be increased substantially. By changing generator dispatch, a PHEV fleet of up to 15% of light-duty vehicles can actually decrease net generator NO{sub x} emissions during the ozone season, despite the additional charging load. By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced even further.

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: SCAQMD: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Medium-Duty Commercial Fleet Demonstration and Evaluation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by South Coast Air Quality Management District at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about...

  4. Simulated Fuel Economy and Performance of Advanced Hybrid Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Using In-Use Travel Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earleywine, M.; Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Thornton, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As vehicle powertrain efficiency increases through electrification, consumer travel and driving behavior have significantly more influence on the potential fuel consumption of these vehicles. Therefore, it is critical to have a good understanding of in-use or 'real world' driving behavior if accurate fuel consumption estimates of electric drive vehicles are to be achieved. Regional travel surveys using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment have been found to provide an excellent source of in-use driving profiles. In this study, a variety of vehicle powertrain options were developed and their performance was simulated over GPS-derived driving profiles for 783 vehicles operating in Texas. The results include statistical comparisons of the driving profiles versus national data sets, driving performance characteristics compared with standard drive cycles, and expected petroleum displacement benefits from the electrified vehicles given various vehicle charging scenarios.

  5. The potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to reduce petroleum use issues involved in developing reliable estimates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vyas, A. D.; Santini, D. J.; Johnson, L. R.; Energy Systems

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper delineates the various issues involved in developing reliable estimates of the petroleum use reduction that would result from the wide-spread introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Travel day data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) were analyzed to identify the share of vehicle miles of travel (VMT) that could be transferred to grid electricity. Various PHEV charge-depleting (CD) ranges were evaluated, and 100% CD mode and potential blended modes were analyzed. The NHTS data were also examined to evaluate the potential for PHEV battery charging multiple times a day. Data from the 2005 American Housing Survey (AHS) were analyzed to evaluate the availability of garages and carports for at-home charging of the PHEV battery. The AHS data were also reviewed by census region and household location within or outside metropolitan statistical areas. To illustrate the lag times involved, the historical new vehicle market share increases for the diesel power train in France (a highly successful case) and the emerging hybrid electric vehicles in the United States were examined. A new vehicle technology substitution model is applied to illustrate a historically plausible successful new PHEV market share expansion. The trends in U.S. light-duty vehicle sales and light-duty vehicle stock were evaluated to estimate the time required for hypothetical successful new PHEVs to achieve the ultimately attainable share of the existing vehicle stock. Only when such steps have been accomplished will the full oil savings potential for the nation be achieved.

  6. King County Metro Transit: Allison Hybrid Electric Transit Bus Laboratory Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, R. R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paper summarizes chassis dynamometer testing of two 60-foot articulated transit buses, one conventional and one hybrid, at NREL's ReFUEL Laboratory. It includes experimental setup, test procedures, and results from vehicle testing performed at the NREL ReFUEL laboratory.

  7. Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

  8. Abstract--Electrical energy storage is a central element to any electric-drivetrain technology whether hybrid-electric, fuel-cell,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    ACC `04 1 Abstract-- Electrical energy storage is a central element to any electric with energy storage is the high replacement cost of depleted battery banks. One possibility to ease the power-capacitors are used in conjunction with batteries as an energy storage system for mass-transit vehicles [1]. As part

  9. Maximizing Return on Investment of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    -of-day pricing policy [3] with much higher energy price during peak hours for residential users, incentivizing energy when the electricity price is low and supply energy for use when the electricity price is high [6 total energy cost saving compared to its capital cost (i.e., the purchase price of the system plus its

  10. Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks: Five Perspectives on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Participants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    my money in my beliefs…and buy a hybrid car to help promotethe production of further hybrid cars…that year they wereCar Buyers’ Social Networks: Five Perspectives on Plug-in Hybrid

  11. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to approximately 40 kW. The hybrid vehicles are of interestat $0.84/therm). The hybrid vehicles in motor-generator modegas reformer, and the hybrid vehicle. However, the simple

  12. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995 (first quarter of fiscal year 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Site Operator Program quarterly report for USDOE electric and hybrid vehicle research. Its mission now includes the three major activity categories of advancement of electric vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 11 Site Operator Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of the site operators totals about 250 vehicles. The individual fleets are summarized.

  13. Learning from Consumers: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) Demonstration and Consumer Education, Outreach, and Market Research Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurani, Kenneth S; Axsen, Jonn; Caperello, Nicolette; Davies, Jamie; Stillwater, Tai

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    production of further hybrid cars. ” Similarly, Larry Rhodesbuying Priuses as commute cars—hybrids were “fairly popularhybrid vehicles are being made available to (predominately new-car

  14. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Evaluation in a Full-Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cosgrove, J.; Gonder, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) (e.g., Toyota Prius or Ford Fusion Hybrid) remains several thousand dollars higher than the cost of comparable conventional vehicles, which has limited HEV market penetration. The battery energy storage device is typically the component with the greatest contribution toward this cost increment, so significant cost reductions/performance improvements to the energy storage system (ESS) can improve the vehicle-level cost-benefit relationship, which would in turn lead to larger HEV market penetration and greater aggregate fuel savings. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with a United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) Workgroup to analyze trade-offs between vehicle fuel economy and reducing the minimum energy requirement for power-assist HEVs. NREL's analysis showed that significant fuel savings could still be delivered from an ESS with much lower energy storage than previous targets, which prompted the United States Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to issue a new set of lower-energy ESS (LEESS) targets that could be satisfied by a variety of technologies, including high-power batteries or ultracapacitors. NREL has developed an HEV test platform for in-vehicle performance and fuel economy validation testing of the hybrid system using such LEESS devices. This presentation describes development of the vehicle test platform and in-vehicle evaluation results using a lithium-ion capacitor ESS-an asymmetric electrochemical energy storage device possessing one electrode with battery-type characteristics (lithiated graphite) and one with ultracapacitor-type characteristics (carbon). Further efforts include testing other ultracapacitor technologies in the HEV test platform.

  15. 10 Kammen and others/p. 1 Cost-Effectiveness of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    and light trucks in the United States consume about 8 million barrels of gasoline per day, which is more between the latter two types: they can run either in gasoline-fueled hybrid electric mode (like an HEV pollutants and GHGs offset their increased capital costs. However, that study used U.S. fuel prices in its

  16. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Power Management Solutions Based on Isolated and Non-Isolated Configurations of MMCCC Converter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Faisal H [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Webb, William E [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the various configurations of a multilevel modular capacitor-clamped converter (MMCCC), and it reveals many useful and new formations of the original MMCCC for transferring power in either an isolated or nonisolated manner. The various features of the original MMCCC circuit are best suited for a multibus system in future plug-in hybrid or fuel-cell-powered vehicles' drive train. The original MMCCC is capable of bidirectional power transfer using multilevel modular structure with capacitor-clamped topology. It has a nonisolated structure, and it offers very high efficiency even at partial loads. This circuit was modified to integrate single or multiple high-frequency transformers by using the intermediate voltage nodes of the converter. On the other hand, a special formation of the MMCCC can exhibit dc outputs offering limited isolation without using any isolation transformer. This modified version can produce a high conversion ratio from a limited number of components and has several useful applications in providing power to multiple low-voltage loads in a hybrid or electric automobile. This paper will investigate the origin of generating ac outputs from the MMCCC and shows how the transformer-free version can be modified to create limited isolation from the circuit. In addition, this paper will compare various modified forms of the MMCCC topology with existing dc-dc converter circuits from compactness and component utilization perspectives.

  17. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, J.E. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles City Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Goals of the site operator program include field evaluation of electric vehicles (EVs) in real-world applications and environments, advancement of electric vehicle technologies, development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant EV use, and increasing the awareness and acceptance of EVs by the public. The site operator program currently consists of 11 participants under contract and two other organizations with data-sharing agreements with the program. The participants (electric utilities, academic institutions, Federal agencies) are geographically dispersed within US and their vehicles see a broad spectrum of service conditions. Current EV inventories of the site operators exceeds 250 vehicles. Several national organizations have joined DOE to further the introduction and awareness of EVs, including: (1) EVAmerica (a utility program) and DOE conduct performance and evaluation tests to support market development for EVs; (2) DOE, DOT, the Electric Transportation Coalition, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas are conducting a series of workshops to encourage urban groups in Clean Cities (a DOE program) to initiate the policies and infrastructure development necessary to support large-scale demonstrations, and ultimately the mass market use, of EVs. Current focus of the program is collection and dissemination of EV operations and performance data to aid in the evaluation of real- world EV use. This report contains several sections with vehicle evaluation as a focus: EV testing results, energy economics of EVs, and site operators activities.

  18. Hybrid and Plug-In Electric Vehicles (Brochure), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) EnvironmentalGyroSolé(tm) HarmonicbetandEnergyCorrective ActionHybrid Wind

  19. Hybrid Electric Vehicles: How They Perform in the Real World | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov.Energy02.pdf7 OPAM Flash2011-37EnergySubmit a Freedom ofof Energy Hybrid

  20. Design of a fuzzy controller for energy management of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estrada Gutierrez, Pedro Cuauhtemoc

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is recharged at the user's home, office, or at a public "charging station". A typical HEV has a drive train with a small internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric machine powered by a battery. The fuel for the ICE can be gasoline, diesel... or The journal model is IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. compressed natural gas (CNG), and the battery can be recharged by the ICE or by the same methods described for EVs. The most popular alternative is an EV with a high power electric machine. Its...

  1. Hybrid Electric Vehicle End-Of-Life Testing On Honda Insights, Gen I Civics And Toyota Gen I Priuses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Francfort; Donald Karner; Ryan Harkins; Joseph Tardiolo

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report details the end-of-life fuel efficiency and battery testing on two model year 2001 Honda Insight hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), two model year 2003 Honda Civic HEVs, and two model year 2002 Toyota Prius HEVs. The end-of-life testing was conducted after each vehicle has been operated for approximately 160,000 miles. This testing was conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA). The AVTA is part of DOE’s FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program. SAE J1634 fuel efficiency testing was performed on the six HEVs with the air conditioning (AC) on and off. The AC on and off test results are compared to new vehicle AC on and off fuel efficiencies for each HEV model. The six HEVs were all end-of-life tested using new-vehicle coast down coefficients. In addition, one of each HEV model was also subjected to fuel efficiency testing using coast down coefficients obtained when the vehicles completed 160,000 miles of fleet testing. Traction battery pack capacity and power tests were also performed on all six HEVs during the end-of-life testing in accordance with the FreedomCAR Battery Test Manual For Power-Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicles procedures. When using the new-vehicle coast down coefficients (Phase I testing), 11 of 12 HEV tests (each HEV was tested once with the AC on and once with the AC off) had increases in fuel efficiencies compared to the new vehicle test results. The end-of-life fuel efficiency tests using the end-of-life coast down coefficients (Phase II testing) show decreases in fuel economies in five of six tests (three with the AC on and three with it off). All six HEVs experienced decreases in battery capacities, with the two Insights having the highest remaining capacities and the two Priuses having the lowest remaining capacities. The AVTA’s end-of-life testing activities discussed in this report were conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory; the AVTA testing partner Electric Transportation Applications, and by Exponent Failure Analysis Associates.

  2. Comparison of Early-stage Design Methods for a Two-mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papalambros, Panos

    Whitefoot+ , V. P Atluri*, E Tate*, and P Papalambros+ + University of Michigan * General Motors Company with a vast design space consisting of distinct subsystems, such as engine, motor, transmission, and battery models are detailed high-fidelity simulations of engine and electric motor components combined with two

  3. An agent-based model to study market penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    model the system. We examine sensitivity of the model to gasoline prices, to accuracy in estimation), and that increases in gasoline prices could nonlinearly magnify the impact on fleet efficiency. We also infer in Ireland. As primary power sources for the electric grid become greener and gasoline prices increase

  4. Scaling of hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain components for Hardware-in-the-loop simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    Michael D. Petersheim, Sean N. Brennan * Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering-going vessels, sus- pension systems, earthquake-proof buildings, powertrain control- lers, unmanned underwater as a type of HIL system. HIL testing is increasingly useful in applications involving hy- brid electric

  5. Optimal Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    . There are several ways to perform such a demand side management [3]. In this paper, we focus on integrating PV power companies can employ dynamic electricity pricing strategies incentivizing consumers to perform demand side management by adjusting their power demand from the Grid to match the power generation capacity of the Grid

  6. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program: Site Operation Program. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, J.; Bassett, R.R.; Briasco, S. [and others

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Site Operator Program has evolved substantially since its inception in response to the Electric Vehicle Research and Demonstration Act of 1976. In its original form, a commercialization effort was intended but this was not feasible for lack of vehicle suppliers and infrastructure. Nonetheless, with DOE sponsorship and technical participation, a few results (primarily operating experience and data) were forthcoming. The current Program comprises eleven sites and over 200 vehicles, of which about 50 are latest generation vehicles. DOE partially funds the Program participant expenditures and the INEL receives operating and maintenance data for the DOE-owned, and participant-owned or monitored vehicles, as well as Program reports. As noted elsewhere in this report, participants represent several widely differing categories: electric utilities, academic institutions, and federal agencies. While both the utilities and the academic institutions tend to establish beneficial relationships with the industrial community.

  7. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ultracapacitors, fuel cells and hybrid vehicle design. Dr.on electric and hybrid vehicle technology and applicationsand performance. Hybrid vehicles utilizing a load leveling

  8. In-Use and Vehicle Dynamometer Evaluation and Comparison of Class 7 Hybrid Electric and Conventional Diesel Delivery Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, J.; Walkowicz, K.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study compared fuel economy and emissions between heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and equivalent conventional diesel vehicles. In-use field data were collected from daily fleet operations carried out at a FedEx facility in California on six HEV and six conventional 2010 Freightliner M2-106 straight box trucks. Field data collection primarily focused on route assessment and vehicle fuel consumption over a six-month period. Chassis dynamometer testing was also carried out on one conventional vehicle and one HEV to determine differences in fuel consumption and emissions. Route data from the field study was analyzed to determine the selection of dynamometer test cycles. From this analysis, the New York Composite (NYComp), Hybrid Truck Users Forum Class 6 (HTUF 6), and California Air Resource Board (CARB) Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) drive cycles were chosen. The HEV showed 31% better fuel economy on the NYComp cycle, 25% better on the HTUF 6 cycle and 4% worse on the CARB HHDDT cycle when compared to the conventional vehicle. The in-use field data indicates that the HEVs had around 16% better fuel economy than the conventional vehicles. Dynamometer testing also showed that the HEV generally emitted higher levels of nitric oxides than the conventional vehicle over the drive cycles, up to 77% higher on the NYComp cycle (though this may at least in part be attributed to the different engine certification levels in the vehicles tested). The conventional vehicle was found to accelerate up to freeway speeds over ten seconds faster than the HEV.

  9. J. A. Stiver and P. J. Antsaklis, "A Novel Discrete Event System Approach to Modeling and Analysis of Hybrid Control Sysytems," Control Systems Technical Report #71, Dept. of Electrical Engineering,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    of Hybrid Control Sysytems," Control Systems Technical Report #71, Dept. of Electrical Engineering. of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, June 1991. #12;J. A. Stiver and P. J. Antsaklis, "A Novel Technical Report #71, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, June 1991. #12;J. A. Stiver

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicle program, site operator program quarterly progress report for April through June 1996 (third quarter of fiscal year 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bassett, R.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Briasco, S. [Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The goals of the Site Operator Program include the field evaluation of electric vehicles (EVs) in real-world applications and environments; the advancement of electric vehicle technologies; the development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and increasing the awareness and acceptance of EVs by the public. The Site Operator Program currently consists of eleven participants under contract and two other organizations that have data-sharing agreements with the Program (Table ES-1). Several national organizations have joined DOE to further the introduction and awareness of electric vehicles, including: (1) EVAmerica (a utility program) and DOE conduct performance and evaluation tests to support market development for electric vehicles; and (2) DOE, the Department of Transportation, the Electric Transportation Coalition, and the Electric Vehicle Association of the Americas are conducting a series of workshops to encourage urban groups in Clean Cities (a DOE program) to initiate the policies and infrastructure development necessary to support large-scale demonstrations, and ultimately the mass market use, of electric vehicles. The current focus of the Program is the collection and dissemination of EV operations and performance data to aid in the evaluation of real-world EV use. This report contains several sections with vehicle evaluation as a focus.

  11. Potential Impacts of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) on Regional Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Tsvetkova, Alexandra A [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHEVs are expected to penetrate market soon. If recharging occurs during off-peak hours, the grid will not be significantly affected. However, peak-time recharging may lead to capacity shortfalls. This paper analyzes the potential impact of PHEVs on electricity demand, supply, generation structure, prices, and emissions levels in 2020 and 2030 in 13 U.S. regions under 7 recharging scenarios. The simulations predict that the PHEV introduction could impact demand peaks, reduce reserve margins, and increase prices. The type of power generation used to recharge the PHEVs and associated emissions will depend upon the region and the timing of the recharge.

  12. Design and evaluation of a nuclear-electric hybrid power/propulsion system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keil, Ralph

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    element volume in the core ms w = Radiator mass per unit area ikg/ms] Greek symbols: Specific mass [kg/W] 6 = Difl'erence Radiator emissivity e, ?, = Core void fraction ef, = Volume fraction of UC in the fuel peHet efficiency P? Average fluid... cycles. Open-Loop Brayton Cycle In this cycle the working fluid, which is also used as the propellant, is heated by going through a nuclear reactor and expanded through a turbine in order to generate the electric power needed for the operation...

  13. Development of Nanofluids for Cooling Power Electronics for Hybrid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Development of Nanofluids for Cooling Power Electronics for Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  14. advanced hybrid imaging: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Systems with Applications in Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Wind Farms with Battery Storage. Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Modern hybrid electric vehicles...

  15. U.S. Department of Energy -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity: Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Testing and Demonstration Activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. Francfort; Donald Karner; John G. Smart

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) tests plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) in closed track, dynamometer and onroad testing environments. The onroad testing includes the use of dedicated drivers on repeated urban and highway driving cycles that range from 10 to 200 miles, with recharging between each loop. Fleet demonstrations with onboard data collectors are also ongoing with PHEVs operating in several dozen states and Canadian Provinces, during which trips- and miles-per-charge, charging demand and energy profiles, and miles-per-gallon and miles-per-kilowatt-hour fuel use results are all documented, allowing an understanding of fuel use when vehicles are operated in charge depleting, charge sustaining, and mixed charge modes. The intent of the PHEV testing includes documenting the petroleum reduction potential of the PHEV concept, the infrastructure requirements, and operator recharging influences and profiles. As of May 2008, the AVTA has conducted track and dynamometer testing on six PHEV conversion models and fleet testing on 70 PHEVs representing nine PHEV conversion models. A total of 150 PHEVs will be in fleet testing by the end of 2008, all with onboard data loggers. The onroad testing to date has demonstrated 100+ miles per gallon results in mostly urban applications for approximately the first 40 miles of PHEV operations. The primary goal of the AVTA is to provide advanced technology vehicle performance benchmark data for technology modelers, research and development programs, and technology goal setters. The AVTA testing results also assist fleet managers in making informed vehicle purchase, deployment and operating decisions. The AVTA is part of DOE’s Vehicle Technologies Program. These AVTA testing activities are conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory and Electric Transportation Engineering Corporation, with Argonne National Laboratory providing dynamometer testing support. The proposed paper and presentation will discuss PHEV testing activities and results. INL/CON-08-14333

  16. Comparison of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Life Across Geographies and Drive-Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Warleywine, M.; Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a laboratory environment, it is cost prohibitive to run automotive battery aging experiments across a wide range of possible ambient environment, drive cycle and charging scenarios. Since worst-case scenarios drive the conservative sizing of electric-drive vehicle batteries, it is useful to understand how and why those scenarios arise and what design or control actions might be taken to mitigate them. In an effort to explore this problem, this paper applies a semi-empirical life model of the graphite/nickel-cobalt-aluminum lithium-ion chemistry to investigate impacts of geographic environments under storage and simplified cycling conditions. The model is then applied to analyze complex cycling conditions, using battery charge/discharge profiles generated from simulations of PHEV10 and PHEV40 vehicles across 782 single-day driving cycles taken from Texas travel survey data.

  17. Subcontract Report: Final Report on Assessment of Motor Technologies for Traction Drives of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Subcontract #4000080341)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fezzler, Raymond [BIZTEK Consulting, Inc.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors with rare-earth (RE) magnets are almost universally used for hybrid and electric vehicles (EVs) because of their superior properties, particularly power density. However, there is now a distinct possibility of limited supply or very high cost of RE magnets that could make IPM motors unavailable or too expensive. Because development of electric motors is a critical part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Power Electronics and Motors activity, DOE needs to determine which options should be investigated and what barriers should be addressed. Therefore, in order to provide a basis for deciding which research topics should be pursued, an assessment of various motor technologies was conducted to determine which, if any, is potentially capable of meeting FreedomCAR 2015 and 2020 targets. Highest priority was given to IPM, surface mounted permanent magnet (SPM), induction, and switched reluctance (SR) motors. Also of interest, but with lesser emphasis, were wheel motors, multiple-rotor motors, motors with external excitation, and several others that emerged from the assessment. Cost and power density (from a design perspective, the power density criterion translates to torque density) are emerging as the two most important properties of motors for traction drives in hybrid and EVs, although efficiency and specific power also are very important. The primary approach for this assessment involved interviews with original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), their suppliers, and other technical experts. For each technology, the following issues were discussed: (1) The current state-of-the-art performance and cost; (2) Recent trends in the technology; (3) Inherent characteristics of the motor - which ones limit the ability of the technology to meet the targets and which ones aid in meeting the target; (4) What research and development (R&D) would be needed to meet the targets; and (5) The potential for the technology to meet the targets. The interviews were supplemented with information from past Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) reports, previous assessments that were conducted in 2004, and literature on magnet technology. The results of the assessment validated the DOE strategy involving three parallel paths: (1) there is enough of a possibility that RE magnets will continue to be available, either from sources outside China or from increased production in China, that development of IPM motors using RE magnets should be continued with emphasis on meeting the cost target. (2) yet the possibility that RE magnets may become unavailable or too expensive justifies efforts to develop innovative designs for permanent magnet (PM) motors that do not use RE magnets. Possible other magnets that may be substituted for RE magnets include samarium-cobalt (Sm-Co), Alnico, and ferrites. Alternatively, efforts to develop motors that do not use PMs but offer attributes similar to IPM motors also are encouraged. (3) New magnet materials using new alloys or processing techniques that would be less expensive or have comparable or superior properties to existing materials should be developed if possible. IPM motors are by far the most popular choice for hybrid and EVs because of their high power density, specific power, and constant power-speed ratio (CPSR). Performance of these motors is optimized when the strongest possible magnets - i.e., RE neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets - are used.

  18. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  19. A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

  20. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program; Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Activities during the first quarter centered around integrating the new participants into the program. A meeting of the Site Operators, in conjunction with the first meeting of the Electric Vehicle Users Task Force, was held in October. A second meeting of the Task Force was held in December. During these meetings the new contractual requirements were explained to the participants. The Site Operator Data Base was distributed and explained. The Site Operators will begin using the data base in December 1991 and will supply the operating and maintenance data to the INEL on a monthly basis. The Operators requested that they be able to have access to the data of the other Operators and it was agreed that they would be provided this on floppy disk monthly from the INEL. Presentations were made to the DOE sponsored Automotive Technology Development-Contractors Coordination Meeting in October. An overview of the program was given by EG&G. Representatives from Arizona Public Service, Texas A&M University, and York Technical College provided details of their programs and the results and future goals. Work was begun on commercializing the Versatile Data Acquisition System (VDAS). A Scope of Work has been written for a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to be submitted to the USABC. If implemented, the CRADA will provide funds for the development and commercialization of the VDAS. Participants in the Site Operator Program will test prototypes of the system within their fleets, making the data available to the USABC and other interested organizations. The USABC will provide recommendations on the data to be collected. Major activities by the majority of the Operators were involved with the continued operation and demonstration of existing vehicles. In addition, several of the operators were involved in identifying and locating vehicles to be added to their fleets. A list of the vehicles in each Site Operator fleet is included as Appendix A to this report.

  1. Hybrid vehicle design using global optimisation Wenzhong Gao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    systems, power system modelling and simulation, alternative power systems, renewable energy and electric electronics, hybrid electric vehicles, electric machines, and renewable energy systems. He). A hybrid powertrain is comprised of electric motors with power electronic converters, energy storage

  2. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Cleary, Timothy [Sentech, Inc.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHEVs have been the subject of growing interest in recent years because of their potential for reduced operating costs, oil displacement, national security, and environmental benefits. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs presents a major market barrier to their widespread commercialization. The study Objectives are: (1) To identify and evaluate value-added propositions for PHEVs that will help overcome the initial price premium relative to comparable ICEs and HEVs and (2) to assess other non-monetary benefits and barriers associated with an emerging PHEV fleet, including environmental, societal, and grid impacts. Study results indicate that a single PHEV-30 on the road in 2030 will: (1) Consume 65% and 75% less gasoline than a comparable HEV and ICE, respectively; (2) Displace 7.25 and 4.25 barrels of imported oil each year if substituted for equivalent ICEs and HEVs, respectively, assuming 60% of the nation's oil consumed is imported; (3) Reduce net ownership cost over 10 years by 8-10% relative to a comparable ICE and be highly cost competitive with a comparable HEV; (4) Use 18-22% less total W2W energy than a comparable ICE, but 8-13% more than a comparable HEV (assuming a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030); and (5) Emit 10% less W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in southern California and emits 13% more W2W CO{sub 2} than equivalent ICEs in the ECAR region. This also assumes a 70/30 split of E10 and E85 use in 2030. PHEVs and other plug-in vehicles on the road in 2030 may offer many valuable benefits to utilities, business owners, individual consumers, and society as a whole by: (1) Promoting national energy security by displacing large volumes of imported oil; (2) Supporting a secure economy through the expansion of domestic vehicle and component manufacturing; (3) Offsetting the vehicle's initial price premium with lifetime operating cost savings (e.g., lower fuel and maintenance costs); (4) Supporting the use of off-peak renewable energy through smart charging practices. However, smart grid technology is not a prerequisite for realizing the benefits of PHEVs; and (5) Potentially using its bidirectional electricity flow capability to aid in emergency situations or to help better manage a building's or entire grid's load.

  3. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cellrevenue – cost). Peak power Battery, full function Battery,sources of distributed power; battery-EDVs, fuel cell EDVs,

  4. Using GPS Travel Data to Assess the Real World Driving Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonder, J.; Markel, T.; Simpson, A.; Thornton, M.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights opportunities using GPS travel survey techniques and systems simulation tools for plug-in hybrid vehicle design improvements, which maximize the benefits of energy efficiency technologies.

  5. Development of a Novel Efficient Solid-Oxide Hybrid for Co-generation of Hydrogen and Electricity Using Nearby Resources for Local Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Greg, G.; Virkar, Anil, V.; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Thangamani, Nithyanantham; Anderson, Harlan, U.; Brow, Richard, K.

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing safe, reliable, cost-effective, and efficient hydrogen-electricity co-generation systems is an important step in the quest for national energy security and minimized reliance on foreign oil. This project aimed to, through materials research, develop a cost-effective advanced technology cogenerating hydrogen and electricity directly from distributed natural gas and/or coal-derived fuels. This advanced technology was built upon a novel hybrid module composed of solid-oxide fuel-assisted electrolysis cells (SOFECs) and solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), both of which were in planar, anode-supported designs. A SOFEC is an electrochemical device, in which an oxidizable fuel and steam are fed to the anode and cathode, respectively. Steam on the cathode is split into oxygen ions that are transported through an oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte (i.e. YSZ) to oxidize the anode fuel. The dissociated hydrogen and residual steam are exhausted from the SOFEC cathode and then separated by condensation of the steam to produce pure hydrogen. The rationale was that in such an approach fuel provides a chemical potential replacing the external power conventionally used to drive electrolysis cells (i.e. solid oxide electrolysis cells). A SOFC is similar to the SOFEC by replacing cathode steam with air for power generation. To fulfill the cogeneration objective, a hybrid module comprising reversible SOFEC stacks and SOFC stacks was designed that planar SOFECs and SOFCs were manifolded in such a way that the anodes of both the SOFCs and the SOFECs were fed the same fuel, (i.e. natural gas or coal-derived fuel). Hydrogen was produced by SOFECs and electricity was generated by SOFCs within the same hybrid system. A stand-alone 5 kW system comprising three SOFEC-SOFC hybrid modules and three dedicated SOFC stacks, balance-of-plant components (including a tailgas-fired steam generator and tailgas-fired process heaters), and electronic controls was designed, though an overall integrated system assembly was not completed because of limited resources. An inexpensive metallic interconnects fabrication process was developed in-house. BOP components were fabricated and evaluated under the forecasted operating conditions. Proof-of-concept demonstration of cogenerating hydrogen and electricity was performed, and demonstrated SOFEC operational stability over 360 hours with no significant degradation. Cost analysis was performed for providing an economic assessment of the cost of hydrogen production using the targeted hybrid technology, and for guiding future research and development.

  6. A hybrid model for particle transport and electron energy distributions in positive column electrical discharges using equivalent species transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kushner, Mark

    A hybrid model for particle transport and electron energy distributions in positive column species are generated in the kinetic module. The hybrid model has been used to examine electron energy which has discrete negative energies representing bound states, and a positive continuum representing

  7. U.S. Department of Energy electric and hybrid vehicle Site Operator Program at Platte River Power Authority. Final report, July 3, 1991--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmert, R.A.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Platte River Power Authority (Platte River) is a political subdivision of the state of Colorado, owned by the four municipalities of Fort Collins, Loveland, Longmont and Estes Park, Colorado. Platte River is a non-profit, publicly owned, joint-action agency formed to construct, operate and maintain generating plants, transmission systems and related facilities for the purpose of delivering to the four municipalities electric energy for distribution and resale. Platte River, as a participant in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Site Operator Program, worked to accomplish the Site Operator Program goals and objectives to field test and evaluate electric and electric-hybrid vehicles and electric vehicle systems in a real world application/environment. This report presents results of Platte River`s program (Program) during the five-years Platte River participated in the DOE Site Operator Program. Platte River participated in DOE Site Operator Program from July 3, 1991 through August 31, 1996. During its Program, Platte River conducted vehicle tests and evaluations, and electric vehicle demonstrations in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado. Platte River also investigated electric vehicle infrastructure issues and tested infrastructure components. Platte River`s Program objectives were as follows: evaluate the year round performance, operational costs, reliability, and life cycle costs of electric vehicles in the Front Range region of Northern Colorado; evaluate an electric vehicle`s usability and acceptability as a pool vehicle; test any design improvements or technological improvements on a component level that may be made available to PRPA and which can be retrofit into vehicles; and develop, test and evaluate, and demonstrate components to be used in charging electric vehicles.

  8. Analysis of Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Truck Technologies Using Diesel, LNG, Electricity, and Hydrogen, as the Fuel for Various Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Drivetrain Electric Drivetrain Conv. DieselDiesel Hyb. Conv. LNG-SI LNG-SI Hyb. Conv. LNG-CI LNG-CICompression Ignition Carbon Dioxide Diesel Gallon Equivalent

  9. An Activity-Based Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles on Energy and Emissions Using One-Day Travel Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recker, W. W.; Kang, J. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    market, plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs) are now consideredof Current Knowledge of Hybrid Vehicle Characteristics andalso called PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle) because they are

  10. Present Status and Marketing Prospects of the Emerging Hybrid-Electric and Diesel Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emissions of New Light-Duty Vehicles in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Conventional vs. Hybrid Vehicles, paper to be presented15 Table 10 Hybrid Vehicle Sales to Date - North America &Power Projections of Hybrid Vehicle Characteristics (1999-

  11. Estimating the potential of controlled plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging to reduce operational and capacity expansion costs for electric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    -rate charging of plug-in electric vehicles allows demand to be rapidly modulated, providing an alter- native growing electricity sources in the United States [3], wind can be expected to meet a large proportion vehicles (BEVs), create additional electricity demand, resulting in additional air emissions from power

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Medium and Heavy Duty Vehicle...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Application Technology Manufacturer Fleet Years Collected Delivery Trucks All Electric Smith Newton Various 2012-2014 Class 8 Diesel Tractors Hybrid Electric Kenworth and...

  13. AVTA: Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013-2014 Volkswagen Jetta2013 Ford C-Max2013 Chevrolet Malibu2013 Honda Civic2011 Hyundai Sonata2011 Honda CRZ2010 Honda Civic with Advanced Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery2010 Mercedes...

  14. Toyota Prius Plug-In HEV: A Plug-In Hybrid Electric Car in NREL's Advanced Technology Vehicle Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet highlights the Toyota Prius plug-in HEV, a plug-in hybrid electric car in the advanced technology vehicle fleet at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). In partnership with the University of Colorado, NREL uses the vehicle for grid-integration studies and for testing new hardware and charge-management algorithms. NREL's advanced technology vehicle fleet features promising technologies to increase efficiency and reduce emissions without sacrificing safety or comfort. The fleet serves as a technology showcase, helping visitors learn about innovative vehicles that are available today or are in development. Vehicles in the fleet are representative of current, advanced, prototype, and emerging technologies.

  15. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program, Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report for July through September 1994 (Fourth quarter of fiscal year 1994)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Site Operator Program was initially established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to incorporate the electric vehicle activities dictated by the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development and Demonstration Act of 1976. In the ensuing years, the Program has evolved in response to new legislation and interests. The Program currently includes twelve sites located in diverse geographic, metrologic, and metropolitan areas across the US. Information is shared reciprocally with a thirteenth site, not under Program contract. The vehicles are operator-owned, except for two Griffon vans. The Mission Statement of the Site Operator Program includes three major activities: advancement of electric vehicle technologies; development of infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use; and increasing the awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles (EVs) by the public. The current participants in the Site Operator Program are shown. The ultimate thrust of program activities varies among sites, reflecting not only the Operator`s business interests but also geographic and climate-related operating conditions. This fourth quarter report (FY-94) includes a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now found in Appendix A.

  16. Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle SymposiumSystem. 23rd International Electric Vehicle Symposium andof Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Volume 1: Nationwide

  17. ELECTRIC

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    you nay give us will be greatly uppreckted. VPry truly your23, 9. IX. Sin0j3, Mtinager lclectronics and Nuclear Physics Dept. omh , WESTINGHOUSE-THE NAT KING IN ELECTRICITY...

  18. 2.3-MW Medium-Voltage, Three-Level Wind Energy Inverter Applying a Unique Bus Structure and 4.5-kV Si/SiC Hybrid Isolated Power Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Keller, J.; Grider, D.; VanBrunt, E.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency, 2.3-MW, medium-voltage, three-level inverter utilizing 4.5-kV Si/SiC (silicon carbide) hybrid modules for wind energy applications is discussed. The inverter addresses recent trends in siting the inverter within the base of multimegawatt turbine towers. A simplified split, three-layer laminated bus structure that maintains low parasitic inductances is introduced along with a low-voltage, high-current test method for determining these inductances. Feed-thru bushings, edge fill methods, and other design features of the laminated bus structure provide voltage isolation that is consistent with the 10.4-kV module isolation levels. Inverter efficiency improvement is a result of the (essential) elimination of the reverse recovery charge present in 4.5-kV Si PIN diodes, which can produce a significant reduction in diode turn-off losses as well as insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) turn-on losses. The hybrid modules are supplied in industry-standard 140 mm x 130 mm and 190 mm x 130 mm packages to demonstrate direct module substitution into existing inverter designs. A focus on laminated bus/capacitor-bank/module subassembly level switching performance is presented.

  19. Electric and hybrid vehicle program: Site operator program. Quarterly progress report, April--June, 1994 (3rd quarter of FY-1994)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiser, D.M.; Brown, H.L.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Site Operator Program was initially established to meet the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. The Program has since evolved in response to new legislation and interests. Its mission now includes three major activity categories; advancement of Electric Vehicle (EV) technologies, development of infrastructure elements needed to support significant EV use, and increasing public awareness and acceptance of EVs. The 13 Program participants, their geographic locations, and the principal thrusts of their efforts are identified. The EV inventories of each participant are summarized. This third quarter report (FY-94) will include a summary of activities from the previous three quarters. The report section sequence has been revised to provide a more easily seen program overview, and specific operator activities are now included.

  20. Analysis of Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Truck Technologies Using Diesel, LNG, Electricity, and Hydrogen, as the Fuel for Various Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    She is working on Natural Gas vehicle powertrain modellingSandeep Munshi, Natural Gas Vehicle Technology forum,and alternative fuelled vehicles (natural gas, electricity,

  1. Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vehicles (EVs) Fuel options: Petroleum Gasoline Diesel E85 with ethanol from Corn Switchgrass Electricity: Marginal generation mixes in four regions Average generation mixes of the U.S., CA of operation On-road adjusted electric range (AER) In-house simulations of electricity generation mixes

  2. Hybrid Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Hewlett Packard; A. Yariv of Caltech; D. Dai of ZhejiangA. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Electrically pumped hybrid

  3. The future of electric two-wheelers and electric vehicles in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan; Burke, Andy

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SAE Hybrid Vehicle Symposium, San Diego CA, 13–14 February.emissions from a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHEV) in China has2008. Nissan’s Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program.

  4. Optimization Online - A Non-Parametric Structural Hybrid Modeling ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somayeh Moazeni

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 30, 2014 ... A Non-Parametric Structural Hybrid Modeling Approach for Electricity Prices ... Keywords: Electricity market; Electricity price modeling; Energy ...

  5. Electric Two-Wheelers in China: Effect on Travel Behavior, Mode Shift, and User Safety Perceptions in a Medium-Sized City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Ma, Chaktan; Yang, Xinmiao; Cherry, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pollution. Although local pol- lution is negligible, they do operate on electricity generated mainly from coal-?

  6. High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Development High-Power Electrochemical Storage Devices and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle...

  7. Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation to help researchers understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies

  8. Analysis of Class 8 Hybrid-Electric Truck Technologies Using Diesel, LNG, Electricity, and Hydrogen, as the Fuel for Various Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric Drivetrain Conv. Diesel Diesel Hyb. Conv. LNG-SI LNG-SI Hyb.Conv. LNG-CI LNG-CI Hyb. Battery EV Fuel Cell Short Haul

  9. Frey, H.C., H.W. Choi, E. Pritchard, and J. Lawrence, "In-Use Measurement of the Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle," Paper 2009-A-242-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd Annual Conference and Exhibition, Air &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    . 1 In-Use Measurement of the Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric VehicleFrey, H.C., H.W. Choi, E. Pritchard, and J. Lawrence, "In-Use Measurement of the Activity, Energy Use, and Emissions of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle," Paper 2009-A-242-AWMA, Proceedings, 102nd

  10. The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HOW MANY HYBRID HOUSEHOLDS IN THE CALIFORNIA NEW CAR MARKET?average 2.43 cars per household, then the hybrid householdnumber of multi-car households that fit our hybrid household

  11. Feasible Café Standard Increases Using Emerging Diesel and Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Abeles, Ethan

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R&D Co. at the SAE Hybrid Vehicle Symposium in San Diego,already being utilized in hybrid vehicles being marketed byfirst marketed their hybrid vehicles in Japan before doing

  12. Feasible CAFE Standard Increases Using Emerging Diesel and Hybrid-Electric Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andy; Abeles, Ethan C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R&D Co. at the SAE Hybrid Vehicle Symposium in San Diego,already being utilized in hybrid vehicles being marketed byfirst marketed their hybrid vehicles in Japan before doing

  13. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  14. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  15. U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program -- Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity -- Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Morrow; Donald Darner; James Francfort

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are under evaluation by various stake holders to better understand their capability and potential benefits. PHEVs could allow users to significantly improve fuel economy over a standard HEV and in some cases, depending on daily driving requirements and vehicle design, have the ability to eliminate fuel consumption entirely for daily vehicle trips. The cost associated with providing charge infrastructure for PHEVs, along with the additional costs for the on-board power electronics and added battery requirements associated with PHEV technology will be a key factor in the success of PHEVs. This report analyzes the infrastructure requirements for PHEVs in single family residential, multi-family residential and commercial situations. Costs associated with this infrastructure are tabulated, providing an estimate of the infrastructure costs associated with PHEV deployment.

  16. Study of the Advantages of Internal Permanent Magnet Drive Motor with Selectable Windings for Hybrid-Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otaduy, P.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research performed on the viability of changing the effectively active number of turns in the stator windings of an internal permanent magnet (IPM) electric motor to strengthen or weaken the magnetic fields in order to optimize the motor's performance at specific operating speeds and loads. Analytical and simulation studies have been complemented with research on switching mechanisms to accomplish the task. The simulation studies conducted examine the power and energy demands on a vehicle following a series of standard driving cycles and the impact on the efficiency and battery size of an electrically propelled vehicle when it uses an IPM motor with turn-switching capabilities. Both full driving cycle electric propulsion and propulsion limited starting from zero to a set speed have been investigated.

  17. Electric field determination in the plasma-antenna boundary of a lower-hybrid wave launcher in Tore Supra through dynamic Stark-effect spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Elijah H [ORNL; Goniche, M. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Hillairet, J. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Isler, Ralph C [ORNL; Caughman, J. B. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Colas, L. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Ekedahl, A. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Colledani, G. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research (IRFM); Lotte, Ph. [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance; Litaudon, X [French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA); Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL; Harris, Jeffrey H [ORNL

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interaction of radio-frequency (RF) waves with the plasma in the near-field of a high-power wave launcher is now seen to be important, both in understanding the channeling of these waves through the plasma boundary and in avoiding power losses in the edge. In a recent Letter a direct non-intrusive measurement of a near antenna RF electric field in the range of lower hybrid (LH) frequencies ($E_{LH}$) was announced (Phys. Rev. Lett., 110:215005, 2013). The measurement was achieved through the fitting of Balmer series deuterium spectral lines utilizing a time dependent (dynamic) Stark effect model. In this article, the processing of the spectral data is discussed in detail and applied to a larger range of measurements and the accuracy and limitations of the experimental technique is investigated. It was found through an analysis of numerous Tore Supra pulses that good quantitative agreement exists between the measured and full-wave modeled $E_{LH}$ when the launched power exceeds 0.5MW. For low power the measurement becomes formidable utilizing the implemented passive spectroscopic technique because the spectral noise overwhelms the effect of the RF electric field on the line profile. Additionally, effects of the ponderomotive force are suspected at sufficiently high power.

  18. Prospects for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in the United States and Japan: A general equilibrium analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles are flex-fuel, hydrogen fuel cell, and compressed natural gas Received in revised form 19 March 2010 Accepted 24 April 2010 Keywords: Alternative fuel vehicles Plug-powered vehicles. A representative vehicle tech- nology that runs on electricity in addition to conventional fuels

  19. Novel Hybrid Materials with High Stability for Electrically Switched Ion Exchange: Carbon Nanotubes/Polyaniline/Nickel Hexacyanoferrate Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli

    2005-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel and stable carbon nanotubes /polyaniline /nickel hexacyanoferrates composite film has been synthesized with electrodeposition method, and the possibility for removing cesium through an electrically switched ion exchange has been evaluated in a mixture containing NaNO3 and CsNO3.

  20. Abstract--Control strategies have been developed for Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) that minimize fuel consumption while

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    is typically the ubiquitous internal combustion engine, tailpipe emissions must also be considered. This paper consumption and engine out emissions. If catalysts or other after treatments are used, minimization of engine sum of fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for an HEV equipped with a dual mode Electrically

  1. Vehicle-to-Grid Power: Battery, Hybrid, and Fuel Cell Vehicles as Resources for Distributed Electric Power in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kempton, Willett; Tomic, Jasna; Letendre, Steven; Brooks, Alec; Lipman, Timothy

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Battery cycle life (cycles) c Battery calendar life (years) Battery costin the battery during its life cycle in kWh, C B is cost ofBattery cycle life (cycles) Battery calendar life (years) Maximum electrical power output to motor (kW) Battery cost

  2. Electricity Grid: Impacts of Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Christopher; McCarthy, Ryan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mail: ccyang@ucdavis.edu. Electricity Grid Impacts of Plug-by either gasoline or electricity, but unlike hybrids, PHEVsto use very low-carbon electricity resources, such as

  3. Modelling, Simulation, Testing, and Optimization of Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Powertrains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Modelling, Simulation, Testing, and Optimization of Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Powertrains By Jeffrey of the author. #12;ii Modelling, Simulation, Testing and Optimization of Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Powertrains supplant conventional ICEs as the dominant technology, most notably electric and hybrid powertrains

  4. Prospects for the medium- and long-term development of China`s electric power industry and analysis of the potential market for superconductivity technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Z. [Bob Lawrence and Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First of all, overall economic growth objectives in China are concisely and succinctly specified in this report. Secondly, this report presents a forecast of energy supply and demand for China`s economic growth for 2000--2050. In comparison with the capability of energy construction in China in the future, a gap between supply and demand is one of the important factors hindering the sustainable development of Chain`s economy. The electric power industry is one of China`s most important industries. To adopt energy efficiency through high technology and utilizing energy adequately is an important technological policy for the development of China`s electric power industry in the future. After briefly describing the achievements of China`s electric power industry, this report defines the target areas and policies for the development of hydroelectricity and nuclear electricity in the 2000s in China, presents the strategic position of China`s electric power industry as well as objectives and relevant plans of development for 2000--2050. This report finds that with the discovery of superconducting electricity, the discovery of new high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, and progress in materials techniques, the 21st century will be an era of superconductivity. Applications of superconductivity in the energy field, such as superconducting storage, superconducting transmission, superconducting transformers, superconducting motors, its application in Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD), as well as in nuclear fusion, has unique advantages. Its market prospects are quite promising. 12 figs.

  5. Electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. This paper discusses these concepts.

  6. Fact #762: January 14, 2013 Sales from Introduction: Hybrid Vehicles...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Toyota Prius hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) was first released in the U.S. market in January 2000 and 324 were sold in the first month. The Chevrolet Volt, a hybrid-electric...

  7. METAHEURISTIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH GRASP 1. Introduction ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 14, 2008 ... Combinatorial optimization can be defined by a finite ground set E = {1,...,n}, ... shipping), energy (electrical power, petroleum, natural gas), and ... Hybrid construction schemes are considered in Section 3 and hybrid local.

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: Power Electronics and Electrical...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    overview of electric drive vehicles, see the Alternative Fuels Data Center's pages on Hybrid and Plug-in Electric Vehicles. The Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) supports...

  9. Marine Hybrid Propulsion Market Revenue is anticipated to Reach...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    In terms of configuration, the market has been segmented into three categories as diesel-electric, parallel, and serial hybrid systems. Diesel-electric systems are the most...

  10. Comprehensive Well to Wheel Analysis for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Pratt, Robert G.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. electric power infrastructure is a strategic national asset that is underutilized most of the time. With the proper changes in the operational paradigm, it could generate and deliver the necessary energy to fuel the majority of the U.S. light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet. In doing so, it would reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve the economics of the electricity industry, and reduce the U.S. dependency on foreign oil. This paper estimates the regional percentages of the energy requirements for the U.S. LDV stock that could potentially be supported by the existing infrastructure, based on the 12 modified North American Electric Reliability Council regions, as of 2002. For the United States as a whole, about 70% of LDV fleet in the U.S. could be supported by the existing infrastructure with some degree of load management. This has an estimated gasoline displacement potential of 6.5 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, or approximately 52% of the nation's oil imports. The paper also discusses the impact on overall emissions of criteria gases and greenhouse gases as a result of shifting emissions from millions of individual vehicles to a few hundred power plants. Overall, PHEVs could reduce greenhouse gas emissions with regional variations dependent on the local generation mix. Total NOX emissions may or may not increase, dependent on the use of coal generation in the region. Any additional SO2 emissions associated with the expected increase in generation from coal power plants would need to be cleaned up to meet the existing SO2 emissions constraints. Particulate emissions would increase in 8 of the 12 regions. The emissions in urban areas are found to improve across all pollutants and regions as the emission sources shift from millions of tailpipes to a smaller number of large power plants in less-populated areas. This paper concludes with a discussion about possible grid impacts as a result of the PHEV load as well as the likely impacts on the plant and technology mix of future generation-capacity expansions.

  11. The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis -- A Reflexively Designed Survey of New-Car-Buying Multi-Vehicle California Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gromer, C Newage of the electric car. Popular Mechanics.VEHICLES strongly favor electric cars, but on the other,electric vehicles, if an electric car wasavailable to buy

  12. The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gromer, C. New age of the electric car. Popular Mechanics.electric vehicles, if an electric car was available to buyVEHICLES strongly favor electric cars, but on the other,

  13. Establishing Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) Design Targets for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Hybrid Vehicles Establishing Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) Design Targets for Hybrid Vehicles 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  14. Self-Optimization Energy Management Considering Stochastic Influences for a Hybrid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    Self-Optimization Energy Management Considering Stochastic Influences for a Hybrid Energy Storage--Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles place high de- mands for peak power, energy content and efficiency on the en management, hybrid energy storage system, self-optimization I. INTRODUCTION TODAY'S electric and hybrid

  15. A counter-charge layer in generalized solvents framework for electrical double layers in neat and hybrid ionic liquid electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Feng, Guang [Clemson University; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Qiao, Rui [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have received significant attention as electrolytes due to a number of attractive properties such as their wide electrochemical windows. Since electrical double layers (EDLs) are the cornerstone for the applications of RTILs in electrochemical systems such as supercapacitors, it is important to develop an understanding of the structure capacitance relationships for these systems. Here we present a theoretical framework termed counter-charge layer in generalized solvents (CGS) for describing the structure and capacitance of the EDLs in neat RTILs and in RTILs mixed with different mass fractions of organic solvents. Within this framework, an EDL is made up of a counter-charge layer exactly balancing the electrode charge, and of polarized generalized solvents (in the form of layers of ion pairs, each of which has a zero net charge but has a dipole moment the ion pairs thus can be considered as a generalized solvent) consisting of all RTILs inside the system except the counter-ions in the counter-charge layer, together with solvent molecules if present. Several key features of the EDLs that originate from the strong ion ion correlation in RTILs, e.g., overscreening of electrode charge and alternating layering of counter-ions and co-ions, are explicitly incorporated into this framework. We show that the dielectric screening in EDLs is governed predominately by the polarization of generalized solvents (or ion pairs) in the EDL, and the capacitance of an EDL can be related to its microstructure with few a priori assumptions or simplifications. We use this framework to understand two interesting phenomena observed in molecular dynamics simulations of EDLs in a neat IL of 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM][BF4]) and in a mixture of [BMIM][BF4] and acetonitrile (ACN): (1) the capacitance of the EDLs in the [BMIM][BF4]/ACN mixture increases only slightly when the mass fraction of ACN in the mixture increases from zero to 50% although the dielectric constant of bulk ACN is more than two times higher than that of neat [BMIM][BF4]; (2) the capacitance of EDLs near negative electrodes (with BMIM+ ion as the counter-ion) is smaller than that near positive electrodes (with BF4as counter-ion) although the closest approaches of both ions to the electrode surface are nearly identical.

  16. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Phase 1, Task 3: Technical Requirements and Procedure for Evaluation of One Scenario

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; McGill, Ralph N [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Ziegler, Richard E [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Smith, Richard L [ORNL; Greene, David L [ORNL; Brooks, Daniel L [ORNL; Wiegman, Herman [GE Global Research; Miller, Nicholas [GE; Marano, Dr. Vincenzo [Ohio State University

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Task 2, the project team designed the Phase 1 case study to represent the 'baseline' plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) fleet of 2030 that investigates the effects of seventeen (17) value propositions (see Table 1 for complete list). By creating a 'baseline' scenario, a consistent set of assumptions and model parameters can be established for use in more elaborate Phase 2 case studies. The project team chose southern California as the Phase 1 case study location because the economic, environmental, social, and regulatory conditions are conducive to the advantages of PHEVs. Assuming steady growth of PHEV sales over the next two decades, PHEVs are postulated to comprise approximately 10% of the area's private vehicles (about 1,000,000 vehicles) in 2030. New PHEV models introduced in 2030 are anticipated to contain lithium-ion batteries and be classified by a blended mileage description (e.g., 100 mpg, 150 mpg) that demonstrates a battery size equivalence of a PHEV-30. Task 3 includes the determination of data, models, and analysis procedures required to evaluate the Phase 1 case study scenario. Some existing models have been adapted to accommodate the analysis of the business model and establish relationships between costs and value to the respective consumers. Other data, such as the anticipated California generation mix and southern California drive cycles, have also been gathered for use as inputs. The collection of models that encompasses the technical, economic, and financial aspects of Phase 1 analysis has been chosen and is described in this deliverable. The role of PHEV owners, utilities (distribution systems, generators, independent system operators (ISO), aggregators, or regional transmission operators (RTO)), facility owners, financing institutions, and other third parties are also defined.

  17. Low Wind Speed Turbine Project Phase II: The Application of Medium-Voltage Electrical Apparatus to the Class of Variable Speed Multi-Megawatt Low Wind Speed Turbines; 15 June 2004--30 April 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.

  18. Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory 21st Century Automotive Challenge April 17-19, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    electric and hybrid cars in the American consumer marketplace." Competition participants included teams vehicle technology you need to match your lifestyle ­ electric, solar electric, hybrid, pluggable hybrid the electric utility grid. Sound impossible, or eons in the future? As part of the 21st Century Automotive

  19. Clean Cities Guide to Alternative Fuel and Advanced Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Today's fleets are increasingly interested in medium-duty and heavy-duty vehicles that use alternative fuels or advanced technologies that can help reduce operating costs, meet emissions requirements, improve fleet sustainability, and support U.S. energy independence. Vehicle and engine manufacturers are responding to this interest with a wide range of options across a steadily growing number of vehicle applications. This guide provides an overview of alternative fuel power systems?including engines, microturbines, electric motors, and fuel cells?and hybrid propulsion systems. The guide also offers a list of individual medium- and heavy-duty vehicle models listed by application, along with associated manufacturer contact information, fuel type(s), power source(s), and related information.

  20. Hybrid Transmission Corridor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clairmont, B.A.; Johnson, G.B.; Zaffanella, L.E. (General Electric Co., Lenox, MA (United States))

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid Transmission Corridors are areas where High Voltage Alternating Current (HVAC) transmission lines and High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines exist in close proximity of each other. Because of the acceptance of HVDC as a means of transporting electric power over long distances and the difficulties associated with obtaining new right-of-ways, HVDC lines may have to share the same transmission corridor with HVAC lines. The interactions between conductors energized with different types of voltages causes changes in the electrical stresses applied to the conductors and insulators. As a result, corona phenomena, field effects and insulation performance can be affected. This report presents the results of an investigation of the HVAC-HVDC interaction and its effect on corona and AC and DC electric field phenomena. The method of investigation was based on calculation methods developed at the EPRI High Voltage Transmission Research Center (HVTRC) and supported by the results of full and reduced-scale line tests. Also, a survey of existing hybrid corridors is given along with the results of measurements made at one of those corridors. A number of examples in which an existing AC corridor may be transformed into a hybrid corridor are discussed. The main result of the research is an analytical/empirical model for predicting the electrical/environmental performance of hybrid corridors, a definition of ACDC interaction and a set of criteria for specifying when the interaction becomes significant, and a set of design rules.

  1. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardoso, Goncalo

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Smart Grids with Electric Vehicle Interconnection,”Economy of 2012 Electric Vehicles. ” [Online]. Available:Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

  2. Performance, Charging, and Second-use Considerations for Lithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs): Goals andE. , Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicle Powertrain Design andLithium Batteries for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Andrew Burke

  3. Fact #843: October 20, 2014 Cumulative Plug-in Electric Vehicle...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles include plug-in hybrid vehicles and all-electric vehicles. Hybrid Electric Vehicles derive all of their energy from gasoline and cannot be plugged...

  4. Emissions and Fuel Consumption Test Results from a Plug-In Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Fuel Consumption Test Results from a Plug-In Hybrid Electric School Bus Emissions and Fuel Consumption Test Results from a Plug-In Hybrid Electric School Bus 2010 DOE Vehicle...

  5. Fact #562: March 16, 2009 Carbon Reduction of Plug-in Hybrid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    2: March 16, 2009 Carbon Reduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Fact 562: March 16, 2009 Carbon Reduction of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles Estimates from the GREET model...

  6. DOE Supports PG&E Development of Next Generation Plug-in Hybrid...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    DOE Supports PG&E Development of Next Generation Plug-in Hybrid Electric Trucks DOE Supports PG&E Development of Next Generation Plug-in Hybrid Electric Trucks February 25, 2015 -...

  7. Measured Laboratory and In-Use Fuel Economy Observed over Targeted Drive Cycles for Comparable Hybrid and Conventional Package Delivery Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lammert, M. P.; Walkowicz, K.; Duran, A.; Sindler, P.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In-use and laboratory-derived fuel economies were analyzed for a medium-duty hybrid electric drivetrain with 'engine off at idle' capability and a conventional drivetrain in a typical commercial package delivery application. Vehicles studied included eleven 2010 Freightliner P100H hybrids in service at a United Parcel Service facility in Minneapolis during the first half of 2010. The hybrids were evaluated for 18 months against eleven 2010 Freightliner P100D diesels at the same facility. Both vehicle groups use the same 2009 Cummins ISB 200-HP engine. In-use fuel economy was evaluated using UPS's fueling and mileage records, periodic ECM image downloads, and J1939 CAN bus recordings during the periods of duty cycle study. Analysis of the in-use fuel economy showed 13%-29% hybrid advantage depending on measurement method, and a delivery route assignment analysis showed 13%-26% hybrid advantage on the less kinetically intense original diesel route assignments and 20%-33% hybrid advantage on the more kinetically intense original hybrid route assignments. Three standardized laboratory drive cycles were selected that encompassed the range of real-world in-use data. The hybrid vehicle demonstrated improvements in ton-mi./gal fuel economy of 39%, 45%, and 21% on the NYC Comp, HTUF Class 4, and CARB HHDDT test cycles, respectively.

  8. Evaluation of the acoustical performance and behaviour of a hybrid truck in urban use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    engine truck, hybrid truck under hybrid use, hybrid truck under electrical use). Noise emission laws of the noise emission of the hybrid and the reference engine trucks over a wide range of real drivingEvaluation of the acoustical performance and behaviour of a hybrid truck in urban use M.-A. Pallas

  9. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Volume 8, Number 1, June 2010 Simplified Thermal Model of PM Motors in Hybrid Vehicle Applications Taking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    mounted PM synchronous motor (SPMSM) is developed in this paper. Due to the high conductivity of the rare of PM Motors in Hybrid Vehicle Applications Taking into Account Eddy Current Loss in Magnets Xiaofeng, University of Michigan-Dearborn, mi@ieee.org Abstract Permanent Magnet (PM) Motors are popular choices

  10. Abstract--This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge trajectory of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krstic, Miroslav

    Abstract-- This paper examines the problem of optimizing the charge trajectory of a plug-in hybrid this optimization with two objectives in mind, namely, (i) minimizing the overall cost of daily PHEV energy the power grid. Two objectives are considered in this optimization. First, we minimize the total cost

  11. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Interactions with a Small Office Building: An Economic Analysis using DER-CAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Momber, Ilan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental Benefits of Electric Vehicles Integration onusing plug-in hybrid electric vehicle battery packs for gridwith Connection of Electric Vehicles TABLE IV D ECISION V

  12. Optimum Performance of Direct Hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andy

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    system, the power consumption of the hydrogen EVS24 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicleelectric vehicles, uninterruptible power sources, distributed power generation systems,

  13. 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid - vin 4932 Advanced Vehicle Testing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Powertrain Type: Full Parallel Peak Electric Drive Power: 30 kW 2011 Hyundai Sonata Hybrid - VIN 4932 Advanced Vehicle Testing - Baseline Testing Results VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES...

  14. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays.

  15. Pulsed hybrid field emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sampayan, S.E.

    1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid emitter exploits the electric field created by a rapidly depoled ferroelectric material. Combining the emission properties of a planar thin film diamond emitter with a ferroelectric alleviates the present technological problems associated with both types of emitters and provides a robust, extremely long life, high current density cathode of the type required by emerging microwave power generation, accelerator technology and display applications. This new hybrid emitter is easy to fabricate and not susceptible to the same failures which plague microstructure field emitter technology. Local electrode geometries and electric field are determined independently from those for optimum transport and brightness preservation. Due to the large amount of surface charge created on the ferroelectric, the emitted electrons have significant energy, thus eliminating the requirement for specialized phosphors in emissive flat-panel displays. 11 figs.

  16. Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Electrical Vehicles in the Smart Grid: A Mean Field Game Analysis Romain Couillet, Samir M interaction between electrical vehicles or hybrid oil- electricity vehicles in a Cournot market consisting electricity peak demand. I. INTRODUCTION Electrical vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicles (PHEV

  17. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiang, Joseph John (Niskayuna, NY); Duggal, Anil Raj (Niskayuna, NY); Michael, Joseph Darryl (Schenectady, NY)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  18. Techno-economic and behavioural analysis of battery electric, hydrogen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conducts a techno-economic study on hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCV), battery electric vehicles (BEV) and hydrogen fuel cell plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEV) in the UK using cost predictions reforming methane in 2030. Keywords: Fuel cell vehicle; electric vehicle; hybrid vehicle; hydrogen

  19. Modelling and control strategy development for fuel cell electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Modelling and control strategy development for fuel cell electric vehicles Andreas Schell b , Huei applicable to the development of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs reserved. Keywords: Fuel cell electric vehicle; Hybrid vehicles; Modelling 1. Introduction Advanced

  20. The inverter in a hybrid or fully

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    The inverter in a hybrid or fully electric vehicle, such as the Toyota Prius, supplies power from Semiconductor (MOS), IGBT and diode devices, for applications in hybrid vehicles and portable power supplies of renewable energy systems, sustainable transport and many other applications. The area of power electronics

  1. Comprehensive Diagnosis of Complex Electrical Power Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daigle, Matthew

    Comprehensive Diagnosis of Complex Electrical Power Distribution Systems Indranil Roychoudhury Abstract: Electrical power distribution systems are composed of heterogeneous components, which include and discrete faults in electrical power distribution systems that include dc and ac components. We use a hybrid

  2. Photo illustration by George Lange, with Michael Miller (Plug) Popular Mechanics Impact of PlugImpact of Plug--in Hybrids on thein Hybrids on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 1 Photo illustration by George Lange, with Michael Miller (Plug) ­Popular Mechanics Impact system Turbo Diesel hybrid Future options Gasoline Turbo Diesel Hybrid plug-in hybrid Battery electric Fuel Cell Audi Turbo Diesel GM Volt Hyundai's Fuel Cell Tesla's Battery electric car #12;7 13 Barriers

  3. Analysis of Hybrid Hydrogen Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Braun, R.; Munoz, D.; Penev, M.; Kinchin, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Report on biomass pathways for hydrogen production and how they can be hybridized to support renewable electricity generation. Two hybrid systems were studied in detail for process feasibility and economic performance. The best-performing system was estimated to produce hydrogen at costs ($1.67/kg) within Department of Energy targets ($2.10/kg) for central biomass-derived hydrogen production while also providing value-added energy services to the electric grid.

  4. Optimal Power Train Design of a Hybrid Refuse Collector Vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    Optimal Power Train Design of a Hybrid Refuse Collector Vehicle Tobias Knoke, Joachim Böcker 5251 60 2212 Abstract-- Due to the stop-and-go drive cycle of refuse collector vehicles, hybrid power), optimization, refuse collector vehicle I. INTRODUCTION Today, hybrid electric vehicles are accepted as a step

  5. The Hybridization of a Formula Race Car K. W. Benson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Hybridization of a Formula Race Car K. W. Benson D. A. Fraser S. L. Hatridge C. A. Monaco R. J works must be obtained from the IEEE. #12;The Hybridization of a Formula Race Car Keith W. Benson.R.Sullivan@dartmouth.edu Abstract--Hybrid electric vehicles are advantageous under formula racing rules, when allowed. A series

  6. Evaluation of a Current Source Active Power Filter to Reduce the DC Bus Capacitor in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    system, additional heat, audible noise, mechanical stress, and vibration [1]. DC bus harmonic current- powered three-phase inverter is used to drive the traction motor. Due to the switching behavior combustion engine, electric motor, and energy storage device (for example, batteries and ultracapacitors

  7. Crystal structure and electric properties of the organic–inorganic hybrid: [(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]ZnCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostafa, M.F., E-mail: Mohga40@Yahoo.com; El-khiyami, S.S.

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The new organic-inorganic hybrid [(CH{sub 2}){sub 6}(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]ZnCl{sub 4}, M{sub r}=325.406 crystallized in a triclinic, P1¯, a=7.2816 (5) Å, b=10.0996 (7) Å, c=10.0972 (7) Å, ?=74.368 (4)°, ?=88.046 (4)°, ?=85.974 (3)°, V=713.24 (9) Å{sup 3} and Z=2, D{sub x}=1.486 Mg m{sup ?3}. Differential thermal scanning and x-ray powder diffraction, permittivity and ac conductivity indicated three phase transitions. Conduction takes place via correlated barrier hopping. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted.

  8. AT GUANTANAMO BAY: A HYBRID WIND-DIESEL SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    WIND POWER AT GUANTANAMO BAY: A HYBRID WIND-DIESEL SYSTEM FOR THE US NAVY AT GUANTANAMO NAVAL BASE Laboratory and are actively developing what will be the world's largest wind-diesel hybrid electric plant. The pending installation of four 950-kW wind turbines to supplement the 22.8 MW diesel electricity plant

  9. Washington, D.C. and Indiana: Allison Hybrid Technology Achieves...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems for medium-duty and heavy-duty trucks. One of the main benefits of using Allison hybrid technology within WMATA's buses is the fuel savings realized from a kinetic energy...

  10. Hybrid Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. A. Meyer; E. S. Swanson

    2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of the theoretical and experimental status of hybrid hadrons is presented. The states $\\pi_1(1400)$, $\\pi_1(1600)$, and $\\pi_1(2015)$ are thoroughly reviewed, along with experimental results from GAMS, VES, Obelix, COMPASS, KEK, CLEO, Crystal Barrel, CLAS, and BNL. Theoretical lattice results on the gluelump spectrum, adiabatic potentials, heavy and light hybrids, and transition matrix elements are discussed. These are compared with bag, string, flux tube, and constituent gluon models. Strong and electromagnetic decay models are described and compared to lattice gauge theory results. We conclude that while good evidence for the existence of a light isovector exotic meson exists, its confirmation as a hybrid meson awaits discovery of its iso-partners. We also conclude that lattice gauge theory rules out a number of hybrid models and provides a reference to judge the success of others.

  11. CalHEAT Research and Market Transformation Roadmap for Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    - 8 Work Trucks Work Site Support Tractors - Short Haul/ Regional Class 2b/3 vans/pickup s Class 3 - 8CalHEAT Research and Market Transformation Roadmap for Medium and Heavy Duty Trucks Delivering President CALSTART #12;California Hybrid, Efficient and Advanced Truck Research Center What is Cal

  12. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

  13. Optimal Power Management for a Hydraulic Hybrid Delivery Truck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    Optimal Power Management for a Hydraulic Hybrid Delivery Truck BIN WU, CHAN-CHIAO LIN, ZORAN FILIPI control strategies. This paper presents a methodology for developing a power management strategy tailored specifically to a parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle (HHV) configured for a medium-size delivery truck

  14. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 2, Battery recycling and disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbus, D.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recycling and disposal of spent sodium-sulfur (Na/S) batteries are important issues that must be addressed as part of the commercialization process of Na/S battery-powered electric vehicles. The use of Na/S batteries in electric vehicles will result in significant environmental benefits, and the disposal of spent batteries should not detract from those benefits. In the United States, waste disposal is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Understanding these regulations will help in selecting recycling and disposal processes for Na/S batteries that are environmentally acceptable and cost effective. Treatment processes for spent Na/S battery wastes are in the beginning stages of development, so a final evaluation of the impact of RCRA regulations on these treatment processes is not possible. The objectives of tills report on battery recycling and disposal are as follows: Provide an overview of RCRA regulations and requirements as they apply to Na/S battery recycling and disposal so that battery developers can understand what is required of them to comply with these regulations; Analyze existing RCRA regulations for recycling and disposal and anticipated trends in these regulations and perform a preliminary regulatory analysis for potential battery disposal and recycling processes. This report assumes that long-term Na/S battery disposal processes will be capable of handling large quantities of spent batteries. The term disposal includes treatment processes that may incorporate recycling of battery constituents. The environmental regulations analyzed in this report are limited to US regulations. This report gives an overview of RCRA and discusses RCRA regulations governing Na/S battery disposal and a preliminary regulatory analysis for Na/S battery disposal.

  15. Electric and hybrid vehicle program; Site Operator Program. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1992 (Second quarter of fiscal year 1992)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, J.F.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Activities during the second quarter included the second meeting of the Site Operators in Phoenix, AZ in late April. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Solar and Electric 500 Race activities. Delivery of vehicles ordered previously has begun, although two of the operators are experiencing some delays in receiving their vehicles. Public demonstration activities continue, with an apparent increasing level of awareness and interest being displayed by the public. Initial problems with the Site Operator Database have been corrected and revised copies of the program have been supplied to the Program participants. Operating and Maintenance data is being supplied and submitted to INEL on a monthly basis. Interest in the Site Operator Program is being reflected in requests for information from several organizations from across the country, representing a wide diversity of interests. These organizations have been referred to existing Site Operators with the explanation that the program will not be adding new participants, but that most of the existing organizations are willing to work with other groups. The exception to this was the addition of Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) to the program. PEPCO has been awarded a subcontract to operate and maintain the DOE owned G-Van and Escort located in Washington, DC. They will provide data on these vehicles, as well as a Solectria Force which PEPCO has purchased. The Task Force intends to be actively involved in the infrastructure development in a wide range of areas. These include, among others, personnel development, safety, charging, and servicing. Work continues in these areas. York Technical College (YORK) has completed the draft outline for the EV Technician course. This is being circulated to organizations around the country for comments. Kansas State University (KSU) is working with a private sector company to develop a energy dispensing meter for opportunity charging in public areas.

  16. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  17. Hybrid powertrain controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankovic, Miroslava (Birmingham, MI); Powell, Barry Kay (Belleville, MI)

    2000-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid powertrain for a vehicle comprising a diesel engine and an electric motor in a parallel arrangement with a multiple ratio transmission located on the torque output side of the diesel engine, final drive gearing connecting drivably the output shaft of transmission to traction wheels of the vehicle, and an electric motor drivably coupled to the final drive gearing. A powertrain controller schedules fuel delivered to the diesel engine and effects a split of the total power available, a portion of the power being delivered by the diesel and the balance of the power being delivered by the motor. A shifting schedule for the multiple ratio transmission makes it possible for establishing a proportional relationship between accelerator pedal movement and torque desired at the wheels. The control strategy for the powertrain maintains drivability of the vehicle that resembles drivability of a conventional spark ignition vehicle engine powertrain while achieving improved fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions.

  18. Establishing Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) Design Targets for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Establishing Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) Design Targets for Hybrid Vehicles 2013 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review May 15th, 2013 R.Vijayagopal,...

  19. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  20. Hybrid Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of low electrical demand by dynamically altering their production mode to deliver power, heat or chemical products. One LDRD project is a laboratory-scale demonstration of...

  1. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  2. Hybrid power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Harmohan N.

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid power system is comprised of a high energy density element such as a fuel-cell and high power density elements such as a supercapacitor banks. A DC/DC converter electrically connected to the fuel cell and converting the energy level of the energy supplied by the fuel cell. A first switch is electrically connected to the DC/DC converter. First and second supercapacitors are electrically connected to the first switch and a second switch. A controller is connected to the first switch and the second switch, monitoring charge levels of the supercapacitors and controls the switching in response to the charge levels. A load is electrically connected to the second switch. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the first supercapacitor when the second switch connects the second supercapacitor to the load. The first switch connects the DC/DC converter to the second supercapacitor when the second switch connects the first supercapacitor to the load.

  3. innovati nNREL Helps Cool the Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    innovati nNREL Helps Cool the Power Electronics in Electric Vehicles Researchers at the National for cooling power electronics devices in hybrid and electric vehicles. In collaboration with 3M and Wolverine vehicles. Widespread use of advanced electric-drive vehicles--including electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid

  4. A pulser for medium-frequency modulated direct-current reactive sputter deposition of insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Hui

    for medium-frequency modulated direct-current dc reactive sputter deposition of electrical insulators at the target surface inherent to high- deposition-rate reactive sputtering of electrical insulators. TypicallyA pulser for medium-frequency modulated direct-current reactive sputter deposition of insulators G

  5. Electric and Hydrogen Vehicles Past and Progress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    status and TSRC research ­ Future? · Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles ­ 20 years ago ­ 10 years ago ­ Current · Transportation Propulsion, Fuels, & Emissions ­ Electric-drive vehicles (including plug-in hybrid and fuel-cell Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles?Why Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles? · Transportation accounts for about 33

  6. New York City Transit Hybrid and CNG Transit Buses: Interim Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report focuses on the evaluation of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel hybrid electric bus propulsion systems in New York City Transit's transit buses.

  7. Plug-in Hybrid Modeling and Application: Cost/Benefit Analysis (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, A.

    2006-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Presents data from a simulation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle efficiency and cost, including baseline vehicle assumptions, powertrain technology scenarios, and component modeling.

  8. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-ion Batteries of Various Chemistries for Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew; Miller, Marshall

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power Systems Laboratory and performs research and teaches graduate courses on advanced electric driveline technologies, specializing in batteries, ultracapacitors, fuel cells and hybrid vehicle

  9. atomistic-continuum hybrid simulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Roger D. Chamberlain Dept Chamberlain, Roger 32 Matlab Based Simulation of Thermoelectric-Photovoltaic Hybrid CiteSeer Summary: The higher electrical energy demand is increasing in...

  10. The Neutral Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Braun

    2005-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the physical conditions of the neutral medium within, and in the environments of, galaxies. The basic physical and morphological properties of the neutral medium within galaxy disks are now quite well-constrained. Systematic variations in temperature and phase-balance (of cool versus warm neutral gas) are indicated as a function of both radius and z-height. Interestingly, the cool medium line-widths are observed to be dominated by turbulent energy injection within cells of 10 pc to 1 kpc size. Deep new observations reveal that 5-10% of the neutral medium is associated within an extended halo which rotates more slowly and experiences radial inflow. Much of this component is likely to be associated with a ``galactic fountain'' type of phenomenon. However, compelling evidence is also accumulating for the importance of tidal disruption of satellites as well as continuous accretion (of both diffuse and discrete components) in fueling galaxy halos and disks. Continued fueling is even observed on scales of 100's of kpc in galaxy environments, where the neutral component is likely to be merely a trace constituent of a highly ionized plasma.

  11. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Dietz, Mark L. (Evanston, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  12. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  13. Building America Webinar: New Construction Hybrid-Ductless Heat...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as a hybrid "all-electric" heating system in new high-performance homes. In a DHPhybrid heating system, the DHP fan coil is located in the main living area in combination with...

  14. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  15. Penn State Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory The Larson Transportation Institute (LTI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Dongwon

    Penn State Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory The Larson Transportation Institute (LTI) The Hybrid and Hydrogen Vehicle Research Laboratory (HHVRL) at the Larson Transportation Institute (LTI on the internal combustion engine and fossil fuels to "greener" fuel cell and hybrid electric technology

  16. Hierarchical Control Strategy for a Hybrid Hydro-mechanical Transmission (HMT) Power-Train

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    1) manages the accumulator energy storage (high level); 2) performs vehicle level optimization (mid and the efficiency is dependent on the energy management used. I. INTRODUCTION Hydraulic hybrid vehicles reduce fuel energy. Compared to electric hybrids, hydraulic hybrids have the advantage of power density. A passenger

  17. AVTA: Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 Ford Fusion Energi2013 Ford C-Max Energi Fleet2013 Ford C-Max Energi2012 Chevrolet Volt2012 Toyota Prius2013 Toyota Prius2013 Chevrolet Volt2011 Chrysler Town & Country2010 Quantum...

  18. Hybrid Electric Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To:Department ofOral Testimony of SecretaryBetweenTheMarch 2,theOFFICE

  19. NREL: Learning - Hybrid Electric Vehicle Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: Grid Integration NREL isDataWorking withFuel Cell VehicleHeat

  20. Fermion dispersion in axion medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Mikheev; E. N. Narynskaya

    2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of a fermion with the dense axion medium is investigated for the purpose of finding an axion medium effect on the fermion dispersion. It is shown that axion medium influence on the fermion dispersion under astrophysical conditions is negligible small if the correct Lagrangian of the axion-fermion interaction is used.