National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for hvac systems simulation

  1. An implementation of co-simulation for performance prediction of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trcka, Marija; Wetter, Michael; Hensen, Jan L.M.

    2010-07-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help reducing energy consumption and increasing level of occupant comfort. However, no singe building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to accommodate the ever-increasing complexity and rapid innovations in building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation. The co-simulation approach represents a particular case of simulation scenario where at least two simulators solve coupled differential-algebraic systems of equations and exchange data that couples these equations during the time integration. This paper elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in a co-simulation prototype. The prototype is verified and validated against the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a case study for the proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling frequency. The paper concludes by defining requirements and recommendations for generic cosimulation implementations.

  2. Alternate HVAC systems and exceptions for QA-Credentialed HVAC Contractor |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Alternate HVAC systems and exceptions for QA-Credentialed HVAC Contractor Alternate HVAC systems and exceptions for QA-Credentialed HVAC Contractor The document outlines alternate HVAC systems and exceptions for QA-Credentialed HVAC Contractor. PDF icon HVAC Credentialing Alternate HVAC Systems Bulletin 07012015.pdf More Documents & Publications ENERGY STAR Certified Homes, Version 3 (Rev. 07) Inspection Checklists for National Program Requirements DOE Zero Energy

  3. Heat recovery and the economizer for HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anantapantula, V.S. . Alco Controls Div.); Sauer, H.J. Jr. )

    1994-11-01

    This articles examines why a combined heat reclaim/economizer system with priority to heat reclaim operation is most likely to result in the least annual total HVAC energy. PC-based, hour-by-hour simulation programs evaluate annual HVAC energy requirements when using combined operation of heat reclaim and economizer cycle, while giving priority to operation of either one. These simulation programs also enable the design engineer to select the most viable heat reclaim and/or economizer system for any given type of HVAC system serving the building internal load level, building geographical location and other building/system variables.

  4. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building ...

  5. enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction Credit: Enverid Systems Credit: Enverid Systems Lead Performer: enVerid Systems Inc. - Houston, TX DOE Funding: $2,400,000 Cost Share: $2,400,000 Project Term: October 1, 2014 - September 30, 2017 Funding Opportunity: DE-FOA-0001084 PROJECT OBJECTIVE The objective is to install and operate modular HVAC Load Reduction (HLR) retrofits in multiple and diverse buildings, monitor their performance, analyze the energy savings

  6. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Top Innovation | Department of Energy Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows framed walls and HVAC distribution systems. This Top Innovation profile describes work by Building America research team IBACOS who field tested simplified duct designs in hundreds of homes, confirming the performance of

  7. HVAC Performance Maps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... models for building energy simulation tools (mathematical framework - what are the right ... integrated HPWHs were performance mapped in NREL's Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory. ...

  8. Modeling and Simulation of HVAC Faulty Operations and Performance Degradation due to Maintenance Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Liping; Hong, Tianzhen

    2013-01-01

    Almost half of the total energy used in the U.S. buildings is consumed by heating, ventilation and air conditionings (HVAC) according to EIA statistics. Among various driving factors to energy performance of building, operations and maintenance play a significant role. Many researches have been done to look at design efficiencies and operational controls for improving energy performance of buildings, but very few study the impacts of HVAC systems maintenance. Different practices of HVAC system maintenance can result in substantial differences in building energy use. If a piece of HVAC equipment is not well maintained, its performance will degrade. If sensors used for control purpose are not calibrated, not only building energy usage could be dramatically increased, but also mechanical systems may not be able to satisfy indoor thermal comfort. Properly maintained HVAC systems can operate efficiently, improve occupant comfort, and prolong equipment service life. In the paper, maintenance practices for HVAC systems are presented based on literature reviews and discussions with HVAC engineers, building operators, facility managers, and commissioning agents. We categorize the maintenance practices into three levels depending on the maintenance effort and coverage: 1) proactive, performance-monitored maintenance; 2) preventive, scheduled maintenance; and 3) reactive, unplanned or no maintenance. A sampled list of maintenance issues, including cooling tower fouling, boiler/chiller fouling, refrigerant over or under charge, temperature sensor offset, outdoor air damper leakage, outdoor air screen blockage, outdoor air damper stuck at fully open position, and dirty filters are investigated in this study using field survey data and detailed simulation models. The energy impacts of both individual maintenance issue and combined scenarios for an office building with central VAV systems and central plant were evaluated by EnergyPlus simulations using three approaches: 1) direct modeling with EnergyPlus, 2) using the energy management system feature of EnergyPlus, and 3) modifying EnergyPlus source code. The results demonstrated the importance of maintenance for HVAC systems on energy performance of buildings. The research is intended to provide a guideline to help practitioners and building operators to gain the knowledge of maintaining HVAC systems in efficient operations, and prioritize HVAC maintenance work plan. The paper also discusses challenges of modeling building maintenance issues using energy simulation programs.

  9. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling...

  10. Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling, zonal design, and thermoelectric devices Discusses progress on thermal comfort modeling and detailed design, ...

  11. SURFACE INDUSTRIAL HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.M. Ansari

    2005-04-05

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the surface industrial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and its bases to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description that provided in this SDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  12. HVAC & Building Management Control System Energy Efficiency Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Adriana

    2012-09-21

    The project objective was the replacement of an aging, un-repairable HVAC system which has grown inefficient and a huge energy consumer with low energy and efficient HVAC units, and installation of energy efficient building control technologies at City's YMCA Community Center.

  13. Thermal model of solar absorption HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergquam, J.B.; Brezner, J.M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents a thermal model that describes the performance of solar absorption HVAC systems. The model considers the collector array, the building cooling and heating loads, the absorption chiller and the high temperature storage. Heat losses from the storage tank and piping are included in the model. All of the results presented in the paper are for an array of flat plate solar collectors with black chrome (selective surface) absorber plates. The collector efficiency equation is used to calculate the useful heat output from the array. The storage is modeled as a non-stratified tank with polyurethane foam insulation. The system is assumed to operate continuously providing air conditioning during the cooling season, space heating during the winter and hot water throughout the year. The amount of heat required to drive the chiller is determined from the coefficient of performance of the absorption cycle. Results are presented for a typical COP of 0.7. The cooling capacity of the chiller is a function of storage (generator) temperature. The nominal value is 190 F (88 C) and the range of values considered is 180 F (82 C) to 210 F (99 C). Typical building cooling and heating loads are determined as a function of ambient conditions. Performance results are presented for Sacramento, CA and Washington, D.C. The model described in the paper makes use of National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) data and results are presented for these two locations. The uncertainties in the NSRDB are estimated to be in a range of 6% to 9%. This is a significant improvement over previously available data. The model makes it possible to predict the performance of solar HVAC systems and calculate quantities such as solar fraction, storage temperature, heat losses and parasitic power for every hour of the period for which data are available.

  14. A PDI for your HVAC System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question "HVAC proper installation energy savings: over-promising or under-deliverying?"

  15. IFC HVAC interface to EnergyPlus - A case of expanded interoperability for energy simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir; Maile, Tobias

    2004-03-29

    Tedious manual input of data that define a building, its systems and its expected pattern of use and operating schedules for building energy performance simulation has in the past diverted time and resources from productive simulation runs. In addition to its previously released IFCtoIDF utility that semiautomates the import of building geometry, the new IFC HVAC interface to EnergyPlus (released at the end of 2003) makes it possible to import and export most of the data that define HVAC equipment and systems in a building directly from and to other IFC compatible software tools. This reduces the manual input of other data needed for successful simulation with EnergyPlus to a minimum. The main purpose of this new interface is to enable import of HVAC equipment and systems definitions, generated by other IFC compatible software tools (such as HVAC systems design tools) and data bases, into EnergyPlus, and to write such definitions contained in EnergyPlus input files to the original IFC files from which building geometry was extracted for the particular EnergyPlus input. In addition, this interface sets an example for developers of other software tools how to import and/or export data other than building geometry from and/or into EnergyPlus. This paper describes the necessary simplifications and shortcuts incorporated in this interface, its operating environment, interface architecture, and the basic conditions and methodology for its use with EnergyPlus.

  16. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  17. Comparisons of HVAC Simulations between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for Data Centers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Sartor, Dale; Mathew, Paul; Yazdanian, Mehry

    2008-08-13

    This paper compares HVAC simulations between EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 for data centers. The HVAC systems studied in the paper are packaged direct expansion air-cooled single zone systems with and without air economizer. Four climate zones are chosen for the study - San Francisco, Miami, Chicago, and Phoenix. EnergyPlus version 2.1 and DOE-2.2 version 45 are used in the annual energy simulations. The annual cooling electric consumption calculated by EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 are reasonablely matched within a range of -0.4percent to 8.6percent. The paper also discusses sources of differences beween EnergyPlus and DOE-2.2 runs including cooling coil algorithm, performance curves, and important energy model inputs.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG HYBRID GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM, COMPLETE GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP AND CONVENTIONAL HVAC SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP) in the Pensacola is selected and simulated by the transient simulation software package TRNSYS [1]. To verify the simulation results, the validations are conducted by using the monthly average entering water temperature, monthly facility consumption data, and etc. And three types of HVAC systems are compared based on the same building model and HVAC system capacity. The results are presented to show the advantages and disadvantages of HyGSHP compared with the other two systems in terms of energy consumptions, life cycle cost analysis.

  19. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  20. Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications Anthony Grisolia Managing Director Innovation Programs Andrew Poerschke Specialist Innovation Programs CONFIDENTIAL Agenda Basis for Thermal Comfort Comparative Modeling Newtown Townhouse Case Study Plug and Play System Future Work How IBACOS Thinks About Comfort Risks Home 24 Home 25 Home 26 Same Plan Same Street Same Orientation Different Occupants 0.5 CLO 1.0 MET ASHRAE 55 Comfort Aggregate of 36 Homes 0.5 CLO 1.0 MET 47% of data

  1. Wireless Demand Response Controls for HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Federspiel, Clifford

    2009-06-30

    The objectives of this scoping study were to develop and test control software and wireless hardware that could enable closed-loop, zone-temperature-based demand response in buildings that have either pneumatic controls or legacy digital controls that cannot be used as part of a demand response automation system. We designed a SOAP client that is compatible with the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) being used by the IOUs in California for their CPP program, design the DR control software, investigated the use of cellular routers for connecting to the DRAS, and tested the wireless DR system with an emulator running a calibrated model of a working building. The results show that the wireless DR system can shed approximately 1.5 Watts per design CFM on the design day in a hot, inland climate in California while keeping temperatures within the limits of ASHRAE Standard 55: Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy.

  2. Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Identify a technical and business approach to accelerate the deployment of light-duty automotive TE HVAC technology, maintain occupant comfort, and improve energy efficiency. PDF ...

  3. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  4. Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    research team IBACOS worked with S&A Homes to design a compact HVAC layout with all ducts in conditioned space in several homes in Pittsburgh. Poor-quality HVAC design and installation can reduce the overall HVAC system energy efficiency up to 30%. HVAC quality installation practices are essential to realizing the promise of high-performance homes. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 1. Advanced Technologies and Practices 1.1 Building Science Solutions

  5. High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The presenters will also discuss results from a modeling exercise that identified the impact house design, system design, and control strategies on comfort and energy consumption. ...

  6. Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Variable-Speed, Low-Cost Motor for Residential HVAC Systems Lower-Cost, Variable-Speed ... DynaMotors Inc., with the aid of a grant from DOE's Inventions and Innovation Program, ...

  7. Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Business Case Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-05-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment', ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations. All system options were scored by the ORNL building equipment research team and by William Goetzler of Navigant Consulting. These scores were reviewed by DOE/BT's Residential Integration program leaders and Building America team members. Based on these results, the two centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) systems (air source and ground source versions) were selected for advancement to Stage 2 (Exploratory Development) business case assessments in FY06. This report describes results of these business case assessments. It is a compilation of three separate reports describing the initial business case study (Baxter 2006a), an update to evaluate the impact of an economizer cooling option (Baxter 2006b), and a second update to evaluate the impact of a winter humidification option (Baxter 2007). In addition it reports some corrections made subsequent to release of the first two reports to correct some errors in the TRNSYS building model for Atlanta and in the refrigerant pressure drop calculation in the water-to-refrigerant evaporator module of the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) used for the IHP analyses. These changes resulted in some minor differences between IHP performance as reported in Baxter (2006a, b) and in this report.

  8. Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using Zonal Thermoelectric Devices and Comfort Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Summarizes results from a study to identify and demonstrate technical and commercial approaches necessary to accelerate the deployment of zonal TE HVAC systems in light-duty vehicles

  9. Integrated high efficiency blower apparatus for HVAC systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaoyue; Weigman, Herman; Wang, Shixiao

    2007-07-24

    An integrated centrifugal blower wheel for a heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) blower unit includes a first blade support, a second blade support, and a plurality of S-shaped blades disposed between the first and second blade supports, wherein each of the S-shaped blades has a trailing edge bent in a forward direction with respect to a defined direction of rotation of the wheel.

  10. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2006-11-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, 'HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment,' ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. Table 1 summarizes the energy savings potential of the highest scoring options from the 2005 study for all five locations.

  11. Development of a Thermoelectric Device for an Automotive Zonal HVAC System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Presents development of a thermoelectric device using liquid working fluid on the wasteŽ side and air as working fluid on the mainŽ side to enable zonal or distributed heating/cooling systems within a vehicle PDF icon barnhart.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric HVAC for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using Zonal Thermoelectric Devices and Comfort Modeling Improving efficiency of a

  12. Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric HVAC for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications ...

  13. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  14. Pre-Commercial Demonstration of Cost-Effective Advanced HVAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC energy reduction versus state-of- the-art building automation systems. This technology targets building automation systems for medium-size buildings with central HVAC systems. ...

  15. Unified HVAC and Refrigeration Control Systems for Small Footprint...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    refrigeration systems and integrate photovoltaic sources Key Issues: Low-cost, "low-touch" retrofit of control technology into buildings and refrigeration systems to facilitate ...

  16. Energy Savings Potential of Flexible and Adaptive HVAC Distribution Systems for Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loftness, Vivian; Brahme, Rohini; Mondazzi, Michelle; Vineyard, Edward; MacDonald, Michael

    2002-06-01

    It has been understood by architects and engineers that office buildings with easily re-configurable space and flexible mechanical and electrical systems are able to provide comfort that increases worker productivity while using less energy. Raised floors are an example of how fresh air, thermal conditioning, lighting needs, and network access can be delivered in a flexible manner that is not ''embedded'' within the structure. What are not yet documented is how well these systems perform and how much energy they can save. This area is being investigated in phased projects of the 21st Century Research Program of the Air-conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute. For the initial project, research teams at the Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, documented the diversity, performance, and incidence of flexible and adaptive HVAC systems. Information was gathered worldwide from journal and conference articles, case studies, manufactured products and assemblies, and interviews with design professionals. Their report thoroughly describes the variety of system types along with the various design alternatives observed for plenums, diffusers, individual control, and system integration. Many of the systems are illustrated in the report and the authors provide quantitative and qualitative comparisons. Among conclusions regarding key design issues, and barriers to widespread adoption, the authors state that flexible and adaptive HVAC systems, such as underfloor air, perform as well if not better than ceiling-based systems. Leading engineers have become active proponents after their first experience, which is resulting in these flexible and adaptive HVAC systems approaching 10 percent of the new construction market. To encourage adoption of this technology that improves thermal comfort and indoor air quality, follow-on work is required to further document performance. Architects, professional engineers, and commercial real estate developers will benefit from the availability of information that quantifies energy savings, first cost construction differences, and additional operating costs created when office space must be reconfigured to accommodate new tenants.

  17. Combined solar and internal load effects on selection of heat reclaim-economizer HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sauer, H.J. Jr.; Howell, R.H.; Wang, Z. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-05-01

    The concern for energy conservation has led to the development and use of heat recovery systems which reclaim the building internal heat before it is discarded in the exhaust air. On the other hand, economizer cycles have been widely used for many years in a variety of types of HVAC systems. Economizer cycles are widely accepted as a means to reduce operating time for chilling equipment when cool outside air is available. It has been suggested that heat reclaim systems should not be used in conjunction with an HVAC system which incorporates an economizer cycle because the economizer operation would result in heat being exhausted which might have been recovered. Others suggest that the economizer cycle can be used economically in a heat recovery system if properly controlled to maintain an overall building heat balance. This study looks at potential energy savings of such combined systems with particular emphasis on the effects of the solar load (amount of glass) and the internal load level (lights, people, appliances, etc.). For systems without thermal storage, annual energy savings of up to 60 percent are predicted with the use of heat reclaim systems in conjunction with economizers when the heat reclaim has priority. These results demonstrate the necessity of complete engineering evaluations if proper selection and operation of combined heat recovery and economizer cycles are to be obtained. This paper includes the basic methodology for making such evaluations.

  18. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  19. Learning Based Bidding Strategy for HVAC Systems in Double Auction Retail Energy Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yannan; Somani, Abhishek; Carroll, Thomas E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a bidding strategy is proposed using reinforcement learning for HVAC systems in a double auction market. The bidding strategy does not require a specific model-based representation of behavior, i.e., a functional form to translate indoor house temperatures into bid prices. The results from reinforcement learning based approach are compared with the HVAC bidding approach used in the AEP gridSMARTÂź smart grid demonstration project and it is shown that the model-free (learning based) approach tracks well the results from the model-based behavior. Successful use of model-free approaches to represent device-level economic behavior may help develop similar approaches to represent behavior of more complex devices or groups of diverse devices, such as in a building. Distributed control requires an understanding of decision making processes of intelligent agents so that appropriate mechanisms may be developed to control and coordinate their responses, and model-free approaches to represent behavior will be extremely useful in that quest.

  20. Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Identify a technical and business approach to accelerate the deployment of light-duty automotive TE HVAC technology, maintain occupant comfort, and improve energy efficiency.

  1. Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High Performance HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications | Department of Energy HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications Text-Alternative Version of Building America Webinar: High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications November 16, 2015 Speakers Andrew Poerschke,

  2. Value impact analysis of Generic Issue 143, Availability of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning (HVAC) and Chilled Water Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Marler, J.E.; Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.; Friley, J.R.

    1993-11-01

    This study evaluates the values (benefits) and impacts (costs) associated with potential resolutions to Generic Issue 143, ``Availability of HVAC and Chilled Water Systems.`` The study identifies vulnerabilities related to failures of HVAC, chilled water, and room cooling systems; develops estimates of room heatup rates and safety-related equipment vulnerabilities following losses of HVAC/room cooler systems; develops estimates of the core damage frequencies and public risks associated with failures of these systems; develops three proposed resolution strategies to this generic issue; and performs a value/impact analysis of the proposed resolutions. Existing probabilistic risk assessments for four representative plants, including one plant from each vendor, form the basis for the core damage frequency and public risk calculations. Both internal and external events were considered. It was concluded that all three proposed resolution strategies exceed the $1,000/person-rem cost-effectiveness ratio. Additional evaluations were performed to develop ``generic`` insights on potential design-related and configuration-related vulnerabilities and potential high-frequency ({approximately}1E-04/RY) accident sequences that involve failures of HVAC/room cooling functions. It was concluded that, although high-frequency accident sequences may exist at some plants, these high-frequency sequences are plant-specific in nature or have been resolved through hardware and/or operational changes. The plant-specific Individual Plant Examinations are an effective vehicle for identification and resolution of these plant-specific anomalies and hardware configurations.

  3. Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-02-01

    The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

  4. Energy Savings From System Efficiency Improvements in Iowa’s HVAC SAVE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yee, S.; Baker, J.; Brand, L.; Wells, J.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to explore the energy savings potential of maximizing furnace and distribution system performance by adjusting operating, installation, and distribution conditions. The goal of the Iowa HVAC System Adjusted and Verified Efficiency (SAVE) program is to train contractors to measure installed system efficiency as a diagnostic tool to ensure that the homeowner achieves the energy reduction target for the home rather than simply performing a tune-up on the furnace or having a replacement furnace added to a leaky system. The PARR research team first examined baseline energy usage from a sample of 48 existing homes, before any repairs or adjustments were made, to calculate an average energy savings potential and to determine which system deficiencies were prevalent. The results of the baseline study of these homes found that, on average, about 10% of the space heating energy available from the furnace was not reaching the conditioned space. In the second part of the project, the team examined a sample of 10 homes that had completed the initial evaluation for more in-depth study. For these homes, the diagnostic data shows that it is possible to deliver up to 23% more energy from the furnace to the conditioned space by doing system tune ups with or without upgrading the furnace. Replacing the furnace provides additional energy reduction. The results support the author's belief that residential heating and cooling equipment should be tested and improved as a system rather than a collection of individual components.

  5. Energy Department Invests Nearly $8 Million to Develop Next-Generation HVAC Systems for Buildings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced nearly $8 million to advance research and development of next-generation heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) technologies, supporting the Administration's goal of saving money by saving energy, and phasing down the use of chemicals that have a devastating effect on the global climate.

  6. Radiant heating and cooling, displacement ventilation with heat recovery and storm water cooling: An environmentally responsible HVAC system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, S.C.; Kokko, J.P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the design, operation, and performance of an HVAC system installed as part of a project to demonstrate energy efficiency and environmental responsibility in commercial buildings. The systems installed in the 2180 m{sup 2} office building provide superior air quality and thermal comfort while requiring only half the electrical energy of conventional systems primarily because of the hydronic heating and cooling system. Gas use for the building is higher than expected because of longer operating hours and poor performance of the boiler/absorption chiller.

  7. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San Jos Convention Center Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a ...

  8. EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History November 2, 2010 - 5:37pm Addthis A new heating and cooling system...

  9. An evaluation of three commercially available technologies forreal-time measurement of rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-10-28

    During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for real-time continuous measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air (OA) into HVAC systems; however, an evaluation of these measurements technologies has not previously been published. This document describes a test system and protocols developed for a controlled evaluation of these measurement technologies. The results of tests of three commercially available measurement technologies are also summarized. The test system and protocol were judged practical and very useful. The three commercially available measurement technologies should provide reasonably, e.g., 20%, accurate measurements of OA flow rates as long as air velocities are maintained high enough to produce accurately measurable pressure signals. In HVAC systems with economizer controls, to maintain the required air velocities the OA intake will need to be divided into two sections in parallel, each with a separate OA damper. All of the measurement devices had pressure drops that are likely to be judged acceptable. The influence of wind on the accuracy of these measurement technologies still needs to be evaluated.

  10. An evaluation of technologies for real-time measurement of rates of outdoor airflow into HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, William J.; Faulkner, David; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2004-09-01

    During the last few years, new technologies have been introduced for real-time continuous measurement of the flow rates of outdoor air (OA) into HVAC systems; however, an evaluation of these measurement technologies has not previously been published. This document describes a test system and protocols developed for a controlled evaluation of these measurement technologies. The results of tests of four commercially available measurement technologies and one prototype based on a new design are also summarized. The test system and protocol were judged practical and very useful. The series of tests identified three commercially available measurement technologies that should provide reasonably accurate measurements of OA flow rates as long as air velocities are maintained high enough to produce accurately measurable pressure signals. In HVAC systems with economizer controls, to maintain the required air velocities the OA intake will need to be divided into two sections in parallel, each with a separate OA damper. The errors in OA flow rates measured with the fourth commercially available measurement technology were 20% to 30% with horizontal probes but much larger with vertical probes. The new prototype measurement technology was the only one that appears suitable for measuring OA flow rates over their full range from 20% OA to 100% OA without using two separate OA dampers. All of the measurement devices had pressure drops that are likely to be judged acceptable. The influence of wind on the accuracy of these measurement technologies still needs to be evaluated.

  11. HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation While HVAC installers have improved their air sealing practices to reduce the amount of air leaking at ducts and duct boots, testing showed that distribution systems still leaked at air handlers and furnace HVAC Air Leakage Fig 1 Air handler furnace cabinet with pressure taps.jpg cabinets. This has hampered the ability of HVAC

  12. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-02-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of a centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006a). The present report is an update to that document which summarizes results of an analysis of the impact of adding a humidifier to the HVAC system to maintain minimum levels of space relative humidity (RH) in winter. The space RH in winter has direct impact on occupant comfort and on control of dust mites, many types of disease bacteria, and 'dry air' electric shocks. Chapter 8 in ASHRAE's 2005 Handbook of Fundamentals (HOF) suggests a 30% lower limit on RH for indoor temperatures in the range of {approx}68-69F based on comfort (ASHRAE 2005). Table 3 in chapter 9 of the same reference suggests a 30-55% RH range for winter as established by a Canadian study of exposure limits for residential indoor environments (EHD 1987). Harriman, et al (2001) note that for RH levels of 35% or higher, electrostatic shocks are minimized and that dust mites cannot live at RH levels below 40%. They also indicate that many disease bacteria life spans are minimized when space RH is held within a 30-60% range. From the foregoing it is reasonable to assume that a winter space RH range of 30-40% would be an acceptable compromise between comfort considerations and limitation of growth rates for dust mites and many bacteria. In addition it reports some corrections made to the simulation models used in order to correct some errors in the TRNSYS building model for Atlanta and in the refrigerant pressure drop calculation in the water-to-refrigerant evaporator module of the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) used for the IHP analyses. These changes resulted in some minor differences between IHP performance as reported in Baxter (2006) and in this report.

  13. HVAC Packages for SMSCB

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Packages for SMSCB* 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review * Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings Russell D. Taylor, TaylorRD@utrc.utc.com CBEI - United ...

  14. Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhivov, A.M.; Rymkevich, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper. A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more than 200 restaurants in different US climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices. Four constant air volume HVAC systems wit h a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative US climates: cold (Minneapolis, MN); Maritime (Seattle, WA); moderate (Albuquerque, NM); hot-dry (Phoenix, AZ); and hot-humid (Miami, FL). For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout the year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows: Displacement air distribution allows for better indoor air quality in the breathing zone at the same outdoor air supply airflow rate due to contaminant stratification along the room height. The increase in outdoor air supply during the peak hours in Miami and Albuquerque results in an increase of both heating and cooling energy consumption. In other climates, the increase in outdoor air supply results in reduced cooling energy consumption. For the Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Seattle locations, the HVAC system operation with a variable outdoor air supply allows for a decrease in cooling consumption up to 50% and, in some cases, eliminates the use of refrigeration machines. The effect of temperature stratification on HVAC system parameters is the same for all locations; displacement ventilation systems result in decreased cooling energy consumption but increased heating consumption.

  15. HVAC Efficiency Controls Could Mean Significant Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    According to a new report from Pacific Northwest National Lab, commercial building owners could save an average 38 percent on their heating and cooling bills just by installing a few new controls onto their HVAC systems.

  16. Pre-Commercial Demonstration of Cost-Effective Advanced HVAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Optimal control coordination of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment can reduce energy by more than 20% over current building automation systems (BASs) but ...

  17. Issue #3: HVAC Proper Installation Energy Savings: Over-Promising...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A PDI for your HVAC System Guidelines on Airflow and Refrigerant Charge Verification and Diagnostics Building America Expert Meeting: Summary for Diagnostic and Performance ...

  18. HVAC Installed Performance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 25, 2012, and addressed the question HVAC proper installation energy savings: over-promising or under-delivering?"

  19. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes -- Update to Include Analyses of an Economizer Option and Alternative Winter Water Heating Control Option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2006-12-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Dramatic efficiency improvements are necessary to enable progress toward the NZEH goals, and will require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of an integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006). The present report is an update to that document. Its primary purpose is to summarize results of an analysis of the potential of adding an outdoor air economizer operating mode to the IHPs to take advantage of free cooling (using outdoor air to cool the house) whenever possible. In addition it provides some additional detail for an alternative winter water heating/space heating (WH/SH) control strategy briefly described in the original report and corrects some minor errors.

  20. Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling, zonal design, and thermoelectric devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses progress on thermal comfort modeling and detailed design, fabrication, and component/system-level testing of TE architecture

  1. Fabrication of A Quantum Well Based System for Truck HVAC | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 of 3 PPG developed and commercialized the InterceptÂź Spacer System that revolutionized the manufacture of double-pane insulated glazing units (IGUs) 25 years ago. Over 125 PPG-licensed InterceptÂź Spacer System lines are in operation in the US. Currently in use in more than 600 million residential windows, the InterceptÂź Spacer System is the top-selling product of its kind in North America. Image: PPGGLASS.COM 2 of 3 In 2011, PPG was the first to commission and install GED's Automated

  2. Model Predictive Control of HVAC Systems: Implementation and Testing at the University of California, Merced

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haves, Phillip; Hencey, Brandon; Borrell, Francesco; Elliot, John; Ma, Yudong; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Wetter, Michael

    2010-06-29

    A Model Predictive Control algorithm was developed for the UC Merced campus chilled water plant. Model predictive control (MPC) is an advanced control technology that has proven successful in the chemical process industry and other industries. The main goal of the research was to demonstrate the practical and commercial viability of MPC for optimization of building energy systems. The control algorithms were developed and implemented in MATLAB, allowing for rapid development, performance, and robustness assessment. The UC Merced chilled water plant includes three water-cooled chillers and a two million gallon chilled water storage tank. The tank is charged during the night to minimize on-peak electricity consumption and take advantage of the lower ambient wet bulb temperature. The control algorithms determined the optimal chilled water plant operation including chilled water supply (CHWS) temperature set-point, condenser water supply (CWS) temperature set-point and the charging start and stop times to minimize a cost function that includes energy consumption and peak electrical demand over a 3-day prediction horizon. A detailed model of the chilled water plant and simplified models of the buildings served by the plant were developed using the equation-based modeling language Modelica. Steady state models of the chillers, cooling towers and pumps were developed, based on manufacturers performance data, and calibrated using measured data collected and archived by the control system. A detailed dynamic model of the chilled water storage tank was also developed and calibrated. Simple, semi-empirical models were developed to predict the temperature and flow rate of the chilled water returning to the plant from the buildings. These models were then combined and simplified for use in a model predictive control algorithm that determines the optimal chiller start and stop times and set-points for the condenser water temperature and the chilled water supply temperature. The report describes the development and testing of the algorithm and evaluates the resulting performance, concluding with a discussion of next steps in further research. The experimental results show a small improvement in COP over the baseline policy but it is difficult to draw any strong conclusions about the energy savings potential for MPC with this system only four days of suitable experimental data were obtained once correct operation of the MPC system had been achieved. These data show an improvement in COP of 3.1% {+-} 2.2% relative to a baseline established immediately prior to the period when the MPC was run in its final form. This baseline includes control policy improvements that the plant operators learned by observing the earlier implementations of MPC, including increasing the temperature of the water supplied to the chiller condensers from the cooling towers. The process of data collection and model development, necessary for any MPC project, resulted in the team uncovering various problems with the chilled water system. Although it is difficult to quantify the energy savings resulting from these problems being remedied, they were likely on the same order as the energy savings from the MPC itself. Although the types of problems uncovered and the level of energy savings may differ significantly from other projects, some of the benefits of detecting and diagnosing problems are expected from the use of MPC for any chilled water plant. The degree of chiller loading was found to be a key factor for efficiency. It is more efficient to operate the chillers at or near full load. In order to maximize the chiller load, one would maximize the temperature difference across chillers and the chilled water flow rate through the chillers. Thus, the CHWS set-point and the chilled water flow-rate can be used to limit the chiller loading to prevent chiller surging. Since the flow rate has an upper bound and the CHWS set point has a lower bound, the chiller loading is constrained and often determined by the chilled water return temperature (CHWR). The CHWR temperature

  3. Wireless Infrastructure for Performing Monitoring, Diagnostics, and Control HVAC and Other Energy-Using Systems in Small Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick O'Neill

    2009-06-30

    This project focused on developing a low-cost wireless infrastructure for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling building systems and equipment. End users receive information via the Internet and need only a web browser and Internet connection. The system used wireless communications for: (1) collecting data centrally on site from many wireless sensors installed on building equipment, (2) transmitting control signals to actuators and (3) transmitting data to an offsite network operations center where it is processed and made available to clients on the Web (see Figure 1). Although this wireless infrastructure can be applied to any building system, it was tested on two representative applications: (1) monitoring and diagnostics for packaged rooftop HVAC units used widely on small commercial buildings and (2) continuous diagnosis and control of scheduling errors such as lights and equipment left on during unoccupied hours. This project developed a generic infrastructure for performance monitoring, diagnostics, and control, applicable to a broad range of building systems and equipment, but targeted specifically to small to medium commercial buildings (an underserved market segment). The proposed solution is based on two wireless technologies. The first, wireless telemetry, is used for cell phones and paging and is reliable and widely available. This risk proved to be easily managed during the project. The second technology is on-site wireless communication for acquiring data from sensors and transmitting control signals. The technology must enable communication with many nodes, overcome physical obstructions, operate in environments with other electrical equipment, support operation with on-board power (instead of line power) for some applications, operate at low transmission power in license-free radio bands, and be low cost. We proposed wireless mesh networking to meet these needs. This technology is relatively new and has been applied only in research and tests. This proved to be a major challenge for the project and was ultimately abandoned in favor of a directly wired solution for collecting sensor data at the building. The primary reason for this was the relatively short ranges at which we were able to effectively place the sensor nodes from the central receiving unit. Several different mesh technologies were attempted with similar results. Two hardware devices were created during the original performance period of the project. The first device, the WEB-MC, is a master control unit that has two radios, a CPU, memory, and serves as the central communications device for the WEB-MC System (Currently called the 'BEST Wireless HVAC Maintenance System' as a tentative commercial product name). The WEB-MC communicates with the local mesh network system via one of its antennas. Communication with the mesh network enables the WEB-MC to configure the network, send/receive data from individual motes, and serves as the primary mechanism for collecting sensor data at remote locations. The second antenna enables the WEB-MC to connect to a cellular network ('Long-Haul Communications') to transfer data to and from the NorthWrite Network Operations Center (NOC). A third 'all-in-one' hardware solution was created after the project was extended (Phase 2) and additional resources were provided. The project team leveraged a project funded by the State of Washington to develop a hardware solution that integrated the functionality of the original two devices. The primary reason for this approach was to eliminate the mesh network technical difficulties that severely limited the functionality of the original hardware approach. There were five separate software developments required to deliver the functionality needed for this project. These include the Data Server (or Network Operations Center), Web Application, Diagnostic Software, WEB-MC Embedded Software, Mote Embedded Software. Each of these developments was necessarily dependent on the others. This resulted in a challenging management task - requiring high bandwidth communications among all the team members. Fortunately, the project team performed exceptionally well together and was able to work through the various challenges that this presented - for example, when one software tool required a detailed description of the output of a second tool, before that tool had been fully designed.

  4. Chapter 4, Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4: Small Commercial and Residential Unitary and Split System HVAC Cooling Equipment-Efficiency Upgrade Evaluation Protocol David Jacobson, Jacobson Energy Research Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 4 - 1 Chapter 4 - Table of Contents 1 Measure Description .............................................................................................................. 2 2 Application

  5. The Impact of Uncertain Physical Parameters on HVAC Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Yannan; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-03-01

    HVAC units are currently one of the major resources providing demand response (DR) in residential buildings. Models of HVAC with DR function can improve understanding of its impact on power system operations and facilitate the deployment of DR technologies. This paper investigates the importance of various physical parameters and their distributions to the HVAC response to DR signals, which is a key step to the construction of HVAC models for a population of units with insufficient data. These parameters include the size of floors, insulation efficiency, the amount of solid mass in the house, and efficiency of the HVAC units. These parameters are usually assumed to follow Gaussian or Uniform distributions. We study the effect of uncertainty in the chosen parameter distributions on the aggregate HVAC response to DR signals, during transient phase and in steady state. We use a quasi-Monte Carlo sampling method with linear regression and Prony analysis to evaluate sensitivity of DR output to the uncertainty in the distribution parameters. The significance ranking on the uncertainty sources is given for future guidance in the modeling of HVAC demand response.

  6. EECBG Success Story: HVAC Upgrade Saving Money, Protecting History

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With financial support from a $250,000 PA Conservation Works! grant – funded through the federal Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant program and the Recovery Act – CCHS purchased a new Desert-Aire HVAC system. Learn more.

  7. Control strategy optimization of HVAC plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Facci, Andrea Luigi; Zanfardino, Antonella; Martini, Fabrizio; Pirozzi, Salvatore; Ubertini, Stefano

    2015-03-10

    In this paper we present a methodology to optimize the operating conditions of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) plants to achieve a higher energy efficiency in use. Semi-empiric numerical models of the plant components are used to predict their performances as a function of their set-point and the environmental and occupied space conditions. The optimization is performed through a graph-based algorithm that finds the set-points of the system components that minimize energy consumption and/or energy costs, while matching the user energy demands. The resulting model can be used with systems of almost any complexity, featuring both HVAC components and energy systems, and is sufficiently fast to make it applicable to real-time setting.

  8. ORNL: HVAC Lab Research - 2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ORNL: HVAC Lab Research - 2015 Peer Review ORNL: HVAC Lab Research - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Jeffrey Munk, ORNL View the Presentation PDF icon ORNL: HVAC Lab Research - 2015 ...

  9. Study of lubricant circulation in HVAC systems. Volume 1: Description of technical effort and results; Final technical report, March 1995--April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biancardi, F.R.; Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.; Pandy, D.R.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this program was to conduct experimental and analytical efforts to determine lubricant circulation characteristics of new HFC/POE pairs and HFC/mineral oil pairs in a representative central residential HVAC system and to compare their behavior with the traditional HCFC-22/mineral oil (refrigerant/lubricant) pair. A dynamic test facility was designed and built to conduct the experimental efforts. This facility provided a unique capability to visually and physically measure oil circulation rates, on-line, in operating systems. A unique on-line ultraviolet-based measurement device was used to obtain detailed data on the rate and level of lubricant oil circulated within the operating heat pump system. The experimental and analytical data developed during the program are presented as a function of vapor velocity, refrigerant/lubricant viscosity, system features and equipment. Both visual observations and instrumentation were used to understand ``worst case`` oil circulation situations. This report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 contains a complete description of the program scope, objective, test results summary, conclusions, description of test facility and recommendations for future effort. Volume 2 contains all of the program test data essentially as taken from the laboratory dynamic test facility during the sequence of runs.

  10. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  11. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: HVAC Design Strategy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for a Hot-Humid Production Builder | Department of Energy HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder In this project, BSC worked with the builder to develop a cost-effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space and increase the energy performance of future production houses in anticipation of 2015 IECC codes. PDF icon HVAC Design Strategy for a

  12. Pedernales Electric Cooperative- HVAC Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Pedernales Electric Cooperative offers equipment rebates to its members who install energy efficient HVAC equipment. Eligible equipment includes:

  13. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Applications | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace047_maranville_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric HVAC for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling, zonal design, and thermoelectric devices

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This 2014 Top Innovation profile describes Building America-funded research by teams and national laboratories that resulted in the development of an ASHRAE standard and a standardized testing method for testing the air leakage of HVAC air handlers and furnace cabinets and has spurred equipment manufacturers to tighten the cabinets they use for residential HVAC systems.

  15. Scaling and Optimization of Magnetic Refrigeration for Commercial Building HVAC Systems Greater than 175 kW in Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; West, David L; Mallow, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVACR) account for approximately one- third of building energy consumption. Magnetic refrigeration presents an opportunity for significant energy savings and emissions reduction for serving the building heating, cooling, and refrigeration loads. In this paper, we have examined the magnet and MCE material requirements for scaling magnetic refrigeration systems for commercial building cooling applications. Scaling relationships governing the resources required for magnetic refrigeration systems have been developed. As system refrigeration capacity increases, the use of superconducting magnet systems becomes more applicable, and a comparison is presented of system requirements for permanent and superconducting (SC) magnetization systems. Included in this analysis is an investigation of the ability of superconducting magnet based systems to overcome the parasitic power penalty of the cryocooler used to keep SC windings at cryogenic temperatures. Scaling relationships were used to develop the initial specification for a SC magnet-based active magnetic regeneration (AMR) system. An optimized superconducting magnet was designed to support this system. In this analysis, we show that the SC magnet system consisting of two 0.38 m3 regenerators is capable of producing 285 kW of cooling power with a T of 28 K. A system COP of 4.02 including cryocooler and fan losses which illustrates that an SC magnet-based system can operate with efficiency comparable to traditional systems and deliver large cooling powers of 285.4 kW (81.2 Tons).

  16. A New Model to Simulate Energy Performance of VRF Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Pang, Xiufeng; Schetrit, Oren; Wang, Liping; Kasahara, Shinichi; Yura, Yoshinori; Hinokuma, Ryohei

    2014-03-30

    This paper presents a new model to simulate energy performance of variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems in heat pump operation mode (either cooling or heating is provided but not simultaneously). The main improvement of the new model is the introduction of the evaporating and condensing temperature in the indoor and outdoor unit capacity modifier functions. The independent variables in the capacity modifier functions of the existing VRF model in EnergyPlus are mainly room wet-bulb temperature and outdoor dry-bulb temperature in cooling mode and room dry-bulb temperature and outdoor wet-bulb temperature in heating mode. The new approach allows compliance with different specifications of each indoor unit so that the modeling accuracy is improved. The new VRF model was implemented in a custom version of EnergyPlus 7.2. This paper first describes the algorithm for the new VRF model, which is then used to simulate the energy performance of a VRF system in a Prototype House in California that complies with the requirements of Title 24 ? the California Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The VRF system performance is then compared with three other types of HVAC systems: the Title 24-2005 Baseline system, the traditional High Efficiency system, and the EnergyStar Heat Pump system in three typical California climates: Sunnyvale, Pasadena and Fresno. Calculated energy savings from the VRF systems are significant. The HVAC site energy savings range from 51 to 85percent, while the TDV (Time Dependent Valuation) energy savings range from 31 to 66percent compared to the Title 24 Baseline Systems across the three climates. The largest energy savings are in Fresno climate followed by Sunnyvale and Pasadena. The paper discusses various characteristics of the VRF systems contributing to the energy savings. It should be noted that these savings are calculated using the Title 24 prototype House D under standard operating conditions. Actual performance of the VRF systems for real houses under real operating conditions will vary.

  17. A Runtime Verification Framework for Control System Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciraci, Selim; Fuller, Jason C.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Callahan, Charles D.

    2014-08-02

    n a standard workflow for the validation of a control system, the control system is implemented as an extension to a simulator. Such simulators are complex software systems, and engineers may unknowingly violate constraints a simulator places on extensions. As such, errors may be introduced in the implementation of either the control system or the simulator leading to invalid simulation results. This paper presents a novel runtime verification approach for verifying control system implementations within simulators. The major contribution of the approach is the two-tier specification process. In the first tier, engineers model constraints using a domain-specific language tailored to modeling a controller’s response to changes in its input. The language is high-level and effectively hides the implementation details of the simulator, allowing engineers to specify design-level constraints independent of low-level simulator interfaces. In the second tier, simulator developers provide mapping rules for mapping design-level constraints to the implementation of the simulator. Using the rules, an automated tool transforms the design-level specifications into simulator-specific runtime verification specifications and generates monitoring code which is injected into the implementation of the simulator. During simulation, these monitors observe the input and output variables of the control system and report changes to the verifier. The verifier checks whether these changes follow the constraints of the control system. We describe application of this approach to the verification of the constraints of an HVAC control system implemented with the power grid simulator GridLAB-D.

  18. System-of-Systems Approach for Integrated Energy Systems Modeling and Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Saurabh; Ruth, Mark; Pratt, Annabelle; Lunacek, Monte; Krishnamurthy, Dheepak; Jones, Wesley

    2015-08-21

    Today’s electricity grid is the most complex system ever built—and the future grid is likely to be even more complex because it will incorporate distributed energy resources (DERs) such as wind, solar, and various other sources of generation and energy storage. The complexity is further augmented by the possible evolution to new retail market structures that provide incentives to owners of DERs to support the grid. To understand and test new retail market structures and technologies such as DERs, demand-response equipment, and energy management systems while providing reliable electricity to all customers, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed at NREL. The IESM is composed of a power flow simulator (GridLAB-D), home energy management systems implemented using GAMS/Pyomo, a market layer, and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (testing appliances such as HVAC, dishwasher, etc.). The IESM is a system-of-systems (SoS) simulator wherein the constituent systems are brought together in a virtual testbed. We will describe an SoS approach for developing a distributed simulation environment. We will elaborate on the methodology and the control mechanisms used in the co-simulation illustrated by a case study.

  19. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Contractor Business Model | Department of Energy HVAC Contractor Business Model Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model. PDF icon HVAC Contractor Business Model More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Conclusion Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models

  20. Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing Arlan Burdick IBACOS, Inc. February 2012 This report received minimal editorial review at NREL NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information,

  1. Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the ...

  2. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--HVAC Conservation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey Those commercial buildings that used HVAC conservation features...

  3. Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major ...

  4. Columbia Water & Light- Residential HVAC Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) provides residential customers with rebates on energy efficient HVAC equipment. Customers should submit the mechanical permit from a Protective Inspection, a copy...

  5. HVAC Equipment Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: As of January 1, 2016, rebates for unitary air conditioning and split systems and integrated dual enthalpy economizer controls are no longer available.

  6. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Subprogram Overview - 2016...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliance Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance ... Office's Emerging Technologies: HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance subprogram. ...

  7. Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201) Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201) Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call...

  8. 2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and ...

  9. HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method - Building America Top Innovation While HVAC installers have improved their ...

  10. Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations. ... HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy ...

  11. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Antonio M. Bouza, U.S. Department ...

  12. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy View the Presentation PDF icon HVAC, Water Heating, and ...

  13. HVAC component data modeling using industry foundation classes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir; Forester, James; Haves, Philip; Sucic, Darko; Xu, Peng

    2002-07-01

    The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) object data model of buildings is being developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI). The aim is to support data sharing and exchange in the building and construction industry across the life-cycle of a building. This paper describes a number of aspects of a major extension of the HVAC part of the IFC data model. First is the introduction of a more generic approach for handling HVAC components. This includes type information, which corresponds to catalog data, occurrence information, which defines item-specific attributes such as location and connectivity, and performance history information, which documents the actual performance of the component instance over time. Other IFC model enhancements include an extension of the connectivity model used to specify how components forming a system can be traversed and the introduction of time-based data streams. This paper includes examples of models of particular types of HVAC components, such as boilers and actuators, with all attributes included in the definitions. The paper concludes by describing the on-going process of model testing, implementation and integration into the complete IFC model and how the model can be used by software developers to support interoperability between HVAC-oriented design and analysis tools.

  14. BTO Workshop on Advanced HVAC Research Effort

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) is exploring the launch of a major HVAC research effort in the area of low global warming potential and non-vapor compression technologies. To support this...

  15. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    market entry & acceptance of technologies & products Competitive & shared R&D funding focused on tech. performance by researchers in lab / field facilities Technology pathway & research reports Improve performance & cost of heat pump & water heating technologies Researchers equipped with validated solutions to develop or improve components & optimize tech. systems at reduced cost High-efficiency HVAC, water heating & appliance technologies & products are

  16. HVAC, Water Heating and Appliances Sub-Program Logic Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    market entry & acceptance of technologies & products Competitive & shared R&D funding focused on tech. performance by researchers in lab / field facilities Technology pathway & research reports Improve performance & cost of heat pump & water heating technologies Researchers equipped with validated solutions to develop or improve components & optimize tech. systems at reduced cost High-efficiency HVAC, water heating & appliance technologies & products are

  17. Non-Vapor Compression HVAC Technologies Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. The Building Technologies Office is evaluating low-global warming potential (GWP) alternatives to vapor-compression technologies.

  18. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  19. Transportation Anslysis Simulation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-08-23

    TRANSIMS version 3.1 is an integrated set of analytical and simulation models and supporting databases. The system is designed to create a virtual metropolitan region with representation of each of the region’s individuals, their activities and the transportation infrastructure they use. TRANSIMS puts into practice a new, disaggregate approach to travel demand modeling using agent-based micro-simulation technology. TRANSIMS methodology creates a virtual metropolitan region with representation of the transportation infrastructure and the population, at themore » level of households and individual travelers. Trips a planned to satisfy the population’s activity pattems at the individual traveler level. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of travelers and vehicles across the transportation network using multiple modes, including car, transit, bike and walk, on a second-by-second basis. Metropolitan planners must plan growth of their cities according to the stringent transportation system planning requirements of the Interniodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and other similar laws and regulations. These require each state and its metropotitan regions to work together to develop short and long term transportation improvement plans. The plans must (1) estimate the future transportation needs for travelers and goods movements, (2) evaluate ways to manage and reduce congestion, (3) examine the effectiveness of building new roads and transit systems, and (4) limit the environmental impact of the various strategies. The needed consistent and accurate transportation improvement plans require an analytical capability that properly accounts for travel demand, human behavior, traffic and transit operations, major investments, and environmental effects. Other existing planning tools use aggregated information and representative behavior to predict average response and average use of transportation facilities. They do not account for individual traveler response to the dynamic transportation environment. In contrast, TRANSIMS provides disaggregated information that more explicitly represents the complex nature of humans interacting with the transportation system. It first generates a synthetic population that represents individuals and their households in the metropolitan region in a statistically valid way. The demographic makeup and spatial distribution of this synthetic population is derived from census data so that it matches that of the region’s real population. From survey data, a model is built of household and individual activities that may occur at home, in the workplace, school or shopping centers, for example. Trip plans including departure times, travel modes, and specific routes are created for each individual to get to his or her daily activities. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of millions of individuals, following their trip plans throughout the transportation network, including their use of vehicles such as cars or buses, on a second-by-second basis. The virtual travel in TRANSIMS mimics the traveling and driving behavior of real people in the metropolitan region. The interactions of individual vehicles produce realistic traffic dynamics from which analysts can judge to performance of the transportation sysime and estimate vehicle emissions. Los Alamos, in cooperation with the Department of Transportation, Federal HIghway Administration and the local Metropolitan Planning Offices, has done TRANSIMS micro-simulations of auto traffic patterns in these two urban areas and completed associated scenario-based studies.« less

  20. Simulating neural systems with Xyce.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Warrender, Christina E.; Aimone, James Bradley; Teeter, Corinne; Duda, Alex M.

    2012-12-01

    Sandia's parallel circuit simulator, Xyce, can address large scale neuron simulations in a new way extending the range within which one can perform high-fidelity, multi-compartment neuron simulations. This report documents the implementation of neuron devices in Xyce, their use in simulation and analysis of neuron systems.

  1. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Conclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Conclusion, Summary of HVAC Contractor Insights.

  2. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emerging Technologies » HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances About the Portfolio The HVAC/Water Heating/Appliance subprogram develops cost effective, energy efficient technologies with national labs and industry partners. Technical analysis has shown that heat pumps have the technical potential to save up to 50% of the energy used by conventional HVAC technologies in residential buildings. Our focus is on the introduction of new heat pumping technologies, heat

  3. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy View the Presentation PDF icon HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliances Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review More Documents & Publications HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review Research & Development Roadmap:

  4. Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging HVAC Technologies | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy HVAC Technologies Research & Development Roadmap: Emerging HVAC Technologies The Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap for Emerging Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Technologies provides recommendations to the Building Technologies Office (BTO) on R&D activities to pursue that will aid in achieving BTO's energy savings goals. For HVAC, BTO targets 12% and 24% primary energy savings by 2020 and 2030, respectively. The recommended initiatives in the report

  5. Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Home Upgrades: Leveraging HVAC Upgrades for Greater Impact (201), November 18, 2015.

  6. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Non-Vapor-Compression HVAC Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-03-01

    While vapor-compression technologies have served heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) needs very effectively, and have been the dominant HVAC technology for close to 100 years, the conventional refrigerants used in vapor-compression equipment contribute to global climate change when released to the atmosphere. This Building Technologies Office report: --Identifies alternatives to vapor-compression technology in residential and commercial HVAC applications --Characterizes these technologies based on their technical energy savings potential, development status, non-energy benefits, and other factors affecting end-user acceptance and their ability to compete with conventional vapor-compression systems --Makes specific research, development, and deployment (RD&D) recommendations to support further development of these technologies, should DOE choose to support non-vapor-compression technology further.

  7. Energy Renovations: Volume 14: HVAC - A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilbride, Theresa L.; Baechler, Michael C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Hand, James R.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-08-29

    This report was prepared by PNNL for DOE's Building America program and is intended as a guide that energy performance contractors can share with homeowners to describe various energy-efficient options for heating, cooling, and ventilating existing homes. The report provides descriptions of many common and not-so-common HVAC systems, including their advantages and disadvantages, efficiency ranges and characteristics of high-performance models, typical costs, and climate considerations. The report also provides decision trees and tables of useful information for homeowners who are making decisions about adding, replacing, or upgrading existing HVAC equipment in their homes. Information regarding home energy performance assessments (audits) and combustion safety issues when replacing HVAC equipment are also provided.

  8. Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Whole House Performance Contractors | Department of Energy Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors Building America Expert Meeting: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the

  9. HVAC upgrade saving money, protecting history | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads This webinar, presented by IBACOS (a Building America Research Team) will highlight the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations, following the guidelines of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J version 8 PDF icon webinar_hvac_calculatingloads_20110428.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014-08-28 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for

  10. Pre-Commercial Demonstration of Cost-Effective Advanced HVAC Controls- 2014 BTO Peer Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presenter: Hayden Reeve, United Technologies Research Center Optimal control coordination of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment can reduce energy by more than 20% over current building automation systems (BASs) but is not widely deployed due to challenges with complexity, scalability, and deployment.

  11. Inverted Attic Bulkhead for HVAC Ductwork, Roseville, California...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Inverted Attic Bulkhead for HVAC Ductwork Roseville, California PROJECT INFORMATION ... bathrooms constructed in Roseville, California, for one year as an occupied test home. ...

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2014 Profile: HVAC Cabinet Air...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC Cabinet Air Leakage Test Method (top left) Building America teams evaluated several testing methods to identify a robust, repeatable test to recommend for air leakage ...

  13. Research & Development Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report identifies and characterizes R&D opportunities with HVAC&R joining technologies for the Building Technologies Office (BTO) to pursue.

  14. Columbia Water & Light- HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and industrial customers for the purchase of high efficiency HVAC installations and efficient lighting. Incentives for certain...

  15. CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Russell Taylor, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation PDF icon ...

  16. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  17. R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on Joining Technologies in HVAC&R R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on ...

  18. Workshop 1: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort Workshop 1: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort The Building Technologies Office (BTO) is exploring the launch of a major HVAC&R research effort in ...

  19. Indirect Benefits (Increased Roof Life and HVAC Savings) from a Solar PV System at the San José Convention Center

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of San José is considering the installation of a solar photovoltaic (PV) system on the roof of the San José Convention Center. The installation would be on a lower section of the roof covering approximately 21,000 ft2. To assist city staff in making a decision on the PV installation, the Department of Energy Tiger Team has investigated potential indirect benefits of installing a solar PV system on the Convention Center roof. The indirect benefits include potential increase in roof life, as well as potential reduced heating and cooling load in the building due to roof shading from the PV system.

  20. HVAC Equipment Design Options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes (NZEH) -A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2005-11-01

    Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Conventional unitary equipment and system designs have matured to a point where cost-effective, dramatic efficiency improvements that meet near-zero-energy housing (NZEH) goals require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. This report describes results of a scoping assessment of HVAC system options for NZEH homes. ORNL has completed a preliminary adaptation, for consideration by The U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office, Building Technologies (BT) Program, of Cooper's (2001) stage and gate planning process to the HVAC and Water Heating element of BT's multi-year plan, as illustrated in Figure 1. In order to adapt to R&D the Cooper process, which is focused on product development, and to keep the technology development process consistent with an appropriate role for the federal government, the number and content of the stages and gates needed to be modified. The potential federal role in technology development involves 6 stages and 7 gates, but depending on the nature and status of the concept, some or all of the responsibilities can flow to the private sector for product development beginning as early as Gate 3. In the proposed new technology development stage and gate sequence, the Stage 2 'Scoping Assessment' provides the deliverable leading into the Gate 3 'Scoping Assessment Screen'. This report is an example of a Stage 2 deliverable written to document the screening of options against the Gate 3 criteria and to support DOE decision making and option prioritization. The objective of this scoping assessment was to perform a transparent evaluation of the HVAC system options for NZEH based on the applying the Gate 3 criteria uniformly to all options.

  1. Recovery act. Development of design and simulation tool for hybrid geothermal heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shaojie; Ellis, Dan

    2014-05-29

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is one of the most energy efficient HVAC technologies in the current market. However, the heat imbalance may degrade the ability of the ground loop heat exchanger (GLHX) to absorb or reject heat. The hybrid GSHP system, which combines a geothermal well field with a supplemental boiler or cooling tower, can balance the loads imposed on the ground loop heat exchangers to minimize its size while retaining superior energy efficiency. This paper presents a recent simulation-based study with an intention to compare multiple common control strategies used in hybrid GSHP systems, including fixed setpoint, outside air reset, load reset, and wetbulb reset. A small office in Oklahoma City conditioned by a hybrid GSHP system was simulated with the latest version of eQUEST 3.7[1]. The simulation results reveal that the hybrid GSHP system has the excellent capability to meet the cooling and heating setpoints during the occupied hours, balance thermal loads on the ground loop, as well as improve the thermal comfort of the occupants with the undersized well field.

  2. Designing Forced-Air HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-08-31

    This guide explains proper calculation of heating and cooling design loads for homes.used to calculated for the home using the protocols set forth in the latest edition of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s (ACCA) Manual J (currently the 8th edition), ASHRAE 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, or an equivalent computation procedure.

  3. Advanced HVAC Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Right: CFD model of cubicle. Left: Radiant cubicle at Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) Jaipur. Right: CFD model of cubicle. Left: Environmental chamber to evaluate ...

  4. CBERD: Advanced HVAC Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute - Troy, NY -- Centre for ... The U.S.-India Joint Center for Building Energy Research and ... Related Publications PDF icon 2014 BTO Peer Review ...

  5. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Introduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Business Models Guide: HVAC Contractor Business Model Introduction.

  6. Co-Simulation of Detailed Whole Building with the Power System to Study Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Fuller, Jason C.; Srivastava, Viraj; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2014-12-24

    Modernization of the power system in a way that ensures a sustainable energy system is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of our time. Buildings are important components in the power system. First, they are the main consumers of electricity and secondly, they do not have constant energy demand. Conventionally, electricity has been difficult to store and should be consumed as it is generated. Therefore, maintaining the demand and supply is critical in the power system. However, to reduce the complexity of power models, buildings (i.e., end-use loads) are traditionally modeled and represented as aggregated “dumb” nodes in the power system. This means we lack effective detailed whole building energy models that can support requirements and emerging technologies of the smart power grid. To gain greater insight into the relationship between building energy demand and power system performance, it is important to constitute a co-simulation framework to support detailed building energy modeling and simulation within the power system to study capabilities promised by the modern power grid. This paper discusses ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and presents underlying tools and framework needed to enable co-simulation of building, building energy systems and their control in the power system to study applications such as demand response, grid-based HVAC control, and deployment of buildings for ancillary services. The optimal goal is to develop an integrated modeling and simulation platform that is flexible, reusable, and scalable. Results of this work will contribute to future building and power system studies, especially those related to the integrated ‘smart grid’. Results are also expected to advance power resiliency and local (micro) scale grid studies where several building and renewable energy systems transact energy directly. This paper also reviews some applications that can be supported and studied using the framework introduced to understand their implications before they can be successfully implemented in the power system.

  7. Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating Loads During this webinar, Building America Research Team IBACOS highlighted the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations. Current industry rules of thumb, perceptions and barriers to right-sizing HVAC were also discussed. File webinar_hvac_calculatingloads_20110428.wmv More Documents & Publications HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1:

  8. Simulation and sequential dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.

    1999-06-01

    Computer simulations have a generic structure. Motivated by this the authors present a new class of discrete dynamical systems that captures this structure in a mathematically precise way. This class of systems consists of (1) a loopfree graph {Upsilon} with vertex set {l_brace}1,2,{hor_ellipsis},n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (2) a vertex labeled set of functions (F{sub i,{Upsilon}}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {yields} F{sub 2}{sup n}){sub i} and (3) a permutation {pi} {element_of} S{sub n}. The function F{sub i,{Upsilon}} updates the state of vertex i as a function of the states of vertex i and its {Upsilon}-neighbors and leaves the states of all other vertices fixed. The permutation {pi} represents the update ordering, i.e., the order in which the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} are applied. By composing the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} in the order given by {pi} one obtains the dynamical system (equation given in paper), which the authors refer to as a sequential dynamical system, or SDS for short. The authors will present bounds for the number of functionally different systems and for the number of nonisomorphic digraphs {Gamma}[F{sub {Upsilon}},{pi}] that can be obtained by varying the update order and applications of these to specific graphs and graph classes.

  9. Two Alabama Elementary Schools Get Cool with New HVAC Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Addison Elementary School and Double Springs Elementary School in northwestern Alabama were warm. Some classrooms just didn’t cool fast enough. The buildings, which were built almost 20 years ago, were in need of new HVAC units.

  10. Strategy Guideline: Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  11. Strategy Guideline. Transitioning HVAC Companies to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the findings from research IBACOS conducted related to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) companies who have made the decision to transition to whole house performance contracting (WHPC).

  12. BTO Workshop on Advanced HVAC Research Effort | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office (BTO) is exploring the launch of a major HVAC research effort in the area of low global warming potential and non-vapor compression technologies. To support this endeavor,...

  13. ETs HVAC, WH and Appliance R&D

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... CRADAs can act as a catalyst in the process. HVAC, Water Heating and Appliance R&D 7 Integrated Heat Pump (IHP) Technologies Integrated Approach * Energy cascading is the process ...

  14. ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building low-load homes creates a new set of challenges for HVAC designers and installers. Right-sizing equipment, managing ventilation, and controlling interior moisture levels are critical if you...

  15. Chapter 5: Lighting, HVAC, and Plumbing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Lighting, HVAC, and Plumbing Chapter 5: Lighting, HVAC, and Plumbing Chapter 5 of the LANL Sustainable Design Guide with guidelines for developing sustainable, healthy, energy-efficient buildings on the Los Alamos National Laboratory campus. PDF icon sustainable_guide_ch5.pdf More Documents & Publications IES version 2012 IES <Virtual Environment> version 6.3 IES version 2013

  16. HVAC R&D | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    R&D HVAC R&D Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) - Oak Ridge, TN FY16 DOE Funding: $2,688,000 Project Term: Ongoing Funding Type: Direct Lab Funding PROJECT OBJECTIVE Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the largest energy end use in both residential and commercial buildings, at 38% and 31% respectively. ORNL's research and development efforts aim to create next-generation, cost-effective, energy-efficient technologies that will enable energy savings

  17. Building America Best Practices Series Vol. 14: Energy Renovations - HVAC:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners | Department of Energy Vol. 14: Energy Renovations - HVAC: A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners Building America Best Practices Series Vol. 14: Energy Renovations - HVAC: A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners This guide, which is part of a series of Best Practices guides produced by DOE's Building America program, describes ways homeowners can reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort, health, and safety of their

  18. Building America Envelope and Advanced HVAC Research | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Envelope and Advanced HVAC Research Building America Envelope and Advanced HVAC Research Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) - Oak Ridge, TN Project Term: FY 2016 - FY 2018 Funding Type: Direct Lab Funding PROJECT OBJECTIVE ORNL's work in roof and attic research will address the industry need for clear guidance on unvented attics. The wall assemblies research involves a comprehensive evaluation of high-R assemblies. This research supports the Lab and Field Moisture Risk

  19. HVAC Performance Maps - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Performance Maps - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC Performance Maps - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Dane Christensen, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Through laboratory evaluation, this project will develop detailed data sets, termed "performance maps," of certain types of heat pumps. In fiscal year 2014, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will develop performance maps of residential variable speed heat pumps. The U.S. Department of Energy's Building America program

  20. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Publications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Publications HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Publications October 15, 2015 Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners This publication is a final report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants project. October 9, 2015 Pump and Fan Technology Characterization and

  1. Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED and HVAC Units |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED and HVAC Units Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED and HVAC Units PDF icon eere_nationwide_public_interest_waiver More Documents & Publications Nationwide Nonavailability Waiver: February 11, 2010 (Please note, the waiver for LED traffic signals has been withdrawn effective December 1, 2010) Nationwide Nonavailability Waiver: November 5, 2010 Amended Nationwide Nonavailability Waiver: November 5, 2010

  2. Energy Department Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water Heating,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Appliances, and Low-GWP Refrigerants | Department of Energy Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water Heating, Appliances, and Low-GWP Refrigerants Energy Department Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water Heating, Appliances, and Low-GWP Refrigerants December 18, 2014 - 4:50pm Addthis The Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants provides recommendations on R&D activities that will help accelerate the transition to low-GWP

  3. R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Joining Technologies in HVAC&R | Department of Energy R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on Joining Technologies in HVAC&R R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R - Workshop on Joining Technologies in HVAC&R Presenter: William Goetzler, Navigant Consulting On June 14, 2015, the U.S. Department of Energy organized a workshop "Joining Technologies in HVAC&R." The purpose of the meeting was for the

  4. ThermoElectric Power System Simulator (TEPSS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It describes the tool ThermoElectric Power System Simulator (TEPSS) which enables feasibility evaluation for thermoelectrics with various heat resources and optimizing design for specific uses.

  5. Packaged HVAC Unit Diagnostician version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-01-09

    The PHD automatically detects and diagnoses faults with respect to four major aspects of packaged heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) unit operation: 1) air handling in which return-air and outdoor-air are mixed, then conditioned to appropriate temperature and humidity conditions, 2) vapor-compression refrigerant loop operation, 3) overall unit efficiency and its potential degradation over time, and 4) operation scheduling. When faults are detected, the software provides alarm codes corresponding to the detected problem(s). Thesemore » alarms map into explanations of the faults, possible causes for them, and suggested actions to remedy the faults. For air handling, the software also estimates energy and cost impacts of faults. The software is intended for implementation on a hardware systems that includes sensors, sensor signal processing, micro-processor unit for running this software, and communication to a web server. Results are made available to users via the world wide web using a computer with Web browser and Internet connection for access. The graphical web-based interface must be provided by an application service provider (not part of this software).« less

  6. Deposition of biological aerosols on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Ian

    2001-09-01

    Many biologically active materials are transported as bioaerosols 1-10 {micro}m in diameter. These particles can deposit on cooling and heating coils and lead to serious indoor air quality problems. This paper investigates several of the mechanisms that lead to aerosol deposition on fin and tube heat exchangers. A model has been developed that incorporates the effects of several deposition mechanisms, including impaction, Brownian and turbulent diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The model is applied to a typical range of air velocities that are found in commercial and residential HVAC systems 1 - 6 m/s (200 - 1200 ft/min), particle diameters from 1 - 8 {micro}m, and fin spacings from 3.2 - 7.9 fins/cm (8 - 16 fins/inch or FPI). The results from the model are compared to results from an experimental apparatus that directly measures deposition on a 4.7 fins/cm (12 FPI) coil. The model agrees reasonably well with this measured data and suggests that cooling coils are an important sink for biological aerosols and consequently a potential source of indoor air quality problems.

  7. Method for simulating discontinuous physical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baty, Roy S.; Vaughn, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical foundations of conventional numerical simulation of physical systems provide no consistent description of the behavior of such systems when subjected to discontinuous physical influences. As a result, the numerical simulation of such problems requires ad hoc encoding of specific experimental results in order to address the behavior of such discontinuous physical systems. In the present invention, these foundations are replaced by a new combination of generalized function theory and nonstandard analysis. The result is a class of new approaches to the numerical simulation of physical systems which allows the accurate and well-behaved simulation of discontinuous and other difficult physical systems, as well as simpler physical systems. Applications of this new class of numerical simulation techniques to process control, robotics, and apparatus design are outlined.

  8. DOE and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort DOE and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort January 15, 2016 - 11:27am Addthis ...

  9. CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Thermal Load Reduction Project: CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  10. Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: HVAC Design...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder Building America Whole-House Solutions for New Homes: HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder In this ...

  11. Critical Question #4: What are the Best Off-the-Shelf HVAC Solutions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High-Performance Homes and Apartments? Critical Question 4: What are the Best Off-the-Shelf HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High-Performance Homes ...

  12. Issue #7: What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7: What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High Performance Homes? Issue 7: What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High Performance Homes? What components and ...

  13. HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This ...

  14. DOE and Stakeholders Ponder Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Stakeholders Ponder Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort DOE and Stakeholders Ponder Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort January 15, 2016 - 11:27am Addthis...

  15. Parallel Implementation of Power System Dynamic Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng; Wu, Di; Chen, Yousu

    2013-07-21

    Dynamic simulation of power system transient stability is important for planning, monitoring, operation, and control of electrical power systems. However, modeling the system dynamics and network involves the computationally intensive time-domain solution of numerous differential and algebraic equations (DAE). This results in a transient stability implementation that may not maintain the real-time constraints of an online security assessment. This paper presents a parallel implementation of the dynamic simulation on a high-performance computing (HPC) platform using parallel simulation algorithms and computation architectures. It enables the simulation to run even faster than real time, enabling the “look-ahead” capability of upcoming stability problems in the power grid.

  16. High Performance HVAC Systems, Part II: Low-Load HVAC Systems for Single and Multifamily Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building America Program hosted this no-cost webinar that will discuss the current research on comfort in residential buildings. Results will be presented from 37 new homes that were monitored...

  17. Issue #3: HVAC Proper Installation Energy Savings: Over-Promising or

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Under-Delivering? | Department of Energy 3: HVAC Proper Installation Energy Savings: Over-Promising or Under-Delivering? Issue #3: HVAC Proper Installation Energy Savings: Over-Promising or Under-Delivering? What energy savings are realistically achievable by following quality installation standards for installation, operation, and maintenance of residential HVAC? PDF icon issue3_airflow_charge.pdf PDF icon issue3_hvac_installed.pdf PDF icon issue3_pdi_hvacsys.pdf More Documents &

  18. DOE Convening Report on Certification of Commercial HVAC and CRE Products |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Convening Report on Certification of Commercial HVAC and CRE Products DOE Convening Report on Certification of Commercial HVAC and CRE Products This document is the convening report on the feasibility of a negotiated rulemaking to revise the certification program for commercial HVAC and CRE products published on October 2, 2012. PDF icon convening_report_hvac_cre_1.pdf More Documents & Publications Lochinvar Preliminary Plan Comments Comment On: DOE-HQ-2011-0014-0001

  19. System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions Comparative simulations of hybrid ...

  20. Transportation System Simulation | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation System Simulation Transportation System Simulation Today's transportation systems are becoming more and more complex, with integration of communication technologies, vehicle automation and innovative mobility solutions. The advent of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) will see no shortage of new technologies aimed at transforming transportation. While some will likely succeed and others fail, to truly understand their potential and their impacts on the larger transportation

  1. Report on HVAC option selections for a relocatable classroom energy and indoor environmental quality field study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, Michael G.; Delp, Woody W.; Diamond, Richard C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Kumar, Satish; Rainer, Leo I.; Shendell, Derek G.; Sullivan, Doug P.; Fisk, William J.

    2001-10-11

    It is commonly assumed that efforts to simultaneously develop energy efficient building technologies and to improve indoor environmental quality (IEQ) are unfeasible. The primary reason for this is that IEQ improvements often require additional ventilation that is costly from an energy standpoint. It is currently thought that health and productivity in work and learning environments requires adequate, if not superior, IEQ. Despite common assumptions, opportunities do exist to design building systems that provide improvements in both energy efficiency and IEQ. This report outlines the selection of a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system to be used in demonstrating such an opportunity in a field study using relocatable school classrooms. Standard classrooms use a common wall mounted heat pump HVAC system. After reviewing alternative systems, a wall-mounting indirect/direct evaporative cooling system with an integral hydronic gas heating is selected. The anticipated advantages of this system include continuous ventilation of 100 percent outside air at or above minimum standards, projected cooling energy reductions of about 70 percent, inexpensive gas heating, improved airborne particle filtration, and reduced peak load electricity use. Potential disadvantages include restricted climate regions and possible increases in indoor relative humidity levels under some conditions.

  2. Communication Simulations for Power System Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-05-29

    New smart grid technologies and concepts, such as dynamic pricing, demand response, dynamic state estimation, and wide area monitoring, protection, and control, are expected to require considerable communication resources. As the cost of retrofit can be high, future power grids will require the integration of high-speed, secure connections with legacy communication systems, while still providing adequate system control and security. While considerable work has been performed to create co-simulators for the power domain with load models and market operations, limited work has been performed in integrating communications directly into a power domain solver. The simulation of communication and power systems will become more important as the two systems become more inter-related. This paper will discuss ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to create a flexible, high-speed power and communication system co-simulator for smart grid applications. The framework for the software will be described, including architecture considerations for modular, high performance computing and large-scale scalability (serialization, load balancing, partitioning, cross-platform support, etc.). The current simulator supports the ns-3 (telecommunications) and GridLAB-D (distribution systems) simulators. Ongoing and future work will be described, including planned future expansions for a traditional transmission solver. A test case using the co-simulator, utilizing a transactive demand response system created for the Olympic Peninsula and AEP gridSMART demonstrations, requiring two-way communication between distributed and centralized market devices, will be used to demonstrate the value and intended purpose of the co-simulation environment.

  3. HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder, Houston, Texas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    BSC worked directly with the David Weekley Homes - Houston division to redesign three floor plans in order to locate the HVAC system in conditioned space. The purpose of this project is to develop a cost effective design for moving the HVAC system into conditioned space. In addition, BSC conducted energy analysis to calculate the most economical strategy for increasing the energy performance of future production houses. This is in preparation for the upcoming code changes in 2015. The builder wishes to develop an upgrade package that will allow for a seamless transition to the new code mandate. The following research questions were addressed by this research project: 1. What is the most cost effective, best performing and most easily replicable method of locating ducts inside conditioned space for a hot-humid production home builder that constructs one and two story single family detached residences? 2. What is a cost effective and practical method of achieving 50% source energy savings vs. the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for a hot-humid production builder? 3. How accurate are the pre-construction whole house cost estimates compared to confirmed post construction actual cost? BSC and the builder developed a duct design strategy that employs a system of dropped ceilings and attic coffers for moving the ductwork from the vented attic to conditioned space. The furnace has been moved to either a mechanical closet in the conditioned living space or a coffered space in the attic.

  4. NREL Delivers In-Home HVAC Efficiency Testing Solutions (Fact Sheet), Building America: Technical Highlight, Building Technologies Program (BTP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Delivers In-Home HVAC Efficiency Testing Solutions Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have recently developed two simple in-home efficiency test methods that can be used by technicians, researchers, or interested homeowners to verify the correct opera- tion and energy efficiency of a home's air conditioning and heating equipment. An efficiency validation method for mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs)-highly efficient refrigerant-based air conditioning and heating systems

  5. Overview of Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vtpn03vssslezak2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing Overview of Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Vehicle Technologies...

  6. Modeling of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate soot reactivity Modeling of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate soot reactivity Discussed ...

  7. Research and Development Roadmap for Emerging HVAC Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development Roadmap for Emerging HVAC Technologies W. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, and J. Young October 2014 Prepared by Navigant Consulting, Inc. (This page intentionally left blank) NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied,

  8. LHC RF System Time-Domain Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.

    2010-09-14

    Non-linear time-domain simulations have been developed for the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These simulations capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction and are structured to reproduce the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They are also a valuable tool for the study of diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Results from these studies and related measurements from PEP-II and LHC have been presented in multiple places. This report presents an example of the time-domain simulation implementation for the LHC.

  9. CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Review | Department of Energy HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Russell Taylor, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review More Documents & Publications CBEI: FDD for Advanced RTUs - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Lessons Learned from

  10. 2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule | Department of Energy 28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding the certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating (WH), and refrigeration (CRE) equipment, as issued by

  11. Application of real time transient temperature (RT{sup 3}) program on nuclear power plant HVAC analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Y.; Tomlins, V.A.; Haskell, N.L.; Giffels, F.W.

    1996-08-01

    A database oriented technical analysis program (RT) utilizing a lumped parameter model combined with a finite difference method was developed to concurrently simulate transient temperatures in single or multiple room(s)/area(s). Analyses can be seen for postulated design basis events, such as, 10CFR50 Appendix-R, Loss of Coolant Accident concurrent with Loss of Offsite Power (LOCA/LOOP), Station BlackOut (SBO), and normal station operating conditions. The rate of change of the air temperatures is calculated by explicitly solving a series of energy balance equations with heat sources and sinks that have been described. For building elements with heat absorbing capacity, an explicit Forward Time Central Space (FTCS) model of one dimensional transient heat conduction in a plane element is used to describe the element temperature profile. Heat migration among the rooms/areas is considered not only by means of conduction but also by means of natural convection induced by temperature differences through openings between rooms/areas. The program also provides a means to evaluate existing plant HVAC system performance. The performance and temperature control of local coolers/heaters can be also simulated. The program was used to calculate transient temperature profiles for several buildings and rooms housing safety-related electrical components in PWR and BWR nuclear power plants. Results for a turbine building and reactor building in a BWR nuclear power plant are provided here. Specific calculational areas were defined on the basis of elevation, physical barriers and components/systems. Transient temperature profiles were then determined for the bounding design basis events with winter and summer outdoor air temperatures.

  12. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Low Load High Efficiency HVAC Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home webinar, Low Load High Efficiency HVAC, presented in May 2014.

  13. ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC and Zero Energy Ready Homes | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    long-term structure durability. In this webinar you will learn key HVAC design techniques and critical pitfalls to avoid when building highly energy efficient homes....

  14. CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab Test and Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review ...

  15. R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Stakeholder Discussion Forum R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R ... Project Summary and Introductions Purpose The DOE aims to: Facilitate R&D on ...

  16. R&D Opportunity Assessment: Joining Technologies in HVAC&R -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC&R More Documents & Publications Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Advanced Rotating Heat Exchangers Working Fluids Low...

  17. ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes (Text Version) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes (Text Version) ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes (Text Version) Below is the text version of the webinar Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy Ready Homes, presented in January 2016. Watch the presentation. Lindsay Parker: Hi, everyone. Welcome to the Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home technical training webinar series. We're very excited that you can join us today for this session on low-load HVAC for Zero

  18. Chapter 5: Lighting, HVAC, and Plumbing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Linear fluorescent lamps are classified by tube diameter, ... Proper light- ing levels lead to less energy-intensive ... and Plumbing A rainwater harvesting system on the Chesapeake ...

  19. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantoglou, Maria; Jonsson, Jacob; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-06-22

    Nowadays, virtual models are commonly used to evaluate the performance of conventional window systems. Complex fenestration systems can be difficult to simulate accurately not only because of their geometry but also because of their optical properties that scatter light in an unpredictable manner. Bi-directional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) have recently been developed based on a mixture of measurements and modelling to characterize the optics of such systems. This paper describes the workflow needed to create then use these BSDF datasets in the Radiance lighting simulation software. Limited comparisons are made between visualizations produced using the standard ray-tracing method, the BSDF method, and that taken in a full-scale outdoor mockup.

  20. Modeling particle deposition on HVAC heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, J.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Fouling of fin-and-tube heat exchangers by particle deposition leads to diminished effectiveness in supplying ventilation and air conditioning. This paper explores mechanisms that cause particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces. We present a model that accounts for impaction, diffusion, gravitational settling, and turbulence. Simulation results suggest that some submicron particles deposit in the heat exchanger core, but do not cause significant performance impacts. Particles between 1 and 10 {micro}m deposit with probabilities ranging from 1-20% with fin edge impaction representing the dominant mechanism. Particles larger than 10 {micro}m deposit by impaction on refrigerant tubes, gravitational settling on fin corrugations, and mechanisms associated with turbulent airflow. The model results agree reasonably well with experimental data, but the deposition of larger particles at high velocities is underpredicted. Geometric factors, such as discontinuities in the fins, are hypothesized to be responsible for the discrepancy.

  1. HSI Prototypes for Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jokstad, HĂ„kon; McDonald, Rob

    2015-09-01

    This report describes in detail the design and features of three Human System Interfact (HSI) prototypes developed by the Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program under Contract 128420 through Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The prototypes are implemented for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor simulator and installed in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL. The three prototypes are: 1) Power Ramp display 2) RCS Heat-up and Cool-down display 3) Estimated time to limit display The power ramp display and the RCS heat-up/cool-down display are designed to provide good visual indications to the operators on how well they are performing their task compared to their target ramp/heat-up/cool-down rate. The estimated time to limit display is designed to help operators restore levels or pressures before automatic or required manual actions are activated.

  2. Joint HVAC transmission EMF environmental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stormshak, F.; Thompson, J. )

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration's Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  3. Fouling of HVAC fin and tube heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Carey, Van P.

    2001-07-01

    Fin and tube heat exchangers are used widely in residential, commercial and industrial HVAC applications. Invariably, indoor and outdoor air contaminants foul these heat exchangers. This fouling can cause decreased capacity and efficiency of the HVAC equipment as well as indoor air quality problems related to microbiological growth. This paper describes laboratory studies to investigate the mechanisms that cause fouling. The laboratory experiments involve subjecting a 4.7 fins/cm (12 fins/inch) fin and tube heat exchanger to an air stream that contains monodisperse particles. Air velocities ranging from 1.5-5.2 m/s (295 ft/min-1024 ft/min) and particle sizes from 1--8.6 {micro}m are used. The measured fraction of particles that deposit as well as information about the location of the deposited material indicate that particles greater than about 1 {micro}m contribute to fouling. These experimental results are used to validate a scaling analysis that describes the relative importance of several deposition mechanisms including impaction, Brownian diffusion, turbophoresis, thermophoresis, diffusiophoresis, and gravitational settling. The analysis is extended to apply to different fin spacings and particle sizes typical of those found in indoor air.

  4. Synergetic Power Systems | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sector: Buildings, Solar Product: Start-up planning to install parabolic concentrated solar collector systems on large flat-roofed buildings to power their HVAC systems, and...

  5. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report FY ...

  6. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2011 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2011 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report FY ...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report FY ...

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report 2010 ...

  9. Tool - Vehicle System Simulation (Autonomie) | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tool - Vehicle System Simulation (Autonomie) Tool - Vehicle System Simulation (Autonomie) Autonomie s a most powerful and robust system simulation tool for vehicle energy consumption and performance analysis. Developed in collaboration with General Motors, Autonomie is a MATLAB©-based software environment and framework for automotive control-system design, simulation, and analysis. Its application covers energy consumption, performance analysis throughout the entire vehicle development process

  10. SimFS: A Large Scale Parallel File System Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-08-30

    The software provides both framework and tools to simulate a large-scale parallel file system such as Lustre.

  11. Hybrid Power System Simulation Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontenthybrid-power-system-simulation-model, Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This...

  12. Epidemilogical Simulation System, Version 2.4

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-30

    EpiSims uses a detailed simulation of disease spread to evaluate demographically and geographically targeted biological threat reduction strategies. Abstract: EpiSims simulates the spread of disease and analyzes the consequences of intervention strategies in a large urban area at the level of individuals. The simulation combines models of three dynamical systems: urban social networks, disease transmission, and within-host progression of a disease. Validated population mobility and activity generation technology provides the social network models, Disease modelsmore » are based on fusion of expert opinion and available data. EpiSims provides a previously unavailable detailed representation of the course of an outbreak in urban area. A letter of August 16, 2002 from the Office of Homeland Security states: "Ability of EpiSims to provide comprehensive data on daily activity patterns of individuals makes it far superior to traditional SIR models — clearly had an impact on pre-attack smallpox vaccination policy." EpiSims leverages a unique Los Alamos National Laboratory resource — the population mobility and activity data developed by TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis and SiMulation System) — to create epidemiological analyses at an unprecedented level of detail. We create models of microscopic (individual-level) physical and biological processes from which, through simulation, emerge the macroscopic (urban regional level) quantities that are the inputs to alternative models. For example, the contact patterns of individuals in different demographic groups determine the overall mixing rates those groups. The characteristics of a person-to-person transmission together with their contact patterns determine the reproductive numbers — how many people will be infected on average by each case. Mixing rates and reproductive numbers are the basic parameters of other epidemiological models. Because interventions — and people’s reactions to them — are ultimately applied at the individual level, EpiSims is uniquely suited to evaluate their macroscopic consequences. For example, the debate over the logistics of targeted vaccination for smallpox, and thus the magnitude of the threat it poses, can best be resolved through an individual- based approach. EpiSims is the only available analytical tool using the individual-based approach that can scale to populations of a million or more without introducing ad-hoc assumptions about the nature of the social network. Impact: The first study commissioned for the EpiSims project was to analyze the effectiveness of targeted vaccination and isolation strategies in the aftermath of a covert release of smallpox at a crowded urban location. In particular we compared casualties and resources required for targeted strategies with those in the case of large-scale quarantine and/or mass vaccination campaigns. We produced this analysis in a sixty-day effort, while prototype software was still under development and delivered it to the Office of Homeland Security in June 2002. More recently, EpiSims provided casualty estimates and cost/benefit analyses for various proposed responses to an attack with pneumonic plague during the TOPOFF-2 exercise. Capabilities: EpiSims is designed to simulate human-human transmissible disease, but it is part of a suite of tools that naturally allow it to estimate individual exposures to air-borne or water-borne spread. Combined with data on animal density and mobility, EpiSims could simulate diseases spread by non-human vectors. EpiSims incorporates reactions of individuals, and is particularly powerful if those reactions are correlated with demographics. It provides a standard for modeling scenarios that cuts across agencies.« less

  13. On sequential dynamical systems and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, C.L.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.

    1999-06-01

    The generic structure of computer simulations motivates a new class of discrete dynamical systems that captures this structure in a mathematically precise way. This class of systems consists of (1) a loopfree graph {Upsilon} with vertex set {l_brace}1,2,{hor_ellipsis},n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (2) a vertex labeled set of functions (F{sub i,{Upsilon}}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {r_arrow} F{sub 2}{sup n}){sub i} and (3) a permutation {pi} {element_of} S{sub n}. The function F{sub i,{Upsilon}} updates the state of vertex i as a function of the states of vertex i and its {Upsilon}-neighbors and leaves the states of all other vertices fixed. The permutation {pi} represents the update ordering, i.e., the order in which the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} are applied. By composing the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} in the order given by {pi} one obtains the dynamical system (equation given in paper) which the authors refer to as a sequential dynamical system, or SDS for short. The authors will present bounds for the number of functionally different systems and for the number of nonisomorphic digraphs {Gamma}[F{sub {Upsilon}},{pi}] that can be obtained by varying the update order and applications of these to specific graphs and graph classes. This will be done using both combinatorial/algebraic techniques and probabilistic techniques. Finally the authors give results on dynamical system properties for some special systems.

  14. Development of a model colloidal system for rheology simulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of a model colloidal system for rheology simulation. Citation Details ... The objective of the experimental effort is to provide a model particle system that will ...

  15. Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation in the Indonesian Archipelago Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to ...

  16. Workshop 2: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort Workshop 2: Advanced HVAC&R Research Effort The Building Technologies Office (BTO) is exploring the launch of a major HVAC&R research effort in the area of low global warming potential and non-vapor compression technologies. To support this endeavor, BTO convened two workshops to exchange ideas on the technical focus and overall structure and approach for the effort. The second workshop was held at the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and

  17. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-10-01

    This report outlines findings resulting from a U.S. Department of Energy Building America expert meeting to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. IBACOS has embarked upon a research effort under the Building America Program to understand business impacts and change management strategies for HVAC companies. HVAC companies can implement these strategies in order to quickly transition from a 'traditional' heating and cooling contractor to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting. Due to HVAC service contracts, which allow repeat interaction with homeowners, HVAC companies are ideally positioned in the marketplace to resolve homeowner comfort issues through whole house energy upgrades. There are essentially two primary ways to define the routes of transition for an HVAC contractor taking on whole house performance contracting: (1) Sub-contracting out the shell repair/upgrade work; and (2) Integrating the shell repair/upgrade work into their existing business. IBACOS held an Expert Meeting on the topic of Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors on March 29, 2011 in San Francisco, CA. The major objectives of the meeting were to: Review and validate the general business models for traditional HVAC companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Review preliminary findings on the differences between the structure of traditional HVAC Companies and whole house energy upgrade companies Seek industry input on how to structure information so it is relevant and useful for traditional HVAC contractors who are transitioning to becoming whole house energy upgrade contractors Seven industry experts identified by IBACOS participated in the session along with one representative from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The objective of the meeting was to validate the general operational profile of an integrated whole house performance contracting company and identify the most significant challenges facing a traditional HVAC contractor looking to transition to a whole house performance contractor. To facilitate the discussion, IBACOS divided the business operations profile of a typical integrated whole house performance contracting company (one that performs both HVAC and shell repair/upgrade work) into seven Operational Areas with more detailed Business Functions and Work Activities falling under each high-level Operational Area. The expert panel was asked to review the operational profile or 'map' of the Business Functions. The specific Work Activities within the Business Functions identified as potential transition barriers were rated by the group relative to the value in IBACOS creating guidance ensuring a successful transition and the relative difficulty in executing.

  18. DOE ZERH Webinar: Low Load High Efficiency HVAC (Text Version) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Low Load High Efficiency HVAC (Text Version) DOE ZERH Webinar: Low Load High Efficiency HVAC (Text Version) Below is the text version of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home webinar, Low Load High Efficiency HVAC, presented in May 2014. Watch the presentation. GoToWebinar voice: The broadcast is now starting. All attendees are in listen-only mode. Lindsay Parker: Hi, everyone. Welcome to the Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home Technical Training Webinar Series. We're really

  19. HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D - 2014 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Tony Bouza, U.S. Department of Energy This presentation at the 2014 Peer Review provided an overview of the Building Technologies Office's HVAC, Water Heater and Appliance R&D activities. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs. View the Presentation PDF icon HVAC, Water Heater and

  20. A System-of-Systems Approach for Integrated Energy Systems Modeling and Simulation: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A System-of-Systems Approach for Integrated Energy Systems Modeling and Simulation Preprint Saurabh Mittal, Mark Ruth, Annabelle Pratt, Monte Lunacek, Dheepak Krishnamurthy, and Wesley Jones National Renewable Energy Laboratory Presented at the Society for Modeling & Simulation International Summer Simulation Multi-Conference Chicago, Illinois July 26-29, 2015 Conference Paper NREL/CP-2C00-64045 August 2015 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for

  1. Energy Management Systems: Maximizing Energy Savings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar covered how to optimize installations of new energy management systems, review EMS strategies following lighting/HVAC retrofit projects, and utilize excess EECBG funding.

  2. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts Tyler, Texas ... Building Component: Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), whole-building ...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing R&D Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report 2010 annual report focusing on five main areas: modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluation, laboratory and field vehicle evaluation, codes and standards development, and heavy vehicle systems optimization. PDF icon 2010_vsst_report.pdf

  4. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing R&D Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization. PDF icon

  5. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building HVAC

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This Building Technologies Office report assesses heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development.

  6. CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    icon vss075lustbader2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications CoolCab Test and Evaluation CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development Vehicle Technologies ...

  7. HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance Subprogram Overview — 2016 BTO Peer Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation at the 2016 Peer Review provided an overview of the Building Technologies Office’s Emerging Technologies: HVAC, Water Heating, and Appliance subprogram. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs.

  8. CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CoolCab Test and Evaluation & CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development Presenter and P.I.: Jason A. ... idling * Develop analytical models and test methods to reduce uncertainties and ...

  9. Building America Expert Meeting Report. Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2011-10-01

    This expert meeting was hosted by the IBACOS Building America research team to determine how HVAC companies can transition from a traditional contractor status to a service provider for whole house energy upgrade contracting.

  10. What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High Performance Homes?"

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question What are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

  11. CBEI: Pre-commercial demonstration of cost-effective advanced HVAC controls

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and diagnostics for medium-sized buildings - 2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy Pre-commercial demonstration of cost-effective advanced HVAC controls and diagnostics for medium-sized buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Pre-commercial demonstration of cost-effective advanced HVAC controls and diagnostics for medium-sized buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Draguna Vrabie, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation PDF icon CBEI: Pre-commercial demonstration of

  12. HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads This webinar, presented by IBACOS (a Building America Research Team) will highlight the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations, following the guidelines of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J version 8 PDF icon webinar_hvac_calculatingloads_20110428.pdf More Documents & Publications 2014-08-28 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Packaged

  13. International HVAC&R R&D Collaboration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    International HVAC&R R&D Collaboration International HVAC&R R&D Collaboration Tony Bouza, chair of the International Organizing Committee for the 11th IEA Heat Pump Conference, delivers the welcoming address in Montreal. (2014) Tony Bouza, chair of the International Organizing Committee for the 11th IEA Heat Pump Conference, delivers the welcoming address in Montreal. (2014) Lead Performer: Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Oak Ridge, TN Partners: -- International Energy Agency -

  14. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  15. Extensions to Dynamic System Simulation of Fissile Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Steven Karl; Bernardin, John David; Kimpland, Robert Herbert; Spernjak, Dusan

    2015-08-24

    Previous reports have documented the results of applying dynamic system simulation (DSS) techniques to model a variety of fissile solution systems. The SUPO (Super Power) aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) was chosen as the benchmark for comparison of model results to experimental data for steadystate operation.1 Subsequently, DSS was applied to additional AHR to verify results obtained for SUPO and extend modeling to prompt critical excursions, ramp reactivity insertions of various magnitudes and rate, and boiling operations in SILENE and KEWB (Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler).2 Additional models for pressurized cores (HRE: Homogeneous Reactor Experiment), annular core geometries, and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADAHR) were developed and results reported.3 The focus of each of these models is core dynamics; neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, radiolytic gas generation and transport are coupled to examine the time-based evolution of these systems from start-up through transition to steady-state. A common characteristic of these models is the assumption that (a) core cooling system inlet temperature and flow and (b) plenum gas inlet pressure and flow are held constant; no external (to core) component operations that may result in dynamic change to these parameters are considered. This report discusses extension of models to include explicit reference to cooling structures and radiolytic gas handling. The accelerator-driven subcritical generic system model described in References 3 and 4 is used as a basis for this extension.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Vehicle & Systems Simulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Testing | Department of Energy Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing Presentation given by U.S. Department of Energy at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting providing an overview of the Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing Program. PDF icon vsst_overview_amr_2014_061114.pdf More Documents

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical

  18. Large-Eddy Simulation for Green Energy and Propulsion Systems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large-Eddy Simulation for Green Energy and Propulsion Systems PI Name: Umesh Paliath PI Email: paliath@ge.com Institution: General Electric Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation...

  19. Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste ...

  20. Development of a model colloidal system for rheology simulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This chapter describes the choice of the model particle system, methods for synthesis and ... SIMULATION; SOLVENTS; SYNTHESIS Colloids-Mathematical models.; Rheology-Measurement. ...

  1. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  2. Simulation of water flow in terrestrial systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-18

    ParFlow is a parallel, variabley saturated groundwater flow code that is especially suitable for large scale problem. ParFlow simulates the three-dimensional saturated and variably saturated subsurface flow in heterogeneous porous media in three spatial dimensions. ParFlow's developemt and appkication has been on-ging for more than 10 uear. ParFlow has recently been extended to coupled surface-subsurface flow to enabel the simulation of hillslope runoff and channel routing in a truly integrated fashion. ParFlow simulates the three-dimensionalmore » varably saturated subsurface flow in strongly heterogeneous porous media in three spatial dimension.« less

  3. Design, construction and evaluation of a simulated geothermal flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackanic, J.C.

    1980-07-28

    A system was designed and built to simulate the flow from a geothermal well. The simulated flow will be used to power a Lysholm engine, the performance of which will then be evaluated for different simulated geothermal flows. Two main subjects are covered: 1) the design, construction and evaluation of the behavior of the system that simulates the geothermal flow; included in that topic is a discussion of the probable behavior of the Lysholm engine when it is put into operation, and 2) the investigation of the use of dynamic modeling techniques to determine whether they can provide a suitable means for predicting the behavior of the system.

  4. NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility Garners LEEDÂź Platinum...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power to run the data center facility (IT equipment, lighting, HVAC, uninterruptible power supply systems, etc.) to the total power drawn by all IT equipment. "ESIF is a ...

  5. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The webinar on Nov. 18, 2014, continued the series on strategies to improve the performance of HVAC systems for low load homes and home performance retrofits.

  6. Quality Management Systems for Zero Energy Ready Home Webinar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Framing and mechanicals, and HVAC distribution systems. Next slide: As an example, here you see a drawing -- a correlation drawing -- showing your ductwork and the framing members. ...

  7. Reactor Subsystem Simulation for Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; J. Michael Doster; Alan Rominger

    2012-09-01

    Preliminary system models have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory researchers and are currently being enhanced to assess integrated system performance given multiple sources (e.g., nuclear + wind) and multiple applications (i.e., electricity + process heat). Initial efforts to integrate a Fortran-based simulation of a small modular reactor (SMR) with the balance of plant model have been completed in FY12. This initial effort takes advantage of an existing SMR model developed at North Carolina State University to provide initial integrated system simulation for a relatively low cost. The SMR subsystem simulation details are discussed in this report.

  8. Recent Developments of the Modelica"Buildings" Library for Building Energy and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael; Zuo, Wangda; Nouidui, Thierry Stephane

    2011-04-01

    At the Modelica 2009 conference, we introduced the Buildings library, a freely available Modelica library for building energy and control systems. This paper reports the updates of the library and presents example applications for a range of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Over the past two years, the library has been further developed. The number of HVAC components models has been doubled and various components have been revised to increase numerical robustness.The paper starts with an overview of the library architecture and a description of the main packages. To demonstrate the features of the Buildings library, applications that include multizone airflow simulation as well as supervisory and local loop control of a variable air volume (VAV) system are briefly described. The paper closes with a discussion of the current development.

  9. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S.; Williams, H.R.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system, and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  10. A computer simulation of an induction heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egan, L.R. ); Furlani, E.P. )

    1991-09-01

    In this paper a method is presented for the design and analysis of induction heating systems. The method entails the simulation of system performance using an equivalent circuit approach. Equivalent circuit models are obtained for the three pats of an induction heating system: the power source, the impedance matching circuit, and the load. These model are combined in a system model which is analyzed using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). This approach is applied to an existing system, and the predicted performance is in close agreement with measured data.

  11. DOE and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort DOE and Stakeholders Consider Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort January 15, 2016 - 11:27am Addthis The planned research effort would support the U.S. hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) phasedown proposal, which targets an 85% reduction by 2035 compared to a 2014-2016 average baseline. Image credit: Navigant Consulting. The planned research effort would support the U.S. hydrofluorocarbon

  12. Thermal Simulation of Advanced Powertrain Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Under this project, the Volvo complete vehicle model was modified to include engine and exhaust system thermal outputs and cooling system to enable WHR simulations from a system perspective. PDF icon p-09_desai.pdf More Documents & Publications Impact of Vehicle Efficiency Improvements on Powertrain Design Volvo Super Truck Overview and Approach 2013 Annual Merit Review Results Report - Merit Review Attendees

  13. Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment The proposed KRUSTY experiment is a demonstration of a reactor operating at power. The planned experimental configuration includes a highly enriched uranium (HEU) reflected core, cooled by multiple heat pipes leading to Stirling engines for primary heat rejection. Operating power is

  14. Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A paper copy of

  15. Screening analysis for EPACT-covered commercial HVAC and water-heating equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S Somasundaram; PR Armstrong; DB Belzer; SC Gaines; DL Hadley; S Katipumula; DL Smith; DW Winiarski

    2000-05-25

    EPCA requirements state that if the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) amends efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90.1-1989, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in amended Standard 90.1. However, DOE can establish higher efficiency levels if it can show through clear and convincing evidence that a higher efficiency level, that is technologically feasible and economically justified, would produce significant additional energy savings. On October 29, 1999, ASHRAE approved the amended Standard 90.1, which increases the minimum efficiency levels for some of the commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equipment covered by EPCA 92. DOE asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential of the efficiency levels listed in Standard 90.1-1999. The analysis estimates the annual national energy consumption and the potential for energy savings that would result if the EPACT-covered products were required to meet these efficiency levels. The analysis also estimates additional energy-savings potential for the EPACT-covered products if they were to exceed the efficiency levels prescribed in Standard 90-1-1999. In addition, a simple life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was performed for some alternative efficiency levels. This paper will describe the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis. The magnitude of HVAC and SWH loads imposed on equipment depends on the building's physical and operational characteristics and prevailing climatic conditions. To address this variation in energy use, coil loads for 7 representative building types at 11 climate locations were estimated based on a whole-building simulation.

  16. Parallel Computing Environments and Methods for Power Distribution System Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Chassin, David P.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Studham, Scott S.

    2005-11-10

    The development of cost-effective high-performance parallel computing on multi-processor super computers makes it attractive to port excessively time consuming simulation software from personal computers (PC) to super computes. The power distribution system simulator (PDSS) takes a bottom-up approach and simulates load at appliance level, where detailed thermal models for appliances are used. This approach works well for a small power distribution system consisting of a few thousand appliances. When the number of appliances increases, the simulation uses up the PC memory and its run time increases to a point where the approach is no longer feasible to model a practical large power distribution system. This paper presents an effort made to port a PC-based power distribution system simulator (PDSS) to a 128-processor shared-memory super computer. The paper offers an overview of the parallel computing environment and a description of the modification made to the PDSS model. The performances of the PDSS running on a standalone PC and on the super computer are compared. Future research direction of utilizing parallel computing in the power distribution system simulation is also addressed.

  17. Simulation models of subsea umbilicals, flowlines and fire pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratland, O.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses mathematical models suited for simulating transient and stationary flow in umbilicals, flowlines and fire pump systems. Most emphasis is put on subsea systems. Measurements are compared with simulations and good agreement has been achieved. The results show that the dynamics and response time in a hydraulic subsea control system can be influenced by parameters like umbilical elastic properties, umbilical visco-elastic properties, transition between laminar and turbulent flow, and some frequency-dependant propagation mechanisms. The paper discusses typical problems in different flow systems. It is also shown how the relevant umbilical properties can be determined by simple measurements on a short test section of the umbilical. In fire pump systems, cavitation is typically the main transient problem. In long oil and gas pipelines, the friction dominates and an accurate representation of the friction is the best contribution to relevant simulation results.

  18. Building America Best Practices Series Volume 14 - HVAC. A Guide for Contractors to Share with Homeowners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Hand, James R.; Love, Pat M.

    2011-08-01

    This guide, which is part of a series of Best Practices guides produced by DOE’s Building America program, describes ways homeowners can reduce their energy costs and improve the comfort, health, and safety of their homes by upgrading their heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment.

  19. Nexus: a modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2015-08-24

    The management of simulation workflows is a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantummore » chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.« less

  20. Nexus: a modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2015-08-24

    The management of simulation workflows is a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantum chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.

  1. Simulating the Dynamic Coupling of Market and Physical System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Roop, Joseph M.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2004-06-01

    Abstract-As energy trading products cover shorter time periods and demand response programs move toward real-time pricing, financial market-based activity impacts ever more directly the physical operation of the system. To begin to understand the complex interactions between the market-driven operation signals, the engineered controlled schemes, and the laws of physics, new system modeling and simulation techniques must be explored. This discussion describes requirements for new simulation tools to address such market transaction control interactions and an approach to capture the dynamic coupling between energy markets and the physical operation of the power system appropriate for dispatcher reaction time frames.

  2. Acceleration of the matrix multiplication of Radiance three phase daylighting simulations with parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of personal computer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Wangda; McNeil, Andrew; Wetter, Michael; Lee, Eleanor S.

    2013-05-23

    Building designers are increasingly relying on complex fenestration systems to reduce energy consumed for lighting and HVAC in low energy buildings. Radiance, a lighting simulation program, has been used to conduct daylighting simulations for complex fenestration systems. Depending on the configurations, the simulation can take hours or even days using a personal computer. This paper describes how to accelerate the matrix multiplication portion of a Radiance three-phase daylight simulation by conducting parallel computing on heterogeneous hardware of a personal computer. The algorithm was optimized and the computational part was implemented in parallel using OpenCL. The speed of new approach was evaluated using various daylighting simulation cases on a multicore central processing unit and a graphics processing unit. Based on the measurements and analysis of the time usage for the Radiance daylighting simulation, further speedups can be achieved by using fast I/O devices and storing the data in a binary format.

  3. High Frequency Mechanical Pyroshock Simulations for Payload Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEMAN,VESTA I.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; CAP,JEROME S.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.

    1999-12-15

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with components that must survive high frequency shock environments including pyrotechnic shock. These environments have not been simulated very well in the past at the payload system level because of weight limitations of traditional pyroshock mechanical simulations using resonant beams and plates. A new concept utilizing tuned resonators attached to the payload system and driven with the impact of an airgun projectile allow these simulations to be performed in the laboratory with high precision and repeatability without the use of explosives. A tuned resonator has been designed and constructed for a particular payload system. Comparison of laboratory responses with measurements made at the component locations during actual pyrotechnic events show excellent agreement for a bandwidth of DC to 4 kHz. The bases of comparison are shock spectra. This simple concept applies the mechanical pyroshock simulation simultaneously to all components with the correct boundary conditions in the payload system and is a considerable improvement over previous experimental techniques and simulations.

  4. Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzold, Linda R.

    2012-10-25

    Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.

  5. Analysis of Aurora's Performance Simulation Engine for Three Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Janine; Simon, Joseph

    2015-07-07

    Aurora Solar Inc. is building a cloud-based optimization platform to automate the design, engineering, and permit generation process of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. They requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validate the performance of the PV system performance simulation engine of Aurora Solar’s solar design platform, Aurora. In previous work, NREL performed a validation of multiple other PV modeling tools 1, so this study builds upon that work by examining all of the same fixed-tilt systems with available module datasheets that NREL selected and used in the aforementioned study. Aurora Solar set up these three operating PV systems in their modeling platform using NREL-provided system specifications and concurrent weather data. NREL then verified the setup of these systems, ran the simulations, and compared the Aurora-predicted performance data to measured performance data for those three systems, as well as to performance data predicted by other PV modeling tools.

  6. Systems and methods for controlling energy use in a building management system using energy budgets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Michael J; Drees, Kirk H

    2014-09-23

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  7. Interactive long-term simulation for power system restoration planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountas, N.A.; Hatziargyriou, N.D. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece)] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece); Orfanogiannis, C.; Tasoulis, A. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

    1997-02-01

    The problem of restoring a power system following a complete blackout is complex and multi-faceted. Many control actions have to be performed on time, while constraints such as power balance and system stability have to be carefully respected. In this paper, the application of long-term dynamic analysis in studying frequency and voltage responses due to load and generation mismatches in isolated systems or during extension of the existing system in the restoration phase is presented. Simulation results covering the main steps of the Hellenic power system restoration process following a recent total blackout are presented and discussed.

  8. Dynamic simulation of the Hanford tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmsen, R.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-03

    Cleaning up and disposing of approximately 50 years of nuclear waste is the main mission at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Nuclear Reservation, located in the southeastern part of the state of Washington. A major element of the total cleanup effort involves retrieving, processing, and disposing of radioactive and hazardous waste stored in 177 underground storage tanks. This effort, referred to as the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is expected to cost billions of dollars and take approximately 25 years to complete. Several computer simulations of this project are being created, focusing on both programmatic and detailed engineering issues. This paper describes one such simulation activity, using the ithink(TM)computer simulation software. The ithink(TM) simulation includes a representation of the complete TWRS cleanup system, from retrieval of waste through intermediate processing and final vitrification of waste for disposal. Major issues addressed to date by the simulation effort include the need for new underground storage tanks to support TWRS activities, and the estimated design capacities for various processing facilities that are required to support legally mandated program commitment dates. This paper discusses how the simulation was used to investigate these questions.

  9. A flexible system for the simulation of turbocharged diesel engines and turbocharging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulaty, T.; Codan, E.; Skopil, M.

    1996-12-31

    A fully flexible simulation system enables substitution of the conventional tests performed on turbocharged diesel engines. The supercharging systems can be calculated either by filling and emptying or by the differential method for 1-D unsteady flow during steady-state or transient operation. During sophisticated simulations, some conservation problems were observed. Their theoretical explanation and a practical solution are presented.

  10. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  11. Opportunities for Building America Research to Address Energy Upgrade Technical Challenges: HVAC, Envelope & IAQ (301)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Peer Exchange Call Series: Opportunities for Building America Research to Address Energy Upgrade Technical Challenges: HVAC, Envelope & IAQ (301) July 21, 2015 Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda  Call Logistics and Introductions  Opening Polls  Residential Network and Peer Exchange Call Overview  Introduction to Building America Technology to Market Roadmaps  Eric Werling, Building America Program Director, DOE Building Technologies Office  Questions, Discussion, and

  12. DOE and Stakeholders Ponder Best Approach to Major HVAC&R Research Effort

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) recently convened two workshops to discuss the potential launch of a major research effort for advanced HVAC&R technologies. DOE’s goal is to develop next-generation heating and cooling technologies that leapfrog the existing vapor compression solutions and result in dramatically improved efficiency while utilizing near-zero global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants or non-vapor compression approaches.

  13. Research & Development Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Joining Technologies in HVAC&R W. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, J. Young October 2015 (This page intentionally left blank) NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the

  14. Building America Expert Meeting Report: Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Transitioning Traditional HVAC Contractors to Whole House Performance Contractors Arlan Burdick IBACOS, Inc. October 2011 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or

  15. Generic solar photovoltaic system dynamic simulation model specification.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Behnke, Michael Robert; Elliott, Ryan Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This document is intended to serve as a specification for generic solar photovoltaic (PV) system positive-sequence dynamic models to be implemented by software developers and approved by the WECC MVWG for use in bulk system dynamic simulations in accordance with NERC MOD standards. Two specific dynamic models are included in the scope of this document. The first, a Central Station PV System model, is intended to capture the most important dynamic characteristics of large scale (> 10 MW) PV systems with a central Point of Interconnection (POI) at the transmission level. The second, a Distributed PV System model, is intended to represent an aggregation of smaller, distribution-connected systems that comprise a portion of a composite load that might be modeled at a transmission load bus.

  16. The Development of A Human Systems Simulation Laboratory: Strategic Direction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo; Katya le Blanc; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    The Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) at the Idaho National Laboratory is one of few facilities of its kind that allows human factors researchers to evaluate various aspects of human performance and human system interaction for proposed reactor designs and upgrades. A basic system architecture, physical configuration and simulation capability were established to enable human factors researchers to support multiple, simultaneous simulations and also different power plant technologies. Although still evolving in terms of its technical and functional architecture, the HSSL is already proving its worth in supporting current and future nuclear industry needs for light water reactor sustainability and small modular reactors. The evolution of the HSSL is focused on continual physical and functional refinement to make it a fully equipped, reconfigurable facility where advanced research, testing and validation studies can be conducted on a wider range of reactor technologies. This requires the implementation of additional plant models to produce empirical research data on human performance with emerging human-system interaction technologies. Additional beneficiaries of this information include system designers and HRA practitioners. To ensure that results of control room crew studies will be generalizable to the existing and evolving fleet of US reactors, future expansion of the HSSL may also include other SMR plant models, plant-specific simulators and a generic plant model aligned to the current generation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and future advanced reactor designs. Collaboration with industry partners is also proving to be a vital component of the facility as this helps to establish a formal basis for current and future human performance experiments to support nuclear industry objectives. A long-range Program Plan has been developed for the HSSL to ensure that the facility will support not only the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, but also to provide human factors guidance for all future developments of the nuclear industry.

  17. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  18. Waste simulant development for evaluation of LLW melter system technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shade, J.W.

    1994-05-25

    This document describes the LLW simulant compositions, basis for the simulants, and recipes for preparing nonradioactive simulants for LLW melter tests.

  19. SYSTEM PLANNING WITH THE HANFORD WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD TW; CERTA PJ; WELLS MN

    2010-01-14

    At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, 216 million liters (57 million gallons) of nuclear waste is currently stored in aging underground tanks, threatening the Columbia River. The River Protection Project (RPP), a fully integrated system of waste storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal facilities, is in varying stages of design, construction, operation, and future planning. These facilities face many overlapping technical, regulatory, and financial hurdles to achieve site cleanup and closure. Program execution is ongoing, but completion is currently expected to take approximately 40 more years. Strategic planning for the treatment of Hanford tank waste is by nature a multi-faceted, complex and iterative process. To help manage the planning, a report referred to as the RPP System Plan is prepared to provide a basis for aligning the program scope with the cost and schedule, from upper-tier contracts to individual facility operating plans. The Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS), a dynamic flowsheet simulation and mass balance computer model, is used to simulate the current planned RPP mission, evaluate the impacts of changes to the mission, and assist in planning near-term facility operations. Development of additional modeling tools, including an operations research model and a cost model, will further improve long-term planning confidence. The most recent RPP System Plan, Revision 4, was published in September 2009.

  20. Small Businesses Receive $2 Million to Advance HVAC Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    which contributes to climate change and is used by the vapor-compression systems in current water heaters, Xergy's technology can operate with zero global warming potential. ...

  1. DOE ZERH Webinar: Low Load High Efficiency HVAC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Zero Energy Ready Homes have advanced insulation and draft sealing that reduce energy consumption and enable the design and installation of an engineered comfort system that is significantly...

  2. Advanced Facades, Daylighting, and Complex Fenestration Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... (MPC) for a facade-lightingHVAC system in a full-scale testbed * Completed post-occupancy evaluation of integrated dynamic faade-lighting- UFAD system at The Times Company ...

  3. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  4. Simulator for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Steven Karl; Day, Christy M.; Determan, John C.

    2015-09-14

    LANL has developed a process to generate a progressive family of system models for a fissile solution system. This family includes a dynamic system simulation comprised of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing the time evolution of the system. Neutron kinetics, radiolytic gas generation and transport, and core thermal hydraulics are included in the DSS. Extensions to explicit operation of cooling loops and radiolytic gas handling are embedded in these systems as is a stability model. The DSS may then be converted to an implementation in Visual Studio to provide a design team the ability to rapidly estimate system performance impacts from a variety of design decisions. This provides a method to assist in optimization of the system design. Once design has been generated in some detail the C++ version of the system model may then be implemented in a LabVIEW user interface to evaluate operator controls and instrumentation and operator recognition and response to off-normal events. Taken as a set of system models the DSS, Visual Studio, and LabVIEW progression provides a comprehensive set of design support tools.

  5. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

    2008-06-18

    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering. Furthermore, with little effort the modeling capabilities described in this report can be extended to support other DOE programs, such as ultra super critical boiler development, oxy-combustion boiler development or modifications to existing plants to include CO2 capture and sequestration.

  6. Optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Soobae; Overbye, Thomas J.

    2015-10-21

    Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modalmore » analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. As a result, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.« less

  7. Optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Soobae; Overbye, Thomas J.

    2015-10-21

    Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modal analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. As a result, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.

  8. Enhancing Complex System Performance Using Discrete-Event Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Lake, Joe E

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize discrete-event simulation (DES) merged with human factors analysis to provide the venue within which the separation and deconfliction of the system/human operating principles can occur. A concrete example is presented to illustrate the performance enhancement gains for an aviation cargo flow and security inspection system achieved through the development and use of a process DES. The overall performance of the system is computed, analyzed, and optimized for the different system dynamics. Various performance measures are considered such as system capacity, residual capacity, and total number of pallets waiting for inspection in the queue. These metrics are performance indicators of the system's ability to service current needs and respond to additional requests. We studied and analyzed different scenarios by changing various model parameters such as the number of pieces per pallet ratio, number of inspectors and cargo handling personnel, number of forklifts, number and types of detection systems, inspection modality distribution, alarm rate, and cargo closeout time. The increased physical understanding resulting from execution of the queuing model utilizing these vetted performance measures identified effective ways to meet inspection requirements while maintaining or reducing overall operational cost and eliminating any shipping delays associated with any proposed changes in inspection requirements. With this understanding effective operational strategies can be developed to optimally use personnel while still maintaining plant efficiency, reducing process interruptions, and holding or reducing costs.

  9. Systems and methods for controlling energy use during a demand limiting period

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Michael J.; Drees, Kirk H.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  10. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for SRS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Workflo The ob Proces Savann Dispos assess evaluat design evaluat predict to guid * Th so in w es sy * Th is m * Th fle m de fu The pu techni projec Site: S roject: S Report Date: J ited States valuation i Why DOE ow Diagram bjective of the rev ss Simulation To nah River Site (S sition System Pla s whether the too te methods used , construction, p te methods to im ions; and (4) det e actual executio What th he current Syst oftware tools to formation, and aste. These to stimates, but th ystem

  11. Development of Design and Simulation Tool for Hybrid Geothermal Heat Pump System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will expand Expand eQUEST, a building energy analysis software with latest implementation of DOE-2, for simulations of HGSHP systems and improve its existing simulation capabilities for ordinary GSHP systems.

  12. Spreader-Bar Radiation Detection System Enhancements: A Modeling and Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Baciak, James E.; Hensley, Walter K.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Schweppe, John E.

    2012-11-13

    This report provides the modeling and simulation results of the investigation of enhanced spreader bar radiation detection systems.

  13. Energy Performance Assessment of Radiant Cooling System through Modeling and Calibration at Component Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Yasin; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Bhandari, Mahabir S

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a case study of an information technology office building with a radiant cooling system and a conventional variable air volume (VAV) system installed side by side so that performancecan be compared. First, a 3D model of the building involving architecture, occupancy, and HVAC operation was developed in EnergyPlus, a simulation tool. Second, a different calibration methodology was applied to develop the base case for assessing the energy saving potential. This paper details the calibration of the whole building energy model to the component level, including lighting, equipment, and HVAC components such as chillers, pumps, cooling towers, fans, etc. Also a new methodology for the systematic selection of influence parameter has been developed for the calibration of a simulated model which requires large time for the execution. The error at the whole building level [measured in mean bias error (MBE)] is 0.2%, and the coefficient of variation of root mean square error (CvRMSE) is 3.2%. The total errors in HVAC at the hourly are MBE = 8.7% and CvRMSE = 23.9%, which meet the criteria of ASHRAE 14 (2002) for hourly calibration. Different suggestions have been pointed out to generalize the energy saving of radiant cooling system through the existing building system. So a base case model was developed by using the calibrated model for quantifying the energy saving potential of the radiant cooling system. It was found that a base case radiant cooling system integrated with DOAS can save 28% energy compared with the conventional VAV system.

  14. Simulation of Absorption Systems in Flexible and Modular Form

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-09-23

    The computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady-state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system''s components. When all the equations have been established, a mathematical solver routine is employed to solve them simultaneously. Property subroutines contained in a separate data base serve to provide thermodynamicmore » properties of the working fluids. The code is user-oriented and requires a relatively simple input containing the given operating conditions and the working fluid at each state point. the user conveys to the computer an image of the cycle by specifying the different components and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flowrate, concentration, pressure and vapor fraction at each state point in the system and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance may be determined. A graphical user-interface is provided to facilitate interactive input and study of the output.« less

  15. A Reactive Transport Simulator for Biogeochemical Processes in Subsurface System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-01

    BIOGEOCHEM is a Fortran code that mumerically simulates the coupled processes of solute transport, microbial population dynamics, microbial metabolism, and geochemical reactions. The potential applications of the code include, but not limited to, (a) sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for assessing the impact of microbial activity on subsurface geochemical systems; (b) extraction of biogeochemical parameter values from field observations or laboratory measurements, (c) helping to design and optimize laboratory biogeochemical experiments, and (d) data integration. Methodmore » of Solution: A finite difference method and a Newton-Raphson technique are used to solve a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations and algebraic equations. Practical Application: Environmental analysis, bioremediation performance assessments of radioactive or non-radioactive wase disposal, and academic research.« less

  16. Building Systems Diagnostics and Predictive Maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Pratt, Robert G.; Braun, J.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the development of methods and tools for automated fault detection and diagnostics (FDD) of building systems and components in the 1990s. This chapter, written for the CRC Handbook for HVAC&R Engineering, will describe the status of these methods and and methodologies as applied to HVAC&R and building systems and present certain illustrative case studies.

  17. HVAC Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Commercial Program Development Commercial Current Promotions Industrial Federal Agriculture Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Energy efficient Heating Ventilation and...

  18. System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with gasoline and diesel engines will be conducted with focus on emissions control.

  19. On theoretical issues of computer simulations sequential dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, C.L.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.

    1998-12-01

    The authors study a class of discrete dynamical systems that is motivated by the generic structure of simulations. The systems consist of the following data: (a) a finite graph Y with vertex set {l_brace}1,...,n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (b) functions F{sub i}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {r_arrow} F{sub 2}{sup n} and (c) an update ordering {pi}. The functions F{sub i} update the binary state of vertex i as a function of the state of vertex i and its Y-neighbors and leave the states of all other vertices fixed. The update ordering is a permutation of the Y-vertices. They derive a decomposition result, characterize invertible SDS and study fixed points. In particular they analyze how many different SDS that can be obtained by reordering a given multiset of update functions and give a criterion for when one can derive concentration results on this number. Finally, some specific SDS are investigated.

  20. Investigating Operating System Noise in Extreme-Scale High-Performance Computing Systems using Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Hardware/software co-design for future-generation high-performance computing (HPC) systems aims at closing the gap between the peak capabilities of the hardware and the performance realized by applications (application-architecture performance gap). Performance profiling of architectures and applications is a crucial part of this iterative process. The work in this paper focuses on operating system (OS) noise as an additional factor to be considered for co-design. It represents the first step in including OS noise in HPC hardware/software co-design by adding a noise injection feature to an existing simulation-based co-design toolkit. It reuses an existing abstraction for OS noise with frequency (periodic recurrence) and period (duration of each occurrence) to enhance the processor model of the Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) with synchronized and random OS noise simulation. The results demonstrate this capability by evaluating the impact of OS noise on MPI_Bcast() and MPI_Reduce() in a simulated future-generation HPC system with 2,097,152 compute nodes.

  1. Systems and methods for controlling energy use in a building management system using energy budgets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Michael J.

    2012-06-17

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A mathematical linear operator is found that transforms the unused or deferred cooling power usage of the HVAC system based on pre-determined temperature settings to a target cooling power usage. The mathematical operator is applied to the temperature settings to create a temperature setpoint trajectory expected to provide the target cooling power usage.

  2. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The webinar will continue our series on strategies to improve the performance of HVAC systems for low load homes and home performance retrofits. Presenters and specific topics for this webinar...

  3. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The webinar will focus on strategies to improve the performance of HVAC systems for low load homes and home performance retrofits. Presenters and specific topics for this webinar will be:

  4. GridLab Power Distribution System Simulation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pathways analysis User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.gridlabd.org Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool Language: English References: GridLAB-D Simulation...

  5. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    d Simul Waste Pr plan needs to c al, processing. e ETR Team R 12 months): ( ssor, memory engineers and tools; (3) Deve ation of uncerta s; (4) Reconcile ween HTWOS l; (5) Link...

  6. Inverted Attic Bulkhead for HVAC Ductwork, Roseville, California (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Inverted Attic Bulkhead for HVAC Ductwork Roseville, California PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Long-Term Monitoring of Occupied Test House Location: Roseville, CA Partners: K. HovnanianÂź HomesÂź, www.khov.com IBACOS www.ibacos.com Building Component: Envelope, structural, HVAC ducts Construction: New Application: New; single and/or multifamily Year Tested: 2012 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Hot-dry climate PERFORMANCE DATA HERS Index: 52 Projected Energy Savings: 11 million Btu/year heating

  7. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  8. Simulation of e-cloud driven instability and its attenuation using a simulated feedback system in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M. A.

    2010-12-13

    Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS, and a feedback system to control the single-bunch instabilities is under active development. We present the latest improvements to the WARP-POSINST simulation framework and feedback model, and its application to the self-consistent simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with an electron cloud in the SPS. Simulations using an idealized feedback system exhibit adequate mitigation of the instability providing that the cutoff of the feedback bandwidth is at or above 450 MHz. Artifacts from numerical noise of the injected distribution of electrons in the modeling of portions of bunch trains are discussed, and benchmarking of WARP against POSINST and HEADTAIL are presented.

  9. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  10. Understanding and Improving CRM and GCM Simulations of Cloud Systems with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM Observations (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Understanding and Improving CRM and GCM Simulations of Cloud Systems with ARM Observations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Understanding and Improving CRM and GCM Simulations of Cloud Systems with ARM Observations The works supported by this ASR project lay the solid foundation for improving the parameterization of convection and clouds in the NCAR CCSM and the climate simulations. We have made a significant use of CRM

  11. Simulation of a High Efficiency Multi-bed Adsorption Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Humble, Paul H.; Sweeney, J. B.

    2012-05-01

    Attaining high energy efficiency with adsorption heat pumps is challenging due to thermodynamic losses that occur when the sorbent beds are thermally cycled without effective heat recuperation. The multi-bed concept described here effectively transfers heat from beds being cooled to beds being heated, which enables high efficiency in thermally driven heat pumps. A simplified lumped-parameter model and detailed finite element analysis are used to simulate the performance of an ammonia-carbon sorption compressor, which is used to project the overall heat pump coefficient of performance. The effects of bed geometry and number of beds on system performance are explored, and the majority of the performance benefit is obtained with four beds. Results indicate that a COP of 1.24 based on heat input is feasible at AHRI standard test conditions for residential HVAC equipment. When compared on a basis of primary energy input, performance equivalent to SEER 13 or 14 are theoretically attainable with this system.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FY 2012 annual report focusing on five main areas: modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluation, laboratory and field vehicle evaluation, codes and standards development, and heavy vehicle systems optimization.

  13. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2011 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    FY 2011 annual report focusing on five main areas: modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluation, laboratory and field vehicle evaluation, codes and standards development, and heavy vehicle systems optimization.

  14. FY2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization.

  15. Promoting high efficiency residential HVAC equipment: Lessons learned from leading utility programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neme, C.; Peters, J.; Rouleau, D.

    1998-07-01

    The Consortium for Energy Efficiency recently sponsored a study of leading electric utility efforts to promote high efficiency residential HVAC equipment. Given growing concerns from some utilities about the level of expenditures associated with rebate programs, special emphasis was placed on assessing the success of financing and other non-rebate options for promoting efficiency. Emphasis was also placed on review of efforts--rebate or otherwise--to push the market to very high levels of efficiency (i.e., SEER 13). This paper presents the results of the study. It includes discussion of key lessons from the utility programs analyzed. It also examines program participation rates and other potential indicators of market impacts. One notable conclusion is that several utility programs have pushed market shares for SEER 12 equipment to about 50% (the national average is less than 20%). At least one utility program has achieved a 50% market share for SEER 13 equipment (the national average is less than 3%). In general, financing does not appear to have as broad an appeal as consumer rebates. However, one unique utility program which combines the other of customer financing with modest incentives to contractors--in the form of frequent seller points that can be redeemed for advertising, technician training, travel and other merchandise--offers some promise that high participation rates can be achieved without customer rebates.

  16. Toward an Earth System Modeling Approach to Simulate Irrigation Effects |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Toward a new metric for ranking high performance computing systems. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Toward a new metric for ranking high performance computing systems. The High Performance Linpack (HPL), or Top 500, benchmark [1] is the most widely recognized and discussed metric for ranking high performance computing systems. However, HPL is increasingly unreliable as a true measure of system performance for a growing collection of important

  17. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A.; Smith, Matt K.; Gu, Lixing; New, Joshua Ryan

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  18. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  19. Power electronics system modeling and simulation (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The system components, featuring discrete or continuous, linear or nonlinear, are modeled in mathematical equations. Inverter control methods,such as pulse-width-modulation and ...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles. ...

  1. Strategy and gaps for modeling, simulation, and control of hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Garcia, Humberto E.; Hovsapian, Rob; Kinoshita, Robert; Mesina, George L.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish a strategy for modeling and simulation of candidate hybrid energy systems. Modeling and simulation is necessary to design, evaluate, and optimize the system technical and economic performance. Accordingly, this report first establishes the simulation requirements to analysis candidate hybrid systems. Simulation fidelity levels are established based on the temporal scale, real and synthetic data availability or needs, solution accuracy, and output parameters needed to evaluate case-specific figures of merit. Accordingly, the associated computational and co-simulation resources needed are established; including physical models when needed, code assembly and integrated solutions platforms, mathematical solvers, and data processing. This report first attempts to describe the figures of merit, systems requirements, and constraints that are necessary and sufficient to characterize the grid and hybrid systems behavior and market interactions. Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) and effective cost of Effective Cost of Energy (ECE), as opposed to the standard Levelized Cost of Electricty (LCOE), are introduced as technical and economical indices for integrated energy system evaluations. Financial assessment methods are subsequently introduced for evaluation of non-traditional, hybrid energy systems. Algorithms for coupled and iterative evaluation of the technical and economic performance are subsequently discussed. This report further defines modeling objectives, computational tools, solution approaches, and real-time data collection and processing (in some cases using real test units) that will be required to model, co-simulate, and optimize; (a) an energy system components (e.g., power generation unit, chemical process, electricity management unit), (b) system domains (e.g., thermal, electrical or chemical energy generation, conversion, and transport), and (c) systems control modules. Co-simulation of complex, tightly coupled, dynamic energy systems requires multiple simulation tools, potentially developed in several programming languages and resolved on separate time scales. Whereas further investigation and development of hybrid concepts will provide a more complete understanding of the joint computational and physical modeling needs, this report highlights areas in which co-simulation capabilities are warranted. The current development status, quality assurance, availability and maintainability of simulation tools that are currently available for hybrid systems modeling is presented. Existing gaps in the modeling and simulation toolsets and development needs are subsequently discussed. This effort will feed into a broader Roadmap activity for designing, developing, and demonstrating hybrid energy systems.

  2. Development of High-Efficiency Low-Lift Vapor Compression System - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Fernandez, Nicholas; Cho, Heejin; Goetzler, W.; Burgos, J.; Radhakrishnan, R.; Ahlfeldt, C.

    2010-03-31

    PNNL, with cofunding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Building Technologies Program, conducted a research and development activity targeted at addressing the energy efficiency goals targeted in the BPA roadmap. PNNL investigated an integrated heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system option referred to as the low-lift cooling system that potentially offers an increase in HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004.

  3. Definition and means of maintaining the ventilation system confinement portion of the PFP safety envelope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dick, J.D.; Grover, G.A.; O`Brien, P.M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-05

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant Heating Ventilation and Cooling system provides for the confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and provides for the confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. This document identifies the components and procedures necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. Appendices E through J provide a snapshot of non-safety class HVAC equipment and need not be updated when the remainder of the document and Appendices A through D are updated.

  4. Fight Fall Allergies and Save Energy by Checking Your HVAC System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    right? Oh, such navet. Three months into my stay, I developed a persistent, dry cough. After weeks of suffering, I realized that my heating unit was causing it. It was...

  5. Fight Fall Allergies and Save Energy by Checking Your HVAC System |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Fernald Preserve: A Learning Destination Fernald Preserve: A Learning Destination January 14, 2016 - 5:24pm Addthis What does this project do? Goal 1. Protect Human Health and the Environment f1.jpg Group visit to see monitoring wells and discuss the wetland and prairie ecology. College-level environmental science class students are frequent visitors to the Fernald Preserve, Ohio, Site. Their visits are usually preceded by program-specific requests and Fernald site staff collaborates with

  6. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating with Thermoelectric Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  7. Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal Compression

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: Mechanical Solutions Inc. – Whippany, NJPartners: Lennox International Inc. – Richardson,

  8. Fight Fall Allergies and Save Energy by Checking Your HVAC System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Three months into my stay, I developed a persistent, dry cough. After weeks of suffering, ... I cleaned out the filter, made a habit to do so regularly, and my cough cleared right up. ...

  9. Low-Global Warming Potential HVAC System with Ultra-Small Centrifugal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    range. Based on MSI's leading-edge research in ultra-small centrifugal compressors, ... including heat exchanger, control methodology, "drop in" replace-ability, and more ...

  10. Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  11. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating with Thermoelectric Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  12. Computer simulation of the rotary engine apex seal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlandea, N.V.; Weinert, M.S.; Keleher, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Many factors influence the performance and life of the apex seal system in a rotary engine. These considerations include basic configuration, material and dimensions of sealing elements, lubrication conditions, seal and surface temperatures, and seal loading. These parameters and particularly their interactions are not well understood. The objective of this investigation was to create mathematical models capable of explaining the dynamic behavior of the apex seal system. These models enable us to: 1. Understand present apex sealing system loads and how they are influenced by design and material parameters. 2. Allow product engineers to assess the influence of proposed design changes on apex seal performance.

  13. Mathematical modeling and computer simulation of processes in energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanjalic, K.C. )

    1990-01-01

    This book is divided into the following chapters. Modeling techniques and tools (fundamental concepts of modeling); 2. Fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and combustion; 3. Processes in energy equipment and plant components (boilers, steam and gas turbines, IC engines, heat exchangers, pumps and compressors, nuclear reactors, steam generators and separators, energy transport equipment, energy convertors, etc.); 4. New thermal energy conversion technologies (MHD, coal gasification and liquefaction fluidized-bed combustion, pulse-combustors, multistage combustion, etc.); 5. Combined cycles and plants, cogeneration; 6. Dynamics of energy systems and their components; 7. Integrated approach to energy systems modeling, and 8. Application of modeling in energy expert systems.

  14. On constructing optimistic simulation algorithms for the discrete event system specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutaro, James J

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a Time Warp simulation algorithm for discrete event models that are described in terms of the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS). The article shows how the total state transition and total output function of a DEVS atomic model can be transformed into an event processing procedure for a logical process. A specific Time Warp algorithm is constructed around this logical process, and it is shown that the algorithm correctly simulates a DEVS coupled model that consists entirely of interacting atomic models. The simulation algorithm is presented abstractly; it is intended to provide a basis for implementing efficient and scalable parallel algorithms that correctly simulate DEVS models.

  15. Tank waste remediation system simulation analysis retrieval model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-09-30

    The goal of simulation was to test tll(., consequences of assumptions. For the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model, l@lie specific assumptions are primarily defined with respect to waste processing arid transfer timing. The model tracks 73 chem1913ical constituents from underground waste tanks to glass; yet, the detailed (@hemistrv and complete set of unit operations of the TWRS process flow sheet are represented only at the level necessary to define the waste processing and transfer logic and to estimate the feed composition for the treatment facilities. Tlierefor(,, the model should net be regarded as a substitute for the TWRS process flow sheet. Pra(!ticallv the model functions as a dyrt(imic extension of the flow sheet model. I I The following sections present the description, assunipt@ions, architecture, arid evalua- tion of the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model. Section 2 describes the model in terms of an overview of the processes represented. Section 3 presents the assumptions for the simulation model. Specific assumptions 9.tt(l parameter values used in the model are provided for waste retrieval, pretreatment, low-level waste (LLNN7) immobilization, and high-level waste (HLW) immobilization functions. Section 4 describes the model in terms of its functional architec- rare to d(@fine a basis for a systematic evaluation of the model. Finally, Section 5 documents an independent test and evaluation of the niodel`s performance (i.e., the verification and validation). Additionally, Appendix A gives a complete listing of the tank inventory used. Appendix B documents the verification and validation plan that was used for the (Section 5) evaluation work. A description and listing of all the model variables is given in Appendix C along with a complete source listing.

  16. Gen Purpose 1-D Finite Element Network Fluid Flow Heat Transfer System Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-08-02

    SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow Simulator) is a FORTRAN computer program to simulate the integrated performance of systems involving fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reactor dynamics. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the engineering simulation of almost any system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary SAFSIM development goals. SAFSIM contains three basic physics modules: (1) a one-dimensional finite element fluid mechanicsmore » module with multiple flow network capability; (2) a one-dimensional finite element structure heat transfer module with multiple convection and radiation exchange capability; and (3) a point reactor dynamics module with reactivity feedback and decay heat capability. SAFSIM can be used for compressible and incompressible, single-phase, multicomponent flow systems.« less

  17. Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1987-10-31

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab D-0 Experimental Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis.

  18. Simulation of atomic diffusion in the Fcc NiAl system: A kinetic Monte

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carlo study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Simulation of atomic diffusion in the Fcc NiAl system: A kinetic Monte Carlo study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of atomic diffusion in the Fcc NiAl system: A kinetic Monte Carlo study The atomic diffusion in fcc NiAl binary alloys was studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The environment dependent hopping barriers were computed using a pair interaction model whose parameters were fitted to relevant

  19. A High Performance Computing Network and System Simulator for the Power Grid: NGNS^2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2012-11-11

    Designing and planing next generation power grid sys- tems composed of large power distribution networks, monitoring and control networks, autonomous generators and consumers of power requires advanced simulation infrastructures. The objective is to predict and analyze in time the behavior of networks of systems for unexpected events such as loss of connectivity, malicious attacks and power loss scenarios. This ultimately allows one to answer questions such as: “What could happen to the power grid if ...”. We want to be able to answer as many questions as possible in the shortest possible time for the largest possible systems. In this paper we present a new High Performance Computing (HPC) oriented simulation infrastructure named Next Generation Network and System Simulator (NGNS2 ). NGNS2 allows for the distribution of a single simulation among multiple computing elements by using MPI and OpenMP threads. NGNS2 provides extensive configuration, fault tolerant and load balancing capabilities needed to simulate large and dynamic systems for long periods of time. We show the preliminary results of the simulator running approximately two million simulated entities both on a 64-node commodity Infiniband cluster and a 48-core SMP workstation.

  20. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xuyong

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  1. Simulations of the ILC Electron Gun and ElectronBunching System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haakonsen, C.B.; /McGill U.

    2006-08-30

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed electron-positron collider, expected to provide insight into important questions in particle physics. A part of the global R&D effort for the ILC is the design of its electron gun and electron bunching system. The present design of the bunching system has two sub-harmonic bunchers, one operating at 108 MHz and one at 433MHz, and two 5-cell 1.3 GHz (L-band) bunchers. This bunching system has previously been simulated using the Phase and Radial Motion in Electron Linear Accelerators (PARMELA) software, and those simulations indicated that the design provides sufficient bunching and acceleration. Due to the complicated dynamics governing the electrons in the bunching system we decided to verify and expand the PARMELA results using the more recent and independent simulation software General Particle Tracer (GPT). GPT tracks the motion and interactions of a set of macro particles, each of which represent a number of electrons, and provides a variety of analysis capabilities. To provide initial conditions for the macro particles, a method was developed for deriving the initial conditions from detailed simulations of particle trajectories in the electron gun. These simulations were performed using the Egun software. For realistic simulation of the L-band bunching cavities, their electric and magnetic fields were calculated using the Superfish software and imported into GPT. The GPT simulations arrived at similar results to the PARMELA simulations for sub-harmonic bunching. However, using GPT it was impossible to achieve an efficient bunching performance of the first L-band bunching cavity. To correct this, the first L-band buncher cell was decoupled from the remaining 4 cells and driven as an independent cavity. Using this modification we attained results similar to the PARMELA simulations. Although the modified bunching system design performed as required, the modifications are technically challenging to implement. Further work is needed to optimize the L-Band buncher design.

  2. Expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camejo, P.J.

    1989-12-01

    Expert systems are computer programs that seek to mimic human reason. An expert system shelf, a software program commonly used for developing expert systems in a relatively short time, was used to develop a prototypical expert system for the design of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings. Because HVAC design involves several related knowledge domains, developing an expert system for HVAC design requires the integration of several smaller expert systems known as knowledge bases. A menu program and several auxiliary programs for gathering data, completing calculations, printing project reports, and passing data between the knowledge bases are needed and have been developed to join the separate knowledge bases into one simple-to-use program unit.

  3. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems with EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K; Baxter, Van D

    2010-01-01

    Supermarket refrigeration capabilities were first added to EnergyPlus in 2004. At that time, it was possible to model a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles all the building energy uses, typically on a 5 to 10 minute time step throughout the period of interest. The original refrigeration module included the ability to model the sensible and latent interactions between the refrigerated cases and the building HVAC system, along with some basic heat recovery capabilities. Over the last few years, the refrigeration module has been expanded to handle more complex systems, such as secondary loops, shared condensers, cascade condensers, subcoolers, and walk-in coolers exchanging energy with multiple conditioned zones.

  4. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  5. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The ob curren plannin Dispos yield re to mod plannin to imp (4) det actual * Th th Th co no in pl * In fo op sy as di re de co an * Th en m ha ev sc The pu techni projec Site: H roject: H Report Date: S ited States valuation in Su Why DOE bjective of the r nt Process Simu ng basis for OR sition System P easonable esti del facilities cur ng or operation rove the rate o termine if addit execution of in What th he current Syst hat are limited t hese tools curr omposition, res ot meeting was itial

  6. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  7. Simulating the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity: The IDC method. Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.

    1993-04-01

    A new method to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces is presented. This new method, named IDC (Integration of Directional Coefficients), allows the simulation of the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity, under any sun, sky and ground conditions. The IDC method is based on the combination of scale model photometry and computer-based simulation. Physical scale models are used to experimentally determine a comprehensive set of {open_quotes}directional illuminance coefficients{close_quotes} at reference points of interest, which are then used in analytical, computer-based routines, to determine daylight factors or actual daylight illuminance values under any sun, sky and ground conditions. The main advantage of the IDC method is its applicability to any optically complex environment. Moreover, the computer-based analytical routines are fast enough to allow for hourly simulation of the daylight performance over the course of an entire year. However, the method requires appropriate experimental facilities for the determination of the Directional Coefficients. The IDC method has been implemented and used successfully in inter-validation procedures with various daylight simulation computer programs. Currently, it is used to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems that incorporate optically complex components, such as Venetian blinds, optically treated light shelves and light pipes.

  8. Simulating the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity: The IDC method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.

    1993-04-01

    A new method to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces is presented. This new method, named IDC (Integration of Directional Coefficients), allows the simulation of the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity, under any sun, sky and ground conditions. The IDC method is based on the combination of scale model photometry and computer-based simulation. Physical scale models are used to experimentally determine a comprehensive set of ``directional illuminance coefficients`` at reference points of interest, which are then used in analytical, computer-based routines, to determine daylight factors or actual daylight illuminance values under any sun, sky and ground conditions. The main advantage of the IDC method is its applicability to any optically complex environment. Moreover, the computer-based analytical routines are fast enough to allow for hourly simulation of the daylight performance over the course of an entire year. However, the method requires appropriate experimental facilities for the determination of the Directional Coefficients. The IDC method has been implemented and used successfully in inter-validation procedures with various daylight simulation computer programs. Currently, it is used to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems that incorporate optically comp1ex components, such as Venetian blinds, optically treated light shelves and light pipes.

  9. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the requirements of the end-user are taken into account during the design process and the validity of design is determined through testing of real end users

  10. Modeling and simulation for cyber-physical system security research, development and applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Chavez, Adrian R.; Urrea, Jorge Mario; Pattengale, Nicholas; McDonald, Michael James; Cassidy, Regis H.; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Mulder, John C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid modeling and simulation architecture developed at Sandia for understanding and developing protections against and mitigations for cyber threats upon control systems. It first outlines the challenges to PCS security that can be addressed using these technologies. The paper then describes Virtual Control System Environments (VCSE) that use this approach and briefly discusses security research that Sandia has performed using VCSE. It closes with recommendations to the control systems security community for applying this valuable technology.

  11. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  12. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, David E.

    2014-02-01

    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  13. Equilibrium Structure of a Triblock Copolymer System Revealed by Mesoscale Simulation and Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do, Changwoo [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL] [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    We have performed both mesoscale simulations and neutron scattering experiments on Pluronic L62, a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer system in aqueous solution. The influence of simulation variables such PEO/PPO block ratio, interaction parameters, and coarse-graining methods is extensively investigated by covering all permutations of parameters found in the literatures. Upon increasing the polymer weight fraction from 50 wt% to 90 wt%, the equilibrium structure of the isotropic, reverse micellar, bicontinuous, worm-like micelle network, and lamellar phases are respectively predicted from the simulation depending on the choices of simulation parameters. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the same polymer systems exhibit the spherical micellar, lamellar, and reverse micellar phases with the increase of the copolymer concentration at room temperature. Detailed structural analysis and comparison with simulations suggest that one of the simulation parameter sets can provide reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed structures.

  14. Understanding and Improving CRM and GCM Simulations of Cloud Systems with ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaoqing

    2014-02-25

    The works supported by this ASR project lay the solid foundation for improving the parameterization of convection and clouds in the NCAR CCSM and the climate simulations. We have made a significant use of CRM simulations and ARM observations to produce thermodynamically and dynamically consistent multi-year cloud and radiative properties; improve the GCM simulations of convection, clouds and radiative heating rate and fluxes using the ARM observations and CRM simulations; and understand the seasonal and annual variation of cloud systems and their impacts on climate mean state and variability. We conducted multi-year simulations over the ARM SGP site using the CRM with multi-year ARM forcing data. The statistics of cloud and radiative properties from the long-term CRM simulations were compared and validated with the ARM measurements and value added products (VAP). We evaluated the multi-year climate simulations produced by the GCM with the modified convection scheme. We used multi-year ARM observations and CRM simulations to validate and further improve the trigger condition and revised closure assumption in NCAR GCM simulations that demonstrate the improvement of climate mean state and variability. We combined the improved convection scheme with the mosaic treatment of subgrid cloud distributions in the radiation scheme of the GCM. The mosaic treatment of cloud distributions has been implemented in the GCM with the original convection scheme and enables the use of more realistic cloud amounts as well as cloud water contents in producing net radiative fluxes closer to observations. A physics-based latent heat (LH) retrieval algorithm was developed by parameterizing the physical linkages of observed hydrometeor profiles of cloud and precipitation to the major processes related to the phase change of atmospheric water.

  15. FY2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  16. An approach for the development of an aerodynamic-structural interaction numerical simulation for aeropropulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naziar, J.; Couch, R.; Davis, M.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, aeropropulsion structural performance and aerodynamic performance have been designed separately and later mated together via flight testing. In today`s atmosphere of declining resources, it is imperative that more productive ways of designing and verifying aeropropulsion performance and structural interaction be made available to the aerospace industry. One method of obtaining a more productive design and evaluation capability is through the use of numerical simulations. Currently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a generalized fluid/structural interaction code known as ALE3D. This code is capable of characterizing fluid and structural interaction for components such as the combustor, fan/stators, inlet and/or nozzles. This code solves the 3D Euler equations and has been applied to several aeropropulsion applications such as a supersonic inlet and a combustor rupture simulation. To characterize aerodynamic-structural interaction for rotating components such as the compressor, appropriate turbomachinery simulations would need to be implemented within the ALE3D structure. The Arnold Engineering Development Center is currently developing a three-dimensional compression system code known as TEACC (Turbine Engine Analysis Compressor Code). TEACC also solves the 3D Euler equations and is intended to simulate dynamic behavior such as inlet distortion, surge or rotating stall. The technology being developed within the TEACC effort provides the necessary turbomachinery simulation for implementation into ALE3D. This paper describes a methodology to combine three-dimensional aerodynamic turbomachinery technology into the existing aerodynamic-structural interaction simulation, ALE3D to obtain the desired aerodynamic and structural integrated simulation for an aeropropulsion system.

  17. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  18. Energy Management in Small Commercial Buildings: A Look at How HVAC Contractors Can Deliver Energy Efficiency to this Segment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hult, Erin; Granderson, Jessica; Mathew, Paul

    2014-07-01

    While buildings smaller than 50,000 sq ft account for nearly half of the energy used in US commercial buildings, energy efficiency programs to-date have primarily focused on larger buildings. Interviews with stakeholders and a review of the literature indicate interest in energy efficiency from the small commercial building sector, provided solutions are simple and low-cost. An approach to deliver energy management to small commercial buildings via HVAC contractors and preliminary demonstration findings are presented. The energy management package (EMP) developed includes five technical elements: benchmarking and analysis of monthly energy use; analysis of interval electricity data (if available), a one-hour onsite walkthrough, communication with the building owner, and checking of results. This data-driven approach tracks performance and identifies low-cost opportunities, using guidelines and worksheets for each element to streamline the delivery process and minimize the formal training required. This energy management approach is unique from, but often complementary to conventional quality maintenance or retrofit-focused programs targeting the small commercial segment. Because HVAC contractors already serve these clients, the transaction cost to market and deliver energy management services can be reduced to the order of hundreds of dollars per year. This business model, outlined briefly in this report, enables the offering to benefit the contractor and client even at the modest expected energy savings in small buildings. Results from a small-scale pilot of this approach validated that the EMP could be delivered by contractors in 4-8 hours per building per year, and that energy savings of 3-5percent are feasible through this approach.

  19. Simulating a Nationally Representative Housing Sample Using EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopkins, Asa S.; Lekov, Alex; Lutz, James; Rosenquist, Gregory; Gu, Lixing

    2011-03-04

    This report presents a new simulation tool under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). This tool uses EnergyPlus to simulate each single-family home in the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), and generates a calibrated, nationally representative set of simulated homes whose energy use is statistically indistinguishable from the energy use of the single-family homes in the RECS sample. This research builds upon earlier work by Ritchard et al. for the Gas Research Institute and Huang et al. for LBNL. A representative national sample allows us to evaluate the variance in energy use between individual homes, regions, or other subsamples; using this tool, we can also evaluate how that variance affects the impacts of potential policies. The RECS contains information regarding the construction and location of each sampled home, as well as its appliances and other energy-using equipment. We combined this data with the home simulation prototypes developed by Huang et al. to simulate homes that match the RECS sample wherever possible. Where data was not available, we used distributions, calibrated using the RECS energy use data. Each home was assigned a best-fit location for the purposes of weather and some construction characteristics. RECS provides some detail on the type and age of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in each home; we developed EnergyPlus models capable of reproducing the variety of technologies and efficiencies represented in the national sample. This includes electric, gas, and oil furnaces, central and window air conditioners, central heat pumps, and baseboard heaters. We also developed a model of duct system performance, based on in-home measurements, and integrated this with fan performance to capture the energy use of single- and variable-speed furnace fans, as well as the interaction of duct and fan performance with the efficiency of heating and cooling equipment. Comparison with RECS revealed that EnergyPlus did not capture the heating-side behavior of heat pumps particularly accurately, and that our simple oil furnace and boiler models needed significant recalibration to fit with RECS. Simulating the full RECS sample on a single computer would take many hours, so we used the 'cloud computing' services provided by Amazon.com to simulate dozens of homes at once. This enabled us to simulate the full RECS sample, including multiple versions of each home to evaluate the impact of marginal changes, in less than 3 hours. Once the tool was calibrated, we were able to address several policy questions. We made a simple measurement of the heat replacement effect and showed that the net effect of heat replacement on primary energy use is likely to be less than 5%, relative to appliance-only measures of energy savings. Fuel switching could be significant, however. We also evaluated the national and regional impacts of a variety of 'overnight' changes in building characteristics or occupant behavior, including lighting, home insulation and sealing, HVAC system efficiency, and thermostat settings. For example, our model shows that the combination of increased home insulation and better sealed building shells could reduce residential natural gas use by 34.5% and electricity use by 6.5%, and a 1 degree rise in summer thermostat settings could save 2.1% of home electricity use. These results vary by region, and we present results for each U.S. Census division. We conclude by offering proposals for future work to improve the tool. Some proposed future work includes: comparing the simulated energy use data with the monthly RECS bill data; better capturing the variation in behavior between households, especially as it relates to occupancy and schedules; improving the characterization of recent construction and its regional variation; and extending the general framework of this simulation tool to capture multifamily housing units, such as apartment buildings.

  20. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  1. Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

  2. A computer simulation appraisal of non-residential low energy cooling systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourassa, Norman; Haves, Philip; Huang, Joe

    2002-05-17

    An appraisal of the potential performance of different Low Energy Cooling (LEC) systems in nonresidential buildings in California is being conducted using computer simulation. The paper presents results from the first phase of the study, which addressed the systems that can be modeled, with the DOE-2.1E simulation program. The following LEC technologies were simulated as variants of a conventional variable-air-volume system with vapor compression cooling and mixing ventilation in the occupied spaces: Air-side indirect and indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beams. Displacement ventilation. Results are presented for four populous climates, represented by Oakland, Sacramento, Pasadena and San Diego. The greatest energy savings are obtained from a combination of displacement ventilation and air-side indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beam systems have the lowest peak demand but do not reduce energy consumption significantly because the reduction in fan energy is offse t by a reduction in air-side free cooling. Overall, the results indicate significant opportunities for LEC technologies to reduce energy consumption and demand in nonresidential new construction and retrofit.

  3. An adaptive multi-level simulation algorithm for stochastic biological systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lester, C. Giles, M. B.; Baker, R. E.; Yates, C. A.

    2015-01-14

    Discrete-state, continuous-time Markov models are widely used in the modeling of biochemical reaction networks. Their complexity often precludes analytic solution, and we rely on stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA) to estimate system statistics. The Gillespie algorithm is exact, but computationally costly as it simulates every single reaction. As such, approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap algorithm are often used. Potentially computationally more efficient, the system statistics generated suffer from significant bias unless tau is relatively small, in which case the computational time can be comparable to that of the Gillespie algorithm. The multi-level method [Anderson and Higham, “Multi-level Monte Carlo for continuous time Markov chains, with applications in biochemical kinetics,” SIAM Multiscale Model. Simul. 10(1), 146–179 (2012)] tackles this problem. A base estimator is computed using many (cheap) sample paths at low accuracy. The bias inherent in this estimator is then reduced using a number of corrections. Each correction term is estimated using a collection of paired sample paths where one path of each pair is generated at a higher accuracy compared to the other (and so more expensive). By sharing random variables between these paired paths, the variance of each correction estimator can be reduced. This renders the multi-level method very efficient as only a relatively small number of paired paths are required to calculate each correction term. In the original multi-level method, each sample path is simulated using the tau-leap algorithm with a fixed value of ?. This approach can result in poor performance when the reaction activity of a system changes substantially over the timescale of interest. By introducing a novel adaptive time-stepping approach where ? is chosen according to the stochastic behaviour of each sample path, we extend the applicability of the multi-level method to such cases. We demonstrate the efficiency of our method using a number of examples.

  4. Simulation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single cell protein from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to simulate the operation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single-cell algal protein from a variety of biomass energy crops or waste streams. Economic analysis was performed at the end of each simulation. The model was capable of assisting in the determination of design parameters by providing relative economic information for various strategies. Three configurations of anaerobic reactors were simulated. These included fed-bed reactors, conventional stirred tank reactors, and continuously expanding reactors. A generic anaerobic digestion process model, using lumped substrate parameters, was developed for use by type-specific reactor models. The generic anaerobic digestion model provided a tool for the testing of conversion efficiencies and kinetic parameters for a wide range of substrate types and reactor designs. Dynamic growth models were used to model the growth of algae and Eichornia crassipes was modeled as a function of daily incident radiation and temperature. The growth of Eichornia crassipes was modeled for the production of biomass as a substrate for digestion. Computer simulations with the system model indicated that tropical or subtropical locations offered the most promise for a viable system. The availability of large quantities of digestible waste and low land prices were found to be desirable in order to take advantage of the economies of scale. Other simulations indicated that poultry and swine manure produced larger biogas yields than cattle manure. The model was created in a modular fashion to allow for testing of a wide variety of unit operations. Coding was performed in the Pascal language for use on personal computers.

  5. CFD-based design of the ventilation system for the PHENIX detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parietti, L.; Martin, R.A.; Gregory, W.S.

    1996-10-01

    The three-dimensional flow and thermal fields surrounding the large PHENIX sub-atomic particle detector enclosed in the Major Facility Hall are simulated numerically in this study using the CFX finite volume, commercial, computer code. The predicted fields result from the interaction of an imposed downward ventilation system cooling flow and a buoyancy-driven thermal plume rising from the warm detector. An understanding of the thermal irregularities on the surface of the detector and in the flow surrounding is needed to assess the potential for adverse thermal expansion effects in detector subsystems, and to prevent ingestion of electronics cooling air from hot spots. With a computational model of the thermal fields on and surrounding the detector, HVAC engineers can evaluate and improve the ventilation system design prior to the start of construction. This paper summarizes modeling and results obtained for a conceptual MFH ventilation scheme.

  6. Facilitating Co-Design for Extreme-Scale Systems Through Lightweight Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, Christian; Lauer, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on tools for investigating algorithm performance at extreme scale with millions of concurrent threads and for evaluating the impact of future architecture choices to facilitate the co-design of high-performance computing (HPC) architectures and applications. The approach focuses on lightweight simulation of extreme-scale HPC systems with the needed amount of accuracy. The prototype presented in this paper is able to provide this capability using a parallel discrete event simulation (PDES), such that a Message Passing Interface (MPI) application can be executed at extreme scale, and its performance properties can be evaluated. The results of an initial prototype are encouraging as a simple 'hello world' MPI program could be scaled up to 1,048,576 virtual MPI processes on a four-node cluster, and the performance properties of two MPI programs could be evaluated at up to 16,384 virtual MPI processes on the same system.

  7. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.

    2010-06-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

  8. Systems simulation of cotton gin waste as a supplemental fuel in a coal powered generating plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parnell, C.B.; Grubaugh, E.K.; Johnston, M.T.; Ladd, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    A systems simulation model of gin trash use at a Lamb County, Texas, power plant was developed. The model is being used to study gin trash supply, both quantity and transportation, fixed and variable cost, and economic benefit/costs of gin trash utilization. Preliminary results indicate the positive feasibility of using gin trash as a supplemental fuel in a coal fired power plant. (MHR)

  9. Minimizing System Noise Effects For Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation Through Function Delegation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, Jack J.; Bosilca, George

    2013-06-11

    The primary goal of the Minimizing System Noise Effects For Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation through Function Delegation project is to eliminate or at best strongly minimize the impact of the noise introduced by the operating system, during large scale parallel applications runs. Collective communication operations are a basic building block for parallel programing models and scientific applications. These operations often dominate execution time of applications and tend to limit their scalability. In order to address this challenge, we evaluated different strategies to adapt the collective communications underlying topologies to the hardware architecture in order to provide increased levels of performance to the parallel applications.

  10. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  11. Knowledge system and method for simulating chemical controlled release device performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Christina E.; Van Voris, Peter; Streile, Gary P.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Burton, Frederick G.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge system for simulating the performance of a controlled release device is provided. The system includes an input device through which the user selectively inputs one or more data parameters. The data parameters comprise first parameters including device parameters, media parameters, active chemical parameters and device release rate; and second parameters including the minimum effective inhibition zone of the device and the effective lifetime of the device. The system also includes a judgemental knowledge base which includes logic for 1) determining at least one of the second parameters from the release rate and the first parameters and 2) determining at least one of the first parameters from the other of the first parameters and the second parameters. The system further includes a device for displaying the results of the determinations to the user.

  12. On computing stress in polymer systems involving multi-body potentials from molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Yao E-mail: jhsong@cec.sc.edu; Song, Jeong-Hoon E-mail: jhsong@cec.sc.edu

    2014-08-07

    Hardy stress definition has been restricted to pair potentials and embedded-atom method potentials due to the basic assumptions in the derivation of a symmetric microscopic stress tensor. Force decomposition required in the Hardy stress expression becomes obscure for multi-body potentials. In this work, we demonstrate the invariance of the Hardy stress expression for a polymer system modeled with multi-body interatomic potentials including up to four atoms interaction, by applying central force decomposition of the atomic force. The balance of momentum has been demonstrated to be valid theoretically and tested under various numerical simulation conditions. The validity of momentum conservation justifies the extension of Hardy stress expression to multi-body potential systems. Computed Hardy stress has been observed to converge to the virial stress of the system with increasing spatial averaging volume. This work provides a feasible and reliable linkage between the atomistic and continuum scales for multi-body potential systems.

  13. Equation-based languages – A new paradigm for building energy modeling, simulation and optimization

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wetter, Michael; Bonvini, Marco; Nouidui, Thierry S.

    2016-04-01

    Most of the state-of-the-art building simulation programs implement models in imperative programming languages. This complicates modeling and excludes the use of certain efficient methods for simulation and optimization. In contrast, equation-based modeling languages declare relations among variables, thereby allowing the use of computer algebra to enable much simpler schematic modeling and to generate efficient code for simulation and optimization. We contrast the two approaches in this paper. We explain how such manipulations support new use cases. In the first of two examples, we couple models of the electrical grid, multiple buildings, HVAC systems and controllers to test a controller thatmore » adjusts building room temperatures and PV inverter reactive power to maintain power quality. In the second example, we contrast the computing time for solving an optimal control problem for a room-level model predictive controller with and without symbolic manipulations. As a result, exploiting the equation-based language led to 2, 200 times faster solution« less

  14. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures: September 2011 … December 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures Created as part of subcontract with period of performance September 2011 - December 2014 Jeff Romberger SBW Consulting, Inc. Bellevue, Washington NREL Technical Monitor: Charles Kurnik Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A40-63167 November 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable

  15. WASTES-II: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation--Release 24: User's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    WASTES models each reactor pool and an at-reactor, out-of-pool (ex-pool) storage facility for each reactor site. Spent fuel transfers between pools can be simulated under various constraints controlled by user input. In addition to simulating each pool and ex-pool facility, WASTES can accommodate up to ten other storage facilities of four different types: federal interim storage (FIS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS), auxiliary plants, and repositories. Considerable flexibility is allowed for the user to specify system configuration and priorities for fuel receipts. In addition, the WASTES computer code simulates very detailed (assembly-specific) movements of spent fuel throughout the waste management system. Spent fuel characteristics that are tracked by WASTES for each movement are: discharge year and month, number of assemblies, weight of uranium (MTU), exposure, original enrichment, and heat generation rate (calculated from the preceding characteristics). Data for the WASTES model is based upon the DOE reactor-specific spent fuel data base, which is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). In addition to the spent fuel characteristics, this data includes reactor location, type, transportation access, and historical and projected discharge data on the number of fuel assemblies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors and perform reasonably well. The Simulink modeling platform has been mainly used worldwide on simulation of control systems, digital signal processing and electric circuits, but there are very few examples of application to solar energy systems modeling. This work uses the modular environment of Simulink/Matlab to model individual PV/T system components, and to assemble the entire installation layout. The results show that the modular approach strategy provided by Matlab/Simulink environment is applicable to solar systems modeling, providing good code scalability, faster developing time, and simpler integration with external computational tools, when compared with traditional imperative-oriented programming languages. (author)

  17. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Market Share of Major HVAC Equipment Manufacturers ($2009 Million) Air-Handling Units 1032 Cooling Towers 533 Pumps 333 Central System Terminal Boxes 192 Classroom Unit Ventilator 160 Fan Coil Units 123 Source(s): Total Market Size BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table 4-1, p. 4-4; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for price

  18. Geostatistical Simulation of Hydrofacies Heterogeneity of the West Thessaly Aquifer Systems in Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modis, K. Sideri, D.

    2013-06-15

    Integrating geological properties, such as relative positions and proportions of different hydrofacies, is of highest importance in order to render realistic geological patterns. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and Plurigaussian simulation (PS) are alternative methods for conceptual and deterministic modeling for the characterization of hydrofacies distribution. In this work, we studied the spatial differentiation of hydrofacies in the alluvial aquifer system of West Thessaly basin in Greece. For this, we applied both SIS and PS techniques to an extensive set of borehole data from that basin. Histograms of model versus experimental hydrofacies proportions and indicative cross sections were plotted in order to validate the results. The PS technique was shown to be more effective in reproducing the spatial characteristics of the different hydrofacies and their distribution across the study area. In addition, the permeability differentiations reflected in the PS model are in accordance to known heterogeneities of the aquifer capacity.

  19. Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems: A Benchmarking and Code Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; White, Mark D.; White, Signe K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Purohit, Sumit; Black, Gary D.; Podgorney, Robert; Boyd, Lauren W.; Phillips, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-30

    Numerical simulation codes have become critical tools for understanding complex geologic processes, as applied to technology assessment, system design, monitoring, and operational guidance. Recently the need for quantitatively evaluating coupled Thermodynamic, Hydrologic, geoMechanical, and geoChemical (THMC) processes has grown, driven by new applications such as geologic sequestration of greenhouse gases and development of unconventional energy sources. Here we focus on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), which are man-made geothermal reservoirs created where hot rock exists but there is insufficient natural permeability and/or pore fluids to allow efficient energy extraction. In an EGS, carefully controlled subsurface fluid injection is performed to enhance the permeability of pre-existing fractures, which facilitates fluid circulation and heat transport. EGS technologies are relatively new, and pose significant simulation challenges. To become a trusted analytical tool for EGS, numerical simulation codes must be tested to demonstrate that they adequately represent the coupled THMC processes of concern. This presentation describes the approach and status of a benchmarking and code intercomparison effort currently underway, supported by the U. S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Program. This study is being closely coordinated with a parallel international effort sponsored by the International Partnership for Geothermal Technology (IPGT). We have defined an extensive suite of benchmark problems, test cases, and challenge problems, ranging in complexity and difficulty, and a number of modeling teams are applying various simulation tools to these problems. The descriptions of the problems and modeling results are being compiled using the Velo framework, a scientific workflow and data management environment accessible through a simple web-based interface.

  20. Policy Strategies and Paths to promote Sustainable Energy Systems- The dynamic Invert Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Kranzl, Lukas; Huber, Claus; Haas, Reinhard; Tsioliaridou, Elena

    2006-05-01

    The European Union has established a number of targetsregarding energy efficiency, Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and CO2reductions as the 'GREEN PAPER on Energy Efficiency', the Directive for'promotion of the use of bio-fuels or other renewable fuels fortransport' or 'Directive of the European Parliament of the Council on thepromotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internalenergy market'. A lot of the according RES and RUE measures are notattractive for investors from an economic point of view. Thereforegovernmentsall over the world have to spend public money to promotethese technologies/measures to bring them into market. These expenditureshave to be adjusted to budget concerns and should be spent mostefficiently. Therefore, the spent money has to be dedicated totechnologies and efficiency measures with the best yield in CO2 reductionwithout wasting money. The core question: "How can public money - forpromoting sustainable energy systems - be spent most efficiently toreduce GHG-emissions?" has been well investigated by the European projectInvert. In course of this project a simulation tool has been designed toanswer this core question. This paper describes the modelling with theInvert simulation tool and shows the key features necessary forsimulating the energy system. A definition of 'Promotion SchemeEfficiency' is given which allows estimating the most cost effectivetechnologies and/or efficiency measures to reduce CO2 emissions.Investigations performed with the Invert simulation tool deliver anoptimum portfolio mix of technologies and efficiency measures for eachselected region. Within Invert seven European regions were simulated andfor the Austrian case study the detailed portfolio mix is shown andpolitical conclusions are derived.

  1. simulations | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    simulations

  2. A simulation study of the behavior of a two-stage turbocharging system during surge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheese, P.; Hetet, J.F.; Tauzia, X.; Roy, P.; Inozu, B.

    1996-12-31

    Turbocharger matching for a high rated two-stage turbocharged Diesel engine is rather difficult due to the power balance between the two turbocharger stages. Compressor surge is a predominant factor, especially for naval applications for which operation ranges are quite wide. In this paper, a simulation study of a two-stage turbocharged system that includes a low pressure and a high pressure compressor is presented. Equations that are specific to such a system are added to a basic model and the resulting set of equations is solved using ACSL. The influence of the geometry of the charging air system on the compressor surge is analyzed according to the primary engine parameters (cylinder pressure, engine speed and distribution diagram)

  3. Analytical simulation of nonlinear response to seismic test excitations of HDR-VKL piping system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A. ); Mojtahed, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic tests with simulated earthquake excitation (SHAM) were performed during April--May 1988 on the Versuchskreislauf (VKL) piping system at the Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, Federal Republic of Germany. The major objectives of these tests were to study the behavior of a full-scale in-plant piping system subjected to a range of seismic excitation levels (from design levels to those that might induce either failure of pipe supports or plasticity in the pipe runs) and to establish seismic margins for piping and pipe supports. Data obtained in the tests are also being used to validate analytical methods for piping response calculation. Detailed reports on the SHAM experiments are given elsewhere by Kot et al. (1990). This paper describes an effort to evaluate the computer code NONPIPE (proprietary to Nutech Engineers) with data from one of the SHAM tests. NONPIPE is a nonlinear finite-element program capable of calculating the elastic-plastic response of piping systems subjected to seismic excitation. The special characteristic of this code is the simplified or approximate approach it uses for modeling the elastic behavior which makes the calculations relatively less resource intensive than those of other nonlinear codes. The evaluation is based on a comparison of computational results of simulation of a SHAM test with corresponding test measurements. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Miller, William A; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-01-01

    Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.

  5. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  6. Final Report: Model interacting particle systems for simulation and macroscopic description of particulate suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Mucha

    2007-08-30

    Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation. (7) Parallelization of Mucha's 'sort-and-sweep' sedimentation code.

  7. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-06-20

    FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less

  8. Design and Optimization of Large Accelerator Systems through High-Fidelity Electromagnetic Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Cho; Akcelik, Volkan; Candel, Arno; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zenghai; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar1, Ravi; Xiao1, Liling; Ko1, Kwok; Austin, T.; Cary, J.R.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Smith, D.N.; Werner, G.R.; Bellantoni, L.; /SLAC /TechX Corp. /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    SciDAC1, with its support for the 'Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology' (AST) project, witnessed dramatic advances in electromagnetic (EM) simulations for the design and optimization of important accelerators across the Office of Science. In SciDAC2, EM simulations continue to play an important role in the 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation' (ComPASS), through close collaborations with SciDAC CETs/Institutes in computational science. Existing codes will be improved and new multi-physics tools will be developed to model large accelerator systems with unprecedented realism and high accuracy using computing resources at petascale. These tools aim at targeting the most challenging problems facing the ComPASS project. Supported by advances in computational science research, they have been successfully applied to the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in High Energy Physics (HEP), the JLab 12-GeV Upgrade in Nuclear Physics (NP), as well as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

  9. A Report on Simulation-Driven Reliability and Failure Analysis of Large-Scale Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Lipeng; Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H. Sarp; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Cao, Qing

    2014-11-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems provide data availability and reliability using various hardware and software fault tolerance techniques. Usually, reliability and availability are calculated at the subsystem or component level using limited metrics such as, mean time to failure (MTTF) or mean time to data loss (MTTDL). This often means settling on simple and disconnected failure models (such as exponential failure rate) to achieve tractable and close-formed solutions. However, such models have been shown to be insufficient in assessing end-to-end storage system reliability and availability. We propose a generic simulation framework aimed at analyzing the reliability and availability of storage systems at scale, and investigating what-if scenarios. The framework is designed for an end-to-end storage system, accommodating the various components and subsystems, their interconnections, failure patterns and propagation, and performs dependency analysis to capture a wide-range of failure cases. We evaluate the framework against a large-scale storage system that is in production and analyze its failure projections toward and beyond the end of lifecycle. We also examine the potential operational impact by studying how different types of components affect the overall system reliability and availability, and present the preliminary results

  10. Comparison of the Accuracy and Speed of Transient Mobile A/C System Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Lustbader, J.

    2014-03-01

    The operation of air conditioning (A/C) systems is a significant contributor to the total amount of fuel used by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. Therefore, continued improvement of the efficiency of these mobile A/C systems is important. Numerical simulation has been used to reduce the system development time and to improve the electronic controls, but numerical models that include highly detailed physics run slower than desired for carrying out vehicle-focused drive cycle-based system optimization. Therefore, faster models are needed even if some accuracy is sacrificed. In this study, a validated model with highly detailed physics, the 'Fully-Detailed' model, and two models with different levels of simplification, the 'Quasi-Transient' and the 'Mapped- Component' models, are compared. The Quasi-Transient model applies some simplifications compared to the Fully-Detailed model to allow faster model execution speeds. The Mapped-Component model is similar to the Quasi-Transient model except instead of detailed flow and heat transfer calculations in the heat exchangers, it uses lookup tables created with the Quasi-Transient model. All three models are set up to represent the same physical A/C system and the same electronic controls. Speed and results of the three model versions are compared for steady state and transient operation. Steady state simulated data are also compared to measured data. The results show that the Quasi-Transient and Mapped-Component models ran much faster than the Fully-Detailed model, on the order of 10- and 100-fold, respectively. They also adequately approach the results of the Fully-Detailed model for steady-state operation, and for drive cycle-based efficiency predictions

  11. Buildings Energy Data Book: 7.3 Efficiency Standards for Residential HVAC

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Efficiency Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps (1) Type SEER (3) HSPF (4) Split System Air Conditioners 13.0 -- Split System Heat Pumps 13.0 7.7 Single Package Air Conditioners 13.0 -- Single Package Heat Pumps 13.0 7.7 Through-the-Wall Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: -Split System (2) 10.9 7.1 -Single Package (2) 10.6 7.0 Small Duct, High Velocity Systems 13.0 7.7 Space Constrained Products -Air Conditioners 12.0 -- -Heat Pumps 12.0 7.4 Note(s): Source(s): 1)

  12. User manual for IOSYM: an input-oriented simulation language for continuous systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polito, J.

    1981-03-01

    IOSYM is an extension of the GASP IV simulation language. It permits systems which are sequences of continuous processes to be modeled graphically. Normally the system can be described by data input only. The language permits stochastic sequencing and termination criteria for processes and allows crossing conditions for ending operations that are more general than GASP IV. Extensive capability exists for conditional branching and logical modification of the network. IOSYM has been used to model the cost of geothermal drilling where the various costly processes of drilling are represented by IOSYM operations. The language is much more general, however, since it retains most of GASP IV's discrete event capabilities and permits easy modeling of continuous processes.

  13. Grand Challenges in Modeling, Simulation and Analysis: Extraction and Visualization of Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Steven J; Omitaomu, Olufemi A

    2010-01-01

    Threats to the national electric power grid often require the coupling of real-time state data with look-ahead or forecasting models to provide timely disruption warnings. However, successful accomplishment of this capability presents a grand challenge in modeling, simulation, and analysis. Analysis of inter-area oscillatory modes may provide a new path to anticipate power system stability and address this grand challenge. An algorithm is presented for the identification and analysis of such modes from high resolution phasor measurement data that might indicate a pathway to meet this grand challenge. The process outlined includes data collection, conditioning, extraction of the primary oscillatory frequency, and determination of participating areas of the system.

  14. Occupancy Simulation in Three Residential Research Houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Gehl, Anthony C; Christian, Jeffrey E

    2012-01-01

    Three houses of similar floor plan are being compared for energy consumption. The first house is a typical builder house of 2400 ft2 (223 m2) in east Tennessee. The second house contains retrofits available to a home owner such as energy efficient appliances, windows and HVAC, as well as an insulated attic which contains HVAC duct work. The third house was built using optimum-value framing construction with photovoltaic modules and solar water heating. To consume energy researchers have set up appliances, lights, and plug loads to turn on and off automatically according to a schedule based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition. As energy efficiency continues to be a focus for protecting the environment and conserving resources, experiments involving whole house energy consumption will be done. In these cases it is important to understand how to simulate occupancy so that data represents only house performance and not human behavior. The process for achieving automated occupancy simulation will be discussed. Data comparing the energy use of each house will be presented and it will be shown that the third house used 66% less and the second house used 36% less energy than the control house in 2010. The authors will discuss how energy prudent living habits can further reduce energy use in the third house by 23% over the average American family living in the same house.

  15. Award ER25844: Minimizing System Noise Effects for Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation Through Function Delegation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    In software running on distributed computing clusters, time spent on communication between nodes in the cluster can be a significant portion of the overall computation time; background operating system tasks and other computational ?noise? on the nodes of the system can have a significant impact on the amount of time this communication takes, especially on large systems. The research completed in this period has improved understanding of when such noise will have a significant impact. Specifically, it was demonstrated that not just noise on the nodes, but also noise on the network between nodes can have a significant impact on computation time. It was also demonstrated that noise patterns matter more than noise intensity: very regular noise can cause less disruption than lighter (on average) but less regular noise. It was also demonstrated that the effect of noise is more prominent as the speed of the network between nodes is increased. Furthermore, a tracing tool, Netgauge, was improved via our work, and a system simulator, LogGOPSim, was developed; they can be used by application developers to improve performance of their program and by system designers to mitigate the effects of noise by adjusting the noise characteristics of the operating system. Both have been made freely available as open source programs. In the course of developing these tools, we demonstrated weaknesses in existing methodologies for modeling communication, and we introduced a more detailed model, LogGOPS, for simulating systems. Not only were the deleterious effects of noise explored but we have also offered solutions. Our studies of simulations of system noise have led to specific recommendations on tuning systems to mitigate noise. We have also improved existing approaches to mitigating noise. ?Non-blocking collective communication? avoids the effects of noise by letting communication continue simultaneously with computation (thus being ?non-blocking?), so that the delays in communication introduced by noise have a smaller impact on overall computation time. Potentially, noise can be reduced much further by ?offloading? communication tasks to a separate processing element than the operating system is using. We have improved our library LibNBC, which provides an implementation of non-blocking collectives, via this work. During this research, our proposal to include non-blocking collectives (which used LibNBC as a reference implementation) in the upcoming MPI-3 standard was accepted. As MPI is a ubiquitous and important standard for communication in parallel computing, this demonstrates a certain acceptance of the practicality and desirability of non-blocking collectives. Now that non-blocking collectives are a part of the standard we can expect to see optimized platform-specific implementations of non-blocking collectives. Also as part of this work we have also developed a language GOAL (Global Operation Assembly Language) that can be used as a starting point for defining languages to express optimized communication algorithms.

  16. Issue #7: What are the Best HVAC Solutions for Low-Load, High Performance Homes?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    What components and controls are required to implement the "perfect," cost-effective, production-level low-load space conditioning systems for all major U.S. climate regions?

  17. ParaDyn Implementation in the US Navy's DYSMAS Simulation System: FY08 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferencz, R M; DeGroot, A J; Lin, J I; Zywicz, E; Durrenberger, J K; Sherwood, R J; Corey, I R

    2008-07-29

    The goal of this project is to increase the computational efficiency and capacity of the Navy's DYSMAS simulation system for full ship shock response to underwater explosion. Specifically, this project initiates migration to a parallel processing capability for the structural portion of the overall fluid-structure interaction model. The capstone objective for the first phase is to demonstrate operation of the DYSMAS simulation engine with a production model on a Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHD) parallel platform using the ParaDyn code for parallel processing of the structural dynamics. This year saw a successful launch to integrate ParaDyn, the high-parallel structural dynamics code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), into the DYSMAS system for simulating the response of ship structures to underwater explosion (UNDEX). The current LLNL version of DYNA3D, representing ten years of general development beyond the source branch used to initiate DYNA-N customization for DYSMAS, was first connected to the GEMINI flow code through DYSMAS Standard Coupler Interface (SCI). This permitted an early 'sanity check' by Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division (NSWC-IHD) personnel that equivalent results were generated for their standard UNDEX test problems, thus ensuring the Verification & Validation pedigree they have developed remains intact. The ParaDyn code was then joined to the SCI in a manner requiring no changes to GEMINI. Three NSWC-IHD engineers were twice hosted at LLNL to become familiar with LLNL computer systems, the execution of the prototype software system, and to begin assessment of its accuracy and performance. Scaling data for the flow solver GEMINI was attained up to a one billion cell, 1000 processor run. The NSWC-IHD engineers were granted privileges to continue their evaluations through remote connections to LLNL's Open Computing Facility. Finally, the prototype changes were integrated into the mainline ParaDyn source repository and issued as part of its Version 8.1 beta release. This source was transmitted to NSWC-IHD and in collaboration with LLNL personnel the entire ParaDyn software suite successfully installed and demonstrated on its new SGI Altix machine. The ability of even minor numbers of processors for the structural dynamics to impact overall time-to-solution for DYSMAS has been demonstrated. Assessments of combined parallel efficiencies are beginning to highlight areas for further DYSMAS optimizations.

  18. Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) for the Mid-Columbia Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Waight, K; Manobianco, J; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region, which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area (Figure 1) that includes the Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. There are two tasks in the current project effort designed to validate the Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) observational system deployment approach in order to move closer to the overall goal: (1) Perform an Observing System Experiment (OSE) using a data denial approach. The results of this task are presented in a separate report. (2) Conduct a set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) for the Mid-Colombia basin region. This report presents the results of the OSSE task. The specific objective is to test strategies for future deployment of observing systems in order to suggest the best and most efficient ways to improve wind forecasting at BPA wind farm locations. OSSEs have been used for many years in meteorology to evaluate the potential impact of proposed observing systems, determine tradeoffs in instrument design, and study the most effective data assimilation methodologies to incorporate the new observations into numerical weather prediction (NWP) models (Atlas 1997; Lord 1997). For this project, a series of OSSEs will allow consideration of the impact of new observing systems of various types and in various locations.

  19. Stochastic Modeling of Overtime Occupancy and Its Application in Building Energy Simulation and Calibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Kaiyu; Yan , Da; Hong , Tianzhen; Guo, Siyue

    2014-02-28

    Overtime is a common phenomenon around the world. Overtime drives both internal heat gains from occupants, lighting and plug-loads, and HVAC operation during overtime periods. Overtime leads to longer occupancy hours and extended operation of building services systems beyond normal working hours, thus overtime impacts total building energy use. Current literature lacks methods to model overtime occupancy because overtime is stochastic in nature and varies by individual occupants and by time. To address this gap in the literature, this study aims to develop a new stochastic model based on the statistical analysis of measured overtime occupancy data from an office building. A binomial distribution is used to represent the total number of occupants working overtime, while an exponential distribution is used to represent the duration of overtime periods. The overtime model is used to generate overtime occupancy schedules as an input to the energy model of a second office building. The measured and simulated cooling energy use during the overtime period is compared in order to validate the overtime model. A hybrid approach to energy model calibration is proposed and tested, which combines ASHRAE Guideline 14 for the calibration of the energy model during normal working hours, and a proposed KS test for the calibration of the energy model during overtime. The developed stochastic overtime model and the hybrid calibration approach can be used in building energy simulations to improve the accuracy of results, and better understand the characteristics of overtime in office buildings.

  20. Simulation of integrated pollutant removal (IPR) water-treatment system using ASPEN Plus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshcyhn, Danylo [U.S. DOE Ochs, Thomas [U.S. DOE Gerdemann, Stephen; Clark, John

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion provides an opportunity for tapping a significant water source which can be used as service water for a capture-ready power plant and its peripherals. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process—Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRź)—that uses off-the-shelf technology to produce a sequestration ready CO2 stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. Water condensed from oxy-combustion flue gas via the IPR system has been analyzed for composition and an approach for its treatment—for in-process reuse and for release—has been outlined. A computer simulation model in ASPEN Plus has been developed to simulate water treatment of flue gas derived wastewater from IPR systems. At the field installation, water condensed in the IPR process contains fly ash particles, sodium (largely from spray-tower buffering) and sulfur species as well as heavy metals, cations, and anions. An IPR wastewater treatment system was modeled using unit operations such as equalization, coagulation and flocculation, reverse osmosis, lime softening, crystallization, and pH correction. According to the model results, 70% (by mass) of the inlet stream can be treated as pure water, the other 20% yields as saleable products such as gypsum (CaSO4) and salt (NaCl) and the remaining portion is the waste. More than 99% of fly ash particles are removed in the coagulation and flocculation unit and these solids can be used as filler materials in various applications with further treatment. Results discussed relate to a slipstream IPR installation and are verified experimentally in the coagulation/flocculation step.

  1. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants. Phase 1, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blahnik, D.E.; Klein, R.F.

    1993-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems of nuclear power plants. Centrifugal chillers in the 75- to 750-ton refrigeration capacity range are the predominant type used. The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant-to-plant. It is crucial to keep chiller internals very clean and to prevent the leakage of water, air, and other contaminants into the refrigerant containment system. Periodic operation on a weekly or monthly basis is necessary to remove moisture and noncondensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. This is especially desirable if a chiller is required to operate only as an emergency standby unit. The primary stressors and aging mechanisms that affect chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. Aging is accelerated by moisture, non-condensable gases (e.g., air), dirt, and other contamination within the refrigerant containment system, excessive start/stop cycling, and operating below the rated capacity. Aging is also accelerated by corrosion and fouling of the condenser and evaporator tubes. The principal cause of chiller failures is lack of adequate monitoring. Lack of performing scheduled maintenance and human errors also contribute to failures.

  2. Simulation of one-minute power output from utility-scale photovoltaic generation systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2011-08-01

    We present an approach to simulate time-synchronized, one-minute power output from large photovoltaic (PV) generation plants in locations where only hourly irradiance estimates are available from satellite sources. The approach uses one-minute irradiance measurements from ground sensors in a climatically and geographically similar area. Irradiance is translated to power using the Sandia Array Performance Model. Power output is generated for 2007 in southern Nevada are being used for a Solar PV Grid Integration Study to estimate the integration costs associated with various utility-scale PV generation levels. Plant designs considered include both fixed-tilt thin-film, and single-axis-tracked polycrystalline Si systems ranging in size from 5 to 300 MW{sub AC}. Simulated power output profiles at one-minute intervals were generated for five scenarios defined by total PV capacity (149.5 MW, 222 WM, 292 MW, 492 MW, and 892 MW) each comprising as many as 10 geographically separated PV plants.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-07-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent).

  5. Project W-320, 241-C-106 sluicing HVAC calculations, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-08-07

    This supporting document has been prepared to make the FDNW calculations for Project W-320, readily retrievable. The report contains the following calculations: Exhaust airflow sizing for Tank 241-C-106; Equipment sizing and selection recirculation fan; Sizing high efficiency mist eliminator; Sizing electric heating coil; Equipment sizing and selection of recirculation condenser; Chiller skid system sizing and selection; High efficiency metal filter shielding input and flushing frequency; and Exhaust skid stack sizing and fan sizing.

  6. CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Gold Certification | Department of Energy The case study highlights a Cook Composites and Polymers Co. (CCP) plant in Houston, Texas, as one of the first participants in the Superior Energy Performance (SEP) plant certification program. PDF icon Cook Composites and Polymers Company Achieves Superior Energy Performance Gold Certification (June 2011) More Documents & Publications Freescale Semiconductor Successfully Implements an Energy Management System Superior Energy Performance Fact

  7. Development of an Advanced Stimulation / Production Predictive Simulator for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pritchett, John W.

    2015-04-15

    There are several well-known obstacles to the successful deployment of EGS projects on a commercial scale, of course. EGS projects are expected to be deeper, on the average, than conventional “natural” geothermal reservoirs, and drilling costs are already a formidable barrier to conventional geothermal projects. Unlike conventional resources (which frequently announce their presence with natural manifestations such as geysers, hot springs and fumaroles), EGS prospects are likely to appear fairly undistinguished from the earth surface. And, of course, the probable necessity of fabricating a subterranean fluid circulation network to mine the heat from the rock (instead of simply relying on natural, pre-existing permeable fractures) adds a significant degree of uncertainty to the prospects for success. Accordingly, the basic motivation for the work presented herein was to try to develop a new set of tools that would be more suitable for this purpose. Several years ago, the Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office recognized this need and funded a cost-shared grant to our company (then SAIC, now Leidos) to partner with Geowatt AG of Zurich, Switzerland and undertake the development of a new reservoir simulator that would be more suitable for EGS forecasting than the existing tools. That project has now been completed and a new numerical geothermal reservoir simulator has been developed. It is named “HeatEx” (for “Heat Extraction”) and is almost completely new, although its methodology owes a great deal to other previous geothermal software development efforts, including Geowatt’s “HEX-S” code, the STAR and SPFRAC simulators developed here at SAIC/Leidos, the MINC approach originally developed at LBNL, and tracer analysis software originally formulated at INEL. Furthermore, the development effort was led by engineers with many years of experience in using reservoir simulation software to make meaningful forecasts for real geothermal projects, not just software designers. It is hoped that, as a result, HeatEx will prove useful during the early stages of the development of EGS technology. The basic objective was to design a tool that could use field data that are likely to become available during the early phases of an EGS project (that is, during initial reconnaissance and fracture stimulation operations) to guide forecasts of the longer-term behavior of the system during production and heat-mining.

  8. Billion-atom synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of critical 3D Ising systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, E.; Monasterio, P.R.; Marian, J.

    2011-02-20

    An extension of the synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (spkMC) algorithm developed by Martinez et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 227 (2008) 3804] to discrete lattices is presented. The method solves the master equation synchronously by recourse to null events that keep all processors' time clocks current in a global sense. Boundary conflicts are resolved by adopting a chessboard decomposition into non-interacting sublattices. We find that the bias introduced by the spatial correlations attendant to the sublattice decomposition is within the standard deviation of serial calculations, which confirms the statistical validity of our algorithm. We have analyzed the parallel efficiency of spkMC and find that it scales consistently with problem size and sublattice partition. We apply the method to the calculation of scale-dependent critical exponents in billion-atom 3D Ising systems, with very good agreement with state-of-the-art multispin simulations.

  9. 2014-12-22 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition, and Compliance for Commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding alternative efficiency determination methods, basic model definition, and compliance for commercial HVAC, refrigeration, and water heating equipment , as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on December 22, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  10. Aging assessment of essential HVAC chillers used in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blahnik, D.E.; Camp, T.W.

    1996-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive aging assessment of chillers used in the essential safety air-conditioning systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The chillers used, and air-conditioning systems served, vary in design from plant to plant. The review of operating experience indicated that chillers experience aging degradation and failures. The primary aging factors of concern for chillers include vibration, excessive temperatures and pressures, thermal cycling, chemical attack, and poor quality cooling water. The evaluation of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) indicated that about 38% of the failures were primarily related to aging, 55% were partially aging related, and 7% of the failures were unassignable. About 25% of the failures were primarily caused by human, design, procedure, and other errors. The large number of errors is probably directly related to the complexity of chillers and their interfacing systems. Nearly all of the LERs were the result of entering plant Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) that initiated remedial actions like plant shutdown procedures. The trend for chiller-related LERs has stabilized at about 0.13 LERs per plant year since 1988. Carefully following the vendor procedures and monitoring the equipment can help to minimize and/or eliminate most of the premature failures. Recording equipment performance can be useful for trending analysis. Periodic operation for a few hours on a weekly or monthly basis is useful to remove moisture and non-condensable gases that gradually build up inside the chiller. Chiller pressurization kits are available that will help minimize the amount of moisture and air ingress to low-pressure chillers during standby periods. The assessment of service life condition monitoring of chillers indicated there are many simple to sophisticated methods available that can help in chiller surveillance and monitoring.

  11. Comfort and HVAC Performance for a New Construction Occupied Test House in Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    K. HovnanianÂź Homes constructed a 2,253-ft2 single-story slab-on-grade ranch house for an occupied test house (new construction) in Roseville, California. One year of monitoring and analysis focused on the effectiveness of the space conditioning system at maintaining acceptable temperature and relative humidity levels in several rooms of the home, as well as room-to-room differences and the actual measured energy consumption by the space conditioning system. In this home, the air handler unit (AHU) and ducts were relocated to inside the thermal boundary. The AHU was relocated from the attic to a mechanical closet, and the ductwork was located inside an insulated and air-sealed bulkhead in the attic. To describe the performance and comfort in the home, the research team selected representative design days and extreme days from the annual data for analysis. To ensure that temperature differences were within reasonable occupant expectations, the team followed Air Conditioning Contractors of America guidance. At the end of the monitoring period, the occupant of the home had no comfort complaints in the home. Any variance between the modeled heating and cooling energy and the actual amounts used can be attributed to the variance in temperatures at the thermostat versus the modeled inputs.

  12. Comfort and HVAC Performance for a New Construction Occupied Test House in Roseville, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-10-01

    K. Hovnanian(R) Homes(R) constructed a 2,253-ft2 single-story slab-on-grade ranch house for an occupied test house (new construction) in Roseville, California. One year of monitoring and analysis focused on the effectiveness of the space conditioning system at maintaining acceptable temperature and relative humidity levels in several rooms of the home, as well as room-to-room differences and the actual measured energy consumption by the space conditioning system. In this home, the air handler unit (AHU) and ducts were relocated to inside the thermal boundary. The AHU was relocated from the attic to a mechanical closet, and the ductwork was located inside an insulated and air-sealed bulkhead in the attic. To describe the performance and comfort in the home, the research team selected representative design days and extreme days from the annual data for analysis. To ensure that temperature differences were within reasonable occupant expectations, the team followed Air Conditioning Contractors of America guidance. At the end of the monitoring period, the occupant of the home had no comfort complaints in the home. Any variance between the modeled heating and cooling energy and the actual amounts used can be attributed to the variance in temperatures at the thermostat versus the modeled inputs.

  13. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR RESIDENTIAL HVAC RETURNS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-02-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent). Because manufacturers’ accuracy estimates for their equipment do not include many of the sources of error found in actual field measurements (and replicated in the laboratory testing in this study) it is essential for a test method that could be used to determine the actual uncertainty in this specific application. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  14. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-01-17

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

  15. A Coupled Modeling System to Simulate Water Resources in the Rio Grande Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossert, J.E.; Breshears, D.D.; Campbell, K.; Costigan, K.R.; Greene, R.K.; Keating, E.H.; Kleifgen, L.M.; Langley, D.L.; Martens, S.N.; Sanderson, J.G.; Springer, E.P.; Stalker, J.R.; Tartakovsky, D.M.; Winter, C.L.; Zyvoloski, G.A.

    1999-01-11

    Limited availability of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of the world requires prudent management strategies from accurate, science-based assessments. These assessments demand a thorough understanding of the hydrologic cycle over long time periods within the individual water-sheds that comprise large river basins. Measurement and simulation of the hydrologic cycle is a tremendous challenge, involving a coupling between global to regional-scale atmospheric precipitation processes with regional to local-scale land surface and subsurface water transport. Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing a detailed modeling system of the hydrologic cycle and applying this tool at high resolution to assess the water balance within the upper Rio Grande river basin. The Rio Grande is a prime example of a river system in a semiarid environment, with a high demand from agricultural, industrial, recreational, and municipal interests for its water supply. Within this river basin, groundwater supplies often augment surface water. With increasing growth projected throughout the river basin, however, these multiple water users have the potential to significantly deplete groundwater resources, thereby increasing the dependence on surface water resources.

  16. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  17. Insights From Laboratory Experiments On Simulated Faults With Application To Fracture Evolution In Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory experiments provide a wealth of information related to mechanics of fracture initiation, fracture propagation processes, factors influencing fault strength, and spatio-temporal evolution of fracture properties. Much of the existing literature reports on laboratory studies involving a coupling of thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and/or chemical processes. As these processes operate within subsurface environments exploited for their energy resource, laboratory results provide insights into factors influencing the mechanical and hydraulic properties of geothermal systems. I report on laboratory observations of strength and fluid transport properties during deformation of simulated faults. The results show systematic trends that vary with stress state, deformation rate, thermal conditions, fluid content, and rock composition. When related to geophysical and geologic measurements obtained from engineered geothermal systems (e.g. microseismicity, wellbore studies, tracer analysis), laboratory results provide a means by which the evolving thermal reservoir can be interpreted in terms of physico-chemical processes. For example, estimates of energy release and microearthquake locations from seismic moment tensor analysis can be related to strength variations observed from friction experiments. Such correlations between laboratory and field data allow for better interpretations about the evolving mechanical and fluid transport properties in the geothermal reservoir – ultimately leading to improvements in managing the resource.

  18. Joint HVAC Transmission EMF Environmental Study : Final Report on Experiment 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Oregon Regional Primate Research Center

    1992-05-01

    This document describes the rationale, procedures, and results of a carefully controlled study conducted to establish whether chronic exposure of female (ewe) Suffolk lambs to the environment of a 500-kV 60-Hz transmission line would affect various characteristics of growth, endocrine function, and reproductive development. This experiment used identical housing and management schemes for control and line-exposed ewes, thus minimizing these factors as contributors to between-group experimental error. Further, throughout the 10-month duration of this study, changes in electric and magnetic fields, audible noise, and weather conditions were monitored continuously by a computerized system. Such measurements provided the opportunity to identify any relationship between environmental factors and biological responses. Because of reports in the literature that electric and magnetic fields alter concentrations of melatonin in laboratory animals, the primary objective of this study was to ascertain whether a similar effect occurs in lambs exposed to a 500-kV a-c line in a natural setting. In addition, onset of puberty, changes in body weight, wool growth, and behavior were monitored. To determine whether the environment of a 500-kV line caused stress in the study animals, serum levels of cortisol were measured. The study was conducted at Bonneville Power Administration`s Ostrander Substation near Estacada, Oregon.

  19. The time dependent propensity function for acceleration of spatial stochastic simulation of reaction–diffusion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Jin; Wu, Sheng; Li, Hong; Petzold, Linda R.

    2014-10-01

    The inhomogeneous stochastic simulation algorithm (ISSA) is a fundamental method for spatial stochastic simulation. However, when diffusion events occur more frequently than reaction events, simulating the diffusion events by ISSA is quite costly. To reduce this cost, we propose to use the time dependent propensity function in each step. In this way we can avoid simulating individual diffusion events, and use the time interval between two adjacent reaction events as the simulation stepsize. We demonstrate that the new algorithm can achieve orders of magnitude efficiency gains over widely-used exact algorithms, scales well with increasing grid resolution, and maintains a high level of accuracy.

  20. Perturbed Physics Ensemble Simulations of Cirrus on the Cloud System-resolving Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhlbauer, Andreas; Berry, Elizabeth; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mace, Gerald G.

    2014-04-16

    In this study, the effect of uncertainties in the parameterization of ice microphysical processes and initial conditions on the variability of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties are investigated in a series of cloud system-resolving perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) and initial condition ensemble (ICE) simulations. Three cirrus cases representative of mid-latitude, subtropical and tropical cirrus are examined. It is found that the variability in cirrus properties induced by perturbing uncertain parameters in ice microphysics parameterizations outweighs the variability induced by perturbing the initial conditions in midlatitude and subtropical cirrus. However, in tropical anvil cirrus the variability in the PPE and ICE simulations is about the same order of magnitude. The cirrus properties showing the largest sensitivity are ice water content (IWC) and cloud thickness whereas the averaged high cloud cover is only marginally affected. Changes in cirrus ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation are controlled primarily by changes in IWC and cloud thickness but not by changes is the averaged high cloud cover. The change in the vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud thickness is caused by changes in cirrus cloud base whereas cloud top is not sensitive to either perturbed physics or perturbed initial conditions. In all cirrus cases, the top three parameters controlling the microphysical variability and radiative impact of cirrus clouds are ice fall speeds, ice autoconversion size thresholds and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Changes in the ice deposition coefficient do not affect the ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation. Similarly, changes in the number concentration of aerosols available for homogeneous freezing have virtually no effect on the microphysical and radiative properties of midlatitude and subtropical cirrus but only little impact on tropical anvil cirrus. Overall, the sensitivity of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties to uncertainties in ice microphysics is largest for midlatitude cirrus and smallest for tropical anvil cirrus.

  1. FNCS: A Framework for Power System and Communication Networks Co-Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fuller, Jason C.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2014-04-13

    This paper describes the Fenix framework that uses a federated approach for integrating power grid and communication network simulators. Compared existing approaches, Fenix al- lows co-simulation of both transmission and distribution level power grid simulators with the communication network sim- ulator. To reduce the performance overhead of time synchro- nization, Fenix utilizes optimistic synchronization strategies that make speculative decisions about when the simulators are going to exchange messages. GridLAB-D (a distribution simulator), PowerFlow (a transmission simulator), and ns-3 (a telecommunication simulator) are integrated with the frame- work and are used to illustrate the enhanced performance pro- vided by speculative multi-threading on a smart grid applica- tion. Our speculative multi-threading approach achieved on average 20% improvement over the existing synchronization methods

  2. Dynamic simulation of a solar-driven carbon dioxide transcritical power system for small scale combined heat and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Lundqvist, Per; Pridasawas, Wimolsiri

    2010-07-15

    Carbon dioxide is an environmental benign natural working fluid and has been proposed as a working media for a solar-driven power system. In the current work, the dynamic performance of a small scale solar-driven carbon dioxide power system is analyzed by dynamic simulation tool TRNSYS 16 and Engineering Equation Solver (EES) using co-solving technique. Both daily performance and yearly performance of the proposed system have been simulated. Different system operating parameters, which will influence the system performance, have been discussed. Under the Swedish climatic condition, the maximum daily power production is about 12 kW h and the maximum monthly power production is about 215 kW h with the proposed system working conditions. Besides the power being produced, the system can also produce about 10 times much thermal energy, which can be used for space heating, domestic hot water supply or driving absorption chillers. The simulation results show that the proposed system is a promising and environmental benign alternative for conventional low-grade heat source utilization system. (author)

  3. Improving the efficiency of residential air-distribution systems in California, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modera, M.; Dickerhoff, D.; Jansky, R.; Smith, B.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes the results of the first phase of a multiyear research project. The project`s goal is to investigate ways to improve the efficiency of air-distribution systems in detached, single-family residences in California. First-year efforts included: A survey of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) contractors in California. A 31-house field study of distribution-system performance based on diagnostic measurements. Development of an integrated air-flow and thermal-simulation tool for investigating residential air-distribution system performance. Highlights of the field results include the following: Building envelopes for houses built after 1979 appear to be approximately 30% tighter. Duct-system tightness showed no apparent improvement in post-1979 houses. Distribution-fan operation added an average of 0.45 air changes per hour (ACH) to the average measured rate of 0.24 ACH. The simulation tool developed is based on DOE-2 for the thermal simulations and on MOVECOMP, an air-flow network simulation model, for the duct/house leakage and flow interactions. The first complete set of simulations performed (for a ranch house in Sacramento) indicated that the overall heating-season efficiency of the duct systems was approximately 65% to 70% and that the overall cooling-season efficiency was between 60% and 75%. The wide range in cooling-season efficiency reflects the difference between systems with attic return ducts and those with crawl-space return ducts, the former being less efficient. The simulations also indicated that the building envelope`s UA-value, a measurement of thermoconductivity, did not have a significant impact on the overall efficiency of the air-distribution system.

  4. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distribution Systems Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems This presentation is from a Building America webinar conducted on November 8, 2011, by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) about ductless hydronic distribution systems. PDF icon arbi_hydronic_webinar.pdf More Documents & Publications Ductless Hydronic Distribution Issue #2: What Emerging Innovations are the Key to Future Homes? Building America Best Practices Series Vol. 14: Energy Renovations - HVAC: A Guide for

  5. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lead Performer: QM Power, Inc. – Lee’s Summit, MOPartners: United Technologies Research Center – East Hartford, CT

  6. Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. P. Martukanitz and S. Babu

    2007-05-03

    Laser surfacing in the form of cladding, alloying, and modifications are gaining widespread use because of its ability to provide high deposition rates, low thermal distortion, and refined microstructure due to high solidification rates. Because of these advantages, laser surface alloying is considered a prime candidate for producing ultra-hard coatings through the establishment or in situ formation of composite structures. Therefore, a program was conducted by the Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop the scientific and engineering basis for performing laser-based surface modifications involving the addition of hard particles, such as carbides, borides, and nitrides, within a metallic matrix for improved wear, fatigue, creep, and corrosion resistance. This has involved the development of advanced laser processing and simulation techniques, along with the refinement and application of these techniques for predicting and selecting materials and processing parameters for the creation of new surfaces having improved properties over current coating technologies. This program has also resulted in the formulation of process and material simulation tools capable of examining the potential for the formation and retention of composite coatings and deposits produced using laser processing techniques, as well as positive laboratory demonstrations in producing these coatings. In conjunction with the process simulation techniques, the application of computational thermodynamic and kinetic models to design laser surface alloying materials was demonstrated and resulted in a vast improvement in the formulation of materials used for producing composite coatings. The methodology was used to identify materials and to selectively modify microstructures for increasing hardness of deposits produced by the laser surface alloying process. Computational thermodynamic calculations indicated that it was possible to induce the precipitation of titanium carbonitrides during laser surface alloying provided there was sufficient amount of dissolved titanium, carbon, and nitrogen in the liquid steel. This was confirmed experimentally by using a powder mixture of 431-martensitic steel, titanium carbide powder, and nitrogen shielding, during laser deposition to produce deposits exhibiting relatively high hardness (average surface hardness of 724 HV). The same approach was extended to direct diode laser processing and similar microstructures were attained. The above analysis was extended to develop an in-situ precipitation of Ti(CN) during laser deposition. The Ti addition was achieving by mixing the 431 martensitic steel powders with ferro-titanium. The dissolution of nitrogen was achieved by using 100% nitrogen shielding gas, which was indicated by thermodynamic analysis. Demonstrations were also conducted utilizing the tools developed during the program and resulted in several viable composite coating systems being identified. This included the use of TiC and ferro-titanium in martensitic-grade stainless steel matrix material with and without the use of active N2 shielding gas, WC hard particles in a martensitic-grade stainless steel matrix material, WC and BN in a nickel-based matrix material, and WC in highly alloyed iron-based matrix. Although these demonstrations indicated the potential of forming composite coatings, in certain instances, the intended industrial applications involved unique requirements, such as coating of internal surfaces, which hindered the full development of the improved coating technology. However, it is believed that the addition of common hard particles, such as WC or TiC, to matrix material representing martensitic grades of stainless steel offer opportunities for improved performance at relatively low material cost.

  7. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Issue 143: Availability of chilled water system and room cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leung, V.T.

    1993-12-01

    This report presents the regulatory analysis for Generic Issue (GI-143), {open_quotes}Availability of Chilled Water System and Room Cooling.{close_quotes} The heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and related auxiliaries are required to provide control of environmental conditions in areas in light water reactor (LWR) plants that contain safety-related equipment. In some plants, the HVAC and chilled water systems serve to maintain a suitable environment for both safety and non-safety-related areas. Although some plants have an independent chilled water system for the safety-related areas, the heat removal capability often depends on the operability of other supporting systems such as the service water system or the component cooling water system. The operability of safety-related components depends upon operation of the HVAC and chilled water systems to remove heat from areas containing the equipment. If cooling to dissipate the heat generated is unavailable, the ability of the safety-related equipment to operate as intended cannot be assured. Typical components or areas in the nuclear power plant that could be affected by the failure of cooling from HVAC or chilled water systems include the (1) emergency switchgear and battery rooms, (2) emergency diesel generator room, (3) pump rooms for residual heat removal, reactor core isolation cooling, high-pressure core spray, and low-pressure core spray, and (4) control room. The unavailability of such safety-related equipment or areas could cause the core damage frequency (CDF) to increase significantly.

  8. DENSE MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION: CONTINUUM MODEL FOR POLY-DISPERSED SYSTEMS USING KINETIC THEORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses Bogere

    2011-08-31

    The overall objective of the project was to verify the applicability of the FCMOM approach to the kinetic equations describing the particle flow dynamics. For monodispersed systems the fundamental equation governing the particle flow dynamics is the Boltzmann equation. During the project, the FCMOM was successfully applied to several homogeneous and in-homogeneous problems in different flow regimes, demonstrating that the FCMOM has the potential to be used to solve efficiently the Boltzmann equation. However, some relevant issues still need to be resolved, i.e. the homogeneous cooling problem (inelastic particles cases) and the transition between different regimes. In this report, the results obtained in homogeneous conditions are discussed first. Then a discussion of the validation results for in-homogeneous conditions is provided. And finally, a discussion will be provided about the transition between different regimes. Alongside the work on development of FCMOM approach studies were undertaken in order to provide insights into anisotropy or particles kinetics in riser hydrodynamics. This report includes results of studies of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures and analysis of momentum re-distribution in risers due to particle-particle and fluid-particle interactions. The study of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures entailed both simulation and experimental studies of two particles sizes in a riser and, a brief discussion of what was accomplished will be provided. And finally, a discussion of the analysis done on momentum re-distribution of gas-particles flow in risers will be provided. In particular a discussion of the remaining work needed in order to improve accuracy and predictability of riser hydrodynamics based on two-fluid models and how they can be used to model segregation in risers.

  9. In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. R. Odette; G. E. Lucas

    2005-11-15

    This final report on "In-Service Design & Performance Prediction of Advanced Fusion Material Systems by Computational Modeling and Simulation" (DE-FG03-01ER54632) consists of a series of summaries of work that has been published, or presented at meetings, or both. It briefly describes results on the following topics: 1) A Transport and Fate Model for Helium and Helium Management; 2) Atomistic Studies of Point Defect Energetics, Dynamics and Interactions; 3) Multiscale Modeling of Fracture consisting of: 3a) A Micromechanical Model of the Master Curve (MC) Universal Fracture Toughness-Temperature Curve Relation, KJc(T - To), 3b) An Embrittlement DTo Prediction Model for the Irradiation Hardening Dominated Regime, 3c) Non-hardening Irradiation Assisted Thermal and Helium Embrittlement of 8Cr Tempered Martensitic Steels: Compilation and Analysis of Existing Data, 3d) A Model for the KJc(T) of a High Strength NFA MA957, 3e) Cracked Body Size and Geometry Effects of Measured and Effective Fracture Toughness-Model Based MC and To Evaluations of F82H and Eurofer 97, 3-f) Size and Geometry Effects on the Effective Toughness of Cracked Fusion Structures; 4) Modeling the Multiscale Mechanics of Flow Localization-Ductility Loss in Irradiation Damaged BCC Alloys; and 5) A Universal Relation Between Indentation Hardness and True Stress-Strain Constitutive Behavior. Further details can be found in the cited references or presentations that generally can be accessed on the internet, or provided upon request to the authors. Finally, it is noted that this effort was integrated with our base program in fusion materials, also funded by the DOE OFES.

  10. On-the-fly nuclear data processing methods for Monte Carlo simulations of fast spectrum systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, Jon

    2015-08-31

    The presentation summarizes work performed over summer 2015 related to Monte Carlo simulations. A flexible probability table interpolation scheme has been implemented and tested with results comparing favorably to the continuous phase-space on-the-fly approach.

  11. Compact Thermoelastic Cooling System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact Thermoelastic Cooling System Compact Thermoelastic Cooling System Lead Performer: Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies, LLC - College Park, MD DOE Total Funding: $614,592 Cost Share: $153,648 Project Term: July 1, 2015- June 30, 2017 Funding Opportunity: Building Energy Efficiency Frontiers and Innovation Technologies (BENEFIT) -2015, DE-FOA-0001166 Project Objective Thermoelastic cooling (TEC) is recognized as one of the most promising non-vapor-compression HVAC technologies because

  12. Conceptual design of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system - dynamic simulation code development for advanced process heat exchanger in the HTTR-IS system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Kubo, Shinji; Sakaba, Nariaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sano, Naoki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study is to confirm the availability of proposed mitigation methodology against thermal load increase events initiated by the thermochemical water splitting IS process hydrogen production system (IS process) coupling with the High temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been performing the development of dynamic simulation code which can evaluate complex phenomena in the HTTR-IS system all at one once to achieve the requirement. The notable feature of the developed code is the Advanced Process Heat Exchanger (APHX) module which enables to estimate the IS process thermal load variation considering phase change and chemical reaction behavior assumed in the APHX. In this paper, two cases of dynamic calculation for the thermal load increase events were performed using the newly developed APHX module. The results of the analytical studies clearly show the availability of the developed model for dynamic simulation of the HTTR-IS system and the thermal load increase mitigation methodology. (authors)

  13. A low dose simulation tool for CT systems with energy integrating detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabic, Stanislav; Morton, Thomas; Brown, Kevin M.; Wang Qiu

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a new strategy for simulating low-dose computed tomography (CT) scans using real scans of a higher dose as an input. The tool is verified against simulations and real scans and compared to other approaches found in the literature. Methods: The conditional variance identity is used to properly account for the variance of the input high-dose data, and a formula is derived for generating a new Poisson noise realization which has the same mean and variance as the true low-dose data. The authors also derive a formula for the inclusion of real samples of detector noise, properly scaled according to the level of the simulated x-ray signals. Results: The proposed method is shown to match real scans in number of experiments. Noise standard deviation measurements in simulated low-dose reconstructions of a 35 cm water phantom match real scans in a range from 500 to 10 mA with less than 5% error. Mean and variance of individual detector channels are shown to match closely across the detector array. Finally, the visual appearance of noise and streak artifacts is shown to match in real scans even under conditions of photon-starvation (with tube currents as low as 10 and 80 mA). Additionally, the proposed method is shown to be more accurate than previous approaches (1) in achieving the correct mean and variance in reconstructed images from pure-Poisson noise simulations (with no detector noise) under photon-starvation conditions, and (2) in simulating the correct noise level and detector noise artifacts in real low-dose scans. Conclusions: The proposed method can accurately simulate low-dose CT data starting from high-dose data, including effects from photon starvation and detector noise. This is potentially a very useful tool in helping to determine minimum dose requirements for a wide range of clinical protocols and advanced reconstruction algorithms.

  14. Characterizing Indoor Airflow and Pollutant Transport using Simulation Modeling for Prototypical Buildings. I. Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sohn, M.D.; Daisey, J.M.; Feustel, H.E.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the first efforts at developing a set of prototypical buildings defined to capture the key features affecting airflow and pollutant transport in buildings. These buildings will be used to model airflow and pollutant transport for emergency response scenarios when limited site-specific information is available and immediate decisions must be made, and to better understand key features of buildings controlling occupant exposures to indoor pollutant sources. This paper presents an example of this approach for a prototypical intermediate-sized, open style, commercial building. Interzonal transport due to a short-term source release, e.g., accidental chemical spill, in the bottom and the upper floors is predicted and corresponding HVAC system operation effects and potential responses are considered. Three-hour average exposure estimates are used to compare effects of source location and HVAC operation.

  15. Building Energy Modeling (BEM) Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Design: architecture, HVAC system selection & sizing * Operations: HVAC fault diagnosis, dynamic control & demand response * Market: code development & compliance, ratings, ...

  16. Electrochemical behavior of simulated debris from a severe accident using a molten salt system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Yuya; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akira; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fujita, Reiko

    2013-07-01

    In a severe nuclear accident, the fuel in the reactor may melt, forming debris, which contains a UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} stable oxide mixture and parts of the reactor, such as Zircaloy and iron components. Proper handling of the debris is a critically important issue. The debris does not have the same composition as spent fuel, and so it is impossible to apply conventional reprocessing technology directly. In this study, we successfully separated Zr and Fe from simulated debris using NaCl-KCl molten salt electrolysis, and we selectively recovered the Zr and Fe. The simulated debris was made from Zr, Fe, and CeO{sub 2}. The CeO{sub 2} was used for simulating stable UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}. With this approach, it should be possible to reduce the volume of the debris by recovering metals, which can then be treated as low level radioactive wastes.

  17. Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process June 2009 Monica C. Regalbuto Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP David W. DePaoli Oak Ridge National Laboratory Candido Pereira Argonne National Laboratory John R. Shultz Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Sahid C. Smith Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process June 2009

  18. External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process September 2009 Monica C. Regalbuto Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP David W. DePaoli Oak Ridge National Laboratory Candido Pereira Argonne National Laboratory John R. Shultz Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process September 2009 Acknowledgements The Review Team thanks Mr. Glyn Trenchard,

  19. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products, and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.

  20. Assessment of the Potential to Achieve very Low Energy Use in Public Buildings in China with Advanced Window and Shading Systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Eleanor; Pang, Xiufeng; McNeil, Andrew; Hoffmann, Sabine; Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Li, Zhengrong; Ding, Yong

    2015-05-29

    As rapid growth in the construction industry continues to occur in China, the increased demand for a higher standard living is driving significant growth in energy use and demand across the country. Building codes and standards have been implemented to head off this trend, tightening prescriptive requirements for fenestration component measures using methods similar to the U.S. model energy code American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 90.1. The objective of this study is to (a) provide an overview of applicable code requirements and current efforts within China to enable characterization and comparison of window and shading products,more » and (b) quantify the load reduction and energy savings potential of several key advanced window and shading systems, given the divergent views on how space conditioning requirements will be met in the future. System-level heating and cooling loads and energy use performance were evaluated for a code-compliant large office building using the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program. Commercially-available, highly-insulating, low-emittance windows were found to produce 24%–66% lower perimeter zone HVAC electricity use compared to the mandated energy-efficiency standard in force (GB 50189-2005) in cold climates like Beijing. Low-e windows with operable exterior shading produced up to 30%–80% reductions in perimeter zone HVAC electricity use in Beijing and 18%–38% reductions in Shanghai compared to the standard. The economic context of China is unique since the cost of labor and materials for the building industry is so low. Broad deployment of these commercially available technologies with the proper supporting infrastructure for design, specification, and verification in the field would enable significant reductions in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in the near term.« less

  1. Wind Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that provides an hourly simulation of a wind energy system, which includes a calculation of wind turbine output as a power-curve fit of wind speed.

  2. Simulation Results of a Feedback Control System to Damp Electron Cloud Single-Bunch Transverse Instabilities In The Cern SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Secondo, R.; Vay, J. L.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J. D.; Rivetta, C. H.; Hofle, W.

    2011-03-28

    Transverse Single-Bunch Instabilities due to the Electron Cloud effect are limiting the operation at high current of the SPS at CERN. Recently a high-bandwidth Feedback System has been proposed as a possible solution to stabilize the beam and is currently under study. We analyze the dynamics of the bunch actively damped with a simple model of the Feedback in the macro-particle code WARP, in order to investigate the limitations of the System such as the minimum amount of power required to maintain stability. We discuss the feedback model, report on simulation results and present our plans for further development of the numerical model.

  3. APEX - a Petri net process modeling tool built on a discrete-event simulation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gish, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    APEX, the Animated Process Experimentation tool, provides a capability for defining, simulating and animating process models. Primarily constructed for the modeling and analysis of software process models, we have found that APEX is much more broadly applicable and is suitable for process modeling tasks outside the domain of software processes. APEX has been constructed as a library of simulation blocks that implement timed hierarchical colored Petri Nets. These Petri Net blocks operate in conjunction with EXTEND, a general purpose continuous and discrete-event simulation tool. EXTEND provides a flexible, powerful and extensible environment with features particularly suitable for the modeling of complex processes. APEX`s Petri Net block additions to EXTEND provide an inexpensive capability with well-defined and easily understood semantics that is a powerful, easy to use, flexible means to engage in process modeling and evaluation. The vast majority of software process research has focused on the enactment of software processes. Little has been said about the actual creation and evaluation of software process models necessary to support enactment. APEX has been built by the Software Engineering Process Technology Project at GTE Laboratories which has been focusing on this neglected area of process model definition and analysis. We have constructed high-level software lifecycle models, a set of models that demonstrate differences between four levels of the SEI Capability Maturity Model (CMM), customer care process models, as well as models involving more traditional synchronization and coordination problems such as producer-consumer and 2-phase commit. APEX offers a unique blend of technology from two different disciplines: discrete-event simulation and Petri Net modeling. Petri Nets provide a well-defined and rich semantics in a simple, easy to understand notation. The simulation framework allows for execution, animation, and measurement of the resultant models.

  4. Analytical simulation of nonlinear response to seismic test excitations of HDR-VKL (Heissdampfreaktor-Versuchskreislauf) piping system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A. ); Mojtahed, M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the analytical modeling, calculations, and results of the posttest nonlinear simulation of high-level seismic testing of the VKL piping system at the HDR Test Facility in Germany. One of the objectives of the tests was to evaluate analytical methods for calculating the nonlinear response of realistic piping systems subjected to high-level seismic excitation that would induce significant plastic deformation. Two out of the six different pipe-support configurations, (ranging from a stiff system with struts and snubbers to a very flexible system with practically no seismic supports), subjected to simulated earthquakes, were tested at very high levels. The posttest nonlinear calculations cover the KWU configuration, a reasonably compliant system with only rigid struts. Responses for 800% safe-shutdown-earthquake loading were calculated using the NONPIPE code. The responses calculated with NONPIPE were found generally to have the same time trends as the measurements but contained under-, over-, and correct estimates of peak values, almost in equal proportions. The only exceptions were the peak strut forces, which were underestimated as a group. The scatter in the peak value estimate of displacements and strut forces was smaller than that for the strains. The possible reasons for the differences and the effort on further analysis are discussed.

  5. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  6. NPG_Fellow_Application_System-PIA.pdf

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings NETL Patented CO2-Removal Sorbents Promise Power and Cost Savings May 30, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - Carbon dioxide removal sorbents developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) could result in power and cost savings for users of some heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems under a recently signed license agreement. NETL, the

  7. Development of an Advanced Stimulation/Production Predictive Simulator for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: to develop a 3-D numerical simulator to model the following aspects of stimulation and long-term operation: (1)perturbation of natural stress, pore pressure, and formation temperature distributions caused by cold water injection, (2) shear slippage and aperture increase along fracture patchesŽ and aperture change caused by changes in effective normal stress,(3) fracture patchŽ linkup to form connected permeable volume and both reversible and irreversible permeability changes.

  8. Final Report: A Model Management System for Numerical Simulations of Subsurface Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zachmann, David

    2013-10-07

    The DOE and several other Federal agencies have committed significant resources to support the development of a large number of mathematical models for studying subsurface science problems such as groundwater flow, fate of contaminants and carbon sequestration, to mention only a few. This project provides new tools to help decision makers and stakeholders in subsurface science related problems to select an appropriate set of simulation models for a given field application.

  9. ESIF Plugs Utility-Scale Hardware into Simulated Grids to Assess Integration Effects (Fact Sheet), Energy Systems Integration (ESI), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ENERGY SYSTEMS INTEGRATION ESI optimizes the design and performance of electrical, thermal, fuel, and water pathways at all scales. ESIF Plugs Utility-Scale Hardware into Simulated Grids to Assess Integration Effects At NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), integrated, megawatt- scale power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) capability allows researchers and manufacturers to test new energy technologies at full power in real-time simulations-safely evaluating component and system

  10. SU-E-T-99: Design and Development of Isocenter Parameter System for CT Simulation Laser Based On DICOM RT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In order to receive DICOM files from treatment planning system and generate patient isocenter positioning parameter file for CT laser system automatically, this paper presents a method for communication with treatment planning system and calculation of isocenter parameter for each radiation field. Methods: Coordinate transformation and laser positioning file formats were analyzed, isocenter parameter was calculated via data from DICOM CT Data and DICOM RTPLAN file. An in-house software-DicomGenie was developed based on the object-oriented program platform-Qt with DCMTK SDK (Germany OFFIS company DICOM SDK) . DicomGenie was tested for accuracy using Philips CT simulation plan system (Tumor LOC, Philips) and A2J CT positioning laser system (Thorigny Sur Marne, France). Results: DicomGenie successfully established DICOM communication between treatment planning system, DICOM files were received by DicomGenie and patient laser isocenter information was generated accurately. Patient laser parameter data files can be used for for CT laser system directly. Conclusion: In-house software DicomGenie received and extracted DICOM data, isocenter laser positioning data files were created by DicomGenie and can be use for A2J laser positioning system.

  11. Status on the Development of a Modeling and Simulation Framework for the Economic Assessment of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon Michelle; Rabiti, Cristian; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Kim, Jong Suk; Deason, Wesley Ray; Boardman, Richard Doin; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2015-09-01

    An effort to design and build a modeling and simulation framework to assess the economic viability of Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES) was undertaken in fiscal year 2015 (FY15). The purpose of this report is to document the various tasks associated with the development of such a framework and to provide a status on its progress. Several tasks have been accomplished. First, starting from a simulation strategy, a rigorous mathematical formulation has been achieved in which the economic optimization of a Nuclear Hybrid Energy System is presented as a constrained robust (under uncertainty) optimization problem. Some possible algorithms for the solution of the optimization problem are presented. A variation of the Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation algorithm has been implemented in RAVEN and preliminary tests have been performed. The development of the software infrastructure to support the simulation of the whole NHES has also moved forward. The coupling between RAVEN and an implementation of the Modelica language (OpenModelica) has been implemented, migrated under several operating systems and tested using an adapted model of a desalination plant. In particular, this exercise was focused on testing the coupling of the different code systems; testing parallel, computationally expensive simulations on the INL cluster; and providing a proof of concept for the possibility of using surrogate models to represent the different NHES subsystems. Another important step was the porting of the RAVEN code under the Windowsℱ operating system. This accomplishment makes RAVEN compatible with the development environment that is being used for dynamic simulation of NHES components. A very simplified model of a NHES on the electric market has been built in RAVEN to confirm expectations on the analysis capability of RAVEN to provide insight into system economics and to test the capability of RAVEN to identify limit surfaces even for stochastic constraints. This capability will be needed in the future to enforce the stochastic constraints on the electric demand coverage from the NHES. The development team gained experience with many of the tools that are currently envisioned for use in the economic analysis of NHES and completed several important steps. Given the complexity of the project, preference has been given to a structural approach in which several independent efforts have been used to build the cornerstone of the simulation framework. While this is good approach in establishing such a complex framework, it may delay reaching more complete results on the performance of analyzed system configurations. The integration of the previously reported exergy analysis approach was initially proposed as part of this milestone. However, in reality, the exergy-based apportioning of cost will take place only in a second stage of the implementation since it will be used to properly allocate cost among the different NHES subsystems. Therefore, exergy does not appear at the level of the main drivers in the analysis framework; the latter development of the base framework is the focus of this report.

  12. Simulations of flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions in methane-air systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessler, D.A.; Gamezo, V.N.; Oran, E.S. [Laboratory for Computational Physics and Fluid Dynamics, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Flame acceleration and deflagration-to-detonation transitions (DDT) in large obstructed channels filled with a stoichiometric methane-air mixture are simulated using a single-step reaction mechanism. The reaction parameters are calibrated using known velocities and length scales of laminar flames and detonations. Calculations of the flame dynamics and DDT in channels with obstacles are compared to previously reported experimental data. The results obtained using the simple reaction model qualitatively, and in many cases, quantitatively match the experiments and are found to be largely insensitive to small variations in model parameters. (author)

  13. Hourly Simulation of Grid-Connected PV Systems Using Realistic Building Loads (Preprint)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hayter, S.J.; Weaver, N.L.

    2001-02-27

    This is one of two companion papers that describe the ENERGY-10 PV design tool computer simulation program. The other paper is titled ''ENERGY-10 Photovoltaics: A New Capability.'' Whereas this paper focuses on the PV aspects of the program, the companion paper focuses on the implementation method. The case study in this paper is a commercial building application, whereas the case study in the companion paper is a residential application with an entirely different building load characteristic. Together they provide a balanced view.

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  15. Simulation of atomic diffusion in the Fcc NiAl system: A kinetic Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfonso, Dominic R.; Tafen, De Nyago

    2015-04-28

    The atomic diffusion in fcc NiAl binary alloys was studied by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. The environment dependent hopping barriers were computed using a pair interaction model whose parameters were fitted to relevant data derived from electronic structure calculations. Long time diffusivities were calculated and the effect of composition change on the tracer diffusion coefficients was analyzed. These results indicate that this variation has noticeable impact on the atomic diffusivities. A reduction in the mobility of both Ni and Al is demonstrated with increasing Al content. As a result, examination of the pair interaction between atoms was carried out for the purpose of understanding the predicted trends.

  16. Algorithm and simulation development in support of response strategies for contamination events in air and water systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen

    2006-01-01

    Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR) contamination events pose a considerable threat to our nation's infrastructure, especially in large internal facilities, external flows, and water distribution systems. Because physical security can only be enforced to a limited degree, deployment of early warning systems is being considered. However to achieve reliable and efficient functionality, several complex questions must be answered: (1) where should sensors be placed, (2) how can sparse sensor information be efficiently used to determine the location of the original intrusion, (3) what are the model and data uncertainties, (4) how should these uncertainties be handled, and (5) how can our algorithms and forward simulations be sufficiently improved to achieve real time performance? This report presents the results of a three year algorithmic and application development to support the identification, mitigation, and risk assessment of CBR contamination events. The main thrust of this investigation was to develop (1) computationally efficient algorithms for strategically placing sensors, (2) identification process of contamination events by using sparse observations, (3) characterization of uncertainty through developing accurate demands forecasts and through investigating uncertain simulation model parameters, (4) risk assessment capabilities, and (5) reduced order modeling methods. The development effort was focused on water distribution systems, large internal facilities, and outdoor areas.

  17. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN AND SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY – SYSTEM SIMULATION AND ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; C. M. Stoots

    2009-05-01

    A research and development program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to assess the technological and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for efficient high-temperature hydrogen production from steam. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This paper will provide an overview of large-scale system modeling results and economic analyses that have been completed to date. System analysis results have been obtained using the commercial code UniSim, augmented with a custom high-temperature electrolyzer module. Economic analysis results were based on the DOE H2A analysis methodology. The process flow diagrams for the system simulations include an advanced nuclear reactor as a source of high-temperature process heat, a power cycle and a coupled steam electrolysis loop. Several reactor types and power cycles have been considered, over a range of reactor outlet temperatures. Pure steam electrolysis for hydrogen production as well as coelectrolysis for syngas production from steam/carbon dioxide mixtures have both been considered. In addition, the feasibility of coupling the high-temperature electrolysis process to biomass and coal-based synthetic fuels production has been considered. These simulations demonstrate that the addition of supplementary nuclear hydrogen to synthetic fuels production from any carbon source minimizes emissions of carbon dioxide during the production process.

  18. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

  19. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  20. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I | Department of Energy I Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I The webinar on Oct. 23, 2014, focused on strategies to improve the performance of HVAC systems for low load homes and home performance retrofits. Presenters and specific topics for this webinar will be: * Andrew Poerschke, IBACOS, presenting Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-load Homes. The presentation will focus on what is "simple" when it comes to space conditioning?

  1. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  2. Simulation of a Wireless Power Transfer System for Electric Vehicles with Power Factor Correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickelsimer, Michael C; Tolbert, Leon M; Ozpineci, Burak; Miller, John M

    2012-01-01

    Wireless power transfer has been a popular topic of recent research. Most research has been done to address the limitations of coil-to-coil efficiency. However, little has been done to address the problem associated with the low input power factor with which the systems operate. This paper details the steps taken to analyze a wireless power transfer system from the view of the power grid under a variety of loading conditions with and without power factor correction.

  3. Static reactive power compensators for high-voltage power systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A study conducted to summarize the role of static reactive power compensators for high voltage power system applications is described. This information should be useful to the utility system planning engineer in applying static var systems (SVS) to high voltage as (HVAC) systems. The static var system is defined as a form of reactive power compensator. The general need for reactive power compensation in HVAC systems is discussed, and the static var system is compared to other devices utilized to provide reactive power compensation. Examples are presented of applying SVS for specific functions, such as the prevention of voltage collapse. The operating principles of commercially available SVS's are discussed in detail. The perormance and active power loss characteristics of SVS types are compared.

  4. Systems and methods for interactive virtual reality process control and simulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniel, Jr., William E.; Whitney, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    A system for visualizing, controlling and managing information includes a data analysis unit for interpreting and classifying raw data using analytical techniques. A data flow coordination unit routes data from its source to other components within the system. A data preparation unit handles the graphical preparation of the data and a data rendering unit presents the data in a three-dimensional interactive environment where the user can observe, interact with, and interpret the data. A user can view the information on various levels, from a high overall process level view, to a view illustrating linkage between variables, to view the hard data itself, or to view results of an analysis of the data. The system allows a user to monitor a physical process in real-time and further allows the user to manage and control the information in a manner not previously possible.

  5. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; Cossement, Daniel; Tamburello, David; Anton, Donald

    2014-10-13

    Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorbÂź) and comparing the numerical outcomes with the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5Âź) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.

  6. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slezak, Lee

    2011-01-15

    The VSST team evaluates the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context, covering light to heavy platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTP R&D teams and to provide guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.

  7. Modeling of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate soot

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    reactivity | Department of Energy Discussed development of a methodology for creating accurate soot models for soot samples from various origins with minimal characterization PDF icon deer11_rioult.pdf More Documents & Publications Fuel Injection Strategy for Soot-Filter Regeneration Towards Fuel-Efficient DPF Systems: Understanding the Soot Oxidation Process Development of Advanced Particulate Filters

  8. FY2012 Annual Progress Report for Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slezak, Lee [Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-03-29

    Annual progress report that evaluates the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context. These evaluations address light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTO R&D teams and to providing guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.

  9. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; Cossement, Daniel; Tamburello, David; Anton, Donald

    2014-10-13

    Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorbŸ) and comparing the numerical outcomes withmore » the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5Ÿ) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.« less

  10. Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS), Executable Model (Version 4. 0) (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-29

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) Cost Model is an IBM PC cost model that can be used to estimate the cost of installing SO2, NOx, and particulate matter control systems at coal-fired utility electric generating facilities. The model integrates various combinations of the following technologies: physical coal cleaning, coal switching, overfire air/low NOx burners, natural gas reburning, LIMB, ADVACATE, electrostatic precipitator, fabric filter, gas conditioning, wet lime or limestone FGD, lime spray drying/duct spray drying, dry sorbent injection, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, and pulverized coal burning boiler. The model generates capital, annualized, and unitized pollutant removal costs in either constant or current dollars for any year.

  11. FY2011 Annual Progress Report for Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-15

    The VSST team's mission is to evaluate the technologies and performance characteristics of advanced automotive powertrain components and subsystems in an integrated vehicle systems context. These evaluations address light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle platforms. This work is directed toward evaluating and verifying the targets of the VTP R&D teams and to providing guidance in establishing roadmaps for achievement of these goals.

  12. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  13. Development of Quality Assessment Techniques for Large Eddy Simulation of Propulsion and Power Systems in Complex Geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacaze, Guilhem; Oefelein, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is quickly becoming a method of choice for studying complex thermo-physics in a wide range of propulsion and power systems. It provides a means to study coupled turbulent combustion and flow processes in parameter spaces that are unattainable using direct-numerical-simulation (DNS), with a degree of fidelity that can be far more accurate than conventional engineering methods such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approx- imation. However, development of predictive LES is complicated by the complex interdependence of different type of errors coming from numerical methods, algorithms, models and boundary con- ditions. On the other hand, control of accuracy has become a critical aspect in the development of predictive LES for design. The objective of this project is to create a framework of metrics aimed at quantifying the quality and accuracy of state-of-the-art LES in a manner that addresses the myriad of competing interdependencies. In a typical simulation cycle, only 20% of the computational time is actually usable. The rest is spent in case preparation, assessment, and validation, because of the lack of guidelines. This work increases confidence in the accuracy of a given solution while min- imizing the time obtaining the solution. The approach facilitates control of the tradeoffs between cost, accuracy, and uncertainties as a function of fidelity and methods employed. The analysis is coupled with advanced Uncertainty Quantification techniques employed to estimate confidence in model predictions and calibrate model's parameters. This work has provided positive conse- quences on the accuracy of the results delivered by LES and will soon have a broad impact on research supported both by the DOE and elsewhere.

  14. Visualization and simulation of immiscible displacement in fractured systems using micromodels: Steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1995-07-01

    A study of steam and hot water injection processes in micromodel geometries that mimic a matrix-fracture system was undertaken. The followings were observed: Light components existing in the crude oil generated a very high efficient gas-drive at elevated temperatures. This gas generation in conjunction with natural surfactant existing in the crude oil, lead to the formation of a foam in the fracture and to improved displacement in the matrix. We observed that the steam enters the fracture and the matrix depending on whether the steam rate exceeds or not the critical values. The resulting condensed water also moves preferentially into the matrix or the fracture depending on the corresponding capillary number. Since steam is a non-wetting phase as a vapor, but becomes a wetting phase when condensed in a water-wet system, steam injection involves both drainage and imbibition. It was found that all of the oil trapped by the condensed water can be mobilized and recovered when in contact with steam. We also examined hot-water displacement. In comparison with cold-water experiments at the same capillary number, a higher sweep efficiency for both light and heavy oils was observed. It was found that the loam generated in the fracture during hot-water injection, is more stable than in steamflooding. Nonetheless, hot-water injection resulted into less efficient displacement in its absence.

  15. SU-E-J-66: Evaluation of a Real-Time Positioning Assistance Simulator System for Skull Radiography Using the Microsoft Kinect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurata, T; Ono, M; Kozono, K; Fukuyoshi, R; Sato, S [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Toyofuku, F [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a low cost, small size positioning assistance simulator system for skull radiography using the Microsoft Kinect sensor. A conventional radiographic simulator system can only measure the three-dimensional coordinates of an x-ray tube using angle sensors, but not measure the movement of the subject. Therefore, in this study, we developed a real-time simulator system using the Microsoft Kinect to measure both the x-ray tube and the subject, and evaluated its accuracy and feasibility by comparing the simulated and the measured x-ray images. Methods: This system can track a head phantom by using Face Tracking, which is one of the functions of the Kinect. The relative relationship between the Kinect and the head phantom was measured and the projection image was calculated by using the ray casting method, and by using three-dimensional CT head data with 220 slices at 512 Ś 512 pixels. X-ray images were thus obtained by using a computed radiography (CR) system. We could then compare the simulated projection images with the measured x-ray images from 0 degrees to 45 degrees at increments of 15 degrees by calculating the cross correlation coefficient C. Results: The calculation time of the simulated projection images was almost real-time (within 1 second) by using the Graphics Processing Unit(GPU). The cross-correlation coefficients C are: 0.916; 0.909; 0.891; and, 0.886 at 0, 15, 30, and 45 degrees, respectively. As a result, there were strong correlations between the simulated and measured images. Conclusion: This system can be used to perform head positioning more easily and accurately. It is expected that this system will be useful for learning radiographic techniques by students. Moreover, it could also be used for predicting the actual x-ray image prior to x-ray exposure in clinical environments.

  16. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turinsky, Paul J; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S; Stover, Tracy E

    2011-03-31

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment to the design concept is quantitatively determined. A technique is then established to assimilate this data and produce posteriori uncertainties on key attributes and responses of the design concept. Several experiment perturbations based on engineering judgment are used to demonstrate these methods and also serve as an initial generation of the optimization problem. Finally, an optimization technique is developed which will simultaneously arrive at an optimized experiment to produce an optimized reactor design. Solution of this problem is made possible by the use of the simulated annealing algorithm for solution of optimization problems. The optimization examined in this work is based on maximizing the reactor cost savings associated with the modified design made possible by using the design margin gained through reduced basic nuclear data uncertainties. Cost values for experiment design specifications and reactor design specifications are established and used to compute a total savings by comparing the posteriori reactor cost to the a priori cost plus the cost of the experiment. The optimized solution arrives at a maximized cost savings.

  17. Validation studies of the DOE-2 Building Energy Simulation Program. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R.; Winkelmann, F.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents many of the validation studies (Table 1) of the DOE-2 building energy analysis simulation program that have taken place since 1981. Results for several versions of the program are presented with the most recent study conducted in 1996 on version DOE-2.1E and the most distant study conducted in 1981 on version DOE-1.3. This work is part of an effort related to continued development of DOE-2, particularly in its use as a simulation engine for new specialized versions of the program such as the recently released RESFEN 3.1. RESFEN 3.1 is a program specifically dealing with analyzing the energy performance of windows in residential buildings. The intent in providing the results of these validation studies is to give potential users of the program a high degree of confidence in the calculated results. Validation studies in which calculated simulation data is compared to measured data have been conducted throughout the development of the DOE-2 program. Discrepancies discovered during the course of such work has resulted in improvements in the simulation algorithms. Table 2 provides a listing of additions and modifications that have been made to various versions of the program since version DOE-2.1A. One of the most significant recent changes in the program occurred with version DOE-2.1E. An improved algorithm for calculating the outside surface film coefficient was implemented. In addition, integration of the WINDOW 4 program was accomplished resulting in improved ability in analyzing window energy performance. Validation and verification of a program as sophisticated as DOE-2 must necessarily be limited because of the approximations inherent in the program. For example, the most accurate model of the heat transfer processes in a building would include a three-dimensional analysis. To justify such detailed algorithmic procedures would correspondingly require detailed information describing the building and/or HVAC system and energy plant parameters. Until building simulation programs can get this data directly from CAD programs, such detail would negate the usefulness of the program for the practicing engineers and architects who currently use the program. In addition, the validation studies discussed herein indicate that such detail is really unnecessary. The comparison of calculated and measured quantities have resulted in a satisfactory level of confidence that is sufficient for continued use of the DOE-2 program. However, additional validation is warranted, particularly at the component level, to further improve the program.

  18. Advancement of DOE's EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation Payment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Lixing; Shirey, Don; Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Sharma, Chandan; Lawrie, Linda; Strand, Rick; Pedersen, Curt; Fisher, Dan; Lee, Edwin; Witte, Mike; Glazer, Jason; Barnaby, Chip

    2011-09-30

    EnergyPlus{sup TM} is a new generation computer software analysis tool that has been developed, tested, and commercialized to support DOE's Building Technologies (BT) Program in terms of whole-building, component, and systems R&D (http://www.energyplus.gov). It is also being used to support evaluation and decision making of zero energy building (ZEB) energy efficiency and supply technologies during new building design and existing building retrofits. The 5-year project was managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory and was divided into 5 budget period between 2006 and 2011. During the project period, 11 versions of EnergyPlus were released. This report summarizes work performed by an EnergyPlus development team led by the University of Central Florida's Florida Solar Energy Center (UCF/FSEC). The team members consist of DHL Consulting, C. O. Pedersen Associates, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Oklahoma State University, GARD Analytics, Inc., and WrightSoft Corporation. The project tasks involved new feature development, testing and validation, user support and training, and general EnergyPlus support. The team developed 146 new features during the 5-year period to advance the EnergyPlus capabilities. Annual contributions of new features are 7 in budget period 1, 19 in period 2, 36 in period 3, 41 in period 4, and 43 in period 5, respectively. The testing and validation task focused on running test suite and publishing report, developing new IEA test suite cases, testing and validating new source code, addressing change requests, and creating and testing installation package. The user support and training task provided support for users and interface developers, and organized and taught workshops. The general support task involved upgrading StarTeam (team sharing) software and updating existing utility software. The project met the DOE objectives and completed all tasks successfully. Although the EnergyPlus software was enhanced significantly under this project, more enhancements are needed for further improvement to ensure that EnergyPlus is able to simulate the latest technologies and perform desired HAVC system operations for the development of next generation HVAC systems. Additional development will be performed under a new 5-year project managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  19. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  20. SIMULATION OF THE ICELAND VOLCANIC ERUPTION OF APRIL 2010 USING THE ENSEMBLE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, R.

    2011-05-10

    The Eyjafjallajokull volcanic eruption in Iceland in April 2010 disrupted transportation in Europe which ultimately affected travel plans for many on a global basis. The Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) is responsible for providing guidance to the aviation industry of the transport of volcanic ash clouds. There are nine such centers located globally, and the London branch (headed by the United Kingdom Meteorological Office, or UKMet) was responsible for modeling the Iceland volcano. The guidance provided by the VAAC created some controversy due to the burdensome travel restrictions and uncertainty involved in the prediction of ash transport. The Iceland volcanic eruption provides a useful exercise of the European ENSEMBLE program, coordinated by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy. ENSEMBLE, a decision support system for emergency response, uses transport model results from a variety of countries in an effort to better understand the uncertainty involved with a given accident scenario. Model results in the form of airborne concentration and surface deposition are required from each member of the ensemble in a prescribed format that may then be uploaded to a website for manipulation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is the lone regular United States participant throughout the 10-year existence of ENSEMBLE. For the Iceland volcano, four separate source term estimates have been provided to ENSEMBLE participants. This paper focuses only on one of those source terms. The SRNL results in relation to other modeling agency results along with useful information obtained using an ensemble of transport results will be discussed.

  1. A microcomputer-based control and simulation of an advanced IPM (interior permanent magnet) synchronous machine drive system for electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, B.K.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced digital control and computer-aided control system design techniques are playing key roles in the complex drive system design and control implementation. The paper describes a high performance microcomputer-based control and digital simulation of an inverter-fed interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machine which uses Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnet. The fully operational four-quadrant drive system includes constant-torque region with zero speed operation and high speed field-weakening constant-power region. The control uses vector or field-oriented technique in constant-torque region with the direct axis aligned to the stator flux, whereas the constant-power region control is based on torque angle orientation of the impressed square-wave voltage. All the key feedback signals for the control are estimated with precision. The drive system is basically designed with an outer torque control loop for electric vehicle appliation, but speed and position control loops can be added for other industrial applications. The distributed microcomputer-based control system is based on Intel-8096 microcontroller and Texas Instruments TMS32010 type digital signal processor. The complete drive system has been simulated using the VAX-based simulation language SIMMON to verify the feasibility of the control laws and to study the performances of the drive system. The simulation results are found to have excellent correlation with the laboratory breadboard tests. 19 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Differences in carbon cycle and temperature projections from emission- and concentration-driven earth system model simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shao, P.; Zeng, X.; Zeng, X.

    2014-08-29

    The influence of prognostic and prescribed atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on the carbon uptake and temperature is investigated using all eight Earth System Models (ESMs) with relevant output variables from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Under the RCP8.5 scenario, the projected [CO2] differences in 2100 vary from -19.7 to +207.3 ppm in emission-driven ESMs. Incorporation of the interactive concentrations also increases the range of global warming, computed as the 20 year average difference between 2081–2100 and 1850–1869/1861–1880, by 49% from 2.36 K (i.e. ranging from 3.11 to 5.47 K) in the concentration-driven simulations to 3.51 K inmore »the emission-driven simulations. The observed seasonal amplitude of global [CO2] from 1980–2011 is about 1.2–5.3 times as large as those from the eight emission-driven ESMs, while the [CO2] seasonality is simply neglected in concentration-driven ESMs, suggesting the urgent need of ESM improvements in this area. The temperature-concentration feedback parameter ? is more sensitive to [CO2] (e.g. during 1980–2005 versus 2075–2100) than how [CO2] is handled (i.e. prognostic versus prescribed). This sensitivity can be substantially reduced by using a more appropriate parameter ?' computed from the linear regression of temperature change versus that of the logarithm of [CO2]. However, the inter-model relative variations of both ? and ?' remain large, suggesting the need of more detailed studies to understand and hopefully reduce these discrepancies.« less

  3. 2014-09-18 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition, and Compliance for Commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for alternative efficiency determination methods, basic model definition, and compliance for commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  4. HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder, Houston, Texas (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for New Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HVAC Design Strategy for a Hot-Humid Production Builder Houston, Texas PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: New Home Type: Single-family, production builder Builder: David Weekley Homes - Houston www.davidweekleyhomes.com/ new-homes/tx/houston Size: 1,757 ft 2 to 4,169 ft 2 Price Range: about $260,000 to $450,000 Date Completed: 2013 Climate Zone: Hot-humid PERFORMANCE DATA HERS index: Builder standard practice = 66; case study 1,757-ft 2 house = 54 Projected annual energy cost savings: $375

  5. Fermilab Central Computing Facility: Energy conservation report and mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krstulovich, S.F.

    1986-11-12

    This report is developed as part of the Fermilab Central Computing Facility Project Title II Design Documentation Update under the provisions of DOE Document 6430.1, Chapter XIII-21, Section 14, paragraph a. As such, it concentrates primarily on HVAC mechanical systems design optimization and cost analysis and should be considered as a supplement to the Title I Design Report date March 1986 wherein energy related issues are discussed pertaining to building envelope and orientation as well as electrical systems design.

  6. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery, turbocharging or turbo-compounding, and exhaust aftertreatment.

  7. Study the sensitivity of dose calculation in prism treatment planning system using Monte Carlo simulation of 6 MeV electron beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardiansyah, D.; Haryanto, F.; Male, S.

    2014-09-30

    Prism is a non-commercial Radiotherapy Treatment Planning System (RTPS) develop by Ira J. Kalet from Washington University. Inhomogeneity factor is included in Prism TPS dose calculation. The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dose calculation on Prism using Monte Carlo simulation. Phase space source from head linear accelerator (LINAC) for Monte Carlo simulation is implemented. To achieve this aim, Prism dose calculation is compared with EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and R50 from both calculations are observed. BEAMnrc is simulated electron transport in LINAC head and produced phase space file. This file is used as DOSXYZnrc input to simulated electron transport in phantom. This study is started with commissioning process in water phantom. Commissioning process is adjusted Monte Carlo simulation with Prism RTPS. Commissioning result is used for study of inhomogeneity phantom. Physical parameters of inhomogeneity phantom that varied in this study are: density, location and thickness of tissue. Commissioning result is shown that optimum energy of Monte Carlo simulation for 6 MeV electron beam is 6.8 MeV. This commissioning is used R50 and PDD with Practical length (R{sub p}) as references. From inhomogeneity study, the average deviation for all case on interest region is below 5 %. Based on ICRU recommendations, Prism has good ability to calculate the radiation dose in inhomogeneity tissue.

  8. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  9. Hybrid Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-15

    HybSim (short for Hybrid Simulator) is a flexible, easy to use screening tool that allows the user to quanti the technical and economic benefits of installing a village hybrid generating system and simulates systems with any combination of —Diesel generator sets —Photovoltaic arrays -Wind Turbines and -Battery energy storage systems Most village systems (or small population sites such as villages, remote military bases, small communities, independent or isolated buildings or centers) depend on diesel generationmore » systems for their source of energy. HybSim allows the user to determine other "sources" of energy that can greatly reduce the dollar to kilo-watt hour ratio. Supported by the DOE, Energy Storage Program, HybSim was initially developed to help analyze the benefits of energy storage systems in Alaskan villages. Soon after its development, other sources of energy were added providing the user with a greater range of analysis opportunities and providing the village with potentially added savings. In addition to village systems, HybSim has generated interest for use from military institutions in energy provisions and USAID for international village analysis.« less

  10. Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Vehicle Technologies Plenary

  11. Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Developed technologies to reduce parasitic loads (ANL, LLNL) - Continued to Build Fleet DNA Database to assist partners with vehicle technology adoption (NREL, ORNL) 15 ...

  12. Adsorption Refrigeration System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2011-01-01

    Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

  13. Application of computational fluid dynamics for the simulation of cryogenic molecular sieve bed absorber of hydrogen isotopes recovery system for Indian LLCB-TBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gayathri Devi, V.; Sircar, A.; Sarkar, B.

    2015-03-15

    One of the most challenging tasks in the design of the fuel cycle system lies in the effective design of Tritium Extraction System (TES) which involves proper extraction and purification of tritium in the fuel cycle of the fusion reactor. Indian Lead Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (LLCB-TBM) would extract hydrogen isotopes through Cryogenic Molecular Sieve Bed (CMSB) adsorber system. A prototype Hydrogen Isotopes Recovery System (HIRS) is being developed to validate the concepts for tritium extraction by adsorption mass transfer mechanism. In this study, a design model has been developed and analyzed to simulate the adsorption mass transfer kinetics in a fixed bed adsorption column. The simulation leads primarily to effective design of HIRS, which is a state-of-the-art technology. The paper describes the process simulation approach and the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The effects of different operating conditions are studied to investigate their influence on the hydrogen isotopes adsorption capacity. The results of the present simulation study would be used to understand the best optimized transport phenomenon before realizing the TES as a system for LLCB-TBM. (authors)

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    In this project, IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance.

  15. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: New Insights for Improving the Designs of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance.

  16. Method, system and apparatus for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Steven D.; Tremblay, Paul L.; Fryer, Michael O.; Hohorst, Frederick A.

    2004-03-23

    A system, method and apparatus is provided for monitoring and adjusting the quality of indoor air. A sensor array senses an air sample from the indoor air and analyzes the air sample to obtain signatures representative of contaminants in the air sample. When the level or type of contaminant poses a threat or hazard to the occupants, the present invention takes corrective actions which may include introducing additional fresh air. The corrective actions taken are intended to promote overall health of personnel, prevent personnel from being overexposed to hazardous contaminants and minimize the cost of operating the HVAC system. The identification of the contaminants is performed by comparing the signatures provided by the sensor array with a database of known signatures. Upon identification, the system takes corrective actions based on the level of contaminant present. The present invention is capable of learning the identity of previously unknown contaminants, which increases its ability to identify contaminants in the future. Indoor air quality is assured by monitoring the contaminants not only in the indoor air, but also in the outdoor air and the air which is to be recirculated. The present invention is easily adaptable to new and existing HVAC systems. In sum, the present invention is able to monitor and adjust the quality of indoor air in real time by sensing the level and type of contaminants present in indoor air, outdoor and recirculated air, providing an intelligent decision about the quality of the air, and minimizing the cost of operating an HVAC system.

  17. User's guide of TOUGH2-EGS-MP: A Massively Parallel Simulator with Coupled Geomechanics for Fluid and Heat Flow in Enhanced Geothermal Systems VERSION 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Yi; Fakcharoenphol, Perapon; Wang, Shihao; Winterfeld, Philip H.; Zhang, Keni; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2013-12-01

    TOUGH2-EGS-MP is a parallel numerical simulation program coupling geomechanics with fluid and heat flow in fractured and porous media, and is applicable for simulation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). TOUGH2-EGS-MP is based on the TOUGH2-MP code, the massively parallel version of TOUGH2. In TOUGH2-EGS-MP, the fully-coupled flow-geomechanics model is developed from linear elastic theory for thermo-poro-elastic systems and is formulated in terms of mean normal stress as well as pore pressure and temperature. Reservoir rock properties such as porosity and permeability depend on rock deformation, and the relationships between these two, obtained from poro-elasticity theories and empirical correlations, are incorporated into the simulation. This report provides the user with detailed information on the TOUGH2-EGS-MP mathematical model and instructions for using it for Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical (THM) simulations. The mathematical model includes the fluid and heat flow equations, geomechanical equation, and discretization of those equations. In addition, the parallel aspects of the code, such as domain partitioning and communication between processors, are also included. Although TOUGH2-EGS-MP has the capability for simulating fluid and heat flows coupled with geomechanical effects, it is up to the user to select the specific coupling process, such as THM or only TH, in a simulation. There are several example problems illustrating applications of this program. These example problems are described in detail and their input data are presented. Their results demonstrate that this program can be used for field-scale geothermal reservoir simulation in porous and fractured media with fluid and heat flow coupled with geomechanical effects.

  18. User's Guide of TOUGH2-EGS. A Coupled Geomechanical and Reactive Geochemical Simulator for Fluid and Heat Flow in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakcharoenphol, Perapon; Xiong, Yi; Hu, Litang; Winterfeld, Philip H.; Xu, Tianfu; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2013-05-01

    TOUGH2-EGS is a numerical simulation program coupling geomechanics and chemical reactions for fluid and heat flows in porous media and fractured reservoirs of enhanced geothermal systems. The simulator includes the fully-coupled geomechanical (THM) module, the fully-coupled geochemical (THC) module, and the sequentially coupled reactive geochemistry (THMC) module. The fully-coupled flow-geomechanics model is developed from the linear elastic theory for the thermo-poro-elastic system and is formulated with the mean normal stress as well as pore pressure and temperature. The chemical reaction is sequentially coupled after solution of flow equations, which provides the flow velocity and phase saturation for the solute transport calculation at each time step. In addition, reservoir rock properties, such as porosity and permeability, are subjected to change due to rock deformation and chemical reactions. The relationships between rock properties and geomechanical and chemical effects from poro-elasticity theories and empirical correlations are incorporated into the simulator. This report provides the user with detailed information on both mathematical models and instructions for using TOUGH2-EGS for THM, THC or THMC simulations. The mathematical models include the fluid and heat flow equations, geomechanical equation, reactive geochemistry equations, and discretization methods. Although TOUGH2-EGS has the capability for simulating fluid and heat flows coupled with both geomechanical and chemical effects, it is up to the users to select the specific coupling process, such as THM, THC, or THMC in a simulation. There are several example problems illustrating the applications of this program. These example problems are described in details and their input data are presented. The results demonstrate that this program can be used for field-scale geothermal reservoir simulation with fluid and heat flow, geomechanical effect, and chemical reaction in porous and fractured media.

  19. The Development of a Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laoboratory: Progress, Requirements and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David I Gertman; Katya L. LeBlanc; William phoenix; Alan R Mecham

    2010-11-01

    Next generation nuclear power plants and digital upgrades to the existing nuclear fleet introduce potential human performance issues in the control room. Safe application of new technologies calls for a thorough understanding of how those technologies affect human performance and in turn, plant safety. In support of advancing human factors for small modular reactors and light water reactor sustainability, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a reconfigurable simulation laboratory capable of testing human performance in multiple nuclear power plant (NPP) control room simulations. This paper discusses the laboratory infrastructure and capabilities, the laboratory’ s staffing requirements, lessons learned, and the researcher’s approach to measuring human performance in the simulation lab.

  20. Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides overview of DOE-supported projects in automotive thermoelectric generators and heaters/air conditioners

  1. Webinar: Low Load HVAC Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home (ZERH) Program represents a whole new level of home performance, with rigorous requirements that ensure outstanding levels of energy savings,...

  2. Advanced HVAC Development and Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Timeline: Start date: 1012015 Planned end date: 9302016 Key Milestones 1. Cold Climate Heat Pump Case Study; 6302016 2. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump Case Study; 9302016 ...

  3. Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  4. Status report on multigroup cross section generation code development for high-fidelity deterministic neutronics simulation system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, W. S.; Lee, C. H.

    2008-05-16

    Under the fast reactor simulation program launched in April 2007, development of an advanced multigroup cross section generation code was initiated in July 2007, in conjunction with the development of the high-fidelity deterministic neutron transport code UNIC. The general objectives are to simplify the existing multi-step schemes and to improve the resolved and unresolved resonance treatments. Based on the review results of current methods and the fact that they have been applied successfully to fast critical experiment analyses and fast reactor designs for last three decades, the methodologies of the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2/SDX code system were selected as the starting set of methodologies for multigroup cross section generation for fast reactor analysis. As the first step for coupling with the UNIC code and use in a parallel computing environment, the MC{sup 2}-2 code was updated by modernizing the memory structure and replacing old data management package subroutines and functions with FORTRAN 90 based routines. Various modifications were also made in the ETOE-2 and MC{sup 2}-2 codes to process the ENDF/B-VII.0 data properly. Using the updated ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, the ENDF/B-VII.0 data was successfully processed for major heavy and intermediate nuclides employed in sodium-cooled fast reactors. Initial verification tests of the MC{sup 2}-2 libraries generated from ENDF/B-VII.0 data were performed by inter-comparison of twenty-one group infinite dilute total cross sections obtained from MC{sup 2}-2, VIM, and NJOY. For almost all nuclides considered, MC{sup 2}-2 cross sections agreed very well with those from VIM and NJOY. Preliminary validation tests of the ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries of MC{sup 2}-2 were also performed using a set of sixteen fast critical benchmark problems. The deterministic results based on MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT calculations were in good agreement with MCNP solutions within {approx}0.25% {Delta}{rho}, except a few small LANL fast assemblies. Relative to the MCNP solution, the MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT results overestimated the multiplication factor by 0.22 {approx} 0.35% {Delta}{rho} for these small systems with very hard neutron spectrum. Comparisons of measured and calculated values for the fission reaction rate ratios of Godiva and Jezebel assemblies also showed that the MC{sup 2}-2/TWODANT results agreed well with measurements within 2.7%. From a series of methodology review and ENDF/B-VII.0 data processing, several improvement needs to enhance accuracy were also identified for the ETOE-2/MC{sup 2}-2 code system, including the multigroup slowing-down solution for whole-energy range, proper treatment for anisotropy of inelastic scattering, improved evaluation of inelastic and high-order anisotropic scattering source in RABANL calculations.

  5. A coarse-graining approach for molecular simulation that retains the dynamics of the all-atom reference system by implementing hydrodynamic interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markutsya, Sergiy; Lamm, Monica H.

    2014-11-07

    We report on a new approach for deriving coarse-grained intermolecular forces that retains the frictional contribution that is often discarded by conventional coarse-graining methods. The approach is tested for water and an aqueous glucose solution, and the results from the new implementation for coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation show remarkable agreement with the dynamics obtained from reference all-atom simulations. The agreement between the structural properties observed in the coarse-grained and all-atom simulations is also preserved. We discuss how this approach may be applied broadly to any existing coarse-graining method where the coarse-grained models are rigorously derived from all-atom reference systems.

  6. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant’s thermal dissatisfaction below a given threshold. The DECS energy usage was calculated using the simplified thermal model. OSFA control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected HIYW control with a thermostat at each workstation were implemented for 3 cities representing 3 different climatic regions and control scenarios. It is shown that optimization allows DECS to deliver a higher level of individual and population thermal comfort while achieving annual energy savings between 14 and 26% compared to OSFA. The optimization model also allowed us to study the influence of the partitions’ thermal resistance and the variability of internal loads at each office. These influences didn’t make significant changes in the optimized energy consumption relative to OSFA. The results show that it is possible to provide thermal comfort for each occupant while saving energy compared to OSFA Furthermore, to simplify the implementation of this approach, a fuzzy logic system has been developed to generalize the overall optimization strategy. Its performance was almost as good as the gradient system. The fuzzy system provided thermal comfort to each occupant and saved energy compared to OSFA. The energy savings of the fuzzy system were not as high as for the gradient-optimized system, but the fuzzy system avoided complete connectivity, and the optimization did not have to be repeated for each population. 3. We employed a detailed CFD model of adjacent occupied cubicles to extend the thermal-circuit model in three significant ways: (a) relax the “office wall” requirement by allowing energy to flow between zones via advection as well as conduction, (b) improve the comfort model to account both for radiation as well as convection heat transfer, and (c) support ventilation systems in which the temperature is stratified, such as in underfloor air distribution systems. Initially, three-dimensional CFD simulations of several cubicle configurations, with an adjoining corridor, were performed both to understand the advection between cubicles and the resulting temperature stratification. These simulations showed that the advective flow between cubicles is very significant and severely limits the occupants’ ability to control the personal micro-environments by simply controlling the temperature of the incoming air. Subsequently, the existing thermal-circuit model was extended to include the phenomena described above. The modifications to the thermal-circuit model, which were incorporated such that the simulation time was only slightly impacted, showed that accounting for room stratification resulting from the use of floor swirl diffusers could lead to 10%-26% reduction in the annual energy consumed for HVAC in non-temperate climates. This trend was evident in both OSFA and HIYW scenarios. However, the ratio of energy usage in the two scenarios was little affected by the enhancements in the thermal model.

  7. Wind speed response of marine non-precipitating stratocumulus clouds over a diurnal cycle in cloud-system resolving simulations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kazil, J.; Feingold, G.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2015-10-21

    Observed and projected trends in large scale wind speed over the oceans prompt the question: how might marine stratocumulus clouds and their radiative properties respond to future changes in large scale wind speed? Wind speed drives the surface fluxes of sensible heat, moisture, and momentum, and thereby acts on cloud liquid water path (LWP) and cloud radiative properties. We present an investigation of the dynamical response of non-precipitating, overcast marine stratocumulus clouds to different wind speeds, all else equal. In cloud-system resolving simulations, we find that higher wind speed leads to faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment. The dynamicalmore »driver is enhanced buoyant production of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) from latent heat release in cloud updrafts. LWP is enhanced during the night and in the morning at higher wind speed, and more strongly suppressed later in the day. Wind speed hence accentuates the diurnal LWP cycle by expanding the morning – afternoon contrast. The higher LWP at higher wind speed does not, however, enhance cloud top cooling because in clouds with LWP ⪆ 50 g m?2, long wave emissions are very insensitive to LWP. This leads to the more general conclusion that in sufficiently thick stratocumulus clouds, additional boundary layer growth and entrainment due to a boundary layer moistening arises by stronger production of TKE from latent heat release in cloud updrafts, rather than from enhanced longwave cooling. We find furthermore that large scale wind modulates boundary layer decoupling. At nighttime and at low wind speed during daytime, it enhances decoupling in part by faster boundary layer growth and stronger entrainment, and in part because circulation driven by shear from large scale wind in the sub-cloud layer hinders vertical moisture transport between the surface and cloud base. With increasing wind speed, however, in decoupled daytime conditions, shear-driven circulation due to large scale wind takes over from buoyancy-driven circulation in transporting moisture from the surface to cloud base, and thereby reduces decoupling and helps maintain LWP. The cloud radiative effect (CRE) responds to changes in LWP and cloud fraction, and higher wind speed translates to a stronger diurnally averaged CRE. However, the sensitivity of the diurnally averaged CRE to wind speed decreases with increasing wind speed.« less

  8. BEYOND INTEGRATED SYSTEM VALIDATION: USE OF A CONTROL ROOM TRAINING SIMULATOR FOR PROOF-OF-CONCEPT INTERFACE DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Boring; Vivek Agarwal

    2012-07-01

    This paper provides background on a reconfigurable control room simulator for nuclear power plants. The main control rooms in current nuclear power plants feature analog technology that is growing obsolete. The need to upgrade control rooms serves the practical need of maintainability as well as the opportunity to implement newer digital technologies with added functionality. There currently exists no dedicated research simulator for use in human factors design and evaluation activities for nuclear power plants in the US. The new research simulator discussed in this paper provides a test bed in which operator performance on new control room concepts can be benchmarked against existing control rooms and in which new technologies can be validated for safety and usability prior to deployment.

  9. In-plane magnetization behaviors in the Shastry-Sutherland system TbB{sub 4}: Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, J. J.; Li, W. C.; Qin, M. H. E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn; Xie, Y. L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M. E-mail: liujm@nju.edu.cn; Jia, X. T.

    2015-05-07

    The in-plane magnetization behaviors in TbB{sub 4} are theoretically studied using the frustrated classical XY model, including the exchange and biquadratic interactions, and the anisotropy energy. The magnetization curves at various temperatures are simulated, and the magnetic orders are uncovered by the tracking of the spin configurations. In addition, the effects of the in-plane anisotropy and biquadratic interaction on the magnetization curves are investigated in detail. The simulated results suggest that the magnetic anisotropy within the (001) plane owes to the complex interplay between these couplings, and the anisotropy term plays an important role.

  10. Optimum Energy LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HVAC systems performance optimiser, which it claims will reduce HVAC system energy consumption 30%-50%. Coordinates: 47.60356, -122.329439 Show Map Loading map......

  11. System Configuration Management Implementation Procedure for the Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GARRISON, R.C.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides configuration management for the Distributed Control System (DCS), the Gaseous Effluent Monitoring System (GEMS-100) System, the Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), the Canister Receiving Crane (CRC) CRN-001 PLC, and both North and South vestibule door interlock system PLCs at the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This procedure identifies and defines software configuration items in the CSB control and monitoring systems, and defines configuration control throughout the system life cycle. Components of this control include: configuration status accounting; physical protection and control; and verification of the completeness and correctness of these items.

  12. Energy and cost analysis of a solar-hydrogen combined heat and power system for remote power supply using a computer simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabani, Bahman; Andrews, John; Watkins, Simon

    2010-01-15

    A simulation program, based on Visual Pascal, for sizing and techno-economic analysis of the performance of solar-hydrogen combined heat and power systems for remote applications is described. The accuracy of the submodels is checked by comparing the real performances of the system's components obtained from experimental measurements with model outputs. The use of the heat generated by the PEM fuel cell, and any unused excess hydrogen, is investigated for hot water production or space heating while the solar-hydrogen system is supplying electricity. A 5 kWh daily demand profile and the solar radiation profile of Melbourne have been used in a case study to investigate the typical techno-economic characteristics of the system to supply a remote household. The simulation shows that by harnessing both thermal load and excess hydrogen it is possible to increase the average yearly energy efficiency of the fuel cell in the solar-hydrogen system from just below 40% up to about 80% in both heat and power generation (based on the high heating value of hydrogen). The fuel cell in the system is conventionally sized to meet the peak of the demand profile. However, an economic optimisation analysis illustrates that installing a larger fuel cell could lead to up to a 15% reduction in the unit cost of the electricity to an average of just below 90 c/kWh over the assessment period of 30 years. Further, for an economically optimal size of the fuel cell, nearly a half the yearly energy demand for hot water of the remote household could be supplied by heat recovery from the fuel cell and utilising unused hydrogen in the exit stream. Such a system could then complement a conventional solar water heating system by providing the boosting energy (usually in the order of 40% of the total) normally obtained from gas or electricity. (author)

  13. Simulated Performance of Algorithms for the Localization of Radioactive Sources from a Position Sensitive Radiation Detecting System (COCAE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karafasoulis, K.; Zachariadou, K.; Seferlis, S.; Kaissas, I.; Potiriadis, C.; Lambropoulos, C.; Loukas, D.

    2011-12-13

    Simulation studies are presented regarding the performance of algorithms that localize point-like radioactive sources detected by a position sensitive portable radiation instrument (COCAE). The source direction is estimated by using the List Mode Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (LM-ML-EM) imaging algorithm. Furthermore, the source-to-detector distance is evaluated by three different algorithms based on the photo-peak count information of each detecting layer, the quality of the reconstructed source image, and the triangulation method. These algorithms have been tested on a large number of simulated photons over a wide energy range (from 200 keV to 2 MeV) emitted by point-like radioactive sources located at different orientations and source-to-detector distances.

  14. Fuzzy Linguistic Knowledge Based Behavior Extraction for Building Energy Management Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic

    2013-08-01

    Significant portion of world energy production is consumed by building Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) units. Thus along with occupant comfort, energy efficiency is also an important factor in HVAC control. Modern buildings use advanced Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) control schemes to realize these goals. However, since the performance of HVAC units is dependent on many criteria including uncertainties in weather, number of occupants, and thermal state, the performance of current state of the art systems are sub-optimal. Furthermore, because of the large number of sensors in buildings, and the high frequency of data collection, large amount of information is available. Therefore, important behavior of buildings that compromise energy efficiency or occupant comfort is difficult to identify. This paper presents an easy to use and understandable framework for identifying such behavior. The presented framework uses human understandable knowledge-base to extract important behavior of buildings and present it to users via a graphical user interface. The presented framework was tested on a building in the Pacific Northwest and was shown to be able to identify important behavior that relates to energy efficiency and occupant comfort.

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 U.S. Commercial Buildings Conditioned Floorspace, Building Type and System Type (Million SF) Total Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care Lodging Mercantile and Service Office Public Buildings Warehouse/Storage Total Source(s): BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table A2-12, p. B2-1. 3,988 4,771 19,767 5,287 2,822 3,352 12,065 48,064 119 1,482 0 0 102

  16. Relative efficiency calculations of biological and physical systems exposed to charged particle beams through Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avila, Olga; Brandan, Maria-Ester

    1998-08-28

    A theoretical investigation of thermoluminescence response of Lithium Fluoride after heavy ion irradiation has been performed through Monte Carlo simulation of the energy deposition process. Efficiencies for the total TL signal of LiF irradiated with 0.7, 1.5 and 3 MeV protons and 3, 5.3 and 7.5 MeV helium ions have been calculated using the radial dose distribution profiles obtained from the MC procedure and applying Track Structure Theory and Modified Track Structure Theory. Results were compared with recent experimental data. The models correctly describe the observed decrease in efficiency as a function of the ion LET.

  17. Preliminary Results of a RANS Simulation for a Floating Point Absorber Wave Energy System Under Extreme Wave Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Y.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study on the hydrodynamics of a moored floating-point absorber (FPA) wave energy system under extreme wave conditions.

  18. Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC...

  19. Audit Report: IG-0817 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    costs, up to 40 percent, were expended for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). Because of its size and scope, operating the Department's existing HVAC systems as...

  20. Staged Upgrades as a Strategy for Residential Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Caroline Hazard, SRA International 20 | Building ... * HVAC SAVE (System Adjustment and Verified Efficiency) ... This summer CEW plans to partner with HVAC contractors, ...