National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for humidifier evaporative cooler

  1. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vitale, Nicholas G.; Jones, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  2. Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vitale, N.G.; Jones, D.O.

    2000-05-23

    A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

  3. Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/people/free-stock/">Public Domain Photos</a>. Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of Public Domain Photos. In low-humidity areas,

  4. Evaporative cooler including one or more rotating cooler louvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerlach, David W

    2015-02-03

    An evaporative cooler may include an evaporative cooler housing with a duct extending therethrough, a plurality of cooler louvers with respective porous evaporative cooler pads, and a working fluid source conduit. The cooler louvers are arranged within the duct and rotatably connected to the cooler housing along respective louver axes. The source conduit provides an evaporative cooler working fluid to the cooler pads during at least one mode of operation.

  5. Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Home Cooling Systems Air Conditioning Evaporative Coolers Fans Radiant Cooling Ventilation for Cooling Whole-House Fans Home Heating Systems Heat Pump Systems Water Heating...

  6. Vertical counterflow evaporative cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian Eric; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-01-25

    An evaporative heat exchanger having parallel plates that define alternating dry and wet passages. A water reservoir is located below the plates and is connected to a water distribution system. Water from the water distribution system flows through the wet passages and wets the surfaces of the plates that form the wet passages. Air flows through the dry passages, mixes with air below the plates, and flows into the wet passages before exiting through the top of the wet passages.

  7. Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    windows in unoccupied areas. Where open windows create a security issue, install up-ducts in the ceiling. Up-ducts open to exhaust warm air into the attic as cooler air comes...

  8. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  9. Control methods and systems for indirect evaporative coolers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woods, Jason; Kozubal, Erik

    2015-09-22

    A control method for operating an indirect evaporative cooler to control temperature and humidity. The method includes operating an airflow control device to provide supply air at a flow rate to a liquid desiccant dehumidifier. The supply air flows through the dehumidifier and an indirect evaporative cooler prior to exiting an outlet into a space. The method includes operating a pump to provide liquid desiccant to the liquid desiccant dehumidifier and sensing a temperature of an airstream at the outlet of the indirect evaporative cooler. The method includes comparing the temperature of the airstream at the outlet to a setpoint temperature at the outlet and controlling the pump to set the flow rate of the liquid desiccant. The method includes sensing space temperature, comparing the space temperature with a setpoint temperature, and controlling the airflow control device to set the flow rate of the supply air based on the comparison.

  10. Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahai, Rashmi; Shah, Nihar; Phadke, Amol

    2012-07-01

    Evaporative coolers (ECs) provide significant gains in energy efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners, but simultaneously have significant onsite water demand. This can be a major barrier to deployment in areas of the world with hot and arid climates. To address this concern, this study determined where in the world evaporative cooling is suitable, the water consumption of ECs in these cities, and the potential that greywater can be used reduce the consumption of potable water in ECs. ECs covered 69percent of the cities where room air conditioners are may be deployed, based on comfort conditions alone. The average water consumption due to ECs was found to be 400 L/household/day in the United States and Australia, with the potential for greywater to provide 50percent this amount. In the rest of the world, the average water consumption was 250 L/household/day, with the potential for greywater to supply 80percent of this amount. Home size was the main factor that contributed to this difference. In the Mediterranean, the Middle East, Northern India, and the Midwestern and Southwestern United States alkalinity levels are high and water used for bleeding will likely contribute significantly to EC water consumption. Although technically feasible, upfront costs for household GW systems are currently high. In both developed and developing parts of the world, however, a direct EC and GW system is cost competitive with conventional vapor compression air conditioners. Moreover, in regions of the world that face problems of water scarcity the benefits can substantially outweigh the costs.

  11. Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

    2014-07-08

    An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

  12. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  13. Sandia Cooler

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Koplow, Jeff; Fornaciari, Neal; Gharagozloo, Patricia

    2014-06-23

    The Sandia Cooler is 30-times more efficient than conventional air-cooled heat exchangers and is available for licensing to electronics and solid state lighting cooling manufacturers.

  14. Evaporative Coolers | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  15. Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work

  16. Humidifier for fuel cell using high conductivity carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W.; Stinton, David P.

    2006-12-12

    A method and apparatus of supplying humid air to a fuel cell is disclosed. The extremely high thermal conductivity of some graphite foams lends itself to enhance significantly the ability to humidify supply air for a fuel cell. By utilizing a high conductivity pitch-derived graphite foam, thermal conductivity being as high as 187 W/m.dot.K, the heat from the heat source is more efficiently transferred to the water for evaporation, thus the system does not cool significantly due to the evaporation of the water and, consequently, the air reaches a higher humidity ratio.

  17. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  18. ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (Dataset) | Data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Explorer Data Explorer Search Results ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Title: ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Authors: Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; Janek Uin ; Alice Cialella ; Gunnar Senum ; Stephen Springston Publication Date: 2012-11-16 OSTI Identifier: 1095581 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation

  19. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Jian Lian (Belmont, MA); Northrop, William F. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2008-04-08

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  20. Radial Sandia Cooler Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This market assessment and commercialization report characterizes and assesses the market potential of the rotating heat exchanger technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), known as the Radial Sandia Cooler. The RSC is a novel, motor-driven, rotating, finned heat exchanger technology. The RSC was evaluated for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation markets.

  1. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C.; Paulson, Douglas N.; Allen, Paul C.

    1983-01-01

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

  2. Cryogenic cooler apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

    1983-01-04

    A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

  3. Commercial Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5343)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Commercial Cooler, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Cooler had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Custom Coolers: Order (2013-CE-5315)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Custom Coolers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Custom Coolers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  5. Golden Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5345)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Golden Cooler to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Golden Cooler had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. Southeast Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5331)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Southeast Cooler Corp. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Southeast Cooler had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  7. List of Evaporative Coolers Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Eligible Technologies Active APS - Energy Efficiency Solutions for Business (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Retail...

  8. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell System Humidifiers and Air Compression

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems | Department of Energy System Humidifiers and Air Compression Systems DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell System Humidifiers and Air Compression Systems These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for automotive and stationary fuel cell system humidifiers and automotive air compression systems. More information about targets can be found in the Fuel Cells section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration

  9. Energy savings from indirect evaporative pre-cooling: Control strategies and commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felts, D.; Jump, D.A.

    1998-07-01

    Package rooftop air conditioning units (RTU) with evaporative pre-cooling systems were installed at an Agricultural History Museum and conference center in the northern Sacramento Valley in California, a hot and dry summer climate region. The evaporative pre-coolers serve to extend the economizer range of the RTU's. A commissioning team monitored the performance of the RTU evaporative pre-coolers. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine if changes were warranted to optimize the system's energy efficiency. The commissioning process revealed that the RTU evaporative pre-coolers were being controlled by the economizer control cycle. With this control cycle, the evaporative pre-cooler operates when the outdoor air temperature is falling below the space return air temperature. This means that the pre-cooler will never operate at peak load conditions. The conference center is an assembly occupancy. Building codes require significant levels of outdoor air for ventilation. The evaporative pre-cooler system provides the means to significantly offset the energy requirements for cooling down and heating up this ventilation air. A DOE2 energy simulation analysis indicated that the evaporative pre-cooler could cut energy use by over 50% if it were working correctly. Investigation concludes that in buildings with high outdoor air requirements, evaporative pre-cooling, using building exhaust air as the indirect evaporative cooling source, significantly reduce building energy consumption. This evaporative pre-cooling technology works in any climate, regardless of outdoor conditions, since the return air stream exhausted from the building provides a relatively constant temperature and humidity source for evaporative cooling. An added benefit is that the evaporative pre-cooler heat exchanger recovers heat from the exhausted air stream in cold weather.

  10. Plugging of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Coolers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EGR coolers donated by industry and analyzed at ORNL contained lacquer-like deposits, which can be prevented by maintaining the cooler above the dew point of the hydrocarbons.

  11. Southeast Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Southeast Cooler Corp. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  12. Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Golden Cooler failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  13. Commercial Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5343)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Cooler, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. American Cooler Technologies: Order (2013-CE-5305)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered American Cooler Technologies to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding American Cooler Technologies had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in coolers or freezers (WICF) components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  15. EGR Cooler Deposit Analysis | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Analysis of fouling and performance of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers as a function of EGR flow rate, inlet gas and coolant temperatures, soot level, and hydrocarbon concentration PDF icon deer11_lance.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems (Agreement ID:18571) Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits

  16. Initial Evaluation of a New Electromechanical Cooler for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coleman, RL

    2002-10-21

    The use of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) constitutes the current state of the art in cryogenic cooling for high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, which are widely used for {gamma}-ray and characteristic X-ray spectroscopy because of their excellent energy discrimination. Use of LN{sub 2} requires a liquid nitrogen supply, cumbersome storage tanks and plumbing, and the frequent attention of personnel to be sure that nitrogen levels are sufficient to maintain the detectors at a sufficiently low operating temperature. Safety hazards also are associated with the use of LN{sub 2}, both because of the potential for severe frostbite on exposure to skin and because it displaces ambient oxygen when it evaporates in closed spaces. Existing electromechanical coolers have, until now, been more expensive to procure and maintain than LN{sub 2} systems. Performance and reliability have also been serious issues because of microphonic degradation of photon energy peak resolution and cooler failures due to compressor oil becoming entrained in the refrigerant. This report describes the results of tests of a new HPGe detector cooling technology, the PerkinElmer ORTEC{reg_sign} Products X-Cooler{trademark} that, according to the manufacturer, significantly reduces the lifetime cost of the cooling system without degradation of the output signal. The manufacturer claims to have overcome cost, performance and reliability problems of older-generation electromechanical coolers, but the product has no significant history of use, and this project is the first independent evaluation of its performance for Total cost savings for the DOE and other agencies that use HPGe systems extensively for safeguards monitoring is expected to be quite significant if the new electromechanical cooler technology is shown to be reliable and if performance characteristics indicate its usefulness for this application. The technology also promises to make HPGe monitoring, characterization and detection available for unattended or covert operation and in remote or inaccessible locations where the unavailability of LN{sub 2} and signal degradation from existing mechanical coolers prevent its use at the present time.

  17. Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Bo; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith; Craddick, William G

    2011-01-01

    Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

  18. EGR Cooler Fouling - Visualization of Deposition and Removal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EGR Cooler Fouling - Visualization of Deposition and Removal Mechanis Presents experimental data on exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) cooler fouling using new test apparatus that...

  19. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal This paper reports ...

  20. Factors Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions Factors Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions Presentation given at the 16th Directions in ...

  1. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation ...

  2. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  3. Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Characterize the thermo-physical properties of the deposit under different operating conditions on model EGR cooler tube and determine the long-term changes in deposit properties due to thermal cycling and water/HC condensation

  4. The Sandia Cooler - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search The Sandia Cooler A Fundamental Breakthrough in Heat Transfer Technology for Microelectronics Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (1,833 KB) PDF Document Publication Development of the Sandia Cooler - Dec. 2013 (9,328 KB) PDF Document Publication Market Assessment and

  5. Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockelie, Michael J.

    2015-06-29

    This Final Report summarizes research performed to develop a technology to mitigate the plugging and fouling that occurs in the syngas cooler used in many Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. The syngas cooler is a firetube heat exchanger located downstream of the gasifier. It offers high thermal efficiency, but its’ reliability has generally been lower than other process equipment in the gasification island. The buildup of ash deposits that form on the fireside surfaces in the syngas cooler (i.e., fouling) lead to reduced equipment life and increased maintenance costs. Our approach to address this problem is that fouling of the syngas cooler cannot be eliminated, but it can be better managed. The research program was funded by DOE using two budget periods: Budget Period 1 (BP1) and Budget Period 2 (BP2). The project used a combination of laboratory scale experiments, analysis of syngas cooler deposits, modeling and guidance from industry to develop a better understanding of fouling mechanisms and to develop and evaluate strategies to mitigate syngas cooler fouling and thereby improve syngas cooler performance. The work effort in BP 1 and BP 2 focused on developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that lead to syngas cooler plugging and fouling and investigating promising concepts to mitigate syngas cooler plugging and fouling. The work effort focused on the following: • analysis of syngas cooler deposits and fuels provided by an IGCC plant collaborating with this project; • performing Jet cleaning tests in the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor to determine the bond strength between an ash deposit to a metal plate, as well as implementing planned equipment modifications to the University of Utah Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor and the one ton per day, pressurized Pilot Scale Gasifier; • performing Computational Fluid Dynamic modeling of industrially relevant syngas cooler configurations to develop a better understanding of deposit formation mechanisms; • performing Techno-Economic-Analysis for a representative IGCC plant to investigate the impact on plant economics, in particular the impacts on the Cost of Electricity (COE), due to plant shutdowns caused by syngas cooler plugging and fouling and potential benefits to plant economics of developing strategies to mitigate syngas cooler fouling; and • performing modeling and pilot scale tests to investigate the potential benefits of using a sorbent (fuel additive) to capture the vaporized metals that result in syngas cooler fouling. All project milestones for BP 1 and BP 2 were achieved. DOE was provided a briefing on our accomplishments in BP1 and BP2 and our proposed plans for Budget Period 3 (BP 3). Based on our research the mitigation technology selected to investigate in BP 3 was the use of a sorbent that can be injected into the gasifier with the fuel slurry to capture vaporized metals that lead to the deposit formation in the syngas cooler. The work effort proposed for BP 3 would have focused on addressing concerns raised by gasification industry personnel for the impacts on gasifier performance of sorbent injection, so that at the end of BP 3 the use of sorbent injection would be at “pre-commercial” stage and ready for use in a Field Demonstration that could be funded by industry or DOE. A Budget Continuation Application (BCA) was submitted to obtain funding for BP3 DOE but DOE chose to not fund the proposed BP3 effort.

  6. The Use of Small Coolers in a Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Witte, Holger

    2007-07-25

    Small 4 K coolers are used to cool superconducting magnets.These coolers are usually used with high temperature suerconductor (HTS)leads. In most cases, magnet is shielded with iron or active shieldcoils. Thus the field at the cooler is low. There are instances when thecooler must be in a magnetic field. Gifford McMahon (GM) coolers or pulsetube coolers are commercially available to cool the magnets. This paperwill discuss how the two types of coolers are affected by the straymagnetic field. Strategies for using coolers on magnets that generatestray magnetic fields are discussed.

  7. American Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Cooler Technologies failed to certify walk-in coolers and freezer (WICF) components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  8. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  9. A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Cooler (WHDC) Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, dehumidifier and cooler (WHDC). Figure 1: The system model for the combined Water heater, dehumidifier and cooler (WHDC). Figure 2: Initial test results from a water heater and dehumidifier utilizing LiBr as a working fluid being tested at UF: System COP and capacity for different heat inputs. Figure 2: Initial test

  10. Results from the Cooler and Lead Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A

    2010-06-10

    The report presents the results of testing MICE spectrometer magnet current leads on a test apparatus that combines both the copper leads and the high temperature superconducting (HTS) leads with a single Cryomech PT415 cooler and liquid helium tank. The current is carried through the copper leads from 300 K to the top of the HTS leads. The current is then carried through the HTS leads to a feed-through from the vacuum space to the inside of a liquid helium tank. The experiment allows one to measure the performance of both cooler stages along with the performance of the leads. While the leads were powered we measured the voltage drops through the copper leads, through the HTS leads, through spliced to the feed-through, through the feed-through and through the low-temperature superconducting loop that connects one lead to the other. Measurements were made using the leads that were used in spectrometer magnet 1A and spectrometer magnet 2A. These are the same leads that were used for Superbend and Venus magnets at LBNL. The IL/A for these leads was 5.2 x 10{sup 6} m{sup -1}. The leads turned out to be too long. The same measurements were made using the leads that were installed in magnet 2B. The magnet 2B leads had an IL/A of 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A m{sup -1}. This report discusses the cooler performance and the measured electrical performance of the lead circuit that contains the copper leads and the superconducting leads. All of the HTS leads that were installed in magnet 2B were current tested using this apparatus.

  11. EGR Cooler Fouling - Visualization of Deposition and Removal Mechanis |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Presents experimental data on exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) cooler fouling using new test apparatus that allows for in-situ observation of deposition and removal processes PDF icon deer11_styles.pdf More Documents & Publications Factors Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems (Agreement ID:18571) EGR Cooler Deposit Analysis

  12. Factors Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_styles.pdf More Documents & Publications Identification and Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler Fouling The Impact of PM and HC on EGR Cooler Fouling EGR Cooler Fouling - Visualization of Deposition and Removal Mechanis

  13. Identification and Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Key factors that cause exhaust gas recirculation cooler fouling were identified through extensive literature search and controlled experiment was devised to study the impact of a ...

  14. MODELING OF THERMOPHORETIC SOOT DEPOSITION ANDHYDROCARBON CONDENSATION IN EGR COOLERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abarham, Mehdi; Hoard, John W.; Assanis, Dennis; Styles, Dan; Curtis, Eric W.; Ramesh, Nitia; Sluder, Scott; Storey, John Morse

    2009-01-01

    EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40-90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature. Thermal properties of fouled layer are calculated based on mass fraction of deposited soot and hydrocarbons. The experiments with the same conditions ran to validate the model. Hot EGR gases flow through the inner pipe and the coolant circulates around it in the outer pipe to keep a constant wall temperature. Effectiveness, deposited soot mass, condensed hydrocarbon mass, and pressure drop across the cooler are the parameters that have been compared. The results of the model are in a reasonably good agreement with the experimental results although there are some fields that need to be studied in future to improve the model.

  15. Characterization of Field-Aged Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Deposits |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Characterized field-aged exhaust gas recirculation coolers from 7 engine manufacturers, discussed differences and commonalities, and provided understanding of cooler fouling and prevention. PDF icon deer10_lance.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems (Agreement ID:18571)

  16. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  17. EECBG Success Story: Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students New 26 kW solar energy system to be part of curriculum at Norton Middle School. | Photo courtesy of Norton Public Schools. ...

  18. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    This report describes the first design of a refrigerator condenser using the Sandia Cooler, i.e. air-bearing supported rotating heat-sink impeller. The project included baseline ...

  19. Identification and Control of Factors that Affect EGR Cooler Fouling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Key factors that cause exhaust gas recirculation cooler fouling were identified through extensive literature search and controlled experiment was devised to study the impact of a few key factors on deposition.

  20. EECBG Success Story: Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students New 26 kW solar energy system to be...

  1. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  2. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vakil, Himanshu B. (Schenectady, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Ballston Lake, NY)

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  3. Tests of Four PT-415 Coolers Installed in the Drop-in Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Wang, S.T.

    2008-07-08

    The superconducting magnets and absorbers for MICE will be cooled using PT415 pulse tube coolers. The cooler 2nd stage will be connected to magnets and the absorbers through a helium or hydrogen re-condensing system. It was proposed that the coolers be connected to the magnets in such a way that the cooler can be easily installed and removed, which permits the magnets to be shipped without the coolers. The drop-in mode requires that the cooler 1st stage be well connected to the magnet shields and leads through a low temperature drop demountable connection. The results of the PT415 drop-in cooler tests are presented.

  4. Hot air drum evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Roger L.

    1981-01-01

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  5. Optimization of the main parameters of miniature split Stirling cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsesarsky, J.

    1995-12-01

    Unlike other modern industrial products Stirling refrigerators development is based mainly on experimental methods. Newly developed high accuracy numerical model for Stirling refrigerators analysis provides good approximation of gas stream process assured by large number of nodes placed in regenerator (300) and large number of time steps (240 per one machine turn). Confidence in accuracy of equations solution makes possible Stirling coolers optimization. In addition to information about refrigerator temperature field the model provides information about driving force of split cooler displacer for computer aided design of displacer driver. In this paper, four parameters of split Stirling refrigerator are optimized: compressor-expander swept volume ratio; phase angle; regenerator length; and regenerator diameter. In each program run power delivered to gas was kept constant by continuous correction of compressor and expander strokes without changing their ratio. Collection of the results produce the optimum cooler structure. Driving displacer force-theta function is also available.

  6. Shipboard electronics thermoacoustic cooler. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballister, S.C.; McKelvey, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    A thermoacoustic refrigerator that was optimized for preservation of biological samples in space, was modified for use as a cooler for the CV-2095 shipboard radar electronics rack. The thermoacoustic cooler was tested in the laboratory and demonstrated at sea aboard USS DEYO (DD-989). In the laboratory, using a calibrated heat load, the data acquisition system was able to account for the total energy balance to within 4%. At the highest operating power aboard ship, 226.6 Watts of acoustic power was used to provide 419 Walls of useful cooling power, corresponding to a coefficient of performance of 1.85. Taking into account the 53.9% electroacoustic efficiency of the loudspeakers, the Shipboard Electronics ThermoAcoustic Cooler (SETAC) provided one Watt of cooling for each Watt of electrical power input.

  7. Micro-cooler enhancements by barrier interface analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen, A.; Dunn, G. M.; Glover, J.; Oxley, C. H.; Bajo, M. Montes; Kuball, M.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Khalid, A.

    2014-02-15

    A novel gallium arsenide (GaAs) based micro-cooler design, previously analysed both experimentally and by an analytical Heat Transfer (HT) model, has been simulated using a self-consistent Ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) model for a more in depth analysis of the thermionic cooling in the device. The best fit to the experimental data was found and was used in conjunction with the HT model to estimate the cooler-contact resistance. The cooling results from EMC indicated that the cooling power of the device is highly dependent on the charge distribution across the leading interface. Alteration of this charge distribution via interface extensions on the nanometre scale has shown to produce significant changes in cooler performance.

  8. Performance of a Cross-Flow Humidifier with a High Flux Water Vapor Transport Membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Johnson, W. B.; Berg, F.; Kadylak, D.

    2015-09-30

    Water vapor transport (WVT) flux across a composite membrane that consists of a very thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layer sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous layers is investigated. Static and dynamic tests are conducted to measure WVT flux for different composite structures; a transport model shows that the underlying individual resistances for water diffusion in the gas phase and microporous and ionomer layers and for interfacial kinetics of water uptake at the ionomer surface are equally important under different conditions. A finite-difference model is formulated to determine water transport in a full-scale (2-m2 active membrane area) planar cross-flow humidifier module assembled using pleats of the optimized composite membrane. In agreement with the experimental data, the modeled WVT flux in the module increases at higher inlet relative humidity (RH) of the wet stream and at lower pressures, but the mass transfer effectiveness is higher at higher pressures. The model indicates that the WVT flux is highest under conditions that maintain the wet stream at close to 100% RH while preventing the dry stream from becoming saturated. The overall water transport is determined by the gradient in RH of the wet and dry streams but is also affected by vapor diffusion in the gas layer and the microporous layer.

  9. Market Assessment and Commercialization Strategy for the Radial Sandia Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goetzler, William; Shandross, Richard; Weintraub, Daniel; Young, Jim

    2014-02-01

    This market assessment and commercialization report characterizes and assesses the market potential of the rotating heat exchanger technology developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), known as the Radial Sandia Cooler. The RSC is a novel, motor-driven, rotating, finned heat exchanger technology. The RSC was evaluated for the residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation markets. Recommendations for commercialization were made based on assessments of the prototype RSC and the Sandia Cooler technology in general, as well as an in-depth analysis of the six most promising products for initial RSC commercialization.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser This report describes the first design of a refrigerator condenser using the Sandia Cooler, i.e. air-bearing supported rotating heat-sink impeller. The project included baseline performance testing of a residential refrigerator, analysis, and design development of a Sandia Cooler condenser assembly including a spiral channel

  11. 11-04-2015 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Freezers; Final rule; technical amendment | Department of Energy 11-04-2015 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Final rule; technical amendment 11-04-2015 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Final rule; technical amendment This document is for Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Final rule; technical amendment. PDF icon Walk-In Coolers and Freezers Final Rule Technical Amendment.pdf More

  12. Market Assessment and Commercialization Strategy for the Radial Sandia Cooler

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Assessment and Commercialization Strategy for the Radial Sandia Cooler February 2014 i NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government, nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of

  13. Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, George A.; Berry, David A.

    2008-10-28

    A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

  14. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

    1997-01-01

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  15. Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

    1997-10-28

    A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

  16. Projected Benefits of New Residential Evaporative Cooling Systems: Progress Report #2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Eastment, M.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

    2006-10-01

    The use of conventional evaporative cooling has rapidly declined in the United States despite the fact that it has high potential for energy savings in dry climates. Evaporative systems are very competitive in terms of first cost and provide significant reductions in operating energy use, as well as peak-load reduction benefits. Significant market barriers still remain and can be addressed through improved systems integration. This report investigates the first of these approaches, exploring innovative components. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America research teams are investigating the use of two promising new pieces of residential cooling equipment that employ evaporative cooling as a part of their system design. The OASys unit, which is a combination of direct and indirect evaporative cooling stages developed by Davis Energy Group (DEG) and manufactured by Speakman CRS, is used to ultimately provide outside air to the living space. The outdoor air provided is indirectly and directly evaporatively cooled in two stages to a condition that can be below the wet-bulb (wb) temperature of the outside air, thus outperforming a conventional single-stage direct evaporative cooler.

  17. Design and development of a four-cell sorption compressor based J-T cooler using R134a as working fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, R. N.; Bapat, S. L.; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    The need of a cooler with no electromagnetic interference and practically zero vibration has led to sorption compressor based Joule-Thomson (J-T) coolers. These are useful for sophisticated electronic, ground based and space borne systems. In a Sorption compressor, adsorbed gases are desorbed into a confined volume by raising temperature of the sorption bed resulting in an increase in pressure of the liberated gas. In order to have the system (compressor) functioning on a continuous basis, with almost a constant gas flow rate, multiple cells are used with the adaptation of Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) process. As the mass of the desorbed gas dictates the compressor throughput, a combination of sorbent material with high adsorption capacity for a chosen gas or gas mixture has to be selected for efficient operation of the compressor. Commercially available (coconut-shell base) activated carbon has been selected for the present application. The characterization study for variation of discharge pressure is used to design the Four-cell sorption compressor based cryocooler with a desired output. Apart from compressor, the system includes a) After cooler b) Return gas heat exchanger c) capillary tube as the J-T expansion device and d) Evaporator.

  18. Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A.

    1984-01-01

    A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

  19. Fuel cell cooler assembly and edge seal means therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breault, Richard D.; Roethlein, Richard J.; Congdon, Joseph V.

    1980-01-01

    A cooler assembly for a stack of fuel cells comprises a fibrous, porous coolant tube holder sandwiched between and bonded to at least one of a pair of gas impervious graphite plates. The tubes are disposed in channels which pass through the holder. The channels are as deep as the holder thickness, which is substantially the same as the outer diameter of the tubes. Gas seals along the edges of the holder parallel to the direction of the channels are gas impervious graphite strips.

  20. Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems - Enforcement Policy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems - Enforcement Policy Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems - Enforcement Policy February 1, 2016 DOE will not seek civil penalties or injunctive relief concerning violations of certain energy conservation standards applicable to refrigeration systems of walk-in coolers/walk-in freezers. PDF icon Enforcement Policy - WICF (02/01/2016) PDF icon Enforcement Policy - WICF (8/31/2015 - OBSOLETE) PDF icon

  1. A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider (Conference) | SciTech Connect A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider The current electron cooler design for the proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab utilizes a circulator ring for reuse of the cooling

  2. Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This paper reports on studies carried out at ORNL to examine the shear force required to remove particles from a well-developed EGR cooler deposit.

  3. 242-A Evaporator - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    began operating in 1977 to reduce the volume of waste stored in Hanford's underground tanks. The 242-A Evaporator is the only operating nuclear processing facility at Hanford. It...

  4. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  5. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

  6. Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the footprint required for an air cooling system. Evaporative...

  7. Evaporation of multicomponent drop arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.; Chandra, S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The present paper deals with the evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets in an array using the recently developed point source method (PSM). First, the quasisteady (QS) evaporation of an isolated, multicomponent droplet is briefly analyzed. The resultant governing equations, along with Raoult's law and the Cox-Antoine relation, constitute the set of equations needed to arrive at the solutions for: (1) the droplet surface temperature, (2) the evaporation rate of each species, and (3) the vapor mass fraction of each species at the droplet surface. The PSM, which treats the droplet as a point mass source and heat sink, is then adopted to obtain an analytic expression for the evaporation rate of a multicomponent droplet in an array of liquid droplets. Defining the correction factor ([eta]) as a ratio of the evaporation of a drop in an array to the evaporation rate of a similar isolated multicomponent drop, an expression for the correction factor is obtained. The results of the point source method (PSM) are then compared with those obtained elsewhere for a three-drop array that uses the method of images (MOI). Excellent agreement is obtained. The treatment is then extended to a binary drop array to study the effect of interdrop spacing on vaporization. 20 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. A shortcut for designing evaporators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, M.I.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Multiple-effect evaporation is commonly used in chemical process plants to minimize energy consumption and cooling water. In this system, several evaporators are connected by piping so that vapor passes from one effect to the next in series. Thus, the heat supplied to the first evaporator is used to vaporize water in the first effect; this vapor, in turn, passes to the next effect, until, finally, the heat in the vapor supplied to the last effect passes on to the condenser. The net result of this arrangement is the multiple reuse of heat, and a marked increase in the economic of the evaporation system. In addition to savings in steam use, there is also a saving in condenser cooling water as the number of effects increases. On the other hand, an increase in the number of effects represents an increase in capital costs since more heat transfer area is required in the evaporator system. Thus, the choice of the proper--that is, optimum--number of effects is dictated by an economic balance between the savings in steam and cooling water versus that of the additional investment costs. The paper describes the basic equations and an economic analysis of evaporator systems, and illustrates the method with an example.

  9. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  10. COLLECTIVE EFFECTS IN THE RHIC-II ELECTRON COOLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    POZDEYEV,E.; BEN-ZVI, I.; FEDOTOV, A.; KAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.; WANG, G.

    2007-06-25

    Electron cooling at RHIC-I1 upgrade imposes strict requirements on the quality of the electron beam at the cooling section. Beam current dependent effects such as the space charge, wake fields, CSR in bending magnets, trapped ions, etc., will tend to spoil the beam quality and decrease the cooling efficiency. In this paper, we estimate the defocusing effect of the space charge at the cooling section and describe our plan to compensate the defocusing space charge force by focusing solenoids. We also estimate the energy and emittance growth cased by wake fields. Finally, we discuss ion trapping in the electron cooler and consider different techniques to minimize the effect of ion trapping.

  11. Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-01-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

  12. A solvent replenishment solution for managing evaporation of biochemical reactions in air-matrix digital microfluidics devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jebrail, Mais J.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Sinha, Anupama; Van De Vreugde, Jim; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Ambriz, Cesar; Meagher, Robert J.; Branda, Steven S.

    2014-10-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a powerful technique for sample preparation and analysis for a broad range of biological and chemical applications. In many cases, it is desirable to carry out DMF on an open surface, such that the matrix surrounding the droplets is ambient air. However, the utility of the air-matrix DMF format has been severely limited by problems with droplet evaporation, especially when the droplet-based biochemical reactions require high temperatures for long periods of time. We present a simple solution for managing evaporation in air-matrix DMF: just-in-time replenishment of the reaction volume using droplets of solvent. We demonstrate that this solution enables DMF-mediated execution of several different biochemical reactions (RNA fragmentation, first-strand cDNA synthesis, and PCR) over a range of temperatures (4–95 °C) and incubation times (up to 1 h or more) without use of oil, humidifying chambers, or off-chip heating modules. Reaction volumes and temperatures were maintained roughly constant over the course of each experiment, such that the reaction kinetics and products generated by the air-matrix DMF device were comparable to those of conventional benchscale reactions. As a result, this simple yet effective solution for evaporation management is an important advance in developing air-matrix DMF for a wide variety of new, high-impact applications, particularly in the biomedical sciences.

  13. A solvent replenishment solution for managing evaporation of biochemical reactions in air-matrix digital microfluidics devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jebrail, Mais J.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Sinha, Anupama; Van De Vreugde, Jim; Gondhalekar, Carmen; Ambriz, Cesar; Meagher, Robert J.; Branda, Steven S.

    2014-10-01

    Digital microfluidics (DMF) is a powerful technique for sample preparation and analysis for a broad range of biological and chemical applications. In many cases, it is desirable to carry out DMF on an open surface, such that the matrix surrounding the droplets is ambient air. However, the utility of the air-matrix DMF format has been severely limited by problems with droplet evaporation, especially when the droplet-based biochemical reactions require high temperatures for long periods of time. We present a simple solution for managing evaporation in air-matrix DMF: just-in-time replenishment of the reaction volume using droplets of solvent. We demonstrate thatmore » this solution enables DMF-mediated execution of several different biochemical reactions (RNA fragmentation, first-strand cDNA synthesis, and PCR) over a range of temperatures (4–95 °C) and incubation times (up to 1 h or more) without use of oil, humidifying chambers, or off-chip heating modules. Reaction volumes and temperatures were maintained roughly constant over the course of each experiment, such that the reaction kinetics and products generated by the air-matrix DMF device were comparable to those of conventional benchscale reactions. As a result, this simple yet effective solution for evaporation management is an important advance in developing air-matrix DMF for a wide variety of new, high-impact applications, particularly in the biomedical sciences.« less

  14. 2014-05-08 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Freezers; Final Rule | Department of Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Final Rule 2014-05-08 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Final Rule This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and walk-in freezers, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on May 8, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should

  15. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  16. A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for ...

  17. Integrated testing of the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cooler and the iris LCCE electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Dean L.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Carroll, Brian A.; Bustamante, John G.; Kirkconnell, Carl S.; Luong, Thomas T.; Murphy, J. B.; Haley, Michael F.

    2014-01-29

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has identified the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cryocooler as a candidate low cost cryocooler to provide active cooling on future cost-capped scientific missions. The commercially available cooler can provide refrigeration in excess of 2 W at 100K for 60W of power. JPL purchased the LPT9510 cooler for thermal and dynamic performance characterization, and has initiated the flight qualification of the existing cooler design to satisfy near-term JPL needs for this cooler. The LPT9510 has been thermally tested over the heat reject temperature range of 0C to +40C during characterization testing. The cooler was placed on a force dynamometer to measure the selfgenerated vibration of the cooler. Iris Technology has provided JPL with a brass board version of the Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE) to drive the Thales cooler during characterization testing. The LCCE provides precision closed-loop temperature control and embodies extensive protection circuitry for handling and operational robustness; other features such as exported vibration mitigation and low frequency input current filtering are envisioned as options that future flight versions may or may not include based upon the mission requirements. JPL has also chosen to partner with Iris Technology for the development of electronics suitable for future flight applications. Iris Technology is building a set of radiation-hard, flight-design electronics to deliver to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Test results of the thermal, dynamic and EMC testing of the integrated Thales LPT9510 cooler and Iris LCCE electronics is presented here.

  18. 150K - 200K miniature pulse tube cooler for micro satellites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassaing, Clément; Butterworth, James; Aigouy, Gérald; Daniel, Christophe; Crespin, Maurice; Duvivier, Eric

    2014-01-29

    Air Liquide is working with the CNES and Steel électronique in 2013 to design, manufacture and test a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) to cool infrared detectors for micro-satellite missions. The cooler will be particularly adapted to the needs of the CNES MICROCARB mission to study atmospheric Carbon Dioxide which presents absorption lines in the thermal near infrared, at 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm. The required cooler temperature is from 150 to 200K with cooling power between 1 and 3 watts. The overall electrical power budget including electronics is less than 20W with a 288-300K rejection temperature. Particular attention is therefore paid to optimizing overall system efficiency. The active micro vibration reduction system and thermal control systems already developed for the Air Liquide Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) are currently being implemented into a new high efficiency electronic architecture. The presented work concerns the new cold finger and electronic design. The cooler uses the compressor already developed for the 80K Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler. This Pulse Tube Cooler addresses the requirements of space missions where extended continuous operating life time (>5 years), low mass and low micro vibration levels are critical.

  19. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

  20. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-02-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of a centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006a). The present report is an update to that document which summarizes results of an analysis of the impact of adding a humidifier to the HVAC system to maintain minimum levels of space relative humidity (RH) in winter. The space RH in winter has direct impact on occupant comfort and on control of dust mites, many types of disease bacteria, and 'dry air' electric shocks. Chapter 8 in ASHRAE's 2005 Handbook of Fundamentals (HOF) suggests a 30% lower limit on RH for indoor temperatures in the range of {approx}68-69F based on comfort (ASHRAE 2005). Table 3 in chapter 9 of the same reference suggests a 30-55% RH range for winter as established by a Canadian study of exposure limits for residential indoor environments (EHD 1987). Harriman, et al (2001) note that for RH levels of 35% or higher, electrostatic shocks are minimized and that dust mites cannot live at RH levels below 40%. They also indicate that many disease bacteria life spans are minimized when space RH is held within a 30-60% range. From the foregoing it is reasonable to assume that a winter space RH range of 30-40% would be an acceptable compromise between comfort considerations and limitation of growth rates for dust mites and many bacteria. In addition it reports some corrections made to the simulation models used in order to correct some errors in the TRNSYS building model for Atlanta and in the refrigerant pressure drop calculation in the water-to-refrigerant evaporator module of the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) used for the IHP analyses. These changes resulted in some minor differences between IHP performance as reported in Baxter (2006) and in this report.

  1. NASA Lewis Stirling SPRE testing and analysis with reduced number of cooler tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, W.A.; Cairelli, J.E.; Swec, D.M.; Doeberling, T.J.; Lakatos, T.F.; Madi, F.J.

    1994-09-01

    Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions.

  2. Apparatus and method for evaporator defrosting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Domitrovic, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus and method for warm-liquid defrosting of the evaporator of a refrigeration system. The apparatus includes a first refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands refrigerant for cooling the evaporator, a second refrigerant expansion device that selectively expands the refrigerant after the refrigerant has passed through the evaporator, and a defrosting control for the first refrigerant expansion device and second refrigerant expansion device to selectively defrost the evaporator by causing warm refrigerant to flow through the evaporator. The apparatus is alternately embodied with a first refrigerant bypass and/or a second refrigerant bypass for selectively directing refrigerant to respectively bypass the first refrigerant expansion device and the second refrigerant expansion device, and with the defrosting control connected to the first refrigerant bypass and/or the second refrigerant bypass to selectively activate and deactivate the bypasses depending upon the current cycle of the refrigeration system. The apparatus alternately includes an accumulator for accumulating liquid and/or gaseous refrigerant that is then pumped either to a refrigerant receiver or the first refrigerant expansion device for enhanced evaporator defrosting capability. The inventive method of defrosting an evaporator in a refrigeration system includes the steps of compressing refrigerant in a compressor and cooling the refrigerant in the condenser such that the refrigerant is substantially in liquid form, passing the refrigerant substantially in liquid form through the evaporator, and expanding the refrigerant with a refrigerant expansion device after the refrigerant substantially passes through the evaporator.

  3. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  4. Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students September 21, 2010 - 4:30pm Addthis Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more

  5. A Test Facility for MEIC ERL Circulator Ring Based Electron Cooler Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yuhong; Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Douglas, David R.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Nissen, Edward W.

    2013-05-01

    An electron cooling facility which is capable to deliver a beam with energy up to 55 MeV and average current up to 1.5 A at a high bunch repetition rate up to 750 MHz is required for MEIC. The present cooler design concept is based on a magnetized photo-cathode SRF gun, an SRF ERL and a compact circulator ring. In this paper, we present a proposal of a test facility utilizing the JLab FEL ERL for a technology demonstration of this cooler design concept. Beam studies will be performed and supporting technologies will also be developed in this test facility.

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Kariya, Harumichi Arthur; Leick, Michael T.; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Li, Manjie; Du, Yilin; Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the first design of a refrigerator condenser using the Sandia Cooler, i.e. air - bearing supported rotating heat - sink impeller. The project included ba seline performance testing of a residential refrigerator, analysis and design development of a Sandia Cooler condenser assembly including a spiral channel baseplate, and performance measurement and validation of this condenser system as incorporated into the residential refrigerator. Comparable performance was achieved in a 60% smaller volume package. The improved modeling parameters can now be used to guide more optimized designs and more accurately predict performance.

  7. Effect of Engine Operating Condition and Coolant Temperature on EGR Cooler

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Deposit Microstructure and Chemical Composition | Department of Energy In this work, the performance of a stand-alone EGR cooler attached to a 6.4L turbodiesel engine is being investigated by analyzing the microstructure and chemical composition of the deposits in the fouled heat exchanger surfaces, at two engine loads: medium and low, and at two coolant temperatures: 85˚C and 40˚C. PDF icon p-22_prabhakar.pdf More Documents & Publications EGR Cooler Fouling - Visualization of

  8. Development and Testing of an Integrated Sandia Cooler Thermoelectric Device (SCTD).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Staats, Wayne Lawrence,; Leick, Michael Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Radermacher, Reinhard; Martin, Cara; Nasuta, Dennis; Kalinowski, Paul; Hoffman, William

    2014-12-01

    This report describes a FY14 effort to develop an integrated Sandia Cooler T hermoelectric D evice (SCTD) . The project included a review of feasible thermoelectric (TE) cooling applications, baseline performance testing of an existing TE device, analysis and design development of an integrated SCTD assembly, and performance measurement and validation of the integrated SCTD prototype.

  9. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE MECHANICAL TUNER OF THE RHIC ELECTRON COOLER RF CAVITY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RANK, J.; BEN-ZVI,I.; HAHN,G.; MCINTYRE,G.; DALY,E.; PREBLE,J.

    2005-05-16

    The ECX Project, Brookhaven Lab's predecessor to the RHIC e-Cooler, includes a prototype RF tuner mechanism capable of both coarse and fast tuning. This tuner concept, adapted originally from a DESY design, has longer stroke and significantly higher loads attributable to the very stiff ECX cavity shape. Structural design, kinematics, controls, thermal and RF issues are discussed and certain improvements are proposed.

  10. ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sluder, Scott; Storey, John Morse; Youngquist, Adam D

    2009-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has emerged as an important issue in diesel engine development. Uncertainty about the level of impact that fuel chemistry may have upon this issue has resulted in a need to investigate the cooler fouling process with emerging non-traditional fuel sources to gage their impact on the process. This study reports experiments using both ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and 20% biodiesel (B20) at elevated exhaust hydrocarbon conditions to investigate the EGR cooler fouling process. The results show that there is little difference between the degradation in cooler effectiveness for ULSD and B20 at identical conditions. At lower coolant temperatures, B20 exhibits elevated organic fractions in the deposits compared with ULSD, but this does not appear to lead to incremental performance degradation under the conditions studied. Comparisons with a previous study conducted at low HC levels shows that the presence of increased volatiles in the deposit does not impact the degradation in effectiveness significantly. Moreover, the effectiveness loss divided by the deposit mass gain for both low- and high-HC conditions seems to indicate that the HC fraction in the deposit does not significantly alter the overall thermal properties of the deposit layer.

  11. 242-A evaporator safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CAMPBELL, T.A.

    1999-05-17

    This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

  12. Tank 26 Evaporator Feed Pump Transfer Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, David; Dimenna, Richard; Lee, Si

    2009-02-11

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.03 and 0.1 wt% sludge undissolved solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively, and therefore are an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth. Revision 1 clarifies the analysis presented in Revision 0 and corrects a mathematical error in the calculations for Table 4.1 in Revision 0. However, the conclusions and recommendations of the analysis do not change for Revision 1.

  13. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype Eric ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air ...

  14. 241-A evaporator flowsheet users manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larrick, A.P.

    1994-12-22

    This supporting document presents a description of the 242-A Evaporator flowsheet. Material balances are calculated for feed, slurry, and effluent streams based on input data for the feed stream.

  15. TANK 26 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, D; Si Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R

    2008-09-30

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.05 and 0.1 wt% sludge solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth.

  16. TANK 32 EVAPORATOR FEED PUMP TRANSFER ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2009-01-27

    The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 32 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, with the supernate surface at a minimum height of approximately 74.4 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer with a flow rate of 110 gpm. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank toward the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results shows that, for the minimum tank liquid level of 105 inches above the tank bottom (which corresponds to a liquid depth of 74.4 inches above the sludge layer), the evaporator feed pump will contain less than 0.1 wt% sludge solids in the discharge stream, which is an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids (UDS) loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower liquid levels with respect to the sludge layer will result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased plunging jet velocity from the downcomer disturbing the sludge layer.

  17. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  18. Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felde, David K.; McKoon, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

  19. Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felde, D.K.; McKoon, R.H.

    1993-03-23

    Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

  20. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  1. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Peter (Cary, NC)

    1991-01-01

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream.

  2. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel waywith heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  3. Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, R.L.

    1980-11-12

    An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

  4. Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-12-19

    Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

  5. 2014-06-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is the agency response to the Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration.

  6. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Darab, John G. (Richland, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer.

  7. Superhydrophobic Coating for Evaporative Purification and Minerals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extraction - Energy Innovation Portal Energy Storage Energy Storage Early Stage R&D Early Stage R&D Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Superhydrophobic Coating for Evaporative Purification and Minerals Extraction Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 12-G00204_2744_2400.pdf (845 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at ORNL are using their superhydrophobic coating

  8. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Darab, J.G.; Gross, M.E.

    1999-05-11

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer. 3 figs.

  9. Tubeless evaporation process development: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    A tubeless evaporation process which has the potential to combine the advantage of both evaporation and freezing processes, without their disadvantages is being developed. The TEP is capable of concentrating process solutions of such things as sugar, caustic soda, salt, sodium sulfate, black liquor from the pulp and paper industry, cooling tower blowdown, ''spent'' pickling liquor (sulfuric acid) from the steel industry, and nitric acid with potential energy savings of half to three-quarters of the energy required by conventional evaporators, with about half of the capital and maintenance cost. It has similar potential for the production of fresh water from seawater. The process uses working fluids (WF's) at their freezing point to effect direct contact heat exchange. The purpose of this project was to find additional and lower cost WF's in the laboratory, to obtain sizing information for the major equipment for an economic evaluation and a pilot plant design in a bench scale plant, and to perform the economic evaluation, and the pilot plant design and cost estimate. 6 refs., 37 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; Duscher, Gerd; Geohegan, David B.

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.

  11. Models of crystallization in evaporating droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, I.J.

    1996-12-31

    The spray drying of a droplet containing a substance in solution can produce solid particles with a variety of final shapes: hollow, punctured, squashed, as well as solid spheres. The geometry affects the properties of the product. Models are presented here which describe the processes of solvent evaporation and solute crystallization as drying takes place. The formation of a crust on the surface of the droplet is addressed. It is proposed that such a crust with a thickness of two crystallite diameters can develop into dry hollow shell. Some example calculations of the spray drying of droplets of sodium chloride solution are described.

  12. Treatment of evaporator condensates by pervaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blume, Ingo; Baker, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    A pervaporation process for separating organic contaminants from evaporator condensate streams is disclosed. The process employs a permselective membrane that is selectively permeable to an organic component of the condensate. The process involves contacting the feed side of the membrane with a liquid condensate stream, and withdrawing from the permeate side a vapor enriched in the organic component. The driving force for the process is the in vapor pressure across the membrane. This difference may be provided for instance by maintaining a vacuum on the permeate side, or by condensing the permeate. The process offers a simple, economic alternative to other separation techniques.

  13. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  14. Metered Evaporator for Tokamak Wall Conditioning --- Inventor(s): Charles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. Skinner, Dennis Mansfield, Henry Kugel, Hans Schneider and Lane Roquemore | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Metered Evaporator for Tokamak Wall Conditioning --- Inventor(s): Charles H. Skinner, Dennis Mansfield, Henry Kugel, Hans Schneider and Lane Roquemore A novel lithium evaporator for the controlled introduction of lithium into tokamaks for wall conditioning is described. The concept uses a Li granule injector with a heated in-vessel yttrium crucible to evaporate a controlled amount of

  15. Advanced Evaporative Deposition System with Embedded Heater Element and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shutter - Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Evaporative Deposition System with Embedded Heater Element and Shutter Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A device for evaporative deposition of thin films that offers more efficient heating and greater deposition control. Key features include an embedded heater element and a shutter system. Description Typical evaporative deposition systems can be used for close space sublimation (CSS) or

  16. "Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reliability By Evaporative Cooling" Inventors..--.. Lewis Meixler, Charles Gentile, Patricia Hillyer, Dylan Carpe, Jason Wang, Caroline Brooks The efficiency and reliability of ...

  17. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning Eric Kozubal, Jason Woods, Jay Burch, Aaron Boranian, and ...

  18. The Cost of Helium Refrigerators and Coolers for SuperconductingDevices as a Function of Cooling at 4 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.

    2007-08-27

    This paper is an update of papers written in 1991 and in1997 by Rod Byrns and this author concerning estimating the cost ofrefrigeration for superconducting magnets and cavities. The actual costsof helium refrigerators and coolers (escalated to 2007 dollars) areplotted and compared to a correlation function. A correlation functionbetween cost and refrigeration at 4.5 K is given. The capital cost oflarger refrigerators (greater than 10 W at 4.5 K) is plotted as afunction of 4.5-K cooling. The cost of small coolers is plotted as afunction of refrigeration available at 4.2 K. A correlation function forestimating efficiency (percent of Carnot) of both types of refrigeratorsis also given.

  19. The Effect of Magnetic Field on the Position of HTS Leads and theCooler in the Services Tower of the MICE Focusing Magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.; Yang, S.Q.; Cobb, J.; Lau, P.; Lau, W.W.; Witte,H.; Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.

    2007-08-27

    The MICE focusing solenoids have three 4 K coolers (two forthe superconducting magnet and one for the liquid absorber) and four HTSleads that feed the current to the focusing coils. The focusing solenoidsproduce large radial external fields when they operate with the polarityof the two coils in opposition (the gradient or flip mode). When the MICEfocusing coils operate at the same polarity (the solenoid or non-flipmode), the fields are much smaller and parallel to the axis of thesolenoid. The worst-case magnetic field affects the selection of thecooler and the HTS leads. This magnetic field can also determine theheight of the service towers that house the three coolers and the fourHTS leads. This paper shows the criteria used for Cooler selection, HTSlead selection, and the position of both the cooler and leads withrespect to the solenoid axis of rotation.

  20. Simulation of Heterogeneous Atom Probe Tip Shapes Evolution during Field Evaporation Using a Level Set Method and Different Evaporation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Li, Dongsheng; Xu, Wei; Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Geiser, B. P.; Larson, David J.

    2015-04-01

    In atom probe tomography (APT), accurate reconstruction of the spatial positions of field evaporated ions from measured detector patterns depends upon a correct understanding of the dynamic tip shape evolution and evaporation laws of component atoms. Artifacts in APT reconstructions of heterogeneous materials can be attributed to the assumption of homogeneous evaporation of all the elements in the material in addition to the assumption of a steady state hemispherical dynamic tip shape evolution. A level set method based specimen shape evolution model is developed in this study to simulate the evaporation of synthetic layered-structured APT tips. The simulation results of the shape evolution by the level set model qualitatively agree with the finite element method and the literature data using the finite difference method. The asymmetric evolving shape predicted by the level set model demonstrates the complex evaporation behavior of heterogeneous tip and the interface curvature can potentially lead to the artifacts in the APT reconstruction of such materials. Compared with other APT simulation methods, the new method provides smoother interface representation with the aid of the intrinsic sub-grid accuracy. Two evaporation models (linear and exponential evaporation laws) are implemented in the level set simulations and the effect of evaporation laws on the tip shape evolution is also presented.

  1. Digital Transfer Growth of Patterned 2D Metal Chalcogenides by Confined Nanoparticle Evaporation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Tian, Mengkun; Wang, Kai; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; McGuire, Michael A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Xiao, Kai; Eres, Gyula; et al

    2014-10-19

    Developing methods for the facile synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) metal chalcogenides and other layered materials is crucial for emerging applications in functional devices. Controlling the stoichiometry, number of the layers, crystallite size, growth location, and areal uniformity is challenging in conventional vapor phase synthesis. Here, we demonstrate a new route to control these parameters in the growth of metal chalcogenide (GaSe) and dichalcogenide (MoSe2) 2D crystals by precisely defining the mass and location of the source materials in a confined transfer growth system. A uniform and precise amount of stoichiometric nanoparticles are first synthesized and deposited onto a substrate bymore » pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at room temperature. This source substrate is then covered with a receiver substrate to form a confined vapor transport growth (VTG) system. By simply heating the source substrate in an inert background gas, a natural temperature gradient is formed that evaporates the confined nanoparticles to grow large, crystalline 2D nanosheets on the cooler receiver substrate, the temperature of which is controlled by the background gas pressure. Large monolayer crystalline domains (~ 100 m lateral sizes) of GaSe and MoSe2 are demonstrated, as well as continuous monolayer films through the deposition of additional precursor materials. This novel PLD-VTG synthesis and processing method offers a unique approach for the controlled growth of large-area, metal chalcogenides with a controlled number of layers in patterned growth locations for optoelectronics and energy related applications.« less

  2. 242-A Evaporator quality assurance plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basra, T.S.

    1995-05-04

    The purpose of this quality assurance project plan (Plan) is to provide requirements for activities pertaining to sampling, shipping, and analyses associated with candidate feed tank samples for the 242-A Evaporator project. The purpose of the 242-A Evaporator project is to reduce the volume of aqueous waste in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System and will result in considerable savings to the disposal of mixed waste. The 242-A Evaporator feed stream originates from DSTs identified as candidate feed tanks. The 242-A Evaporator reduces the volume of aqueous waste contained in DSTs by boiling off water and sending the condensate (called process condensate) to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LEPF) storage basin where it is stored prior to treatment in the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The objective of this quality assurance project plan is to provide the planning, implementation, and assessment of sample collection and analysis, data issuance, and validation activities for the candidate feed tanks.

  3. EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan)] [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Miura, Hitoshi [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)] [Department of Earth Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)] [Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-02-20

    We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

  4. Audit of the Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator at Savannah...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WASTE EVAPORATOR AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE The Office of Audit Services wants to make the distribution of its audit reports as customer friendly and cost effective as possible. ...

  5. THERMOCHEMICAL AND PHOTOCHEMICAL KINETICS IN COOLER HYDROGEN-DOMINATED EXTRASOLAR PLANETS: A METHANE-POOR GJ436b?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Line, Michael R.; Yung, Yuk L.; Vasisht, Gautam; Chen, Pin; Angerhausen, D. E-mail: gv@s383.jpl.nasa.gov

    2011-09-01

    We introduce a thermochemical kinetics and photochemical model. We use high-temperature bidirectional reaction rates for important H, C, O, and N reactions (most importantly for CH{sub 4} to CO interconversion), allowing us to attain thermochemical equilibrium, deep in an atmosphere, purely kinetically. This allows the chemical modeling of an entire atmosphere, from deep-atmosphere thermochemical equilibrium to the photochemically dominated regime. We use our model to explore the atmospheric chemistry of cooler (T{sub eff} < 10{sup 3} K) extrasolar giant planets. In particular, we choose to model the nearby hot-Neptune GJ436b, the only planet in this temperature regime for which spectroscopic measurements and estimates of chemical abundances now exist. Recent Spitzer measurements with retrieval have shown that methane is driven strongly out of equilibrium and is deeply depleted on the day side of GJ436b, whereas quenched carbon monoxide is abundant. This is surprising because GJ436b is cooler than many of the heavily irradiated hot Jovians and thermally favorable for CH{sub 4}, and thus requires an efficient mechanism for destroying it. We include realistic estimates of ultraviolet flux from the parent dM star GJ436, to bound the direct photolysis and photosensitized depletion of CH{sub 4}. While our models indicate fairly rich disequilibrium conditions are likely in cooler exoplanets over a range of planetary metallicities, we are unable to generate the conditions for substantial CH{sub 4} destruction. One possibility is an anomalous source of abundant H atoms between 0.01 and 1 bars (which attack CH{sub 4}), but we cannot as yet identify an efficient means to produce these hot atoms.

  6. Superhydrophobic coated apparatus for liquid purification by evaporative condensation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T; McNeany, Steve R; Dinsmore, Thomas V; Hunter, Scott R; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a first vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The first vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus simplifying maintenance of the apparatus.

  7. Operational results of shaft repair by installing stave type cooler at Kimitsu Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oda, Hiroshi; Amano, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Aiichiro; Anzai, Osamu; Nakagome, Michiru; Kuze, Toshisuke; Imuta, Akira

    1997-12-31

    Nos. 3 and 4 blast furnaces in Nippon Steel Corporation Kimitsu Works were both initially fitted with cooling plate systems. With the aging of each furnace, the damage to their respective inner-shaft profiles had become serious. Thus, in order to prevent operational change and prolong the furnace life, the inner-shaft profile of each furnace was repaired by replacing the former cooling plate system with the stave type cooler during the two-week-shutdowns. With this repair, stability of burden descent and gas flow near the wall part of the furnace have been achieved. Thus the prolongation of the furnace life is naturally expected.

  8. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a super-heated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  9. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  10. Effect of cooler electrons on a compressive ion acoustic solitary wave in a warm ion plasma Forbidden regions, double layers, and supersolitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, S. S.; Sekar Iyengar, A. N.

    2014-08-15

    It is observed that the presence of a minority component of cooler electrons in a three component plasma plays a deterministic role in the evolution of solitary waves, double layers, or the newly discovered structures called supersolitons. The inclusion of the cooler component of electrons in a single electron plasma produces sharp increase in nonlinearity in spite of a decrease in the overall energy of the system. The effect maximizes at certain critical value of the number density of the cooler component (typically 15%20%) giving rise to a hump in the amplitude variation profile. For larger amplitudes, the hump leads to a forbidden region in the ambient cooler electron concentration which dissociates the overall existence domain of solitary wave solutions in two distinct parameter regime. It is observed that an inclusion of the cooler component of electrons as low as < 1% affects the plasma system significantly resulting in compressive double layers. The solution is further affected by the cold to hot electron temperature ratio. In an adequately hotter bulk plasma (i.e., moderately low cold to hot electron temperature ratio), the parameter domain of compressive double layers is bounded by a sharp discontinuity in the corresponding amplitude variation profile which may lead to supersolitons.

  11. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

    2002-02-27

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  12. NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

    2002-02-01

    An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

  13. Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharif, M. Javed, W.

    2012-06-15

    We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.

  14. Evaporation of water with single and multiple impinging air jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabold, T.A.; Obot, N.T. )

    1991-08-01

    An experimental investigation of impingement water evaporation under a single jet and arrays of circular jets was made. The parametric study included the effects of jet Reynolds number and standoff spacing for both single and multiple jets, as well as surface-to-nozzle diameter ratio and fractional nozzle open area for single and multiple jets, respectively. The nozzle exit temperature of the air jet, about the same as that of the laboratory, was 3-6C higher than that of the evaporating water. Predictive equations are provided for mass transfer coefficient in terms of the flow and geometric conditions.

  15. Simulation of Diffusive Lithium Evaporation Onto the NSTX Vessel Walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stotler, D. P.; Skinner, C. H.; Blanchard, W. R.; Krstic, P. S.; Kugel, H. W.; Schneider, H.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2010-12-09

    A model for simulating the diffusive evaporation of lithium into a helium filled NSTX vacuum vessel is described and validated against an initial set of deposition experiments. The DEGAS 2 based model consists of a three-dimensional representation of the vacuum vessel, the elastic scattering process, and a kinetic description of the evaporated atoms. Additional assumptions are required to account for deuterium out-gassing during the validation experiments. The model agrees with the data over a range of pressures to within the estimated uncertainties. Suggestions are made for more discriminating experiments that will lead to an improved model.

  16. Analysis of design tradeoffs for diplay case evaporators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullard, CLARK

    2004-08-11

    A model for simulating a display case evaporator under frosting conditions has been developed, using a quasi-steady and finite-volume approach and a Newton-Raphson based solution algorithm. It is capable of simulating evaporators with multiple modules having different geometries, e.g. tube and fin thicknesses and pitch. The model was validated against data taken at two-minute intervals from a well-instrumented medium-temperature vertical display case, for two evaporators having very different configurations. The data from these experiments provided both the input data for the model and also the data to compare the modeling results. The validated model has been used to generate some general guidelines for coil design. Effects of various geometrical parameters were quantified, and compressor performance data were used to express the results in terms of total power consumption. Using these general guidelines, a new prototype evaporator was designed for the subject display case, keeping in mind the current packaging restrictions, tube and fin availabilities. It is an optimum coil for the given external load conditions. Subsequently, the validated model was used in a more extensive analysis to design prototype coils with some of the current tube and fin spacing restrictions removed. A new microchannel based suction line heat exchanger was installed in the display case system. The performance of this suction line heat exchanger is reported.

  17. Calculation of Reactive-evaporation Rates of Chromia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2008-04-01

    A methodology is developed to calculate Cr-evaporation rates from Cr2O3 with a flat planar geometry. Variables include temperature, total pressure, gas velocity, and gas composition. The methodology was applied to solid-oxide, fuel cell conditions for metallic interconnects and to advanced-steam turbines conditions. The high velocities and pressures of the advanced steam turbine led to evaporation predictions as high as 5.18 9 10-8 kg/m2/s of CrO2(OH)2(g) at 760 °C and 34.5 MPa. This is equivalent to 0.080 mm per year of solid Cr loss. Chromium evaporation is expected to be an important oxidation mechanism with the types of nickel-base alloys proposed for use above 650 °C in advanced-steam boilers and turbines. It is shown that laboratory experiments, with much lower steam velocities and usually much lower total pressure than found in advanced steam turbines, would best reproduce chromium-evaporation behavior with atmospheres that approach either O2 + H2O or air + H2O with 57% H2O.

  18. Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-07-14

    Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

  19. Vacuum thermal evaporation of polyaniline doped with camphor sulfonic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyne, Devon; Menegazzo, Nicola; Pupillo, Rachel C.; Rosenthal, Joel; Booksh, Karl S.

    2015-05-15

    Intrinsically conducting polymers belong to a class of organic polymers with intriguing electronic and physical properties specifically for electro-optical applications. Significant interest into doped polyaniline (PAni) can be attributed to its high conductivity and environmental stability. Poor dissolution in most solvents has thus far hindered the successful integration of PAni into commercial applications, which in turn, has led to the investigations of various deposition and acidic doping methods. Physical vapor deposition methods, including D.C. magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation, have shown exceptional control over physical film properties (thickness and morphology). However, resulting films are less conductive than films deposited by conventional methods (i.e., spin and drop casting) due to interruption of the hyperconjugation of polymer chains. Specifically, vacuum thermal evaporation requires a postdoping process, which results in incorporation of impurities and oxidation of surface moieties. In this contribution, thermally evaporated films, sequentially doped by vacuum evaporation of an organic acid (camphorsulfonic acid, CSA) is explored. Spectroscopic evidence confirms the successful doping of PAni with CSA while physical characterization (atomic force microscopy) suggests films retain good morphology and are not damaged by the doping process. The procedure presented herein also combines other postpreparation methods in an attempt to improve conductivity and/or substrate adhesion.

  20. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, R.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-09

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  1. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the evaporator dump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowe, R.D.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for evaporator dump consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Evaporator Dump scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  2. Axially Tapered And Bilayer Microchannels For Evaporative Cooling Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilson, Robert; Griffiths, Stewart

    2005-10-04

    The invention consists of an evaporative cooling device comprising one or more microchannels whose cross section is axially reduced to control the maximum capillary pressure differential between liquid and vapor phases. In one embodiment, the evaporation channels have a rectangular cross section that is reduced in width along a flow path. In another embodiment, channels of fixed width are patterned with an array of microfabricated post-like features such that the feature size and spacing are gradually reduced along the flow path. Other embodiments incorporate bilayer channels consisting of an upper cover plate having a pattern of slots or holes of axially decreasing size and a lower fluid flow layer having channel widths substantially greater than the characteristic microscale dimensions of the patterned cover plate. The small dimensions of the cover plate holes afford large capillary pressure differentials while the larger dimensions of the lower region reduce viscous flow resistance.

  3. Evaporation-based Ge/.sup.68 Ga Separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Whipple, Richard E.; Grant, Patrick M.; O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.

    1981-01-01

    Micro concentrations of .sup.68 Ga in secular equilibrium with .sup.68 Ge in strong aqueous HCl solution may readily be separated in ionic form from the .sup.68 Ge for biomedical use by evaporating the solution to dryness and then leaching the .sup.68 Ga from the container walls with dilute aqueous solutions of HCl or NaCl. The chloro-germanide produced during the evaporation may be quantitatively recovered to be used again as a source of .sup.68 Ga. If the solution is distilled to remove any oxidizing agents which may be present as impurities, the separation factor may easily exceed 10.sup.5. The separation is easily completed and the .sup.68 Ga made available in ionic form in 30 minutes or less.

  4. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  5. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, P.J.; Baskaran, S.; Bontha, J.R.; Liu, J.

    1999-07-13

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s). 24 figs.

  6. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    2008-05-06

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  7. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruinsma, Paul J.; Baskaran, Suresh; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Liu, Jun

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

  8. Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    926 PPPL- 4926 Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U JULY, 2013 A.L. Roquemore, et. al. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report Disclaimers Full Legal Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

  9. Determination of the Evaporation Coefficient of D2O

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2008-03-26

    The evaporation rate of D{sub 2}O has been determined by Raman thermometry of a droplet train (12-15 {micro}m diameter) injected into vacuum ({approx}10{sup -5} torr). The cooling rate measured as a function of time in vacuum was fit to a model that accounts for temperature gradients between the surface and the core of the droplets, yielding an evaporation coefficient ({gamma}{sub e}) of 0.57 {+-} 0.06. This is nearly identical to that found for H{sub 2}O (0.62 {+-} 0.09) using the same experimental method and model, and indicates the existence of a kinetic barrier to evaporation. The application of a recently developed transition state theory (TST) model suggests that the kinetic barrier is due to librational and hindered translational motions at the liquid surface, and that the lack of an isotope effect is due to competing energetic and entropic factors. The implications of these results for cloud and aerosol particles in the atmosphere are discussed.

  10. Examples of cooler reflective streets for urban heat-island mitigation : Portland cement concrete and chip seals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chang, S.-C.; Levinson, R.; Pon, B.

    2003-04-30

    Part of the urban heat island effect can be attributed to dark pavements that are commonly used on streets and parking lots. In this paper we consider two light colored, hence cooler, alternative paving materials that are in actual use in cities today. These are Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and chip seals. We report measurements of the albedos of some PCC and chip sealed pavements in the San Francisco Bay Area. The albedos of the PCC pavements ranged from about 0.18 to 0.35. The temperatures of some PCC pavements are also measured and calculated. We then consider how the albedos of the constituent materials of the PCC (stone, sand and cement) contribute to the albedos of the resulting finished concrete. The albedos of a set of chip sealed pavements in San Jose, CA, were measured and correlated with the times of their placement. It is found that the albedos decrease with age (and use) but remain higher than that of standard asphalt concrete (AC) for about five years. After t hat, the albedos of the chip seals are about 0.12, similar to aged AC. The fact that many PCC pavements have albedos at least twice as high as aged AC suggests that it is possible to have pavement albedos that remain high for many years.

  11. Improved efficiency and power density for thermoacoustic coolers. Technical report, 1 June 1995-31 May 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofler, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    Work continues on building a thermoacoustic heat driven cooler having no moving parts, with cooling power in the 0.5 to 1.0 kW range. Previous work dealt with numerical modeling of a new engine topology used in the above engine and various work on improved heat exchangers. Recently, morn modeling suggests that cooling powers in the range of 35 kW (10 ton) may be possible with an engine having a longest dimension of 4 ft. and that efficiency improves significantly with size. Also, the authors have solved some fabrication problems with their high temperature nickel heat exchangers. The major work this year has been on the high temperature thermoacoustic stack structure. A common Stirling engine regenerator structure consisting of stacked disks cut from stainless steel wire mesh was tested in an apparatus previously used for high amplitude heat exchanger measurements. Stacks are very easy to construct in this fashion and longitudinal thermal conduction is greatly reduced. Results show that amplitude performance is very good and within 10% of the usual spiral roll structures. More impressively, the efficiency of the mesh stack is as much as 30% higher than for spiral rolls stacks. The authors are also conducting measurements on pure carbon random structures that could be used at extremely high temperatures.

  12. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-07-19

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  13. Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; L.Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam; Leone, Stephen R.

    2012-03-16

    Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1- Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?] ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

  14. Technical support for authorization of 242-A evaporator campaign 97-2, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    An analysis was performed to determine the acceptability of processing 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Campaign 97-2 feed. Inhalation unit liter doses (ULDs) were calculated using the methods and data described in the Tank Waste Remediation System Basis for Interim Operation (TWRS BIO) and 242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Safety Analysis Report. The ULD calculated for the Campaign 97-2 slurry was found to be less than the TWRS BIO evaporator slurry ULD and so would be within the analyzed safety envelope defined in the TWRS BIO. The Evaporator slurry ULD established in the TWRS BIO and supporting documents was calculated using the bounding source strength defined in the 242-A Evaporator SAR. Consequently, the risks and consequences associated with the Campaign 97-2 slurry would be lower than those already accepted by DOE and documented in the TWRS BIO and 242-A Evaporator SAR. The direct radiation exposures from formation of a liquid pool of Campaign 97-2 slurry were demonstrated to be less than the exposures from a pool formed by bounding source strength evaporator slurry as defined in the 242-A Evaporator SAR. This was demonstrated via a comparison of the Campaign 97-2 slurry composition and the 242-A Evaporator SAR bounding source strength. It was concluded that the direct radiation exposures from Campaign 97-2 slurry would be within the analyzed safety envelope in the 242-A Evaporator SAR.

  15. Glass Development for Treatment of LANL Evaporator Bottoms Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DE Smith; GF Piepel; GW Veazey; JD Vienna; ML Elliott; RK Nakaoka; RP Thimpke

    1998-11-20

    Vitrification is an attractive treatment option for meeting the stabilization and final disposal requirements of many plutonium (Pu) bearing materials and wastes at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TA-55 facility, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), Hanford, and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared that vitrification is the "best demonstrated available technology" for high- level radioactive wastes (HLW) (Federal Register 1990) and has produced a handbook of vitriilcation technologies for treatment of hazardous and radioactive waste (US EPA, 1992). This technology has been demonstrated to convert Pu-containing materials (Kormanos, 1997) into durable (Lutze, 1988) and accountable (Forsberg, 1995) waste. forms with reduced need for safeguarding (McCulhun, 1996). The composition of the Evaporator Bottoms Waste (EVB) at LANL, like that of many other I%-bearing materials, varies widely and is generally unpredictable. The goal of this study is to optimize the composition of glass for EVB waste at LANL, and present the basic techniques and tools for developing optimized glass compositions for other Pu-bearing materials in the complex. This report outlines an approach for glass formulation with fixed property restrictions, using glass property-composition databases. This approach is applicable to waste glass formulation for many variable waste streams and vitrification technologies.. Also reported are the preliminary property data for simulated evaporator bottom glasses, including glass viscosity and glass leach resistance using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

  16. On the interface instability during rapid evaporation in microgravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juric, D.

    1997-05-01

    The rapid evaporation of a superheated liquid (vapor explosion) under microgravity conditions is studied by direct numerical simulation. The time-dependent Navier-Stokes and energy equations coupled to the interface dynamics are solved using a two-dimensional finite-difference/front-tracking method. Large interface deformations, topology change, latent heat, surface tension and unequal material properties between the liquid and vapor phases are included in the simulations. A comparison of numerical results to the exact solution of a one-dimensional test problem shows excellent agreement. For the two-dimensional rapid evaporation problem, the vapor volume growth rate and unstable interface dynamics are studied for increasing levels of initial liquid superheat. As the superheat is increased the liquid-vapor interface experiences increasingly unstable energetic growth. These results indicate that heat transfer plays a very important role in the instability mechanism leading to vapor explosions. It is suggested that the Mullins-Sekerka instability could play a role in the instability initiation mechanism.

  17. Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aditya Kumar

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC fouling). In parallel, an MPC solution was initially developed using ideal sensing to optimize the plant operation during startup pre-heating as well as steady state and transient operation under normal high-pressure conditions, e.g. part-load, base-load, load transition and fuel changes. The MPC simulation studies showed significant improvements both for startup pre-heating and for normal operation. Finally, the EKF and MPC solutions were coupled to achieve the integrated sensing and control solution and its performance was studied through extensive steady state and transient simulations in the presence of sensor and modeling errors. The results of each task in the program and overall conclusions are summarized in this final report.

  18. Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U NSTX plasma performance has been significantly enhanced by lithium conditioning [1]. To date, the lower divertor and passive plates have been conditioned by downward facing lithium evaporators (LITER) as appropriate for lower null plasmas. The higher power operation expected from NSTX-U requires double null plasma operation in

  19. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices ... The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy ...

  20. Fixture for forming evaporative pattern (EPC) process patterns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Paul C.; Jordan, Ronald R.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of casting metal using evaporative pattern casting process patterns in combination with a fixture for creating and maintaining a desired configuration in flexible patterns. A pattern is constructed and gently bent to the curvature of a suitable fixture. String or thin wire, which burns off during casting, is used to tie the pattern to the fixture. The fixture with pattern is dipped in a commercially available refractory wash to prevent metal adherence and sticking to the fixture. When the refractory wash is dry, the fixture and pattern are placed in a flask, and sand is added and compacted by vibration. The pattern remains in position, restrained by the fixture. Metal that is poured directly into the pattern replaces the pattern exactly but does not contact or weld to the fixture due to the protective refractory layer. When solid, the casting is easily separated from the fixture. The fixture can be cleaned for reuse in conventional casting cleaning equipment.

  1. Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunshah, Rointan; Nath, Prem

    1982-01-01

    Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment.

  2. Multi-scale evaporator architectures for geothermal binary power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabau, Adrian S; Nejad, Ali; Klett, James William; Bejan, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, novel geometries of heat exchanger architectures are proposed for evaporators that are used in Organic Rankine Cycles. A multi-scale heat exchanger concept was developed by employing successive plenums at several length-scale levels. Flow passages contain features at both macro-scale and micro-scale, which are designed from Constructal Theory principles. Aside from pumping power and overall thermal resistance, several factors were considered in order to fully assess the performance of the new heat exchangers, such as weight of metal structures, surface area per unit volume, and total footprint. Component simulations based on laminar flow correlations for supercritical R134a were used to obtain performance indicators.

  3. 2014-09-23 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute Petition for Reconsideration Notice of Public Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of public meeting regarding energy conservation standards for walk-in coolers and freezers; Air-Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration Institute petition for reconsideration, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 23, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  4. THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, E.

    2010-07-21

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged into the SME and excess water is removed via boiling. To reduce this water load to the SME, DWPF has proposed using a pneumatic system in conveying the frit to the SME, in essence a dry delivery system. The problem associated with utilizing a dry delivery system with the existing frit is the generation of dust when discharged into the SME. The use of water has been shown to be effective in the mining industry as well in the DOE complex to mitigate dusting. The method employed by SRNL to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting in dry powders was effective, between a lab and bench scale tests. In those tests, it was shown that as high as five weight percent (wt%) of water addition was required to mitigate dust from batches of glass forming minerals used by the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford, Washington. The same method used to determine the quantity of water to mitigate dusting was used in this task to determine the quantity of water to mitigate this dusting using as-received frit. The ability for water to mitigate dusting is due to its adhesive properties as shown in Figure 1-1. Wetting the frit particles allows for the smaller frit particles (including dust) to adhere to the larger frit particles or to agglomerate into large particles. Fluids other than water can also be used, but their adhesive properties are different than water and the quantity required to mitigate dusting is different, as was observed in reference 1. Excessive water, a few weight percentages greater than that required to mitigate dusting can cause the resulting material not to flow. The primary objective of this task is to perform bench scale testing on various frits that have been used at DWPF or in test programs at SRNL to determine the quantity of de-ionized (DI) water required to mitigate dusting per mass basis of frit. The quantity of DI water required was determined visually by observing the effluent port of the mixer, and DI water addition was made to the point where no visible dust was observed leaving the effluent port. A total of eight different frits were selected for testing. Secondary objectives in this task include the following: (1) Video taping of the de-dusting procedure, (2) Particle size distribution analyses of the dry and wetted frits at the weight fraction of water required for de-dusting, (3) Plate flow tests to determine angle of flow and quantity of material remaining on plate at 90 degrees, (4) Microscopy of dry and wetted frit, and (5) Effect of excess water for selected frits on plate flow. The above analyses were performed within one hour of water addition, to minimize the effect of evaporative water losses. To better understand the size of dust particles, perform settling tests on selected frits and capture the fines. Analyze the fines for particle size distribution. Finally, it is expected that the surface area of frit is an important parameter in the quantity of water required for dust mitigation. An analysis of particle size distribution (PSD) data of as-received frit analyzed by SRNL over the past two to three years will be performed to determine the variation in the distribution of as-received frit. The following objectives were stated in the Technical Task Request4 as objectives that given adequate time would provide insight in helping DWPF in assessing equipment or processes for de-dusting and processing of dry frit. Due to time constraints, commercial methods for dedusting are provided. These results are detailed in section 3.7. Obtain design information from Hanford with respective to equipment used for dedusting. Suggestions on enhanced design features, such as flush water, pipe air purges, humidified compresse

  5. Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon H. Holcomb

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy’s goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 °C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  6. Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcomb, G.R.

    2009-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

  7. Entropy localization and extensivity in the semiclassical black hole evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casini, H.

    2009-01-15

    I aim to quantify the distribution of information in the Hawking radiation and inside the black hole in the semiclassical evaporation process. The structure of relativistic quantum field theory does not allow one to define a localized entropy unambiguously, but rather forces one to consider the shared information (mutual information) between two different regions of space-time. Using this tool, I first show that the entropy of a thermal gas at the Unruh temperature underestimates the actual amount of (shared) information present in a region of the Rindler space. Then, I analyze the mutual information between the black hole and the late time radiation region. A well-known property of the entropy implies that this is monotonically increasing with time. This means that in the semiclassical picture it is not possible to recover the eventual purity of the initial state in the final Hawking radiation through subtle correlations established during the whole evaporation period, no matter the interactions present in the theory. I find extensivity of the entropy as a consequence of a reduction to a two dimensional conformal problem in a simple approximation. However, the extensivity of information in the radiation region in a full four dimensional calculation seems not to be guaranteed on general grounds. I also analyze the localization of shared information inside the black hole finding that a large amount of it is contained in a small, approximately flat region of space-time near the point where the horizon begins. This gives place to large violations of the entropy bounds. I show that this problem is not eased by backscattering effects and argue that a breaking of conformal invariance is necessary to delocalize the entropy. Finally, I indicate that the mutual information could lead to a way to understand the Bekenstein-Hawking black hole entropy which does not require a drastic reduction in degrees of freedom in order to regulate the entanglement entropy. On the contrary, a large number of field degrees of freedom at high energies giving place to a Hagedorn transition implements a natural distance cutoff in the mutual information, which may in consequence turn out to be bounded.

  8. Heat exchanger efficiently operable alternatively as evaporator or condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L.

    1981-01-01

    A heat exchanger adapted for efficient operation alternatively as evaporator or condenser and characterized by flexible outer tube having a plurality of inner conduits and check valves sealingly disposed within the outer tube and connected with respective inlet and outlet master flow conduits and configured so as to define a parallel flow path for a first fluid such as a refrigerant when flowed in one direction and to define a serpentine and series flow path for the first fluid when flowed in the opposite direction. The flexible outer tube has a heat exchange fluid, such as water, flowed therethrough by way of suitable inlet and outlet connections. The inner conduits and check valves form a package that is twistable so as to define a spiral annular flow path within the flexible outer tube for the heat exchange fluid. The inner conduits have thin walls of highly efficient heat transfer material for transferring heat between the first and second fluids. Also disclosed are specific materials and configurations.

  9. Simulated Waste Testing Of Glycolate Impacts On The 2H-Evaporator System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C. J.

    2013-08-13

    Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

  10. Waste characterization for radioactive liquid waste evaporators at Argonne National Laboratory - West.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, B. D.

    1999-02-15

    Several facilities at Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) generate many thousand gallons of radioactive liquid waste per year. These waste streams are sent to the AFL-W Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) where they are processed through hot air evaporators. These evaporators remove the liquid portion of the waste and leave a relatively small volume of solids in a shielded container. The ANL-W sampling, characterization and tracking programs ensure that these solids ultimately meet the disposal requirements of a low-level radioactive waste landfill. One set of evaporators will process an average 25,000 gallons of radioactive liquid waste, provide shielding, and reduce it to a volume of six cubic meters (container volume) for disposal. Waste characterization of the shielded evaporators poses some challenges. The process of evaporating the liquid and reducing the volume of waste increases the concentrations of RCIU regulated metals and radionuclides in the final waste form. Also, once the liquid waste has been processed through the evaporators it is not possible to obtain sample material for characterization. The process for tracking and assessing the final radioactive waste concentrations is described in this paper, The structural components of the evaporator are an approved and integral part of the final waste stream and they are included in the final waste characterization.

  11. Field Performance of a Slimline Turbomist Evaporator under Southeastern U. S. Climate Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sappington, F.C.

    2003-12-15

    A recent study of evaporation technologies for treating F- and H-area groundwater contaminated with radionuclides and metals (Flach 2002) suggested that spray evaporation might be a viable alternative or supplemental technique for managing tritiated groundwater at the Mixed Waste Management Facility. The particular technology of interest in this study is the Slimline Manufacturing Ltd. Turbo-Mist Evaporator, which uses a powerful blower and high-pressure spray nozzles to propel a fine mist into the air at high air and water flowrates.

  12. Evaporative cooling of microscopic water droplets in vacuo: Molecular dynamics simulations and kinetic gas theory

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schlesinger, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G. M.

    2016-03-22

    In the present study, we investigate the process of evaporative cooling of nanometer-sized droplets in vacuum using molecular dynamics simulations with the TIP4P/2005 water model. The results are compared to the temperature evolution calculated from the Knudsen theory of evaporation which is derived from kinetic gas theory. The calculated and simulation results are found to be in very good agreement for an evaporation coefficient equal to unity. Lastly, our results are of interest to experiments utilizing droplet dispensers as well as to cloud micro-physics.

  13. Spin-pump-induced spin transport in a thermally evaporated pentacene film

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Spin-pump-induced spin transport in a thermally evaporated pentacene film Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Spin-pump-induced spin transport in a thermally evaporated pentacene film We report the spin-pump-induced spin transport properties of a pentacene film prepared by thermal evaporation. In a palladium(Pd)/pentacene/Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} tri-layer sample, a pure spin-current is generated in the

  14. What do we do, if some of the MICE magnets can't be kept cold using the two-stage coolers?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.

    2011-01-26

    Tests of the spectrometer solenoids have not been encouraging in terms of keeping the magnets cold using three 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) coolers. The spectrometer solenoids are being rebuilt with additional cooling capacity at 4.2 K. It is hoped that there will be sufficient 4.2 K cooling to keep the magnets cold. The spectrometer solenoids can be kept cold using liquid helium (up to a boil-off of 20 liters per day). This option does not apply for the other magnets in the MICE cooling channel, because there is not enough liquid helium storage within the magnet cold mass. It is important that the MICE collaboration ask the question, “How do we keep the MICE cooling channel magnets cold, if there isn’t sufficient cooling from the 4.2 K coolers?” This report discusses the cooling requirements at both 40 K and 4.2 K for all three types of MICE cooling channel magnets. This report discusses the steps that must be taken in the magnet fabrication to permit the magnets to be cooled using a small (20 to 40 W) external 4.2 K Claude cycle refrigerator. One must also ask the question as to whether there is enough excess capacity in the decay solenoid refrigerator to cool some of the MICE magnets. A plan for cooling the magnets using a Linde 1400 series refrigerator is presented. A plan for increasing the 4.4 K refrigeration from the existing decay solenoid refrigerator is also presented.

  15. The thermophysics of electron beam evaporative sources: Annual report, 21 April 1986-20 April 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Self, S.A.

    1987-06-01

    This report presents work accomplished in preparing equipment for study of evaporative electron beam sources. Faraday cups and x-ray imaging equipment were developed. Due to other commitments, the future of this work is uncertain. (JDH)

  16. Evaporator Campaigns Create 300,000 Gallons of Double-Shell Tank Space

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    RICHLAND, Wash. – Hanford’s 242-A Evaporator recently conducted back-to-back operating campaigns, creating approximately 300,000 gallons of double-shell tank waste storage space.

  17. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have minor/major impacts are chlorination, pH adjustment, 1st mercury removal, organics removal, 2nd mercury removal, and ion exchange. For minor impacts, the general approach is to use historical process operations data/modeling software like OLI/ESP and/or monitoring/compiled process operations data to resolve any uncertainties with testing as a last resort. For major impacts (i.e., glycolate concentrations > 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM), testing is recommended. No impact is envisaged for the following ETF unit operations regardless of the glycolate concentration - filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange resin regeneration, and evaporation.

  18. Evaporation-powered Motor and Light | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaporation-powered Motor and Light Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 10.01.15 Evaporation-powered Motor and Light Bacterial

  19. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    electronic devices (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on June 17, 2016 Title: Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this

  20. Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work

  1. Event Attendee List (Knoxville July 2012) | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work

  2. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Pot Bottom Sample [HTF-13-11-28H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-07-15

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material from the 2H evaporator has been performed so that the evaporator can be chemically cleaned beginning July of 2013. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot. The sample holder from the 2H-evaporator wall was virtually empty and was not included in the analysis. It is worth noting that after the delivery of these 2H-evaporator scale samples to SRNL for the analyses, the plant customer determined that the 2H evaporator could be operated for additional period prior to requiring cleaning. Therefore, there was no need for expedited sample analysis as was presented in the Technical Task Request. However, a second set of 2H evaporator scale samples were expected in May of 2013, which would need expedited sample analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed the bottom cone section sample from the 2H-evaporator pot consisted of nitrated cancrinite, (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid), clarkeite and uranium oxide. There were also mercury compound XRD peaks which could not be matched and further X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the sample confirmed the existence of elemental mercury or mercuric oxide. On ''as received'' basis, the scale contained an average of 7.09E+00 wt % total uranium (n = 3; st.dev. = 8.31E-01 wt %) with a U-235 enrichment of 5.80E-01 % (n = 3; st.dev. = 3.96E-02 %). The measured U-238 concentration was 7.05E+00 wt % (n=3, st. dev. = 8.25E-01 wt %). Analyses results for Pu-238 and Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 7.06E-05 {+-} 7.63E-06 wt %, 9.45E-04 {+-} 3.52E-05 wt %, and <2.24E-06 wt %, respectively. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Because this 2H evaporator pot bottom scale sample contained a significant amount of elemental mercury (11.7 wt % average), it is recommended that analysis for mercury be included in future Technical Task Requests on 2H evaporator sample analysis at SRNL. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241.

  3. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.

    2014-09-23

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 6.39E-04 min{sup -1} and 1.07E-03 7.51E-05 min{sup -1}. Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours. Based on averaging the two half-lives from the 2H scale acid dissolution in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid solutions, a reasonable half-live for the dissolution of 2H scales in dilute nitric acid is 11.7 1.3 hours. The plant operational time for chemically cleaning (soaking) the 2H evaporator with dilute nitric acid is 32 hours. It therefore may require about 3 half-lives or less to completely dissolve most of the scales in the Evaporator pot which come into contact with the dilute nitric acid solution. On a mass basis, the Al-to-Si ratio for the scale dissolution in 1.5 M nitric acid averaged 1.30 0.20 and averaged 1.18 0.10 for the 2H scale dissolution in 1.25 M nitric acid. These aluminum-to-silicon ratios are in fairly good agreement with ratios from previous studies. Therefore, there is still more aluminum in the 2H evaporator scales than silicon which implies that there are no significant changes in scale properties which will exclude nitric acid as a viable protic solvent for aluminosilicate scale buildup dissolution from the 2H evaporator. Overall, the monitoring of the scale decomposition reaction in 1.25 and 1.5 M nitric acid may be better ascertained through the determination of aluminum concentration in solution than monitoring silicon in solution. Silicon solution chemistry may lead to partial precipitating of silicon with time as the scale and acid solution is heated.

  4. Preliminary experimental studies with seawater on OTEC spout evaporator thermal effectiveness and phase transition in upcomer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonwalkar, N.; Larsen-Basse, J.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) test facility has been erected to perform spout evaporator experiments with seawater. The facility, located at Ke-ahole Point, Kona, Hawaii, consists of a spout evaporator, a spray condenser and an on-line deaerator. Warm seawater at 25-27/sup 0/C from 8 m depth and cold deep seawater at 7-10/sup 0/C from 580 m depth is available throughout the year to the facility. The results of thermal effectiveness tests are reported. The error due to instrumental uncertainties in thermal effectiveness measurements has been estimated to be of the order +-5.5 percent. The effect of design parameters; spout height, spout diameter and liquid loading on thermal effectiveness have been observed and compared with the existing theoretical predictions. A modified thermodynamic approach is proposed to evaluate average heat transfer characteristics of spout evaporators using a three component heat transfer coefficient approach. It adequately describes heat transfer characteristics of the spout evaporator under study. Results essentially agree with data obtained by others for fresh water, but clearly indicate the need for improvement of the existing model to take into account a number of identified factors associated with the real life OC-OTEC conditions, such as the transience in evaporator performance associated with the ocean-generated flow and pressure fluctuations and effects of noncondensable gases.

  5. Spallation process with simultaneous multi-particle emission in nuclear evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santos, B. M.

    2013-05-06

    High energy probes have been used currently to explore nuclear reaction mechanism and nuclear structure. The spallation process governs the reaction process around 1 GeV energy regime. A new aspect introduced here to describe the nuclear reaction is the in-medium nucleonnucleon collision framework. The nucleon-nucleon scattering is kinematically treated by using an effective mass to represent the nuclear binding. In respect to the evaporation phase of the reaction, we introduce the simultaneous particles emission decay. This process becomes important due to the rise of new channels at high excitation energy regime of the compound nucleus. As results, the particles yields in the rapid and evaporation phases are obtained and compared to experimental data. The effect and relevance of these simultaneous emission processes in the evaporation chain is also discussed.

  6. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Jerome J.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

  7. Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes NREL's work on a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) that uses 90% less electricity than traditional air conditioning units.

  8. Heat transfer and flow resistance of a shell and plate-type evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uehara, H.; Stuhltraeger, E.; Miyara, A.; Murakami, H.; Miyazaki, K.

    1997-05-01

    The performance test of a shell-and-plate-type evaporator designed for OTEC plants, geothermal power plants, and heat pump systems is reported. This evaporator contains 30 plates with a unit area of 0.813 m{sup 2}, coated with aluminum powder on the working fluid side. Freon 22 is used as working fluid. Results show an overall heat transfer coefficient of about 5,000 W/(m{sup 2}K) when the heating water velocity is 1M/s. The mean boiling heat transfer coefficient is compared with a precious correlation proposed by Nakaoka and Uehara (1988). The water-side pressure loss is also reported.

  9. Demolition of the waste evaporator facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mandry, G.J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Becker, C.L. [Allied Technology Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, in conjunction with Allied Technology Group, Inc., successfully executed the decommissioning of a former waste evaporator facility at ONRL. This project was conducted as a non-time critical removal action under CERCLA. The decommissioning alternative selected for the Waste Evaporator Facility was partial dismantlement. This alternative provided for the demolition of all above-grade structures; concrete which did not exceed pre-established radiological levels were eligible for placement in the below-grade portion of the facility. This project demonstrated a coordinated team approach that allowed the successful completion of one of the first full-scale decommissioning projects at ORNL.

  10. Comparison of Cf-252 Thin-Film Sources Prepared by Evaporation or Self-Transfer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Algutifan, Noor J; Sherman, Steven R; Alexander, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    Californium-252 (Z = 98) is valued as a potent neutron source due to its spontaneous fission decay path. Thin film sources containing Cf-252 were prepared by two techniques: evaporation and self-transfer. The sources were analyzed by alpha and gamma spectroscopy. Results indicate that self-transfer sources exhibit less alpha energy straggling and energy loss than evaporative sources. Fission fragments may also self-transfer, and sources made by self-transfer may need some decay time to reach radioactive equilibrium.

  11. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts 5/8/2012 LANL-Carlsbad Office Difficult Waste Team P2010-3306 Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the EMRTC Report RF 10- 13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate Salts 2 Purpose: The following document was developed in support of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Transuranic Program (LTP) by the LANL-Carlsbad Office, Difficult

  12. Laboratory Evaporation Testing Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adamson, Duane J.; Nash, Charles A.; McCabe, Daniel J.; Crawford, Charles L.; Wilmarth, William R.

    2014-01-27

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream, LAW Off-Gas Condensate, from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable de-coupled operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of canistered glass waste forms. This LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form. Because this stream recycles within WTP, these components accumulate in the Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to be within acceptable concentration ranges in the LAW glass. Diverting the stream reduces the halides in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, identifying a disposition path becomes vitally important. This task examines the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and investigates auxiliary evaporation to enable another disposition path. Unless an auxiliary evaporator is used, returning the stream to the tank farms would require evaporation in the 242-A evaporator. This stream is expected to be unusual because it will be very high in corrosive species that are volatile in the melter (chloride, fluoride, sulfur), will have high ammonia, and will contain carryover particulates of glass-former chemicals. These species have potential to cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, precipitation of solids, release of ammonia gas vapors, and scale in the tank farm evaporator. Routing this stream to the tank farms does not permanently divert it from recycling into the WTP, only temporarily stores it prior to reprocessing. Testing is normally performed to demonstrate acceptable conditions and limits for these compounds in wastes sent to the tank farms. The primary parameter of this phase of the test program was measuring the formation of solids during evaporation in order to assess the compatibility of the stream with the evaporator and transfer and storage equipment. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW facility melter offgas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet, and, thus, the composition will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. This report discusses results of evaporation testing of the simulant. Two conditions were tested, one with the simulant at near neutral pH, and a second at alkaline pH. The neutral pH test is comparable to the conditions in the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) evaporator, although that evaporator operates at near atmospheric pressure and tests were done under vacuum. For the alkaline test, the target pH was based on the tank farm corrosion control program requirements, and the test protocol and equipment was comparable to that used for routine evaluation of feed compatibility studies for the 242-A evaporator. One of the radionuclides that is volatile in the melter and expected to be in high concentration in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 (99Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are also expected to be in appreciable concentrations in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are 129I, 90Sr, 137Cs, and 241Am. The concentrations of these radionuclides in this stream will be much lower than in the LAW, but they will still be higher than limits for some of the other disposition pathways currently available. At this time, these scoping tests did not evaluate the partitioning of the radionuclides to the evaporator condensate, since ample data are available separately from other experience in the DOE complex. Results from the evaporation testing show that the neutral SBS simulant first forms turbidity at ~7.5X concentration, while the alkaline-adjusted simulant became turbid at ~3X concentration. The major solid in both cases was Kogarkoite, Na3FSO4. Sodium and lithium fluorides were also detected. Minimal solids were formed in the evaporator bottoms until a substantial fraction of liquid was removed, indicating that evaporation could minimize storage volume issues. Achievable concentration factors without significant insoluble solids were 17X at alkaline pH, and 23X at neutral pH. In both runs, significant ammonia carried over and was captured in the condenser with the water condensate. Results also indicate that with low insoluble solids formation in the initial testing at neutral pH, the use of Reverse Osmosis is a potential alternate method for concentrating the solution, although an evaluation is needed to identify equipment that can tolerate insoluble solids. Most of the ammonia remains in the evaporator bottoms during the neutral pH evaporation, but partitions to the condensate during alkaline evaporation. Disposition of both streams needs to consider the management of ammonia vapor and its release. Since this is an initial phase of testing, additional tasks related to evaporation methods are expected to be identified for development. These tasks likely include evaluation and testing of composition variability testing and evaluations, corrosion and erosion testing, slurry storage and immobilization investigations, and evaporator condensate disposition.

  13. Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crea, B.A.

    1994-12-22

    An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

  14. Sandia Cooler Blows Traditional CPU Coolers Away | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and reducing energy use. | Photo courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories. Rebecca Matulka Rebecca Matulka Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of ...

  15. Influence of instrument conditions on the evaporation behavior of uranium dioxide with UV laser-assisted atom probe tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valderrama, B.; Henderson, H.B.; Gan, J.; Manuel, M.V.

    2015-04-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) provides the ability to detect subnanometer chemical variations spatially, with high accuracy. However, it is known that compositional accuracy can be affected by experimental conditions. A study of the effect of laser energy, specimen base temperature, and detection rate is performed on the evaporation behavior of uranium dioxide (UO2). In laser-assisted mode, tip geometry and standing voltage also contribute to the evaporation behavior. In this investigation, it was determined that modifying the detection rate and temperature did not affect the evaporation behavior as significantly as laser energy. It was also determined that three laser evaporation regimes are present in UO2. Very low laser energy produces a behavior similar to DC-field evaporation, moderate laser energy produces the desired laser-assisted field evaporation characteristic and high laser energy induces thermal effects, negatively altering the evaporation behavior. The need for UO2 to be analyzed under moderate laser energies to produce accurate stoichiometry distinguishes it from other oxides. The following experimental conditions providing the best combination of mass resolving power, accurate stoichiometry, and uniform evaporation behavior: 50 K, 10 pJ laser energy, a detection rate of 0.003 atoms per pulse, and a 100 kHz repetition rate.

  16. Vapor pressure and evaporation rate of certain heat-resistant compounds in a vacuum at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolgar, A.S.; Verkhoglyadova, T.S.; Samsonov, G.V.

    1985-02-01

    The vapor pressure and evaporation rate of borides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome and of strontium and carbides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome, molybdenum silicide and nitrides of titanium, niobium, and tantalum in a vacuum were studied. It is concluded that all subject compounds evaporate by molecular structures except AlB sub 12' which dissociates, losing the aluminum.

  17. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  18. Off gas film cooler cleaner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhingra, Hardip S.; Koch, William C.; Burns, David C.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus for cleaning depositions of particulate matter from the inside of tubular piping while the piping is in use. The apparatus is remote controlled in order to operate in hazardous environments. A housing containing brush and shaft assemblies is mounted on top of the tubular piping. Pneumatic cylinders provide linear motion. A roller nut bearing provides rotary motion. The combined motion causes the brush assembly to rotate as it travels along the tube dislodging particulate matter.

  19. Off gas film cooler cleaner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhingra, H.S.; Koch, W.C.; Burns, D.C.

    1997-08-26

    An apparatus is described for cleaning depositions of particulate matter from the inside of tubular piping while the piping is in use. The apparatus is remote controlled in order to operate in hazardous environments. A housing containing brush and shaft assemblies is mounted on top of the tubular piping. Pneumatic cylinders provide linear motion. A roller nut bearing provides rotary motion. The combined motion causes the brush assembly to rotate as it travels along the tube dislodging particulate matter. 5 figs.

  20. Co-Evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Films and Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, I.; Beall, C.; Vora, N.; DeHart, C.; Kuciauskas, D.; Dippo, P.; To, B.; Mann, J.; Hsu, W. C.; Goodrich, A.; Noufi, R.

    2012-06-01

    The use of vacuum co-evaporation to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 photovoltaic devices with 9.15% total-area efficiency is described. These new results suggest that the early success of the atmospheric techniques for kesterite photovoltaics may be related to the ease with which one can control film composition and volatile phases, rather than a fundamental benefit of atmospheric conditions for film properties. The co-evaporation growth recipe is documented, as is the motivation for various features of the recipe. Characteristics of the resulting kesterite films and devices are shown in scanning electron micrographs, including photoluminescence, current-voltage, and quantum efficiency. Current-voltage curves demonstrate low series resistance without the light-dark cross-over seen in many devices in the literature. Band gap indicated by quantum efficiency and photoluminescence is roughly consistent with that expected from first principles calculation.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of silver- and copper-coated Nylon 6 forcespun nanofibers by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihut, Dorina M., E-mail: dorinamm@yahoo.com; Lozano, Karen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States); Foltz, Heinrich [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles were deposited as thin films onto substrates consisting of Nylon 6 nanofibers manufactured using forcespinning{sup } equipment. Different rotational speeds were used to obtain continuous nanofibers of various diameters arranged as nonwoven mats. The Nylon 6 nanofibers were collected as successive layers on frames, and a high-vacuum thermal evaporation method was used to deposit the silver and copper thin films on the nanofibers. The structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopyscanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electrical resistance measurements. The results indicate that evaporated silver and copper nanoparticles were successfully deposited on Nylon 6 nanofibers as thin films that adhered well to the polymer substrate while the native morphology of the nanofibers were preserved, and electrically conductive nanostructures were achieved.

  2. NANO- AND MICROSTRUCTURES FOR THIN-FILM EVAPORATION-A REVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plawsky, JL; Fedorov, AG; Garimella, SV; Ma, HB; Maroo, SC; Chen, L; Nam, Y

    2014-07-23

    Evaporation from thin films is a key feature of many processes, including energy conversion, microelectronics cooling, boiling, perspiration, and self-assembly operations. The phase change occurring in these systems is governed by transport processes at the contact line where liquid, vapor, and solid meet. Evidence suggests that altering the surface chemistry and surface topography on the micro-and the nanoscales can be used to dramatically enhance vaporization. The 2013 International Workshop on Micro- and Nanostructures for Phase-Change Heat Transfer brought together a group of experts to review the current state-of-the-art and discuss future research needs. This article is focused on the thin-film evaporation panel discussion and outlines some of the key principles and conclusions reached by that panel and the workshop attendees.

  3. Event Calendar - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of <a href="http://www.flickr.com/people/free-stock/">Public Domain Photos</a>. Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of Public Domain Photos. In low-humidity areas,

  4. Characterization Results For The 2013 HTF 3H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A. L. II

    2013-12-04

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H evaporator overhead sample for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 129}I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  5. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J.; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases. 8 figs.

  6. Tests of the fission-evaporation competition in the deexcitation of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Skwira, I.; Wilczynski, J.

    2005-09-01

    In order to verify methods of calculating the fission-evaporation competition in reactions used to synthesize new super-heavy nuclei in 'cold' (1n) and 'hot' (3n,4n) fusion reactions, we present an analysis of existing experimental data on the evaporation-residue cross sections in two selected reactions, {sup 208}Pb({sup 16}O, xn) and {sup 236}U({sup 12}C, xn), for which complementary experimental information necessary to unambiguously calculate the survival probabilities is available: precisely measured fusion excitation functions and saddle-point energies of the fissioning nuclei, deduced from experiments. Standard statistical model calculations, with shell effects accounted for by the Ignatyuk formula, were carried out assuming the ground state shell corrections of Moeller et al., and zero shell correction at the saddle configuration (resulting from the presented systematics). Good agreement of the calculated evaporation-residue cross sections with experimental data for different xn reaction channels at low excitation energies leaves no room for modifications of the conventional way of calculating the {gamma}{sub n}/{gamma}{sub f} ratio, particularly for including into this ratio an additional preexponential factor (such as the Kramers fission hindrance factor or an effective collective factor) significantly different from 1.

  7. A simple model of chromospheric evaporation and condensation driven conductively in a solar flare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longcope, D. W.

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic energy released in the corona by solar flares reaches the chromosphere where it drives characteristic upflows and downflows known as evaporation and condensation. These flows are studied here for the case where energy is transported to the chromosphere by thermal conduction. An analytic model is used to develop relations by which the density and velocity of each flow can be predicted from coronal parameters including the flare's energy flux F. These relations are explored and refined using a series of numerical investigations in which the transition region (TR) is represented by a simplified density jump. The maximum evaporation velocity, for example, is well approximated by v{sub e} ? 0.38(F/?{sub co,} {sub 0}){sup 1/3}, where ?{sub co,} {sub 0} is the mass density of the pre-flare corona. This and the other relations are found to fit simulations using more realistic models of the TR both performed in this work, and taken from a variety of previously published investigations. These relations offer a novel and efficient means of simulating coronal reconnection without neglecting entirely the effects of evaporation.

  8. APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

    2010-01-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

  9. DOE Technical Targets for Fuel Cell System Humidifiers and Air...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    side) kPa 3.5 Water transfer at full flowa g s-1 5 Durabilityb h 5,000 Maximum air ... kPa 75 Water transfer flux at full flowa g min-1cm-2 0.025 Durabilityb h 5,000 Costc ...

  10. ARM - Field Campaign - ISDAC / RISCAM - Humidified Tandem Differential...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Related Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) 2008.04.01, Ghan, AAF Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a...

  11. ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (Dataset...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (BER) Country of Publication: United States Availability: ORNL Language: English Subject: 54 Environmental Sciences Aerosol concentration; Aerosol particle size distribution ...

  12. Tank 30 and 37 Supernatant Sample Cross-Check and Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-03-07

    This report summarizes the analytical data reported by the F/H and Savannah River National Laboratories for the 2012 cross-check analysis for high level waste supernatant liquid samples from SRS Tanks 30 and 37. The intent of this Tank 30 and 37 sample analyses was to perform cross-checks against routine F/H Laboratory analyses (corrosion and evaporator feed qualification programs) using samples collected at the same time from both tanks as well as split samples from the tanks.

  13. A Remote Absorption Process for Disposal of Evaporate and Reverse Osmosis Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunsell, D.A.

    2008-07-01

    Many commercial nuclear plants and DOE facilities generate secondary waste streams consisting of evaporator bottoms and reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. Since liquids are not permitted in disposal facilities, these waste streams must be converted to dry solids, either by evaporation to dried solids or by solidification to liquid-free solids. Evaporation of the liquid wastes reduces their volume, but requires costly energy and capital equipment. In some cases, concentration of the contaminants during drying can cause the waste to exceed Class A waste for nuclear utilities or exceed DOE transuranic limits. This means that disposal costs will be increased, or that, when the Barnwell, SC disposal site closes to waste outside of the Atlantic Compact in July 2008, the waste will be precluded from disposal for the foreseeable future). Solidification with cement agents requires less energy and equipment than drying, but results in a volume increase of 50-100%. The doubling or tripling of waste weight, along with the increased volume, sharply increases shipping and disposal costs. Confronted with these unattractive alternatives, Diversified Technologies Services (DTS), in conjunction with selected nuclear utilities and D and D operations at Rocky Flats, undertook an exploratory effort to convert this liquid wastewater to a solid without using cement. This would avoid the bulking effect of cement, and permit the waste to be disposed of the Energy Solutions facility in Utah as well as some DOE facilities. To address the need for an attractive alternative to drying and cement solidification, a test program was developed using a polymer absorbent media to convert the concentrate streams to a liquid-free waste form that meets the waste acceptance criteria of the pertinent burial sites. Two approaches for mixing the polymer with the liquid were tested: mechanical mixing and in-situ incorporation. As part of this test program, a process control program (PCP) was developed that is 100% scalable from a concentrate test sample as small as 50 grams to full-scale processing of 100 cubic foot containers or larger. In summary: The absorption process offers utilities a viable and less costly alternative to on-site drying or solidification of concentrates. The absorption process can be completed by site personnel or by a vendor as a turnkey service. The process is suitable for multiple types of waste, including RO and evaporator concentrates, sludges, and other difficult to process waters and wet solids. (author)

  14. Characterization Results for the 2014 HTF 3H & 2H Evaporator Overhead Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington, A.

    2015-05-11

    This report tabulates the radiochemical analysis of the 3H and 2H evaporator overhead samples for 137Cs, 90Sr, and 129I to meet the requirements in the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) (rev. 6). This report identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. All data was found to be within the ETP WAC (rev. 6) specification for the Waste Water Collection Tanks (WWCT).

  15. Angular momentum effects in fusion-fission and fusion-evaporation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plasil, F.

    1980-01-01

    The study of heavy-ion fusion reactions is complicated by the possible contributions of several mechanisms. The various types of heavy-ion-induced fission are discussed. Then compound-nucleus fission is considered with reference to fission barriers deduced from heavy-ion-induced fission. Next, the problems associated with measured values of evaporation-residue cross sections and the angular momentum dependence of incomplete fusion are examined. Finally, the de-excitation of compound nuclei is again taken up, this time with reference to the greatly enhanced ..cap alpha.. emission predicted on the basis of the rotating liquid drop model. 24 figures. (RWR)

  16. Nuclear Reactions X-Sections By Evaporation Model, Gamma-Cascades

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-06-27

    Calculation of energy-averaged cross sections for nuclear reactions with emission of particles and gamma rays and fission. The models employed are the evaporation model with inclusion of pre-equilibrium decay and gamma ray cascade model. Angular momentum and parity conservation are accounted for. Major improvement to the 1976 STAPRE program (NEA 0461) relates to level density approach, implemwnted in subroutine ZSTDE. Generalized superfluid model is incorporated, Boltzman-gas modelling of intrinsic state density and semi-empirical modelling ofmore » a few quasiparticle effects in total level density in equilibrium and saddle deformations of actinide nuclei.« less

  17. Imaging the condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films with surface forces apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Di; Ni, Zhonghua E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    A new method for imaging condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films is reported. It is found that the first adsorbed layer of ethanol film on mica surface behaves as solid like structure that cannot flow freely. With the increase of exposure time, more ethanol molecules condense over the mica surface in the saturated ethanol vapor condition. The first layer of adsorbed ethanol film is about 3.8 Å thick measured from the surface forces apparatus, which is believed to be the average diameter of ethanol molecules while they are confined in between two atomically smooth mica surfaces.

  18. Engineering work plan for implementing the Process Condensate Recycle Project at the 242-A evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haring, D.S.

    1995-02-02

    The 242-A Evaporator facility is used to reduce the volume of waste stored in the Hanford double shell tanks. This facility uses filtered raw water for cooling, de-entrainment pad sprays, pump seal water, and chemical tank make-up. Some of these uses result in the introduction of filtered raw water into the process, thus increasing the volume of waste requiring evaporation and subsequent treatment by the 200 East Effluent Treatment Facility. The pump seal water and the de-entrainment pad spray systems were identified as candidates for a waste minimization upgrade. This work plan describes the activities associated with the design, installation, testing and initial operation of the process condensate recycle system. Implementation of the process condensate recycle system will permit the use of process condensate in place of raw water for the de-entrainment pad sprays and pump seals. This will reduce the amount of low-level liquid waste and generated during facility operation through source reduction and recycling.

  19. Thermal evaporation and condensation synthesis of metallic Zn layered polyhedral microparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Waheed S.; Cao, Chuanbao; Usman, Zahid; Hussain, Sajad; Nabi, Ghulam; Butt, Faheem K.; Ali, Zulfiqar; Mahmood, Tariq; Niaz, Niaz Ahmad

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn polyhedral microparticles prepared by thermal evaporation and condensation route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vapour-solid process based growth model governs the formation of Zn microparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A strong PL emission band is observed at 369 nm in UV region. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiative recombination of electrons in the s, p conduction band and the holes in the d bands causes this emission. -- Abstract: Metallic zinc layered polyhedral microparticles have been fabricated by thermal evaporation and condensation technique using zinc as precursor at 750 Degree-Sign C for 120 min and NH{sub 3} as a carrier gas. The zinc polyhedral microparticles with oblate spherical shape are observed to be 2-9 {mu}m in diameter along major axes and 1-7 {mu}m in thickness along minor axes. The structural, compositional and morphological characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). A vapour-solid (VS) mechanism based growth model has been proposed for the formation of Zn microparticles. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) emission spectrum of the product exhibited a strong emission band at 369 nm attributed to the radiative recombination of electrons in the s, p conduction band near Fermi surface and the holes in the d bands generated by the optical excitation.

  20. Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating primordial black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; H. A. Ayala Solares; Barber, A. S.; Baughman, B. M.; Bautista-Elivar, N.; Gonzalez, J. Becerra; Belmont, E.; BenZvi, S. Y.; Berley, D.; Bonilla Rosales, M.; Braun, J.; Caballero-Lopez, R. A.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carraminana, A.; Castillo, M.; Christopher, G. E.; Cotti, U.; Cotzomi, J.; de la Fuente, E.; De León, C.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz Hernandez, R.; Diaz-Cruz, L.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dingus, B. L.; DuVernois, M. A.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Fiorino, D. W.; Fraija, N.; Galindo, A.; Garfias, F.; González, M. M.; Goodman, J. A.; Grabski, V.; Gussert, M.; Hampel-Arias, Z.; Harding, J. P.; Hays, E.; Hoffman, C. M.; Hui, C. M.; Hüntemeyer, P.; Imran, A.; Iriarte, A.; Karn, P.; Kieda, D.; Kolterman, B. E.; Kunde, G. J.; Lara, A.; Lauer, R. J.; Lee, W. H.; Lennarz, D.; Vargas, H. Leon; Linares, E. C.; Linnemann, J. T.; Longo, M.; Luna-GarcIa, R.; MacGibbon, J. H.; Marinelli, A.; Marinelli, S. S.; Martinez, H.; Martinez, O.; Martínez-Castro, J.; J. A.J. Matthews; McEnery, J.; Mendoza Torres, E.; Mincer, A. I.; Miranda-Romagnoli, P.; Moreno, E.; Morgan, T.; Mostafa, M.; Nellen, L.; Nemethy, P.; Newbold, M.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Oceguera-Becerra, T.; Patricelli, B.; Pelayo, R.; Perez-Perez, E. G.; Pretz, J.; Riviere, C.; Rosa-Gonzalez, D.; Ruiz-Velasco, E.; Ryan, J.; Salazar, H.; Salesa, F.; Sandoval, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schneider, M.; Silich, S.; Sinnis, G.; Smith, A. J.; Stump, D.; Sparks Woodle, K.; Springer, R. W.; Taboada, I.; Toale, P. A.; Tollefson, K.; Torres, I.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Vasileiou, V.; Villasenor, L.; Weisgarber, T.; Westerhoff, S.; Williams, D. A.; Wisher, I. G.; Wood, J.; Yodh, G. B.; Younk, P. W.; Zaborov, D.; Zepeda, A.; Zhou, H.

    2015-04-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~ 5.0 × 10¹⁴ g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV – TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.

  1. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test the quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.

  2. STARSPOTS-TRANSIT DEPTH RELATION OF THE EVAPORATING PLANET CANDIDATE KIC 12557548b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawahara, Hajime; Kurosaki, Kenji; Ito, Yuichi; Ikoma, Masahiro; Hirano, Teruyuki

    2013-10-10

    Violent variation of transit depths and an ingress-egress asymmetry of the transit light curve discovered in KIC 12557548 have been interpreted as evidence of a catastrophic evaporation of atmosphere with dust ( M-dot {sub p}?>1 M{sub ?} Gyr{sup 1}) from a close-in small planet. To explore what drives the anomalous atmospheric escape, we perform time-series analysis of the transit depth variation of Kepler archival data for ?3.5 yr. We find a ?30% periodic variation of the transit depth with P {sub 1} = 22.83 0.21 days, which is within the error of the rotation period of the host star estimated using the light curve modulation, P {sub rot} = 22.91 0.24 days. We interpret the results as evidence that the atmospheric escape of KIC 12557548b correlates with stellar activity. We consider possible scenarios that account for both the mass loss rate and the correlation with stellar activity. X-ray and ultraviolet (XUV)-driven evaporation is possible if one accepts a relatively high XUV flux and a high efficiency for converting the input energy to the kinetic energy of the atmosphere. Star-planet magnetic interaction is another possible scenario, though huge uncertainty remains for the mass loss rate.

  3. Milagro limits and HAWC sensitivity for the rate-density of evaporating primordial black holes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Alfaro, R.; Allen, B. T.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez, J. D.; Arceo, R.; Arteaga-Velazquez, J. C.; Aune, T.; H. A. Ayala Solares; et al

    2015-04-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and will emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~ 5.0 × 10¹⁴ g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV – TeV energy range. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 tomore » 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited to perform a search for PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.« less

  4. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test themore » quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.« less

  5. Crystallization Temperature of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solutions at Low Evaporation Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisari, Padmaja; Wang, Kai; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2010-01-01

    Water- aqueous Lithium Bromide (LiBr) solutions have shown superior performance as working fluid pairs for absorption refrigeration cycles. Most of the available literature (e.g. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, etc.) provide crystallization behavior down to only 10 C. The typical evaporating temperature for an absorption chiller system is usually lower than 10 C. Hence, it is essential to have an accurate prediction of the crystallization temperature in this range in order to avoid crystallization during the design phase. We have therefore conducted a systematic study to explore the crystallization temperatures of LiBr/Water solutions that fall below an evaporating temperature of 10 C. Our preliminary studies revealed that the rate of cooling of the sample solution influences the crystallization temperature; therefore we have performed a quasi steady test where the sample was cooled gradually by reducing the sample temperature in small steps. Results from this study are reported in this paper and can be used to extend the data available in open literature.

  6. TANK 26F SUPERNATANT AND 2F EVAPORATOR EDUCTOR PUMP SAMPLE CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, W.; Hay, M.; Coleman, C.

    2011-08-23

    In an effort to understand the reasons for system plugging problems in the SRS 2F evaporator, supernatant samples were retrieved from the evaporator feed tank (Tank 26F) and solids were collected from the evaporator eductor feed pump for characterization. The variable depth supernatant samples were retrieved from Tank 26F in early December of 2010 and samples were provided to SRNL and the F/H Area laboratories for analysis. Inspection and analysis of the samples at SRNL was initiated in early March of 2011. During the interim period, samples were frequently exposed to temperatures as low as 12 C with daily temperature fluctuations as high as 10 C. The temperature at the time of sample collection from the waste tank was 51 C. Upon opening the supernatant bottles at SRNL, many brown solids were observed in both of the Tank 26F supernatant samples. In contrast, no solids were observed in the supernatant samples sent to the F/H Area laboratories, where the analysis was completed within a few days after receipt. Based on these results, it is believed that the original Tank 26F supernatant samples did not contain solids, but solids formed during the interim period while samples were stored at ambient temperature in the SRNL shielded cells without direct climate control. Many insoluble solids (>11 wt. % for one sample) were observed in the Tank 26F supernatant samples after three months of storage at SRNL which would not dissolve in the supernatant solution in two days at 51 C. Characterization of these solids along with the eductor pump solids revealed the presence of sodium oxalate and clarkeite (uranyl oxyhydroxide) as major crystalline phases. Sodium nitrate was the dominant crystalline phase present in the unwashed Eductor Pump solids. Crystalline sodium nitrate may have formed during the drying of the solids after filtration or may have been formed in the Tank 26F supernatant during storage since the solution was found to be very concentrated (9-12 M Na{sup +}). Concentrated mineral acids and elevated temperature were required to dissolve all of these solids. The refractory nature of some of the solids is consistent with the presence of metal oxides such as aluminosilicates (observed as a minor phase by XRD). Characterization of the water wash solutions and the digested solids confirmed the presence of oxalate salts in both solid samples. Sulfate enrichment was also observed in the Tank 26F solids wash solution, indicating the presence of sulfate precipitates such as burkeite. OLI modeling of the Tank 26F filtered supernatant composition revealed that sodium oxalate has a very low solubility in this solution. The model predicts that the sodium oxalate solubility in the Tank 26F supernatant is only 0.0011 M at 50 C. The results indicate that the highly concentrated nature of the evaporator feed solution and the addition of oxalate anion to the waste stream each contribute to the formation of insoluble solids in the 2F evaporator system.

  7. Analysis Of 2H-Evaporator Scale Wall [HTF-13-82] And Pot Bottom [HTF-13-77] Samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2013-09-11

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from two different locations within the evaporator pot; the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxyhydroxide mineral). On ''as received'' basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 {+-} 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 {+-} 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 {+-} 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% {+-} 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E-05 {+-} 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 {+-} 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 {+-} 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 {+-} 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. For these two evaporator scale samples obtained at two different locations within the evaporator pot the major radioactive components (on a mass basis) in the additional radionuclide analyses were Sr-90, Cs-137 Np-237, Pu-239/240 and Th-232. Small quantities of americium and curium were detected in the blanks used for Am/Cm method for these radionuclides. These trace radionuclide amounts are assumed to come from airborne contamination in the shielded cells drying or digestion oven, which has been replaced. Therefore, the Am/Cm results, as presented, may be higher than the true Am/Cm values for these samples. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA. With a few exceptions, a comparison of select radionuclides measurements from this 2013 2H evaporator scale characterization (pot bottom and wall scale samples) with those measurements for the same radionuclides in the 2010 2H evaporator scale analysis shows that the radionuclide analysis for both years are fairly comparable; the analyses results are about the same order of magnitude.

  8. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  9. Silicon dioxide and hafnium dioxide evaporation characteristics from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Tsujimoto, N. [MDC Vacuum Products Corporation, Hayward, California 94545 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Reactive oxygen evaporation characteristics were determined as a function of the front-panel control parameters provided by a programmable, high-frequency sweep e-beam system. An experimental design strategy used deposition rate, beam speed, pattern, azimuthal rotation speed, and dwell time as the variables. The optimal settings for obtaining a broad thickness distribution, efficient silicon dioxide boule consumption, and minimal hafnium dioxide defect density were generated. The experimental design analysis showed the compromises involved with evaporating these oxides. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  10. Preparation and characterization of indium zinc oxide thin films by electron beam evaporation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keshavarzi, Reza [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirkhani, Valiollah, E-mail: mirkhani@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Majid, E-mail: moghadamm@sci.ui.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammadpoor-Baltork, Iraj [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Chemistry Department, Catalysis Division, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah, Hamid Reza; Dastjerdi, Mohammad Javad Vahid; Modayemzadeh, Hamed Reza [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this work, the preparation of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films by electron beam evaporation technique on glass substrates is reported. Optical and electrical properties of these films were investigated. The effect of dopant amount and annealing temperature on the optical and electrical properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZnO thin films was also studied. Different amount of ZnO was used as dopant and the films were annealed at different temperature. The results showed that the most crystalline, transparent and uniform films with lowest resistivity were obtained using 25 wt% of ZnO annealed at 500 {sup o}C.

  11. RESULTS OF THE 2H EVAPORATOR ACID CLEANING AND IN-POT NEUTRALIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilmarth, B; Phillip Norris, P; Terry Allen, T

    2007-05-29

    The estimated 200 gallons of sodium aluminosilicate scale (NAS) present in the 242-16H Evaporator pot prior to chemical cleaning was subjected to four batches of 1.5 M (9 wt%) nitric acid. Each batch was neutralized with 19 M (50 wt %) sodium hydroxide (caustic) before transfer to Tank 38. The chemical cleaning process began on November 20, 2006, and was terminated on December 10, 2006. An inspection of the pot's interior was performed and based on data gathered during that inspection; the current volume of scale in the pot is conservatively estimated to be 36.3 gallons, which is well below the 200 gallon limit specified in the Technical Safety Requirements. In addition, the performance during all aspects of cleaning agreed well with the flowsheet developed at the bench and pilot scale. There were some lessons learned during the cleaning outage and are detailed in appendices of this report.

  12. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  13. Heat capacity of quantum adsorbates: Hydrogen and helium on evaporated gold films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birmingham, J.T. |

    1996-06-01

    The author has constructed an apparatus to make specific heat measurements of quantum gases adsorbed on metallic films at temperatures between 0.3 and 4 K. He has used this apparatus to study quench-condensed hydrogen films between 4 and 923 layers thick with J = 1 concentrations between 0.28 and 0.75 deposited on an evaporated gold surface. He has observed that the orientational ordering of the J = 1 molecules depends on the substrate temperature during deposition of the hydrogen film. He has inferred that the density of the films condensed at the lowest temperatures is 25% higher than in bulk H{sub 2} crystals and have observed that the structure of those films is affected by annealing at 3.4 K. The author has measured the J = 1 to J = 0 conversion rate to be comparable to that of the bulk for thick films; however, he found evidence that the gold surface catalyzes conversion in the first two to four layers. He has also used this apparatus to study films of {sup 4}He less than one layer thick adsorbed on an evaporated gold surface. He shows that the phase diagram of the system is similar to that for {sup 4}He/graphite although not as rich in structure, and the phase boundaries occur at different coverages and temperatures. At coverages below about half a layer and at sufficiently high temperatures, the {sup 4}He behaves like a two-dimensional noninteracting Bose gas. At lower temperatures and higher coverages, liquidlike and solidlike behavior is observed. The Appendix shows measurements of the far-infrared absorptivity of the high-{Tc} superconductor La{sub 1.87}Sr{sub 0.13}CuO{sub 4}.

  14. Impact of California Phase 2 reformulated gasoline on atmospheric reactivity of exhaust and evaporative emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirchstetter, T.W.; Singer, B.C.; Harley, R.A.; Kendall, G.R.; Traverse, M.

    1997-12-31

    Phase 2 of California`s reformulated gasoline (RFG) program took effect statewide in the first half of 1996. Changes to gasoline composition required by Phase 2 specifications included: lower vapor pressure; lower olefin, aromatic, benzene, and sulfur content; lower T50 and T90; and a minimum oxygen content. In this paper, impacts of Phase 2 RFG on the atmospheric reactivity of motor vehicle exhaust and evaporative emissions are described. Volatile organic compounds in motor vehicle exhaust were measured at the Caldecott tunnel in summer 1995 and 1996. Aggregate emissions of greater than 8000 vehicles were measured each day. Regular and premium grade gasoline samples were collected from service stations in Berkeley concurrently with tunnel measurements both summers. Liquid gasoline samples and their headspace vapors were analyzed to determine detailed chemical composition. Normalized reactivity was calculated for exhaust and evaporative emissions by applying maximum incremental reactivity values to the detailed speciation profiles. Results indicate that the composition of gasoline in 1996 differed markedly from that of 1995. Changes in liquid gasoline composition led to corresponding changes in the speciation of vehicle exhaust and of gasoline headspace vapors. Benzene concentration in liquid gasoline decreased from 2.0 to 0.6 wt%, which contributed to a 70 and 37% reduction in benzene weight fraction in headspace vapors and vehicle exhaust, respectively. Addition of MTBE and reduction of olefins and aromatics in gasoline led to significant reductions in the atmospheric reactivity of unburned gasoline and gasoline headspace vapors. The normalized reactivity of liquid gasoline and headspace vapors decreased by 23 and 19%, respectively, between 1995 and 1996. The normalized reactivity of non-methane organic compounds in vehicle exhaust decreased by about 8%, but the uncertainty in this change was large.

  15. Multilayer formation and evaporation of deuterated ices in prestellar and protostellar cores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B.; Sipil, Olli

    2014-08-10

    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed toward prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed toward low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimensional model of a collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H{sub 2} and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation toward the surface. The differentiation of the deuteration in ices induces an evolution of the deuteration within protostellar envelopes. The warm inner region is poorly deuterated because it includes the whole molecular content of ices, while the deuteration predicted in the cold external envelope scales with the highly deuterated surface of ices. We are able to reproduce the observed evolution of water deuteration within protostellar envelopes, but we are still unable to predict the super-high deuteration observed for formaldehyde and methanol. Finally, the extension of this study to the deuteration of complex organics, important for the prebiotic chemistry, shows good agreement with the observations, suggesting that we can use the deuteration to retrace their mechanisms and their moments of formation.

  16. ISSUANCE 2015-07-31: Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Intent to Establish a Working Group for Certain Equipment Classes of Refrigeration Systems of Walk-in Coolers and Freezers to Negotiate a Notice of Proposed Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Intent to Establish a Working Group for Certain Equipment Classes of Refrigeration Systems of Walk-in Coolers and Freezers to Negotiate a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR) for Energy Conservation Standards

  17. FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

    2012-01-26

    Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

  18. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

  19. Determination of the crystalline structure of scale solids from the 16H evaporator gravity drain line to tank 38H

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-10-01

    August 2015, scale solids from the 16H Evaporator Gravity Drain Line (GDL) to the Tank 38H were delivered to SRNL for analysis. The desired analytical goal was to identify and confirm the crystalline structure of the scale material and determine if the form of the aluminosilicate mineral was consistent with previous analysis of the scale material from the GDL.

  20. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipper, Lauren E.; Aristide, Xavier; Bishop, Dylan P.; Joshi, Ishita; Kharzeev, Julia; Patel, Krishna B.; Santiago, Brianna M.; Joshi, Karan; Dorsinvil, Kahille; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2014-11-28

    This article describes the use of evaporation control lids that are fitted to crystallization plates to improve the reproducibility of trials using as little as 5 nl. The plate lids contain apertures which are large enough for the transfer of protein containing droplets, but small enough to greatly reduce the rate of evaporation during the time needed to prepare the plate. A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 6382%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  1. Fluid-evaporation records preserved in salt assemblages in Meridiani rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, M.N.; Nyquist, L.E.; Sutton, S.R.; Dreibus, G.; Garrison, D.H.; Herrin, J.

    2009-09-25

    We studied the inter-relationships between the major anions (SO{sub 3}, Cl, and Br) and cations (FeO, CaO and MgO) using elemental abundances determined by APXS in salt assemblages of RATted (abraded) rocks at Meridiani to characterize the behavior of fluids that infiltrated into this region on Mars. A plot of SO{sub 3} versus Cl for the abraded rocks yielded an unusual pattern, whereas the SO{sub 3}/Cl ratios versus Cl for the same rocks showed a monotonically decreasing trend represented by a hyperbola. The systematic behavior of the SO{sub 3} and Cl data in the documented rocks at Meridiani suggests that these anions behaved conservatively during fluid-rock interactions. These results further indicate that two kinds of fluids, referred to as SOL-I and SOL-II, infiltrated into Endurance/Eagle/Fram craters, where they underwent progressive evaporative concentration. SOL-I is a low pH fluid consisting of high SO{sub 3} and low Cl and high Br, (this fluid infiltrated all the way to the crater-top region), whereas SOL-II fluid of high pH with low SO{sub 3} and high Cl and low Br reached only an intermediary level known as the Whatanga contact at Endurance. Based on the FeO/MgO as well as CaO/MgO versus SO{sub 3}/Cl diagram for rocks above the Whatanga contact, the cation and anion relationships in this system suggest that the Fe{sup 2+}/SO{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}/SO{sub 4} ratios in SOL-I fluids at Meridiani were > 1 before the onset of evaporation based on the 'chemical divide' considerations. Below the Whatanga contact, relatively dilute SOL-II fluids seem to have infiltrated and dissolved/flushed away the easily soluble Mg-sulfate/chloride phases (along with Br) without significantly altering the SO{sub 3}/Cl ratios in the residual salt assemblages. Further, Cl/Br versus Br in rocks above the Whatanga contact show a hyperbolic trend suggesting that Cl and Br behaved conservatively similar to SO{sub 3} and Cl in the SOL-1 fluids at Meridiani. Our results are consistent with a scenario involving two episodes (SOL-I and SOL-II) of groundwater recharge at Meridiani Planum.

  2. A Novel Absorption Cycle for Combined Water Heating, Dehumidification, and Evaporative Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CHUGH, Devesh; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; Abdelaziz, Omar; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    In this study, development of a novel system for combined water heating, dehumidification, and space evaporative cooling is discussed. Ambient water vapor is used as a working fluid in an open system. First, water vapor is absorbed from an air stream into an absorbent solution. The latent heat of absorption is transferred into the process water that cools the absorber. The solution is then regenerated in the desorber, where it is heated by a heating fluid. The water vapor generated in the desorber is condensed and its heat of phase change is transferred to the process water in the condenser. The condensed water can then be used in an evaporative cooling process to cool the dehumidified air exiting the absorber, or it can be drained if primarily dehumidification is desired. Essentially, this open absorption cycle collects space heat and transfers it to process water. This technology is enabled by a membrane-based absorption/desorption process in which the absorbent is constrained by hydrophobic vapor-permeable membranes. Constraining the absorbent film has enabled fabrication of the absorber and desorber in a plate-and-frame configuration. An air stream can flow against the membrane at high speed without entraining the absorbent, which is a challenge in conventional dehumidifiers. Furthermore, the absorption and desorption rates of an absorbent constrained by a membrane are greatly enhanced. Isfahani and Moghaddam (Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 2013) demonstrated absorption rates of up to 0.008 kg/m2s in a membrane-based absorber and Isfahani et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2013) have reported a desorption rate of 0.01 kg/m2s in a membrane-based desorber. The membrane-based architecture also enables economical small-scale systems, novel cycle configurations, and high efficiencies. The absorber, solution heat exchanger, and desorber are fabricated on a single metal sheet. In addition to the open arrangement and membrane-based architecture, another novel feature of the cycle is recovery of the solution heat energy exiting the desorber by process water (a process-solution heat exchanger ) rather than the absorber exiting solution (the conventional solution heat exchanger ). This approach has enabled heating the process water from an inlet temperature of 15 C to 57 C (conforming to the DOE water heater test standard) and interfacing the process water with absorbent on the opposite side of a single metal sheet encompassing the absorber, process-solution heat exchanger, and desorber. The system under development has a 3.2 kW water heating capacity and a target thermal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.6.

  3. Evaporation a key mechanism for the thaumasite form of sulfate attack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Kurta, Christoph; Observatoire Midi-Pyrnes, Laboratoire Gosciences Environnement Toulouse, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 TOULOUSE ; Klammer, Dietmar; Leis, Albrecht; Dietzel, Martin

    2013-07-15

    Understanding the mechanisms leading to chemical attack on concrete is crucial in order to prevent damage of concrete structures. To date, most studies on sulfate attack and thaumasite formation are based on empirical approaches, as the identification of associated reaction mechanisms and paths is known to be highly complex. In this study, sulfate damaged concrete from Austrian tunnels was investigated by mineralogical, chemical and isotope methods to identify the reactions which caused intense concrete alteration. Major, minor and trace elemental contents as well as isotope ratios of local ground water (GW), drainage water (DW) and interstitial solutions (IS), extracted from damaged concrete material, were analyzed. Locally occurring GW contained 3 to 545 mg L{sup ?1} of SO{sub 4} and is thus regarded as slightly aggressive to concrete in accordance to standard specifications (e.g. DIN EN 206-1). The concrete linings and drainage systems of the studied tunnels, however, have partly suffered from intensive sulfate attack. Heavily damaged concrete consisted mainly of thaumasite, secondary calcite, gypsum, and relicts of aggregates. Surprisingly, the concentrations of dissolved ions were extremely enriched in the IS with up to 30,000 and 12,000 mg L{sup ?1} of SO{sub 4} and Cl, respectively. Analyses of aqueous ions with a highly conservative behavior, e.g. K, Rb and Li, as well as {sup 2}H/H and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O isotope ratios of H{sub 2}O of the IS showed an intensive accumulation of ions and discrimination of the light isotopes vs. the GW. These isotope signals of the IS clearly revealed evaporation at distinct relative humidities. From ion accumulation and isotope fractionation individual total and current evaporation degrees were estimated. Our combined elemental and isotopic approach verified wettingdrying cycles within a highly dynamic concrete-solution-atmosphere system. Based on these boundary conditions, key factors controlling thaumasite formation are discussed regarding the development of more sulfate-resistant concrete and concrete structures.

  4. Form Approval:

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ... Evaporative Cooler (Swamp Cooler)...... 1 0 "Whole house" cooling fan (in the ... . . 0 417 418 F-15. How many black and white television sets do you use here in your home? ...

  5. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, J.A.

    1997-08-26

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

  6. Use of non evaporable getter pumps to ensure long term performances of high quantum efficiency photocathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sertore, Daniele Michelato, Paolo; Monaco, Laura; Manini, Paolo; Siviero, Fabrizio

    2014-05-15

    High quantum efficiency photocathodes are routinely used as laser triggered emitters in the advanced high brightness electron sources based on radio frequency guns. The sensitivity of “semiconductor” type photocathodes to vacuum levels and gas composition requires special care during preparation and handling. This paper will discuss the results obtained using a novel pumping approach based on coupling a 20 l s{sup −1} sputter ion getter pump with a CapaciTorr® D100 non evaporable getter (NEG) pump. A pressure of 8⋅10{sup −8} Pa was achieved using only a sputter ion pump after a 6 day bake-out. With the addition of a NEG pump, a pressure of 2⋅10{sup −9} Pa was achieved after a 2 day bake-out. These pressure values were maintained without power due to the ability of the NEG to pump gases by chemical reaction. Long term monitoring of cathodes quantum efficiencies was also carried out at different photon wavelengths for more than two years, showing no degradation of the photoemissive film properties.

  7. Preparation of transparent conducting B-doped ZnO films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Honma, Yasunori; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2007-07-15

    Highly transparent and conductive B-doped ZnO (BZO) thin films have been prepared by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation method that provided high-rate film depositions using sintered BZO pellets and fragments. The obtained electrical and optical properties of the deposited BZO thin films were considerably affected by the deposition conditions as well as the preparation method of the BZO pellets and fragments used. The lowest thin film resistivity was obtained with a B doping content [B/(B+Zn) atomic ratio] of approximately 1 at. %. A resistivity as low as 5x10{sup -4} {omega} cm and an average transmittance above about 80% in the wavelength range of 400-1300 nm were obtained in BZO films prepared with a thickness above approximately 400 nm at a substrate temperature of 200 deg. C. In addition, a low resistivity of 7.97x10{sup -4} {omega} cm and average transmittances above about 80% in the visible wavelength range were obtained in a BZO film prepared at a substrate temperature of 100 deg. C and an O{sub 2} gas flow rate of 10 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The deposition rate of BZO films was typically 170 nm/min with a cathode plasma power of 4.5 kW.

  8. IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION AND CHROMOSPHERIC EVAPORATION IN A SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Hui; Reeves, Katharine K.; Raymond, John C.; Chen, Bin; Murphy, Nicholas A.; Li, Gang; Guo, Fan; Liu, Wei

    2014-12-20

    Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the dominant energy release mechanism in solar flares. The standard flare model predicts both downward and upward outflow plasmas with speeds close to the coronal Alfvén speed. Yet, spectroscopic observations of such outflows, especially the downflows, are extremely rare. With observations of the newly launched Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we report the detection of a greatly redshifted (∼125 km s{sup –1} along the line of sight) Fe XXI 1354.08 Å emission line with a ∼100 km s{sup –1} nonthermal width at the reconnection site of a flare. The redshifted Fe XXI feature coincides spatially with the loop-top X-ray source observed by RHESSI. We interpret this large redshift as the signature of downward-moving reconnection outflow/hot retracting loops. Imaging observations from both IRIS and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory also reveal the eruption and reconnection processes. Fast downward-propagating blobs along these loops are also found from cool emission lines (e.g., Si IV, O IV, C II, Mg II) and images of AIA and IRIS. Furthermore, the entire Fe XXI line is blueshifted by ∼260 km s{sup –1} at the loop footpoints, where the cool lines mentioned above all exhibit obvious redshift, a result that is consistent with the scenario of chromospheric evaporation induced by downward-propagating nonthermal electrons from the reconnection site.

  9. Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keicher, David M.; Cook, Adam W.

    2014-09-01

    The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.

  10. Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for 1) cleaning, developing or etching, 2) rinsing, and 3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material.

  11. Design, fabrication, and testing of a sodium evaporator for the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlinson, K.S.; Adkins, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes the development and testing of a compact heat-pipe heat exchanger kW(e) designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases. The liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine, where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15 kW(t) of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760 C. Four of these prototype units were eventually used to power a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this report.

  12. A novel approach to prepare optically active ion doped luminescent materials via electron beam evaporation into ionic liquids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Richter, K.; Lorbeer, C.; Mudring, A. -V.

    2014-11-10

    A novel approach to prepare luminescent materials via electron-beam evaporation into ionic liquids is presented which even allows doping of host lattices with ions that have a strong size mismatch. Thus, to prove this, MgF2 nanoparticles doped with Eu3+ were fabricated. The obtained nanoparticles featured an unusually high luminescence lifetime and the obtained material showed a high potential for application.

  13. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  14. Sheath expansion and plasma dynamics in the presence of electrode evaporation: Application to a vacuum circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarrailh, P.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Boeuf, J. P.; Sandolache, G.; Rowe, S.

    2009-09-01

    During the postarc dielectric recovery phase in a vacuum circuit breaker, a cathode sheath forms and expels the plasma from the electrode gap. The success or failure of current breaking depends on how efficiently the plasma is expelled from the electrode gap. The sheath expansion in the postarc phase can be compared to sheath expansion in plasma immersion ion implantation except that collisions between charged particles and atoms generated by electrode evaporation may become important in a vacuum circuit breaker. In this paper, we show that electrode evaporation plays a significant role in the dynamics of the sheath expansion in this context not only because charged particle transport is no longer collisionless but also because the neutral flow due to evaporation and temperature gradients may push the plasma toward one of the electrodes. Using a hybrid model of the nonequilibrium postarc plasma and cathode sheath coupled with a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to describe collisions between heavy species, we present a parametric study of the sheath and plasma dynamics and of the time needed for the sheath to expel the plasma from the gap for different values of plasma density and electrode temperatures at the beginning of the postarc phase. This work constitutes a preliminary step toward understanding and quantifying the risk of current breaking failure of a vacuum arc.

  15. Analysis of tank 4 (FTF-4-15-22, 23) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment control, corrosion control and evaporator feed qualification programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L. N.

    2015-09-09

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 4 surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program (CCP) and the Evaporator Feed Qualification (EFQ) Program. The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 4 in August 2015 was to determine if the supernatant liquid would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  16. PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

    2011-02-14

    A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    structures; garage fans; energy-efficient outdoor lighting; retractable clotheslines; and evaporative coolers. Some exceptions are made to allow for aesthetic requirements that do...

  18. Hybrid and Advanced Air Cooling Geothermal Lab Call Project ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    various strategies for boosting the performance of air coolers in hot weather. Computer modeling and experimental measurements have been done on the use of evaporative media...

  19. ANALYSIS OF 2H-EVAPORATOR SCALE WALL [HTF-13-82] AND POT BOTTOM [HTF-13-77] SAMPLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oji, L.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material has been performed so that uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis can be input into a Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment (NCSA) for scale removal by chemical cleaning. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2Hevaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot [Sample HTF-13-77] and the wall 2H-evaporator [sample HTF-13-82]. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed that both the 2H-evaporator pot scale and the wall samples consist of nitrated cancrinite (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid) and clarkeite (a uranium oxy-hydroxide mineral). On “as received” basis, the bottom pot section scale sample contained an average of 2.59E+00 ± 1.40E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.12E-01 ± 1.48E-02 %, while the wall sample contained an average of 4.03E+00 ± 9.79E-01 wt % total uranium with a U-235 enrichment of 6.03E-01% ± 1.66E-02 wt %. The bottom pot section scale sample analyses results for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 3.16E- 05 ± 5.40E-06 wt %, 3.28E-04 ± 1.45E-05 wt %, and <8.80E-07 wt %, respectively. The evaporator wall scale samples analysis values for Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-241 averages 3.74E-05 ± 6.01E-06 wt %, 4.38E-04 ± 5.08E-05 wt %, and <1.38E-06 wt %, respectively. The Pu-241 analyses results, as presented, are upper limit values. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241. The applicable method for calculation of equivalent U-235 will be determined in the NCSA.

  20. Heat transfer of R-134a in single-tube spray evaporation including lubricant effects and enhanced surface results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A.; Huebsch, W.W.; Pate, M.B.

    1995-08-01

    Single-tube spray evaporation experimental tests were conducted in order to evaluate the average wall heat transfer coefficients for seven different commercially available tubes. Liquid film supply rates were held constant in order to evaluate the effects of the enhancement on shell-side heat transfer under similar conditions. Because the spray evaporation phenomenon is so different from pool boiling, both condensation-type and evaporation-type enhanced surfaces were evaluated. A comparison of the results for all of the tubes showed that the enhanced condensation surfaces performed better than the enhanced boiling surfaces. In addition, the 26-fpi surface tested marginally better than the 40-fpi surface. Small concentrations of a polyol-ester lubricant cause a foaming effect that increases the heat transfer performance. This tendency was seen with both 32-cs and 68-cs polyol-ester oils. The 68-cs lubricant was tested at concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 with the W-40 fpi and Tu-Cii surfaces. Results with this lubricant show the performance continues to increase through the 3% concentration for most of the heat flux range tested At the upper end of the range tested, the 1.0% mass fraction yielded the best performance. The 32-cs lubricant generated trends similar to those of the 68-cs lubricant. Lubricant concentrations of 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% were evaluated with plain, W-40 fpi, and Tu-Cii surfaces. The 2.0% concentration, not the 1.0 %, generated the best performance at the highest heat flux tested. This difference must be attributed to the difference in the lubricant viscosity.

  1. THE ROLE OF CORE MASS IN CONTROLLING EVAPORATION: THE KEPLER RADIUS DISTRIBUTION AND THE KEPLER-36 DENSITY DICHOTOMY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2013-10-10

    We use models of coupled thermal evolution and photo-evaporative mass loss to understand the formation and evolution of the Kepler-36 system. We show that the large contrast in mean planetary density observed by Carter et al. can be explained as a natural consequence of photo-evaporation from planets that formed with similar initial compositions. However, rather than being due to differences in XUV irradiation between the planets, we find that this contrast is due to the difference in the masses of the planets' rock/iron cores and the impact that this has on mass-loss evolution. We explore in detail how our coupled models depend on irradiation, mass, age, composition, and the efficiency of mass loss. Based on fits to large numbers of coupled evolution and mass-loss runs, we provide analytic fits to understand threshold XUV fluxes for significant atmospheric loss, as a function of core mass and mass-loss efficiency. Finally we discuss these results in the context of recent studies of the radius distribution of Kepler candidates. Using our parameter study, we make testable predictions for the frequency of sub-Neptune-sized planets. We show that 1.8-4.0 R{sub ?} planets should become significantly less common on orbits within 10 days and discuss the possibility of a narrow 'occurrence valley' in the radius-flux distribution. Moreover, we describe how photo-evaporation provides a natural explanation for the recent observations of Ciardi et al. that inner planets are preferentially smaller within the systems.

  2. Low-cost thin-film absorber/evaporator for an absorption chiller. Final report, May 1992-April 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowenstein, A.; Sibilia, M.

    1993-04-01

    The feasibility of making the absorber and evaporator of a small lithium-bromide absorption chiller from thin plastic films was studied. Tests were performed to measure (1) pressure limitations for a plastic thin-film heat exchanger, (2) flow pressure-drop characteristics, (3) air permeation rates across the plastic films, and (4) creep characteristics of the plastic films. Initial tests were performed on heat exchangers made of either low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), or a LDPE/HDPE blend. While initial designs for the heat exchanger failed at internal pressures of only 5 to 6 psi, the final design could withstand pressures of 34 psi.

  3. Gas cooler sets the perfect balance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bilder, M.; Aubry, L.; Schwartz, G.; Anderson, R.; Burkhardt, C. ); Wilson, J.; Vallort, J.; Ransick, M.F. )

    1993-05-20

    In July 1991, a 65-ton electric chiller was in need of major repair at NutraSweet's R and D facility outside of Chicago. Instead of automatically repairing or replacing that chiller, NutraSweet engineers Larry Aubry and Gerald Schwartz began to look at other alternatives. What they discovered was that a natural gas absorption chiller was a cost-effective, environmentally safe alternative effective, environmentally safe alternative perfectly suited for their application. The benefits for NutraSweet are straightforward: energy bills have been cut by more than [dollar sign]70,000 annually, existing boiler capacity is better utilized, existing electrical cooling system life is extended, maintenance costs are reduced, and no-ozone-depleting CFCs are utilized by the natural gas chiller. Simple payback on the unit, originally expected to be almost four years, has been reduced to closer to three.

  4. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Thomas F.

    1998-01-01

    A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

  5. Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Want to know more about one of the quickest and lowest cost ways we can reduce our carbon footprint and slow climate change? Read this.

  6. Variably insulating portable heater/cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, T.F.

    1998-09-29

    A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

  7. Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Buying fruits and vegetables at the Las Piedras farmers market is now more comfortable for the thousands of Puerto Ricans who shop there regularly. And, the reason for that comfort — revamped air conditioning — is costing the city less in energy costs than before.

  8. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Radiation protection of personnel and the public is accomplished by establishing a well defined Radiation Protection Organization to ensure that appropriate controls on radioactive materials and radiation sources are implemented and documented. This Requirements Identification Document (RID) applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in executing the mission of the Tank Farms. The physical boundaries within which the requirements of this RID apply are the Single Shell Tank Farms, Double Shell Tank Farms, 242-A Evaporator-Crystallizer, 242-S, T Evaporators, Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF), Purgewater Storage Facility (PWSF), and all interconnecting piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls. Also included is all piping, valves, instrumentation, and controls up to and including the most remote valve under Tank Farms control at any other Hanford Facility having an interconnection with Tank Farms. The boundary of the structures, systems, components, and programs to which this RID applies, is defined by those that are dedicated to and/or under the control of the Tank Farms Operations Department and are specifically implemented at the Tank Farms.

  9. Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-105 for evaporator campaign 97-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, G.L.

    1997-01-20

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-105 (hereafter referred to as AP-105) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the 222-S Laboratory as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4, and Engineering Change Notice, number 635332, Reference 5. This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report as described in Reference 1. This data package is also a follow-up to the 45-Day safety screen results for tank AP-105, Reference 8, which was issued on November 5, 1996, and is attached as Section II to this report. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory's Quality Assurance P1an, References 6 and 7. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation.

  10. Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-09-01

    The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

  11. Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Vurpillot, F.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2014-03-26

    Metal-dielectric composite materials, specifically metal nanoparticles supported on or embedded in metal oxides, are widely used in catalysis. The accurate optimization of such nanostructures warrants the need for detailed three-dimensional characterization. Atom probe tomography is uniquely capable of generating sub-nanometer structural and compositional data with part-per-million mass sensitivity, but there are reconstruction artifacts for composites containing materials with strongly differing fields of evaporation, as for oxide-supported metal nanoparticles. By correlating atom probe tomography with scanning transmission electron microscopy for Au nanoparticles embedded in an MgO support, deviations from an ideal topography during evaporation are demonstrated directly, and correlated with compositional errors in the reconstructed data. Finite element simulations of the field evaporation process confirm that protruding Au nanoparticles will evolve on the tip surface, and that evaporation field variations lead to an inaccurate assessment of the local composition, effectively lowering the spatial resolution of the final reconstructed dataset. Cross-correlating the experimental data with simulations results in a more detailed understanding of local evaporation aberrations during APT analysis of metal-oxide composites, paving the way towards a more accurate three-dimensional characterization of this technologically important class of materials.

  12. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 m electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.5710{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  13. Hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the SAES St707 non-evaporable getter at various temperatures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Irving; Mills, Bernice E.

    2010-08-01

    A prototype of a tritium thermoelectric generator (TTG) is currently being developed at Sandia. In the TTG, a vacuum jacket reduces the amount of heat lost from the high temperature source via convection. However, outgassing presents challenges to maintaining a vacuum for many years. Getters are chemically active substances that scavenge residual gases in a vacuum system. In order to maintain the vacuum jacket at approximately 1.0 x 10{sup -4} torr for decades, nonevaporable getters that can operate from -55 C to 60 C are going to be used. This paper focuses on the hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the St707{trademark} non-evaporable getter by SAES. Using a getter testing manifold, we have carried out experiments to test these characteristics of the getter over the temperature range of -77 C to 60 C. The results from this study can be used to size the getter appropriately.

  14. Dynamical Dipole Mode in Heavy-Ion Fusion-Evaporation and Fission Reactions in the {sup 192}Pb Mass Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silvestri, R.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Martin, B.; Sandoli, M.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Parascandolo, C.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Maiolino, C.; Santonocito, D.; Baran, V.; De Filippo, E.; Di Toro, M.; Rizzo, C.

    2011-10-28

    The prompt {gamma}-ray emission related with the dynamical dipole mode decay was investigated in the {sup 192}Pb mass region by means of the {sup 40}Ca+{sup 152}Sm and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 144}Sm fusion-evaporation and fission reactions at E{sub lab} = 11 and 10.1 MeV/nucleon, respectively. The two reactions populate, through entrance channel having different charge asymmetries, the {sup 192}Pb compound nucleus at an excitation energy of 236 MeV with identical spin distribution. Preliminary results of this experiment show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in collisions involving heavier mass reaction partners than those studied previously. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the prompt dipole {gamma} radiation could be of interest for the synthesis of super-heavy elements through ''hot'' fusion reactions.

  15. Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Final report, August 1992--August 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boysen, J.E.; Walker, K.L.; Mefford, J.L.; Kirsch, J.R.; Harju, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    The use of freeze-crystallization is becoming increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year round in regions where subfreezing temperatures seasonally occur. The climates typical of Colorado`s San Juan Basin and eastern slope, as well as the oil and gas producing regions of Wyoming, are well suited for application of these processes in combination. Specifically, the objectives of this research are related to the development of a commercially-economic FTE (freeze-thaw/evaporation) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and natural gas. The research required for development of this process consists of three tasks: (1) a literature survey and process modeling and economic analysis; (2) laboratory-scale process evaluation; and (3) field demonstration of the process. Results of research conducted for the completion of these three tasks indicate that produced water treatment and disposal costs for commercial application of the process, would be in the range of $0.20 to $0.30/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region. FTE field demonstration results from northwestern New Mexico during the winter of 1995--96 indicate significant and simultaneous removal of salts, metals, and organics from produced water. Despite the unusually warm winter, process yields demonstrate disposal volume reductions on the order of 80% and confirm the potential for economic production of water suitable for various beneficial uses. The total dissolved solids concentrations of the FTE demonstration streams were 11,600 mg/L (feed), 56,900 mg/L (brine), and 940 mg/L (ice melt).

  16. Method for producing evaporation inhibiting coating for protection of silicon--germanium and silicon--molybdenum alloys at high temperatures in vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chao, P.J.

    1974-01-01

    A method is given for protecting Si--Ge and Si-- Mo alloys for use in thermocouples. The alloys are coated with silicon to inhibit the evaporation of the alloys at high tempenatures in a vacuum. Specific means and methods are provided. (5 fig) (Official Gazette)

  17. Dependence of Recycling and Edge Profiles on Lithium Evaporation in High Triangularity, High Performance NSTX H-mode Discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maingi, R; Osborne, T H; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boyle, D P; Canik, J M; Dialla, A; Kaita, R; Kaye, S M; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Sabbagh, S A; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, the effects of a pre-discharge lithium evaporation scan on highly shaped discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are documented. Lithium wall conditioning ('dose') was routinely applied onto graphite plasma facing components between discharges in NSTX, partly to reduce recycling. Reduced D[sub]α emission from the lower and upper divertor and center stack was observed, as well as reduced midplane neutral pressure; the magnitude of reduction increased with the pre-discharge lithium dose. Improved energy confinement, both raw τ[sub]E and H-factor normalized to scalings, with increasing lithium dose was also observed. At the highest doses, we also observed elimination of edge-localized modes. The midplane edge plasma profiles were dramatically altered, comparable to lithium dose scans at lower shaping, where the strike point was farther from the lithium deposition centroid. This indicates that the benefits of lithium conditioning should apply to the highly shaped plasmas planned in NSTX-U.

  18. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurokawa, H.; Nakamoto, T.

    2014-03-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (? 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  19. Effect of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance of R-134a and R-22 in tube bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moeykens, S.A.; Pate, M.B.

    1996-11-01

    This study evaluates the effects of lubricant on spray evaporation heat transfer performance. Tests were conducted with refrigerant R-134a and triangular-pitch tube bundles made from enhanced-condensation, enhanced-boiling, low-finned, and plain-surface tubes. A 340-SUS polyol-ester (POE) oil was used for the R-134a testing because this lubricant is being integrated into industry for use with this refrigerant. Refrigerant was sprayed onto the tube bundles with low-pressure-drop, wide-angle nozzles located directly above the bundle. Collector testing was conducted with both R-134a and R-22 to determine the percentage of refrigerant contacting the tue bundle. It was found that small concentrations of the polyol-ester lubricant yielded significant improvement in the heat transfer performance of R-134a. The shell-side heat transfer coefficient was more dependent on lubricant concentration than on film-feed supply rate within the range of the respective parameters evaluated in this study. As expected, pure R-22 results show higher heat transfer coefficients than those obtained with pure R-134a at the same saturation temperature of 2.0 C (35.6 F).

  20. Process for separating dissolved solids from a liquid using an anti-solvent and multiple effect evaporators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Edward J.; Jody, Bassam J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    1994-01-01

    A process and system for treating aluminum salt cake containing water soluble halide salts by contacting the salt cake with water to dissolve water soluble halide salts forming a saturated brine solution. Transporting a portion of about 25% of the saturated brine solution to a reactor and introducing into the saturated brine solution at least an equal volume of a water-miscible low-boiling organic material such as acetone to precipitate a portion of the dissolved halide salts forming a three-phase mixture of an aqueous-organic-salt solution phase and a precipitated salt phase and an organic rich phase. The precipitated salt phase is separated from the other phases and the organic rich phase is recycled to the reactor. The remainder of the saturated brine solution is sent to a multiple effect evaporator having a plurality of stages with the last stage thereof producing low grade steam which is used to boil off the organic portion of the solution which is recycled.

  1. Process for separating dissolved solids from a liquid using an anti-solvent and multiple effect evaporators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.

    1994-07-19

    A process and system are disclosed for treating aluminum salt cake containing water soluble halide salts by contacting the salt cake with water to dissolve water soluble halide salts forming a saturated brine solution. Transporting a portion of about 25% of the saturated brine solution to a reactor and introducing into the saturated brine solution at least an equal volume of a water-miscible low-boiling organic material such as acetone to precipitate a portion of the dissolved halide salts forming a three-phase mixture of an aqueous-organic-salt solution phase and a precipitated salt phase and an organic rich phase. The precipitated salt phase is separated from the other phases and the organic rich phase is recycled to the reactor. The remainder of the saturated brine solution is sent to a multiple effect evaporator having a plurality of stages with the last stage thereof producing low grade steam which is used to boil off the organic portion of the solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  2. Optimized Bose-Einstein-condensate production in a dipole trap based on a 1070-nm multifrequency laser: Influence of enhanced two-body loss on the evaporation process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauber, T.; Kueber, J.; Wille, O.; Birkl, G.

    2011-10-15

    We present an optimized strategy for the production of tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of {sup 87}Rb in a crossed dipole trap with direct loading from a magneto-optical trap. The dipole trap is created with light of a multifrequency fiber laser with a center wavelength of 1070 nm. Evaporative cooling is performed by ramping down the laser power only. A comparison of the resulting atom number in an almost pure BEC to the initial atom number and the value for the gain in phase space density per atom lost confirm that this straightforward strategy is very efficient. We observe that the temporal characteristics of evaporation sequence are strongly influenced by power-dependent two-body losses resulting from enhanced optical pumping to the higher-energy hyperfine state. We characterize these losses and compare them to results obtained with a single-frequency laser at 1030 nm.

  3. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  4. Radiological dose assessment for the decontaminated concrete removed from 183-H solar evaporation basins at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamboj, S.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1997-01-01

    Potential maximum radiation dose rates over a 1,000-year time horizon were calculated for exposure to the decontaminated concrete removed from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The RESRAD computer code, Version 5.62, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy`s manual for developing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Currently, the concrete is not being used. Four potential exposure scenarios were developed for the land area where the decontaminated concrete will be stored. In Scenario A industrial use of the land is assumed; in Scenario B recreational use of the land is assumed; in Scenario C residential use of the land is assumed; and in Scenario D (a plausible but unlikely land-use scenario), the presence of a subsistence farmer in the immediate vicinity of the land is assumed. For Scenarios A and B, water used for drinking is assumed to be surface water from the Columbia River; for Scenarios C and D, groundwater drawn from a well located at the downgradient edge of the storage area is the only source of water for drinking, irrigation, and raising livestock. Conservative parameters values were used to estimate the radiation doses. The results of the evaluation indicate that the US Department of Energy`s dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for any of the scenarios analyzed. The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, C, and D are 0.75, 0.022, 29, 29 mrem/yr, respectively. An uncertainty analysis was performed to determine which parameters have the greatest impact on the estimated doses. The doses in Scenarios C and D were found to be very sensitive to the magnitude of the irrigation rate.

  5. Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects Kickoff Meeting, September 1 – October 1, 2009

  6. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluate the fouling characteristics in field testing, and remove the uncertainty factors included in the estimated payback period for the H2O2 distillation system.

  7. Effect of argon gas flow rate on properties of film electrodes prepared by thermal vacuum evaporation from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabli, Nordin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Hilal, Hikmat S.; Fujii, Masatoshi

    2014-03-05

    This work describes a new technique to enhance photoresponse of metal chalcogenide-based semiconductor film electrodes deposited by thermal vacuum evaporation under argon gas flow from synthesized Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} sources. SnSe formation with Cu-doped was obtained under higher argon gas flow rate (V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min). Higher value of photoresponse was observed for films deposited under V{sub A} = 25 cm{sup 3}/min which was 9.1%. This finding indicates that Cu atoms inside the SnSe film were important to increase carrier concentrations that promote higher photoresponse.

  8. SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, T.

    2010-10-07

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct. SRNL issued a Task Technical and Quality Assurance (TT&QA) plan [4] in response to the SRR request. The conclusions provided in this report are that no changes need to be made to the SME acceptability process (i.e., no modifications to WSRC-TR-95-00364, Revision 5, are needed) and no changes need to be made to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) itself (i.e. the spreadsheet utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) for acceptability decisions does not require modification) in response to thorium becoming a reportable element for DWPF operations. In addition, the inputs and results for the two test cases requested by WSE for use in confirming the successful activation of thorium as a reportable element for DWPF operations during the processing of SB6 are presented in this report.

  9. Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

    1984-02-01

    During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

  10. Conductance enhancement due to interface magnons in electron-beam evaporated MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with CoFeB free layer deposited at different pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, P.; Yu, G. Q.; Wei, H. X.; Han, X. F. E-mail: xfhan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Li, D. L.; Feng, J. F. E-mail: xfhan@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Kurt, H.; Chen, J. Y.; Coey, J. M. D.

    2014-10-21

    Electron-beam evaporated MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions have been fabricated with the CoFeB free layer deposited at Ar pressure from 1 to 4 mTorr, and their tunneling process has been studied as a function of temperature and bias voltage. By changing the growth pressure, the junction dynamic conductance dI/dV, inelastic electron tunneling spectrum d²I/dV², and tunneling magnetoresistance vary with temperature. Moreover, the low-energy magnon cutoff energy E{sub C} derived from the conductance versus temperature curve agrees with interface magnon energy obtained directly from the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum, which demonstrates that interface magnons are involved in the electron tunneling process, opening an additional conductance channel and thus enhancing the total conductance.

  11. Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rasor, Ned S.; Riley, David R.; Murray, Christopher S.; Geller, Clint B.

    2000-01-01

    A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

  12. Alignment nature of ZnO nanowires grown on polished and nanoscale etched lithium niobate surface through self-seeding thermal evaporation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown directly on LiNbO{sub 3} surface for the first time by thermal evaporation. • Self-alignment of the nanowires due to step bunching of LiNbO{sub 3} surface is observed. • Increased roughness in surface defects promoted well-aligned growth of nanowires. • Well-aligned growth was then replicated in 50 nm deep trenches on the surface. • Study opens novel pathway for patterned growth of ZnO nanowires on LiNbO{sub 3} surface. - Abstract: High aspect ratio catalyst-free ZnO nanowires were directly synthesized on lithium niobate substrate for the first time through thermal evaporation method without the use of a buffer layer or the conventional pre-deposited ZnO seed layer. As-grown ZnO nanowires exhibited a crisscross aligned growth pattern due to step bunching of the polished lithium niobate surface during the nanowire growth process. On the contrary, scratches on the surface and edges of the substrate produced well-aligned ZnO nanowires in these defect regions due to high surface roughness. Thus, the crisscross aligned nature of high aspect ratio nanowire growth on the lithium niobate surface can be changed to well-aligned growth through controlled etching of the surface, which is further verified through reactive-ion etching of lithium niobate. The investigations and discussion in the present work will provide novel pathway for self-seeded patterned growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowires on lithium niobate based micro devices.

  13. The Impact of PM and HC on EGR Cooler Fouling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Data were used to correlate an EGR cooling fouling model developed to test the impact of PM and HC on fouling

  14. Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, G.T.

    1991-04-08

    This report describes an off-gas stack for a melter, furnace or reaction vessel comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes prevents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

  15. Microsoft Word - Ex Parte Memo re Walk-in Coolers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    March 4, 2014 Re Ex Parte Communication On Monday March 3, 2014, a group of energy efficiency advocates had a conference call with representatives of the Department of Energy to ...

  16. Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, George T.

    1992-01-01

    An off-gas stack for a melter comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes pervents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

  17. Integrated hydraulic cooler and return rail in camless cylinder head

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marriott, Craig D.; Neal, Timothy L.; Swain, Jeff L.; Raimao, Miguel A.

    2011-12-13

    An engine assembly may include a cylinder head defining an engine coolant reservoir, a pressurized fluid supply, a valve actuation assembly, and a hydraulic fluid reservoir. The valve actuation assembly may be in fluid communication with the pressurized fluid supply and may include a valve member displaceable by a force applied by the pressurized fluid supply. The hydraulic fluid reservoir may be in fluid communication with the valve actuation assembly and in a heat exchange relation to the engine coolant reservoir.

  18. EGR Catalyst for Cooler Fouling Reduction | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy EFFICIENCY MAINE DIRECT INSTALLS INCREASE UPGRADE PACE Although Maine has one of the United States' highest homeownership rates, more than one-third of the state's residents qualify for low-income programs. In addition, Maine residents in all types of homes typically depend upon heating oil for warmth in the winter, and the price of heating oil rose significantly in recent years. To help residents take advantage of energy savings opportunities, the Efficiency Maine Trust leveraged $30

  19. Isothermal evaporation process simulation using the Pitzer model for the Quinary system LiCl–NaCl–KCl–SrCl2–H2O at 298.15 K

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Meng, Lingzong; Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw S.; Deng, Tianlong; Guo, Yafei; Li, Dan

    2015-08-05

    In this study, the Pitzer thermodynamic model for solid-liquid equilibria in the quinary system LiCl–NaCl–KCl–SrCl2–H2O at 298.15 K was constructed by selecting the proper parameters for the subsystems in the literature. The solubility data of the systems NaCl–SrCl2–H2O, KCl–SrCl2–H2O, LiCl–SrCl2–H2O, and NaCl–KCl–SrCl2–H2O were used to evaluate the model. Good agreement between the experimental and calculated solubilities shows that the model is reliable. The Pitzer model for the quinary system at 298.15 K was then used to calculate the component solubilities and conduct computer simulation of isothermal evaporation of the mother liquor for the oilfield brine from Nanyishan district in themore » Qaidam Basin. The evaporation-crystallization path and sequence of salt precipitation, change in concentration and precipitation of lithium, sodium, potassium, and strontium, and water activities during the evaporation process were demonstrated. The salts precipitated from the brine in the order : KCl, NaCl, SrCl2∙6H2O, SrCl2∙2H2O, and LiCl∙H2O. The entire evaporation process may be divided into six stages. In each stage the variation trends for the relationships between ion concentrations or water activities and the evaporation ratio are different. This result of the simulation of brines can be used as a theoretical reference for comprehensive exploitation and utilization of this type of brine resources.« less

  20. Structural and optical properties of Sn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub x}O{sub 2} thin films prepared by flash evaporation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuppan, M. Kaleemulla, S. Rao, N. Madhusudhana Krishna, N. Sai Begam, M. Rigana

    2014-04-24

    Sn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub X}O{sub 2} (x = 0, 0.05) thin films were prepared on glass substrate using the flash evaporation technique. The samples were annealed at 773 K for 2 hrs in air atmosphere. A systematic study was carried out on the structural and optical properties of the as deposited and annealed thin films. From the X-ray diffraction analysis it was found that the Sn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub X}O{sub 2} films deposited at 623 K were amorphous in nature and the Sn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub X}O{sub 2} films annealed at 773 K exhibited the tetragonal structure of the SnO{sub 2}. The optical band gap of the SnO{sub 2} thin films was found to be as 3.17 eV whereas the optical band gap of the Sn{sub 1−x}Fe{sub X}O{sub 2} films was found to be as 3.01 eV after air annealing.

  1. The development of a room temperature electron cyclotron resonance ion source (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) with evaporative cooling technology at Institute of Modern Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, W. Sun, L. T.; Qian, C.; Feng, Y. C.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Ma, B. H.; Zhao, H. W.; Guo, J. W.; Fang, X.; Yang, Y.; Xiong, B.; Guo, S. Q.; Ruan, L.

    2015-04-15

    LECR4 (Lanzhou electron cyclotron resonance ion source No. 4) has been successfully constructed at IMP and has also been connected with the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) and Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) systems. These source magnet coils are cooled through evaporative cooling technology, which is the first attempt with an ECR ion source in the world. The maximum mirror field is 2.5 T (with iron plug) and the effective plasma chamber volume is 1.2 l. It was designed to be operated at 18 GHz and aimed to produce intense multiple charge state heavy ion beams for the linear injector project SSC-Linac at IMP. In February 2014, the first analyzed beam at 18 GHz was extracted. During about three months commissioning, some outstanding results have been achieved, such as 1.97 emA of O{sup 6+}, 1.7 emA of Ar{sup 8+}, 1.07 emA of Ar{sup 9+}, and 118 euA of Bi{sup 28+}. The source has also successfully delivered O{sup 5+} and Ar{sup 8+} ion beams for RFQ commissioning in April 2014. This paper will give a brief overview of the design of LECR4. Then, the latest results of this source at 18 GHz will be presented.

  2. Improvement in Thermal-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) using Total Flash Evaporation (TFE) method for lanthanides isotope ratio measurements in transmutation targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mialle, S.; Gourgiotis, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Isnard, H.

    2011-07-01

    The experiments involved in the PHENIX french nuclear reactor to obtain precise and accurate data on the total capture cross sections of the heavy isotopes and fission products require isotopic ratios measurements with uncertainty of a few per mil. These accurate isotopic ratio measurements are performed with mass spectrometer equipped with multi-collector system. The major difficulty for the analyses of these actinides and fission products is the low quantity of the initial powder enclosed in steel container (3 to 5 mg) and the very low quantities of products formed (several {mu}g) after irradiation. Specific analytical developments are performed by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) to be able to analyse several nanograms of elements with this technique. A specific method of acquisition named Total Flash Evaporation was adapted in this study in the case of lanthanide measurements for quantity deposited on the filament in the order of 2 ng and applied on irradiated fuel. To validate the analytical approach and discuss about the accuracy of the data, the isotopic ratios obtained by TIMS are compared with other mass spectrometric techniques such as Multiple-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). (authors)

  3. A mixture-energy-consistent six-equation two-phase numerical model for fluids with interfaces, cavitation and evaporation waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pelanti, Marica; Shyue, Keh-Ming

    2014-02-15

    We model liquidgas flows with cavitation by a variant of the six-equation single-velocity two-phase model with stiff mechanical relaxation of SaurelPetitpasBerry (Saurel et al., 2009) [9]. In our approach we employ phasic total energy equations instead of the phasic internal energy equations of the classical six-equation system. This alternative formulation allows us to easily design a simple numerical method that ensures consistency with mixture total energy conservation at the discrete level and agreement of the relaxed pressure at equilibrium with the correct mixture equation of state. Temperature and Gibbs free energy exchange terms are included in the equations as relaxation terms to model heat and mass transfer and hence liquidvapor transition. The algorithm uses a high-resolution wave propagation method for the numerical approximation of the homogeneous hyperbolic portion of the model. In two dimensions a fully-discretized scheme based on a hybrid HLLC/Roe Riemann solver is employed. Thermo-chemical terms are handled numerically via a stiff relaxation solver that forces thermodynamic equilibrium at liquidvapor interfaces under metastable conditions. We present numerical results of sample tests in one and two space dimensions that show the ability of the proposed model to describe cavitation mechanisms and evaporation wave dynamics.

  4. Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the footprint required for an air...

  5. 242-A Evaporator - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    300 Area 324 Building 325 Building 400 AreaFast Flux Test Facility 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Grounds 700 Area B Plant B Reactor C Reactor Canister Storage Building and Interim ...

  6. Application of 'Six Sigma{sup TM}' and 'Design of Experiment' for Cementation - Recipe Development for Evaporator Concentrate for NPP Ling AO, Phase II (China) - 12555

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehrmann, Henning [Westinghouse Electric Germany GmbH (Germany); Perdue, Robert [Westinghouse Electric Company (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Cementation of radioactive waste is a common technology. The waste is mixed with cement and water and forms a stable, solid block. The physical properties like compression strength or low leach ability depends strongly on the cement recipe. Due to the fact that this waste cement mixture has to fulfill special requirements, a recipe development is necessary. The Six Sigma{sup TM}' DMAIC methodology, together with the Design of experiment (DoE) approach, was employed to optimize the process of a recipe development for cementation at the Ling Ao nuclear power plant (NPP) in China. The DMAIC offers a structured, systematical and traceable process to derive test parameters. The DoE test plans and statistical analysis is efficient regarding the amount of test runs and the benefit gain by getting a transfer function. A transfer function enables simulation which is useful to optimize the later process and being responsive to changes. The DoE method was successfully applied for developing a cementation recipe for both evaporator concentrate and resin waste in the plant. The key input parameters were determined, evaluated and the control of these parameters were included into the design. The applied Six Sigma{sup TM} tools can help to organize the thinking during the engineering process. Data are organized and clearly presented. Various variables can be limited to the most important ones. The Six Sigma{sup TM} tools help to make the thinking and decision process trace able. The tools can help to make data driven decisions (e.g. C and E Matrix). But the tools are not the only golden way. Results from scoring tools like the C and E Matrix need close review before using them. The DoE is an effective tool for generating test plans. DoE can be used with a small number of tests runs, but gives a valuable result from an engineering perspective in terms of a transfer function. The DoE prediction results, however, are only valid in the tested area. So a careful selection of input parameter and their limits for setting up a DoE is very important. An extrapolation of results is not recommended because the results are not reliable out of the tested area. (authors)

  7. One-step method for the production of nanofluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje; Golubovic, Mihajlo; Hull, John R.; Choi, Stephen U. S.

    2010-05-18

    A one step method and system for producing nanofluids by a particle-source evaporation and deposition of the evaporant into a base fluid. The base fluid such (i.e. ethylene glycol) is placed in a rotating cylindrical drum having an adjustable heater-boat-evaporator and heat exchanger-cooler apparatus. As the drum rotates, a thin liquid layer is formed on the inside surface of the drum. A heater-boat-evaporator having an evaporant material (particle-source) placed within its boat evaporator is adjustably positioned near a portion of the rotating thin liquid layer, the evaporant material being heated thereby evaporating a portion of the evaporant material, the evaporated material absorbed by the liquid film to form nanofluid.

  8. In-tube heat transfer and pressure drop of R-134a and ester lubricant mixtures in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube. Part 1: Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1994-12-31

    In-tube heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation are reported for mixtures of refrigerant R-134a and a penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The ester lubricant was tested at viscosities of 169 SUS and 369 SUS over a lubricant concentration range of 0% to 5% in both a smooth tube and a micro-fine tube. The average saturation temperature used was 1 C (33.8 F). Measurements were taken for the refrigerant-lubricant mixture over a mass flux range of 85 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s (62,700 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h) to 375 kg/m{sup 2}{center_dot}s (276,640 lb/ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h) in test tubes with an outer diameter of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). Heat transfer coefficients during evaporation increased at low concentrations of the 169-SUS ester lubricant and then dropped off at high lubricant concentrations in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube. The higher viscosity 369-SUS lubricant decreased the heat transfer coefficients in both tubes over the range of lubricant concentrations tested. Pressure drops during evaporation increased in both the smooth tube and the micro-fin tube with the addition of ester lubricant of either viscosity. The heat transfer coefficients for the micro-fin tube were 100% to 50% higher than those for the smooth tube, with the higher values occurring at low mass fluxes. Pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 10% to 20% higher than those in the smooth tube.

  9. One-step method for the production of nanofluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje; Golubovic, Mihajlo; Hull, John; Choi, Stephen U. S.

    2011-08-16

    A one step method and system for producing nanofluids by a nanoparticle-source evaporation and deposition of the evaporant into a base fluid. The base fluid such oil or ethylene glycol is placed in a rotating cylindrical drum having an adjustable heater-boat-evaporator and heat exchanger-cooler apparatus. As the drum rotates, a thin liquid layer is formed on the inside surface of the drum. An insulated heater-boat-evaporator having an evaporant material (nanoparticle-source) placed within its boat evaporator is adjustably positioned near a portion of the rotating thin liquid layer, the evaporant material being heated thereby evaporating a portion of the evaporant material and forming nanoparticles, the nanoparticles absorbed by the liquid film to form nanofluid.

  10. ARM - Lesson Plans: Sunlight and Evaporation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox ...

  11. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way — with heat.

  12. CX-100553 Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Combined Water Heater, Dehumidifier, and Evaporative Cooler (WHDC) Award Number: DE-EE0006718 CX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6 Buildings Technologies Office Date: 08/05/2014 Location(s): FL Office(s): Golden Field Office

  13. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    rulemaking described below. Therefore, section (2) specifies that the policy will become effective if the Department of Energy receives recommended standards from ASRAC within a...

  14. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This policy is not currently in effect. If the Department of Energy receives recommended standards from the Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Advisory Committee within a specified time frame, DOE will not seek civil penalties or injunctive relief concerning violations of the four energy conservation standards applicable to dedicated condensing refrigeration systems operating at medium temperatures that are promulgated at 10 C.F.R. 431.306(e).

  15. Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Pan, Heng; Ban-Weiss, George; Rosado, Pablo; Paolini, Riccardo; Akbari, Hashem

    2011-05-11

    Abstract: Vehicle thermal loads and air conditioning ancillary loads are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar energy. The adoption of solar reflective coatings for opaque surfaces of the vehicle shell can decrease the ?soak? temperature of the air in the cabin of a vehicle parked in the sun, potentially reducing the vehicle?s ancillary load and improving its fuel economy by permitting the use of a smaller air conditioner. An experimental comparison of otherwise identical black and silver compact sedans indicated that increasing the solar reflectance (?) of the car?s shell by about 0.5 lowered the soak temperature of breath-level air by about 5?6?C. Thermal analysis predicts that the air conditioning capacity required to cool the cabin air in the silver car to 25?C within 30min is 13percent less than that required in the black car. Assuming that potential reductions in AC capacity and engine ancillary load scale linearly with increase in shell solar reflectance, ADVISOR simulations of the SC03 driving cycle indicate that substituting a typical cool-colored shell (?=0.35) for a black shell (?=0.05) would reduce fuel consumption by 0.12L per 100km (1.1percent), increasing fuel economy by 0.10kmL?1 [0.24mpg] (1.1percent). It would also decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 2.7gkm?1 (1.1percent), nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions by 5.4mgkm?1 (0.44percent), carbon monoxide (CO) emissions by 17mgkm?1 (0.43percent), and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions by 4.1mgkm?1 (0.37percent). Selecting a typical white or silver shell (?=0.60) instead of a black shell would lower fuel consumption by 0.21L per 100km (1.9percent), raising fuel economy by 0.19kmL?1 [0.44mpg] (2.0percent). It would also decrease CO2 emissions by 4.9gkm?1 (1.9percent), NOx emissions by 9.9mgkm?1 (0.80percent), CO emissions by 31mgkm?1 (0.79percent), and HC emissions by 7.4mgkm?1 (0.67percent). Our simulations may underestimate emission reductions because emissions in standardized driving cycles are typically lower than those in real-world driving.

  16. EECBG Success Story: Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Harford County Board of Education in Maryland received $500,000, as part of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG), to install a new ENERGY STAR-rated roof.Learn more.

  17. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute filed a petition for review ... applicable to dedicated condensing refrigeration systems operating at medium ...

  18. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of the four energy conservation standards applicable to dedicated condensing refrigeration systems operating at medium temperatures that are promulgated at 10 C.F.R. 431.306(e). ...

  19. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Issued: August 14, 2015 Updated: August 31, 2015 NOTE: This policy is not currently in effect. As noted below, this policy will become effective only if the requirement in section (2) below is satisfied. The Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ASRAC) established a working group to engage in negotiations concerning the rulemaking contemplated in the settlement agreement described below, and the first working group meeting was held on August 27, 2015. Under section (2), this

  20. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Issued: August 14, 2015 Updated: February 1, 2016 In an exercise of its enforcement discretion, DOE will not seek civil penalties or injunctive relief concerning violations of the four energy conservation standards applicable to dedicated condensing refrigeration systems operating at medium temperatures that are promulgated at 10 C.F.R. § 431.306(e), provided that the violations are related to the distribution in commerce of WICF refrigeration system components manufactured prior to January 1,

  1. Harmonic Resonant Kicker Design for the MEIC Electron Circular Cooler Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Yulu; Wang, Haipeng; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2015-09-01

    Bunched-beam electron cooling of the high-energy ion beam emittance may be a crucial technology for the proposed Medium energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) to achieve its design luminosity. A critical component is a fast kicker system in the Circular Ring (CR) that periodically switches electron bunches in and out of the ring from and to the driver Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). Compared to a conventional strip-line type kicker, a quarter wave resonator (QWR) based deflecting structure has a much higher shunt impedance and so requires much less RF power. The cavity has been designed to resonate simultaneously at many harmonic modes that are integer multiples of the fundamental mode. In this way the resulting waveform will kick only a subset of the circulating bunches. In this paper, analytical shunt impedance optimization, the electromagnetic simulations of this type of cavity, as well as tuner and coupler concept designs to produce 5 odd and 5 even harmonics of 47.63MHz will be presented, in order to kick every 10th bunch in a 476.3 MHz bunch train.

  2. Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in Cooler/Walk-in...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issued: August 14, 2015 Updated: February 1, 2016 In an exercise of its enforcement discretion, DOE will not seek civil penalties or injunctive relief concerning violations of the ...

  3. An inlet air washer/chiller system for combined cycle planet repowering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, U.; Soroka, G. )

    1989-01-01

    A conditioning method to achieve increased output at any relative humidity condition is an air washer and absorption chiller arrangement. At elevated temperatures and low humidity, the air washer operates as an evaporative cooler without the chiller in operation. In this mode, the air washer will give similar results as a media type evaporative cooler at a fraction of the pressure loss. In the air washer plus chiller operating mode the chiller maintains cooling effectiveness of the air washer during periods of high relative humidity. This makes such a system very appropriate anywhere relative humidity is high. Many combined cycle plants utilize supplemental firing of the heat recovery steam generators to offset the loss of gas turbine power at high ambient temperatures. This paper shows that in contrast to supplementary firing, the combination air washer/chiller system can generate power more efficiently and at lower cost.

  4. Best Management Practice #13: Other Water-Intensive Processes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Best Management Practice #13: Other Water-Intensive Processes Many water-intensive processes beyond the Federal Energy Management Program's best management practices (BMPs) for water efficiency are in place at federal facilities, including laundry equipment, vehicle wash systems, evaporative coolers, and water softening systems. When assessing facility water use, it is important to identify and analyze all water-intensive processes for potential

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Swenson Evaporator Co -...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    IL.23-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.23-1 Site Operations: Scheduled a raffinate spray drying test that was later cancelled. IL.23-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication...

  6. Flow and evaporation in single micrometer and nanometer scale pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velasco, A. E.; Yang, C.; Siwy, Z. S.; Taborek, P.; Toimil-Molares, M. E.

    2014-07-21

    We report measurements of pressure driven flow of fluids entering vacuum through a single pipe of micrometer or nanometer scale diameter. Nanopores were fabricated by etching a single ion track in polymer or mica foils. A calibrated mass spectrometer was used to measure the flow rates of nitrogen and helium through pipes with diameter ranging from 10??m to 31?nm. The flow of gaseous and liquid nitrogen was studied near 77?K, while the flow of helium was studied from the lambda point (2.18?K) to above the critical point (5.2?K). Flow rates were controlled by changing the pressure drop across the pipe in the range 031 atm. When the pressure in the pipe reached the saturated vapor pressure, an abrupt flow transition was observed. A simple viscous flow model is used to determine the position of the liquid/vapor interface in the pipe. The observed mass flow rates are consistent with no slip boundary conditions.

  7. Desiccant-Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Woods and E. Kozubal

    2012-10-01

    Presented at the Second International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE2012); Boulder, Colorado; August 1-4-, 2012

  8. Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution ...

  9. Heat exchanger with intermediate evaporating and condensing fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraas, Arthur P.

    1978-01-01

    A shell and tube-type heat exchanger, such as a liquid sodium-operated steam generator for use in nuclear reactors, comprises a shell containing a primary fluid tube bundle, a secondary fluid tube bundle at higher elevation, and an intermediate fluid vaporizing at the surface of the primary fluid tubes and condensing at the surface of the secondary fluid tubes.

  10. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Herrmann, L.; Kozubal, E.; Geiger, J.; Eastment, M.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The project objective was to demonstrate the capabilities of the high-performance multi-staged IEC technology and its ability to enhance energy efficiency and interior comfort in dry climates, while substantially reducing electric-peak demand. The project was designed to test 24 cooling units in five commercial building types at Fort Carson Army Base in Colorado Springs, Colorado.

  11. Fuel cell water transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  12. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aerosol, allowing carefully controlled and reproducible conditions. Benchmarking with humidified ammonium sulfate aerosol indicated that the optical measurements...

  13. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer HTDMA : Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem...

  14. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  15. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors and Walk-in Coolers and Freezers to Save on Energy Bills and Reduce Carbon Pollution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These standards combined will help reduce harmful carbon pollution by up to 158 million metric tons – equivalent to the annual electricity use of more than 21 million homes – and save businesses $26 billion on utility bills through 2030.

  16. Seizure control with thermal energy? Modeling of heat diffusivity in brain tissue and computer-based design of a prototype mini-cooler.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osario, I.; Chang, F.-C.; Gopalsami, N.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Univ. of Kansas

    2009-10-01

    Automated seizure blockage is a top priority in epileptology. Lowering nervous tissue temperature below a certain level suppresses abnormal neuronal activity, an approach with certain advantages over electrical stimulation, the preferred investigational therapy for pharmacoresistant seizures. A computer model was developed to identify an efficient probe design and parameters that would allow cooling of brain tissue by no less than 21 C in 30 s, maximum. The Pennes equation and the computer code ABAQUS were used to investigate the spatiotemporal behavior of heat diffusivity in brain tissue. Arrays of distributed probes deliver sufficient thermal energy to decrease, inhomogeneously, brain tissue temperature from 37 to 20 C in 30 s and from 37 to 15 C in 60 s. Tissue disruption/loss caused by insertion of this probe is considerably less than that caused by ablative surgery. This model may be applied for the design and development of cooling devices for seizure control.

  17. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  18. Analysis of climatic conditions and preliminary assessment of alternative cooling strategies for houses in California transition climate zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Y.J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-07-01

    This is a preliminary scoping study done as part of the {open_quotes}Alternatives to Compressive Cooling in California Transition Climates{close_quotes} project, which has the goal of demonstrating that houses in the transitional areas between the coast and the Central Valley of California do not require air-conditioning if they are properly designed and operated. The first part of this report analyzes the climate conditions within the transitional areas, with emphasis on design rather than seasonal conditions. Transitional climates are found to be milder but more variable than those further inland. The design temperatures under the most stringent design criteria, e.g. 0.1 % annual, are similar to those in the Valley, but significantly lower under more relaxed design criteria, e.g., 2% annual frequency. Transition climates also have large day-night temperature swings, indicating significant potential for night cooling, and wet-bulb depressions in excess of 25 F, indicating good potential for evaporative cooling. The second part of the report is a preliminary assessment using DOE-2 computer simulations of the effectiveness of alternative cooling and control strategies in improving indoor comfort conditions in two conventional Title-24 houses modeled in various transition climate locations. The cooling measures studied include increased insulation, light colors, low-emissivity glazing, window overhangs, and exposed floor slab. The control strategies studied include natural and mechanical ventilation, and direct and two-stage evaporative cooling. The results indicate the cooling strategies all have limited effectiveness, and need to be combined to produce significant improvements in indoor comfort. Natural and forced ventilation provide similar improvements in indoor conditions, but during peak cooling periods, these will still be above the comfort zone. Two-stage evaporative coolers can maintain indoor comfort at all hours, but not so direct evaporative coolers.

  19. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Derek Hageman (23) Manvendra Dubey (23) Scott Smith (8) Robert Bullard (5) Alice Cialella ... ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; ...

  20. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cynthia Salwen (1) Gunnar Senum (1) Janek Uin (1) Scott Smith (1) Stephen Springston (1) ... ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; ...

  1. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer CPC : Condensation Particle Counter HTDMA : Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)...

  2. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Manvendra Dubey (23) Thomas Watson (23) Scott Smith (8) Robert Bullard (5) Alice Cialella ... ARM: AOS Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer Scott Smith ; Cynthia Salwen ; ...

  3. Method of low pressure and/or evaporative drying of aerogel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1995-05-30

    A process is described whereby Resorcinol/Formaldehyde (RF) aerogel having a density of about 0.4--1.2 g/cc can be manufactured using a simple air drying procedure. This process is inherently simpler, quicker, and less expensive than the more conventional supercritical or subcritical CO{sub 2} extraction procedures. RF aerogels can be used as produced, such as in insulation applications, or pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogels with a density of about 0.9 g/cc for use in applications such as batteries, supercapacitors, etc.

  4. Method of low pressure and/or evaporative drying of aerogel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    A process whereby Resorcinol/Formaldehyde (RF) aerogel having a density of about 0.4-1.2 g/cc can be manufactured using a simple air drying procedure. This process is inherently simpler, quicker, and less expensive than the more conventional supercritical or subcritical CO.sub.2 extraction procedures. RF aerogels can be used as produced, such as in insulation applications, or pyrolyzed to form carbon aerogels with a density of about 0.9 g/cc for use in applications such as batteries, supercapacitors, etc.

  5. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A Evaporator facility. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1993-03-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1**. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements.

  6. Spin-pump-induced spin transport in a thermally evaporated pentacene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    558-8585 (Japan) Graduate School of Science, Osaka City ... LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency ... Email address: Content: Close Send Cite: MLA Format Close ...

  7. Evaporation monitoring and composition control of alloy systems with widely differing vapor pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anklam, T.M.; Berzins, L.V.; Braun, D.G.; Haynam, C.; McClelland, M.A.; Meier, T.

    1994-10-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing sensors and controls to improve and extend electron beam materials processing technology to alloy systems with constituents of widely varying vapor pressure. The approach under development involves using tunable lasers to measure the density and composition of the vapor plume. A laser based vaporizer control system for vaporization of a uranium-iron alloy has been previously demonstrated in multi-hundred hour, high rate vaporization experiments at LLNL. This paper reviews the design and performance of the uranium vaporization sensor and control system and discusses the extension of the technology to monitoring of uranium vaporization. Data is presented from an experiment in which titanium wire was fed into a molten niobium pool. Laser data is compared to deposited film composition and film cross sections. Finally, the potential for using this technique for composition control in melting applications is discussed.

  8. EMRTC Report RF 10-13: Application to LANL Evaporator Nitrate...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and recommendation. Conclusions: 1. Nitrate salts not yet remediated having no free liquid should be mixed with at least 1.2 volumes of Kitty LitterZeolite clay per...

  9. High level waste storage tanks 242-A evaporator standards/requirement identification document

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-01-01

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RIDS) for the subject facility, represents the necessary and sufficient requirements to provide an adequate level of protection of the worker, public health and safety, and the environment. It lists those source documents from which requirements were extracted, and those requirements documents considered, but from which no requirements where taken. Documents considered as source documents included State and Federal Regulations, DOE Orders, and DOE Standards

  10. High level waste storage tanks 242-A evaporator S/RID phase II assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-27

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase 2 Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of a Performance Assessment to determine whether procedures containing S/RID requirements are fully implemented by field personnel in the field. It contains a summary report and three attachments; an assessment schedule, performance objectives, and assessments for selected functional areas.

  11. Treatment of Evaporator “Bottoms”, 485-REC-R00

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supporting Technical Document for the Radiological Release Accident Investigation Report (Phase II Report)

  12. New flow boiling heat transfer model for hydrocarbons evaporating inside horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G. F.; Gong, M. Q.; Wu, J. F.; Zou, X.; Wang, S.

    2014-01-29

    Hydrocarbons have high thermodynamic performances, belong to the group of natural refrigerants, and they are the main components in mixture Joule-Thomson low temperature refrigerators (MJTR). New evaluations of nucleate boiling contribution and nucleate boiling suppression factor in flow boiling heat transfer have been proposed for hydrocarbons. A forced convection heat transfer enhancement factor correlation incorporating liquid velocity has also been proposed. In addition, the comparisons of the new model and other classic models were made to evaluate its accuracy in heat transfer prediction.

  13. EVAPORATION OF GRAIN-SURFACE SPECIES BY SHOCK WAVES IN A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aota, Takuhiro; Aikawa, Yuri; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of young protostellar objects detected warm SO emission, which could be associated with a forming protostellar disk. In order to investigate if such warm gas can be produced by accretion shock onto the forming disk, we calculate the sputtering and thermal desorption of various grain-surface species in one-dimensional shock waves. We find that thermal desorption is much more efficient than the sputtering in the post-shock region. While H{sub 2}O can be thermally desorbed, if the accretion velocity is larger than 8 km s{sup 1} with the pre-shock gas number density of 10{sup 9} cm{sup 3}, SO is desorbed if the accretion velocity ?2 km s{sup 1} and ?4 km s{sup 1}, with the pre-shock density of 10{sup 9} cm{sup 3} and 10{sup 8} cm{sup 3}, respectively. We also find that the column density of hydrogen nuclei in warm post-shock gas is N {sub warm} ? 10{sup 21} cm{sup 2}.

  14. Geohydrologic characterization of the area surrounding the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liikala, T.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Aimo, N.J.; Bates, D.J.; Gilmore, T.J.; Jensen, E.J.; Last, G.V.; Oberlander, P.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Oster, K.R.; Roome, L.R.; Simpson, J.C.; Teel, S.S.; Westergard, E.J.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to achieve regulatory compliance with the applicable ground-water monitoring requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC). An assessment-level compliance monitoring project was established for the 183-H Basins because hazardous waste constituents were known to have entered the ground water beneath the facility. Three phases were defined for this project, with work being concentrated in five areas: geology, hydrology, ground-water monitoring, geochemistry, and ground-water modeling. These characterization activities have resulted in the definition of principal lithologic and hydrostratigraphic units. Ground-water monitoring results indicated a contamination peak, which occurred between April and August 1986. Further monitoring has shown that nitrate, sodium, gross alpha, and gross beta are the clearest indicators of ground-water contamination attributable to the 183-H Basins. In addition, the concentrations of these contaminants are affected by variations in Columbia River stage. Future studies will focus on continued ground-water monitoring throughout the closure and post-closure periods for the 183-H Basins, sampling of the Columbia River and nearby ground-water springs, and soil sampling adjacent to the facility. 45 refs., 90 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Evaporative capillary instability for flow in porous media under the influence of axial electric field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Awasthi, Mukesh

    2014-04-15

    We study the linear analysis of electrohydrodynamic capillary instability of the interface between two viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluids in a fully saturated porous medium, when the phases are enclosed between two horizontal cylindrical surfaces coaxial with the interface and, when there is mass and heat transfer across the interface. The fluids are subjected to a constant electric field in the axial direction. Here, we use an irrotational theory in which the motion and pressure are irrotational and the viscosity enters through the jump in the viscous normal stress in the normal stress balance at the interface. A quadratic dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is obtained and stability criterion is given in terms of a critical value of wave number as well as electric field. It is observed that heat transfer has stabilizing effect on the stability of the considered system while medium porosity destabilizes the interface. The axial electric field has dual effect on the stability analysis.

  16. MST-12 485-REC-R00 Treatment of Evaporator Bottoms Issued July 13 1984.pdf

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    8,2011 MISO Comments for the DOE Congestion Workshop 2 MISO Guiding Principles from BOD Conditions Precedent to Build Transmission Transmission Corridor Identification Process Using the Congestion Study Information * Set of planning principles - EISPC-State regulatory, Governor's offices inputs - National policy ? * Studies provide information to make decisions for the above processes - 2012 Congestion Study- actual and regional study results to show where the congestion is and the cost of

  17. Sandia Corporate Ombuds Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Cooler Blows Traditional CPU Coolers Away Sandia Cooler Blows Traditional CPU Coolers Away November 21, 2012 - 10:02am Addthis The Sandia Cooler's innovative, compact design combines a fan and a finned metal heat sink into a single element, efficiently transferring heat in microelectronics and reducing energy use. | Photo courtesy of Sandia National Laboratories. The Sandia Cooler's innovative, compact design combines a fan and a finned metal heat sink into a single element, efficiently

  18. Riverland Energy Cooperative - Commercial and Industrial Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Electric Plenum Heater: 100 Electric Air Handlers: 100 Dairy Plate CoolerWell Water Pre-Cooler: 500 High Efficiency Livestock Waterers: 50 Dairy Heat Recovery: 300...

  19. 11-04-2015 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Walk-in...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Walk-in Coolers and Freezers; Final Rule CX-012116: Categorical Exclusion Determination Enforcement Policy Statement Regarding Walk-in CoolerWalk-in Freezer Refrigeration Systems

  20. Eulerian CFD Models to Predict Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eulerian CFD Models to Predict Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot Particles in EGR Coolers Eulerian CFD Models to Predict Thermophoretic Deposition of Soot Particles in EGR Coolers ...

  1. Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    French, Patrick D.; Butz, James R.; Veatch, Bradley D.; O'Connor, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

  2. Comments on Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Docket No. EERE-2011-BT-TP-0024

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On behalf of our client, Bally Refrigerated Boxes, Inc. (“Bally” or “Company”), we are pleased to submit the enclosed comments on the February 20, 2014 supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking...

  3. WERF MACT Feasibility Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. Bonnema; D. Moser; J. Riedesel; K. Kooda; K. Liekhus; K. Rebish; S. Poling

    1998-11-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the technical feasibility of upgrading the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to meet the offgas emission limits proposed in the Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT)rule. Four practicable offgas treatment processes were identified, which, if installed, would enable the WERF to meet the anticipated MACT emission limits for dioxins and furans (D/F), hydrochloric acid (HCI), and mercury (Hg). Due to the three-year time restraint for MACT compliance, any technology chosen for the upgrade must be performed within the general plant project funding limit of $5 M. The option selected consists of a partial-quench evaporative cooler with dry sorbent injection for HCI removal followed by a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed for Hg control. The planning cost estimate for implementing the option is $4.17 M (with 24% contingency). The total estimated cost includes capital costs, design and construction costs, and project management costs. Capital costs include the purchase of a new offgas evaporative cooler, a dry sorbent injection system with reagent storage, a new fabric filter baghouse, a fixed carbon bed absorber, and two offgas induced draft exhaust fans. It is estimated that 21 months will be required to complete the recommended modification to the WERF. The partial-quench cooler is designed to rapidly cool the offgas exiting the secondary combustion chamber to minimize D/F formation. Dry sorbent injection of an alkali reagent into the offgas is recommended. The alkali reacts with the HCI to form a salt, which is captured with the fly ash in the baghouse. A design HCI removal efficiency of 97.2% allows for the feeding 20 lbs/hr of chlorine to the WERF incinerator. The sorbent feed rate can be adjusted to achieve the desired HCI removal efficiency. A fixed bed of sulfur-impregnated carbon was conservatively sized for a total Hg removal capacity when feeding 10 g/hr Hg to the WERF incinerator. An added benefit for using carbon adsorption is that the activated carbon will also capture a large fraction of any residual D/F present in the offgas.

  4. 242-A Evaporator/plutonium uranium extraction (PUREX) effluent treatment facility (ETF) nonradioactive air emission test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-10

    This report shows the methods used to test the stack gas outlet concentration and emission rate of Volatile Organic Compounds as Total Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in parts per million by volume,grams per dry standard cubic meter, and grams per minute from the PUREX ETF stream number G6 on the Hanford Site. Test results are shown in Appendix B.1.

  5. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Quality Assurance Functional Area Requirements Identification Document (RID), addresses the programmatic requirements that ensure risks and environmental impacts are minimized, ensure safety, reliability, and performance are maximized through the application of effective management systems commensurate with the risks posed by the Tank Farm Facility and its operation. This RID incorporates guidance intended to provide Tank Farms management with the necessary requirements information to develop, upgrade, or assess the effectiveness of a Quality Assurance Program in the performance of organizational and functional activities. Quality Assurance is defined as all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a facility, structure, system, or component will perform satisfactorily and safely in service. This document will provide the specific requirements to meet DNFSB recommendations and the guidance provided in DOE Order 5700.6C, utilizing industry codes, standards, regulatory guidelines, and industry good practices that have proven to be essential elements for an effective and efficient Quality Assurance Program as the nuclear industry has matured over the last thirty years.

  6. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this Requirements Identification Document (RID) section is to identify, in one location, all of the facility specific requirements and good industry practices which are necessary or important to establish an effective Issues Management Program for the Tank Farm Facility. The Management Systems Functional Area includes the site management commitment to environmental safety and health (ES&H) policies and controls, to compliance management, to development and management of policy and procedures, to occurrence reporting and corrective actions, resource and issue management, and to the self-assessment process.

  7. Evaporator Feed Qualification Analysis Of Tank 38H And 43H Samples: January 2010 Through April 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martino, C. J.; Coleman, C. J.

    2013-08-21

    This report provides the results of analyses that focused on the chemical species that pertain to the sodium aluminosilicate formation potential for archived Tank 38H and 43H subsurface samples from January 2010 through April 2013. Analyses included warm acid strike preparation followed by analysis of silicon, aluminum, and sodium and water dilution preparation followed by analysis for anions. The Tank 43H and 38H supernatant liquid silicon measurements for the January 2010 through April 2013 time period exhibit a slight increasing trend. Over this time period, the silicon concentration in the Tank 43H and Tank 38H samples averaged 179 mg/L and 235 mg/L, respectively. Comparison of Tank 43H sample results from 2005 through April 2013 to the previously developed process control models indicates that the current formation of sodium aluminosilicate in the 2H system is due to the seeded direct precipitation of cancrinite and sodalite.

  8. High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document (S/RID), Vol. 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This Requirements Identification Document (RID) describes an Occupational Health and Safety Program as defined through the Relevant DOE Orders, regulations, industry codes/standards, industry guidance documents and, as appropriate, good industry practice. The definition of an Occupational Health and Safety Program as specified by this document is intended to address Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendations 90-2 and 91-1, which call for the strengthening of DOE complex activities through the identification and application of relevant standards which supplement or exceed requirements mandated by DOE Orders. This RID applies to the activities, personnel, structures, systems, components, and programs involved in maintaining the facility and executing the mission of the High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms.

  9. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biebesheimer, E., Westinghouse Hanford Co.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Report for the subject facility, represents the results of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. It contains; compliance status, remedial actions, and an implementing manuals report linking S/RID elements to requirement source to implementing manual and section.

  10. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  11. Leveraging National Lab Capabilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... for Air Compression System Module for Humidifier TEM- Karen Morre, ORNL 5 nm ORNL microscopy imaging 9 | Fuel Cell Technologies Office Source: US DOE 2132015 eere.energy.gov ...

  12. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... U.S. Department of Energy, Feb. 2011, DOEGO-102011-3178. 8 ... L 15 15 System weight e kg 22 15 Cost f 842 g 500 a ... Cell Humidifiers, February 2013. b Dry air in: 3,000 SLPM ...

  13. ARM - Instrument - htdma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) Instrument Categories Aerosols This instrument...

  14. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  15. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  16. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  17. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Humidified Aerosols on Lidar Depolarization Below Ice-Precipitating Arctic Clouds Download a printable PDF Submitter: Fridlind, A. M., NASA - Goddard Institute for Space Studies van Diedenhoven, B., NASA - Goddard Institute for Space Studies Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: van Diedenhoven B, AM Fridlind, and AS Ackerman. 2011. "Influence of humidified aerosol on lidar depolarization measurements below

  18. Analysis of large scale tests for AP-600 passive containment cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sha, W.T.; Chien, T.H.; Sun, J.G.; Chao, B.T.

    1997-07-01

    One unique feature of the AP-600 is its passive containment cooling system (PCCS), which is designed to maintain containment pressure below the design limit for 72 hours without action by the reactor operator. During a design-basis accident, i.e., either a loss-of-coolant or a main steam-line break accident, steam escapes and comes in contact with the much cooler containment vessel wall. Heat is transferred to the inside surface of the steel containment wall by convection and condensation of steam and through the containment steel wall by conduction. Heat is then transferred from the outside of the containment surface by heating and evaporation of a thin liquid film that is formed by applying water at the top of the containment vessel dome. Air in the annual space is heated by both convection and injection of steam from the evaporating liquid film. The heated air and vapor rise as a result of natural circulation and exit the shield building through the outlets above the containment shell. All of the analytical models that are developed for and used in the COMMIX-ID code for predicting performance of the PCCS will be described. These models cover governing conservation equations for multicomponents single phase flow, transport equations for the {kappa}-{epsilon} two-equation turbulence model, auxiliary equations, liquid-film tracking model for both inside (condensate) and outside (evaporating liquid film) surfaces of the containment vessel wall, thermal coupling between flow domains inside and outside the containment vessel, and heat and mass transfer models. Various key parameters of the COMMIX-ID results and corresponding AP-600 PCCS experimental data are compared and the agreement is good. Significant findings from this study are summarized.

  19. Comments on Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Alternative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Determination Methods and Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In ... Methods and Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Docket No. ...

  20. Radial Flow Bearing Heat Exchanger | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The axial cooler eliminates any requirement for heat transfer across a fluid bearing. The objective for the axial cooler is to create a new de facto standard for cost-competitive, ...

  1. Development of Advanced Combustion Technologies for Increased Thermal

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    | Department of Energy Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator Condenser This report describes the first design of a refrigerator condenser using the Sandia Cooler, i.e. air-bearing supported rotating heat-sink impeller. The project included baseline performance testing of a residential refrigerator, analysis, and design development of a Sandia Cooler condenser assembly including a spiral

  2. Save Energy and be Festive this Fall

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fall means cooler weather, changing leaves, and festive decorations, now your decorations can help save energy too!

  3. Enhancement of lanthanide evaporation by complexation: Dysprosium tri-iodide mixed with indium iodide and thulium tri-iodide mixed with thallium iodide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curry, J. J.; Henins, A.; Hardis, J. E.; Estupin, E. G.; Lapatovich, W. P.; Shastri, S. D.

    2013-09-28

    The vapors in equilibrium with condensates of DyI{sub 3}, DyI{sub 3}/InI, TmI{sub 3}, and TmI{sub 3}/TlI were observed over the temperature range from 900 K to 1400 K using x-ray induced fluorescence. The total densities of each element (Dy, Tm, In, Tl, and I) in the vapor, summed over all atomic and molecular species, were determined. Dramatic enhancements in the total vapor densities of Dy and Tm were observed in the vapors over DyI{sub 3}/InI and TmI{sub 3}/TlI as compared to the vapors over pure DyI{sub 3} and pure TmI{sub 3}, respectively. An enhancement factor exceeding 10 was observed for Dy at T? 1020 K, decreasing to 0 at T? 1250 K. An enhancement factor exceeding 20 was observed for Tm at T? 1040 K, decreasing to 0 at T? 1300 K. Such enhancements are expected from the formation of the vapor-phase hetero-complexes DyInI{sub 4} and TmTlI{sub 4}. Numerical simulations of the thermo-chemical equilibrium suggest the importance of additional complexes in liquid phases. A description of the measurement technique is given. Improvements in the absolute calibration lead to an approximately 40% correction to previously reported preliminary results [J. J. Curry et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 507, 52 (2011); Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 083505 (2012)].

  4. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment corrective actions/compliance schedule approval report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Corrective Actions/Compliance Schedule Approval Report for the subject facility, contains the corrective actions required to bring the facility into compliance as a result of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. These actions are delineated in the Compliance Schedule Approvals which also contain; noncompliances, risks, compensatory measures, schedules for corrective actions, justifications for approval, and resource impacts.

  5. Climate Model Response from the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kravitz, Benjamin S.; Caldeira, Ken; Boucher, Olivier; Robock, Alan; Rasch, Philip J.; Alterskjaer, Kari; Bou Karam, Diana; Cole, Jason N.; Curry, Charles L.; Haywood, J.; Irvine, Peter; Ji, Duoying; Jones, A.; Kristjansson, J. E.; Lunt, Daniel; Moore, John; Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke; Schulz, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Tilmes, S.; Watanabe, Shingo; Yang, Shuting; Yoon, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-09

    Solar geoengineeringdeliberate reduction in the amount of solar radiation retained by the Earthhas been proposed as a means of counteracting some of the climatic effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. We present results from Experiment G1 of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project, in which 12 climate models have simulated the climate response to an abrupt quadrupling of CO2 from preindustrial concentrations brought into radiative balance via a globally uniform reduction in insolation. Models show this reduction largely offsets global mean surface temperature increases due to quadrupled CO2 concentrations and prevents 97% of the Arctic sea ice loss that would otherwise occur under high CO2 levels but, compared to the preindustrial climate, leaves the tropics cooler (-0.3 K) and the poles warmer (+0.8 K). Annual mean precipitation minus evaporation anomalies for G1 are less than 0.2mmday-1 in magnitude over 92% of the globe, but some tropical regions receive less precipitation, in part due to increased moist static stability and suppression of convection. Global average net primary productivity increases by 120% in G1 over simulated preindustrial levels, primarily from CO2 fertilization, but also in part due to reduced plant heat stress compared to a high CO2 world with no geoengineering. All models show that uniform solar geoengineering in G1 cannot simultaneously return regional and global temperature and hydrologic cycle intensity to preindustrial levels.

  6. Water Use in Parabolic Trough Power Plants: Summary Results from WorleyParsons' Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with WorleyParsons Group, Inc. to examine the effect of switching from evaporative cooling to alternative cooling systems on a nominal 100-MW parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. WorleyParsons analyzed 13 different cases spanning three different geographic locations (Daggett, California; Las Vegas, Nevada; and Alamosa, Colorado) to assess the performance, cost, and water use impacts of switching from wet to dry or hybrid cooling systems. NREL developed matching cases in its Solar Advisor Model (SAM) for each scenario to allow for hourly modeling and provide a comparison to the WorleyParsons results.Our findings indicate that switching from 100% wet to 100% dry cooling will result in levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) increases of approximately 3% to 8% for parabolic trough plants throughout most of the southwestern United States. In cooler, high-altitude areas like Colorado's San Luis Valley, WorleyParsons estimated the increase at only 2.5%, while SAM predicted a 4.4% difference. In all cases, the transition to dry cooling will reduce water consumption by over 90%. Utility time-of-delivery (TOD) schedules had similar impacts for wet- and dry-cooled plants, suggesting that TOD schedules have a relatively minor effect on the dry-cooling penalty.

  7. Separation of tritiated water using graphene oxide membrane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevigny, Gary J.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Gotthold, David W.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Frost, Anthony P.; Bratton, Wesley

    2015-06-28

    In future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and possibly for nuclear power plants, the cleanup of tritiated water will be needed for hundreds of thousands of gallons of water with low activities of tritium. This cleanup concept utilizes graphene oxide laminar membranes (GOx) for the separation of low-concentration (10-3-10 Ci/g) tritiated water to create water that can be released to the environment and a much smaller waste stream with higher tritium concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes consist of hierarchically stacked, overlapping molecular layers and represent a new class of materials. A permeation rate test was performed with a 2-m-thick cast Asbury membrane using mixed gas permeability testing with zero air (highly purified atmosphere) and with air humidified with either H2O or D2O to a nominal 50% relative humidity. The membrane permeability for both H2O and D2O was high with N2 and O2 at the system measurement limit. The membrane water permeation rate was compared to a Nafion membrane and the GOx permeation was approximately twice as high at room temperature. The H2O vapor permeation rate was 5.9 102 cc/m2/min (1.2 10-6 g/min-cm2), which is typical for graphene oxide membranes. To demonstrate the feasibility of such isotopic water separation through GOX laminar membranes, an experimental setup was constructed to use pressure-driven separation by heating the isotopic water mixture at one side of the membrane to create steam while cooling the other side. Several membranes were tested and were prepared using different starting materials and by different pretreatment methods. The average separation result was 0.8 for deuterium and 0.6 for tritium. Higher or lower temperatures may also improve separation efficiency but neither has been tested yet. A rough estimate of cost compared to current technology was also included as an indication of potential viability of the process. The relative process costs were based on the rough size of facility to accommodate the large surface area of the membranes and the energy needed to evaporate the water and pass through the membranes as compared to the currently used combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process.

  8. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AJA E-Beam Evaporator A new e-beam evaporator was acquired in FY11; this evaporator is extensively used for EFRC supported research projects. In particular, e-beam evaporation is...

  9. System for agitating the acid in a lead-acid battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weintraub, Alvin; MacCormack, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A system and method for agitating the acid in a large lead-sulfuric acid storage battery of the calcium type. An air-lift is utilized to provide the agitation. The air fed to the air-lift is humidified prior to being delivered to the air-lift.

  10. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking | Department of Energy 7 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-02-07 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking This document is a pre-publication Federal

  11. Lighting in Residential and Commercial Buildings (1993 and 1995...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Ballast Electronic ballast operates lights using electronic switching power supply circuits and operates at cooler temperatures, weighs less, and is quieter than the magnetic...

  12. Ex Parte Communications, Docket EERE–2014–BT–TP–0014 / RIN 1904–AD22

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On January 23, 2015, representatives from the commercial portable air conditioner and spot cooler industry and the National Association of Manufacturers participated in a conference call with the...

  13. SMECO - Non-Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clothes Washer: 200 Water Cooler: 100 Room AC: 25 Dehumidifier: 25 Spray Rinse Valves: 75 Summary Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative's (SMECO) Non-Residential Energy...

  14. Microsoft Word - 58285.doc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... This offers an opportunity to get cooler pavements economically. Good maintenance practice ... low cost, so they can offer savings to communities that plant trees. 12 Energy and Smog ...

  15. What We Monitor & Why

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    well as sediment, at numerous locations along the canyon from Otowi Bridge to the Cochiti Reservoir. The rafts carry people, camping gear, equipment, and coolers that keep the...

  16. 2014-02-07 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-02-07 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Test ...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    speed drives, industrial cooling, retrofit and new construction lighting, dairy plate coolers, dairy free heaters, geothermal heat pumps, and vending machine controllers...

  18. Effects of Advanced Combustion Technologies on Particulate Matter...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Findings of important implications for aftertreatment devices such as EGR coolers and diesel particulate filters, of physico-chemical changes observed in particulate matter during ...

  19. Sandia Energy - Sandia Brings Home a Record Five Regional Tech...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    invention. The technology, as known as the "Sandia Cooler," will significantly reduce the energy needed to cool the processor chips in data centers and large-scale computing...

  20. DOE-HDBK-1205-97; Guide to Good Practices for the Design, Development...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Cooler 3 Hours (water side) Emergency Diesel Engine KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS: Directions to ... 2. Damaged tubes may increase oil temperature which may cause damage to diesel. ...

  1. Improving Diesel Engine Sweet-spot Efficiency and Adapting it...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications D-Cycle - 4-Differential -Stroke Cycle Effect of Engine Operating Condition and Coolant Temperature on EGR Cooler Deposit Microstructure and Chemical ...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lighting, dairy plate coolers, dairy free heaters, geothermal heat pumps, and vending machine controllers are eligible for rebates. Some rebates vary by system efficiency or...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    adjustable speed drives, industrial cooling, retrofit and new construction lighting, dairy plate coolers, dairy free heaters, geothermal heat pumps, and vending machine...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    drives, industrial cooling, retrofit and new construction lighting, dairy plate coolers, dairy free heaters, geothermal heat pumps, and vending machine controllers are eligible...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heaters on refrigerated cases, and well water pre-cooler and waste heat exchangers for dairy equipment. Interested customers should contact one of the LREC's energy......

  6. ABSTRACT

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... passed through Nafion tubing coiled inside a container containing silica gel desiccant. ... and the reductions in outdoor ozone production with cooler temperatures, the study was ...

  7. Quantum Well Thermoelectric Truck Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses advantages of quantum-well TE cooler, including no moving parts, no gases, performance on par with conventional, and easy switching to heat pump mode

  8. Office of the Assistant General Counsel for Enforcement | Department...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Policy Walk-In CoolerWalk-In Freezer Refrigeration Systems Enforcement Policy West Coast ... March 1, 2016 DOE Reaches Settlements with Three Commercial Refrigeration Equipment ...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    beverage machines and door heaters on refrigerated cases, and well water pre-cooler and waste heat exchangers for dairy equipment. Interested customers should contact one of the...

  10. EERE Success Story-Colorado Dairy Industry Boosts Energy Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The dairy installed a plate cooler, which greatly enhanced the energy efficiency of its milk cooling process. Water heating, space heating, and lighting upgrades were also made at ...

  11. Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits

  12. Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants; Volume...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rich Solvent Rich Solvent Direct Contact Cooler (DCC) and Polishing Scrubber Wash Water Filter DCC Circulating Water Filter Blower Condenser Product CO 2 Overhead...

  13. Geothermal Heat Pumps- Cooling Mode

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In summer, the fluid removes heat from the building and transfers it to the relatively cooler ground in order to cool the building.

  14. 97summer.pgm

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (NMT-6) are the principal developers of this project. ... National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories) The ... Steam-Water Cooler Power Plant Using Weapons Plutonium and ...

  15. Modeling of coupled heat transfer and reactive transport processesin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    heating and boiling, and through local convection. In cooler regions, the vapor condenses on fracture walls, where it drains through the fracture network. Slow imbibition of water ...

  16. A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A simple tool for estimating city-wide annual electrical energy savings from cooler surfaces Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on ...

  17. --No Title--

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Central Air Condi- tioners Heat Pumps Indiv- idual Air Condi- tioners District Chilled Water Central Chillers Pack- aged Air Condi- tioning Units Swamp Coolers Other All...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    dairy plate coolers, dairy free heaters, geothermal heat pumps, and vending machine controllers are eligible for rebates. Some rebates vary by system efficiency or capacity....

  19. Institutional Research & Development News | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Institutional Research & Development News Above Images: On the left, the "Sandia Cooler" - also known as the "Air Bearing Heat Exchanger" will significantly reduce the energy ...

  20. Sabdia's Radial Flow Air Bearing Heat Exchanger

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sandia's Radial Flow ir Bearing Heat Exchanger 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Sandia's TRL 5 Air Bearing Heat exchanger technology (a. k. a. The Sandia Cooler) ...

  1. Infrastructure Security EXCEPTIONAL SERVICE IN THE NATIONAL INTEREST

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cooler" represents a fundamental breakthrough in heat transfer technology for microelectronics, and will significantly reduce the energy needed to cool processor chips in data...

  2. A TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIZED BEAM MATCHING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MONTAG,C.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    To maintain low electron beam temperatures in the proposed RHIC electron cooler, careful matching of the magnetized beam from the source to the cooler solenoid is mandatory. We propose a tomographic technique to diagnose matching conditions. First simulation results will be presented.

  3. Enhancing Heat Recovery for Thermoelectric Devices | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_szybist2.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal

  4. Amount of Zeolite Required to Meet the Constraints Established by the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) Report RF 10-13: Application of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Evaporator Nitrate Salts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supporting Technical Document for the Radiological Release Accident Investigation Report (Phase II Report)

  5. Study of components and statistical reaction mechanism in simulation of nuclear process for optimized production of {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga medical radioisotopes using TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ nuclear reaction and evaporation codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nasrabadi, M. N. Sepiani, M.

    2015-03-30

    Production of medical radioisotopes is one of the most important tasks in the field of nuclear technology. These radioactive isotopes are mainly produced through variety nuclear process. In this research, excitation functions and nuclear reaction mechanisms are studied for simulation of production of these radioisotopes in the TALYS, EMPIRE and LISE++ reaction codes, then parameters and different models of nuclear level density as one of the most important components in statistical reaction models are adjusted for optimum production of desired radioactive yields.

  6. Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    central thermal fluid system. 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 Multi-effect falling-film evaporators for black liquor evaporation and concentration Part F - SPECIFIC...

  7. Sol-Gel Based Polybenzimidazole Membranes for Hydrogen Pumping Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benicewicz, Brian

    2014-02-26

    Electrochemical hydrogen pumping using a high temperature (>100°C) PBI membrane was demonstrated under non-humidified and humidified conditions at ambient pressures. Relatively low voltages were required to operate the pump over a wide range of hydrogen flow rates. The advantages of the high temperature capability were shown by operating the pump on reformate feed gas mixtures containing various amounts of CO and CO{sub 2}. Gas purity measurements on the cathode gas product were conducted and significant reductions in gas impurities were detected. The applicability of the PBI membrane for electrochemical hydrogen pumping and its durability under typical operating conditions was established with tests that lasted for nearly 4000 hours.

  8. P.L. 100-12, "National Appliance Energy Supply Act" (1987)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-13

    Amends the Energy Policy and Conservation Act to add to the list of products covered under the Act: (1) freezers which can be operated by alternating current electricity (with specified exceptions); (2) central air conditioning heat pumps; (3) direct heating equipment; and (4) pool heaters. Deletes from specific coverage: (1) humidifiers; and (2) dehumidifiers. Excludes from such coverage consumer products designed solely for use in recreational vehicles and other mobile equipment.

  9. Fuel Cell Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cells » Fuel Cell Systems Fuel Cell Systems The design of fuel cell systems is complex, and can vary significantly depending upon fuel cell type and application. However, several basic components are found in many fuel cell systems: Fuel cell stack Fuel processor Power conditioners Air compressors Humidifiers Fuel Cell Stack The fuel cell stack is the heart of a fuel cell power system. It generates electricity in the form of direct current (DC) from electro-chemical reactions that take place in

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: The evolution of anvil

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    microphysics observed during CRYSTAL-FACE The evolution of anvil microphysics observed during CRYSTAL-FACE Comstock, Jennifer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Mather, James Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Deep convective cloud systems produce extensive cirrus anvils that play an important role in humidifying the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere and strongly affect the radiative balance in the atmosphere, particularly in the tropics. Current general circulation models

  11. The Results of Tests of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Virostek, Steve P.

    2009-10-19

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The spectrometer magnets are the largest magnets in both mass and surface area within the MICE ooling channel. Like all of the other magnets in MICE, the spectrometer solenoids are kept cold using 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) pulse tube coolers. The MICE spectrometer solenoid is quite possibly the largest magnet that has been cooled using small coolers. Two pectrometer magnets have been built and tested. This report discusses the results of current and cooler tests of both magnets.

  12. Engine Air Intake Manifold Having Built In Intercooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles E.

    2000-09-12

    A turbocharged V type engine can be equipped with an exhaust gas recirculation cooler integrated into the intake manifold, so as to achieve efficiency, cost reductions and space economization improvements. The cooler can take the form of a tube-shell heat exchanger that utilizes a cylindrical chamber in the air intake manifold as the heat exchanger housing. The intake manifold depends into the central space formed by the two banks of cylinders on the V type engine, such that the central space is effectively utilized for containing the manifold and cooler.

  13. Rankine cycle system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-09-09

    A Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system uses a receiver with a maximum liquid working fluid level lower than the minimum liquid working fluid level of a sub-cooler of the waste heat recovery system. The receiver may have a position that is physically lower than the sub-cooler's position. A valve controls transfer of fluid between several of the components in the waste heat recovery system, especially from the receiver to the sub-cooler. The system may also have an associated control module.

  14. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Test

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Final Rule | Department of Energy Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Final Rule 2014-05-05 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Final Rule This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding alternative efficiency determination methods and test procedures for walk-in

  15. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  16. Pulse thermal energy transport/storage system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weislogel, Mark M.

    1992-07-07

    A pulse-thermal pump having a novel fluid flow wherein heat admitted to a closed system raises the pressure in a closed evaporator chamber while another interconnected evaporator chamber remains open. This creates a large pressure differential, and at a predetermined pressure the closed evaporator is opened and the opened evaporator is closed. This difference in pressure initiates fluid flow in the system.

  17. Production and characterization of thin film group IIIB, IVB and rare earth

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    hydrides by reactive evaporation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Production and characterization of thin film group IIIB, IVB and rare earth hydrides by reactive evaporation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Production and characterization of thin film group IIIB, IVB and rare earth hydrides by reactive evaporation A recent short history of reactive evaporation by D. M. Mattox [History Corner-A Short History of Reactive Evaporation, SVC Bulletin (Society of Vacuum Coaters,

  18. EIA Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    on average, remained cooler than normal in most parts of the country. Of the four cities that are monitored by this report (Atlanta, Chicago, Houston and New York), only...

  19. Save Money with LED Holiday Light Strings

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LED (or light emitting diode) light strings can use 90% less energy than regular incandescent light strings. They also last about ten times longer, are cooler than incandescents (reducing fire hazards), and are more durable.

  20. Happy Hallogreen!

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the fateful transition to cooler weather and Halloween just upon us, it is important to remember some key tips when preparing to have the most energy-efficient Halloween possible.

  1. Amerikooler: Order (2013-CE-5307)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Amerikooler, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Amerikooler had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  2. Kold Pack: Order (2013-CE-5323)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Kold Pack, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Kold Pack had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  3. Kold Pack: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5323)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Kold Pack, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  4. Types of Lighting in Commercial Buildings - Lighting Characteristics

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "coolness" of the color appearance of the lamp's light. The CCT is given in the Kelvin (K) temperature scale, and the higher the color temperature, the cooler the appearance of...

  5. ALSNews Vol. 320

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." Read more... Contact: This e-mail address is being...

  6. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  7. Advance Energy Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5302)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Advance Energy Technologies, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer (WICFs) components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  8. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. Federal Energy and Water Management Awards 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Keeping vehicles cooler during summer and protecting them from rain, snow, and hail, the innovative PV system is the first in the VA used in conjunction with an ice thermal storage ...

  10. U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to 12.10 per MMBtu, and isobutane, which rose by 1.6% to 14.61 per MMBtu. more summary data PricesDemandSupply: Natural gas prices dipped during the weekend due to cooler...

  11. USA Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5336)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered USA Manufacturing to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding USA Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. USA Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5336)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that USA Manufacturing failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  13. Energy-Efficient Holiday Decorating Tips | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In addition to using 70% less energy than traditional bulbs, they're brighter, eco-friendly, and are safer, as they are much cooler than incandescent lights. In addition, they...

  14. Jamison Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5348)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Jamison Door Company failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  15. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  16. Jamison Door: Order (2013-CE-5348)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Jamison Door Company to pay a $6,000 civil penalty after finding Jamison Door had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  17. R-Cold: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5354)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that R-Cold, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  18. POTENTIAL DIMETHYLMERCURY CONCENTRATION IN WATER & ORGANIC CONDENSATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEACHAM, J.E.

    2004-12-28

    This document bounds potential dimethylmercury concentration in water or organic condensate that might form in ventilation systems or cooler tank regions. Dimethylmercury concentrations were extremely low and would be below drinking water standards in the water condensate.

  19. 2014-05-05 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Methods and Test Procedures for Walk-In Coolers and Walk-In Freezers; Final Rule 2014-05-05 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Test Procedures for ...

  20. Dade Engineering: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5316)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Dade Engineering Corp. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  1. Mechanically-reattachable liquid-cooled cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arney, Susanne; Cheng, Jen-Hau; Kolodner, Paul R; Kota-Venkata, Krishna-Murty; Scofield, William; Salamon, Todd R; Simon, Maria E

    2013-09-24

    An apparatus comprising a rack having a row of shelves, each shelf supporting an electronics circuit board, each one of the circuit boards being manually removable from the shelve supporting the one of the circuit boards and having a local heat source thereon. The apparatus also comprises a cooler attached to the rack and being able to circulate a cooling fluid around a channel forming a closed loop. The apparatus further comprises a plurality of heat conduits, each heat conduit being located over a corresponding one of the circuit boards and forming a path to transport heat from the local heat source of the corresponding one of the circuit boards to the cooler. Each heat conduit is configured to be manually detachable from the cooler or the circuit board, without breaking a circulation pathway of the fluid through the cooler.

  2. CX-006967: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and FoulingCX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 09/28/2011Location(s): Salt Lake City, UtahOffice(s): Fossil Energy, Savannah River Operations Office

  3. Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row Cooling Devices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... In addi- tion, a prototype direct-touch cooling system design, which conducts heat to a ... Figure 4 shows the thermal schematic for these devices. Direct-touch Cooler An example of ...

  4. DOE Zero Energy Home Webinar: Comprehensive Building Science...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... He comes from Penn State Architectural Engineering Program. He's an incredibly talented ... So think of a cooler. You have your food and your beverages in there for a tailgate, and ...

  5. Effect of Engine Operating Condition and Coolant Temperature...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    In this work, the performance of a stand-alone EGR cooler attached to a 6.4L turbodiesel engine is being investigated by analyzing the microstructure and chemical composition of ...

  6. Study of Ion Cooling and Ejection from Two Stage Linear Quadrupole...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ion beams and a Multireflection TOF separator 1 for nuclear physics applications. Method The system consists of a long cooler RFQ, and a short buncher RFQ and was developed...

  7. Anthony International: Order (2013-CE-5357)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Anthony International to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Anthony International had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  8. Anthony International: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5357)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Anthony International failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. Imperial Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5322)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Imperial Manufacturing, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Imperial Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Absorption Cooling Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Absorption coolers use heat rather than electricity as their energy source. Because natural gas is the most common heat source for absorption cooling, it is also referred to as...

  11. Commercial Display Systems: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5350)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Display Systems, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. General Restaurant Equipment: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5344)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that General Restaurant Equipment Co. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  13. Aircooler: Order (2013-CE-5338)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Aircooler Corporation to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Aircooler had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  14. October is Energy Action Month | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    With cooler weather upon us, you may have already started working on ways you can save energy during the fall and winter months. Now is the perfect time to focus on saving...

  15. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  16. Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  17. ALSNews Vol. 320

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." Read more... ...

  18. Cool Magnetic Molecules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of researchers from Spain, Scotland, and the U.S. has utilized ALS Beamline 11.3.1 (small-molecule crystallography) to characterize the design of such "molecular coolers." ...

  19. Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  20. Manitowoc Foodservice: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-5309)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Manitowoc Foodservice failed to certify various walk-in coolers and freezers (WICFs) and their components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.