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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Fuel cell cooler-humidifier plate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooler-humidifier plate for use in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack assembly is provided. The cooler-humidifier plate combines functions of cooling and humidification within the fuel cell stack assembly, thereby providing a more compact structure, simpler manifolding, and reduced reject heat from the fuel cell. Coolant on the cooler side of the plate removes heat generated within the fuel cell assembly. Heat is also removed by the humidifier side of the plate for use in evaporating the humidification water. On the humidifier side of the plate, evaporating water humidifies reactant gas flowing over a moistened wick. After exiting the humidifier side of the plate, humidified reactant gas provides needed moisture to the proton exchange membranes used in the fuel cell stack assembly. The invention also provides a fuel cell plate that maximizes structural support within the fuel cell by ensuring that the ribs that form the boundaries of channels on one side of the plate have ends at locations that substantially correspond to the locations of ribs on the opposite side of the plate.

Vitale, Nicholas G. (Albany, NY); Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Evaporative Coolers | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers July 1, 2012 - 6:51pm Addthis Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of Public Domain Photos. Evaporative Coolers, sometimes called swamp coolers, is another way to cool air in warm climates with low humidity. | Photo courtesy of Public Domain Photos. What does this mean for me? If you live in a warm, dry climate, you can save money on utility bills and stay comfortable during the cooling season by installing an evaporative cooler. Evaporative coolers add humidity to indoor air, a benefit in dry, warm climates. Unlike air conditioners that recirculate air, an evaporative cooler

3

List of Evaporative Coolers Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coolers Incentives Coolers Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 35 Evaporative Coolers Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 35) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active APS - Energy Efficiency Solutions for Business (Arizona) Utility Rebate Program Arizona Commercial Industrial Institutional Local Government Retail Supplier Schools State Government Building Insulation Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Programmable Thermostats Refrigerators LED Exit Signs Evaporative Coolers Vending Machine Controls Food Service Equipment Yes Austin Utilities (Gas and Electric) - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Minnesota) Utility Rebate Program Minnesota Commercial

4

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. 2009.1999. Evaporative Air-Conditioning: Applications forDirect Evaporative Air Conditioning, Final Report . Davis,

Sahai, Rashmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5 3. Water Consumption of Evaporative7 3.1.2. Water Consumption Due to9 3.1.4. Water Consumption due to

Sahai, Rashmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Preliminary evaluation of the performance, water use, and current application trends of evaporative coolers in California climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the latest results of an ongoing analysis investigating the potential for evaporative cooling as an energy-efficient alternative to standard air-conditioning in California residences. In particular, the study uses detailed numerical models of evaporative coolers linked with the DOE-2 building energy simulation program to study the issues of indoor comfort, energy and peak demand savings with and without supplemental air-conditioning and consumptive water use. In addition, limited surveys are used to assess the current market availability of evaporative cooling in California, typical contractor practices and costs, and general acceptance of the technology among engineers, contractors, and manufacturers. The results show that evaporative coolers can provide significant energy and peak demand savings in California residences, but the impact of the increased indoor humidity on human comfort remains an unanswered question that requires further research and clarification. Evaluated against ASHRAE comfort standards developed primarily for air-conditioning both direct and two-stage evaporative coolers would not maintain comfort at peak cooling conditions due to excessive humidity. However, using bioclimatic charts that place human comfort at the 80% relative humidity line, the study suggests that direct evaporative coolers will work in mild coastal climates, while two-stage models should provide adequate comfort in Title 24 houses throughout California, except in the Imperial Valley. The study also shows that evaporative coolers will increase household water consumption by less than 6% on an annual basis, and as much as 23% during peak cooling months, and that the increases in water cost are minimal compared to the electricity savings. Lastly, a survey of engineers and contractors revealed generally positive experiences with evaporative coolers, with operational cost savings, improved comfort, unproved air quality as the primary benefits in their use.

Huang, Y.J.; Hanford, J.W.; Wu, H.F.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Energy Basics: Evaporative Cooling  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

absorbent material. Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative...

8

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

9

Evaporative Cooling Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics Evaporative Cooling Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:53pm Addthis Evaporative cooling uses evaporated water to naturally and energy-efficiently cool. An illustration of an evaporative cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in through the louvers around the box, which are covered with water-saturated absorbent material. How Evaporative Coolers Work There are two types of evaporative coolers: direct and indirect. Direct evaporative coolers, also called swamp coolers, work by cooling outdoor air by passing it over water-saturated pads, causing the water to evaporate into it. The 15°-40°F-cooler air is then directed into the home

10

Evaporative Cooling | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cooler. In this example of an evaporative cooler, a small motor (top) drives a large fan (center) which blows air out the bottom and into your home. The fan sucks air in...

11

Water Recovery From Humidified Power Cycles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recovery of water from humidified cycles using a scrubber-desaturator, and the recovered water's clean-up and reuse have been shown to be practical, with comparatively low increases in capital costs and heat rates.

1998-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

12

Coolerado Cooler Helps to Save Cooling Energy and Dollars: New Cooling Technology Targets Peak Load Reduction  

SciTech Connect

This document is about a new evaporative cooling technology that can deliver cooler supply air temperatures than either direct or indirect evaporative cooling systems, without increasing humidity. The Coolerado Cooler technology can help Federal agencies reach the energy-use reduction goals of EPAct 2005, particularly in the western United States.

Robichaud, R.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Device for cooling and humidifying reformate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

Zhao, Jian Lian (Belmont, MA); Northrop, William F. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

14

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling (Redirected from Hybrid Cooling) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can

15

Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling: Evaporative Cooling: An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate. Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Evaporative Cooling Evaporative Cooling Tower Diagram of Evaporative Cooling Tower Evaporative cooling technologies take advantage of both air and water to extract heat from a power plant. By utilizing both water and air one can reduce the amount of water required for a power plant as well as reduce the

16

Heater/cooler unit  

SciTech Connect

Air conditioning apparatus especially adapted for cooling adjacent rooms in a motel, hotel, hospital or like structure is described comprising: a first evaporator disposed in one room; a second evaporator disposed in an adjacent room; a condenser disposed outside the rooms but in fluid communication with both the first and second evaporators; a compressor disposed outside the rooms but in fluid communication with the condenser and with a return side of the first and second evaporators; control means for controlling the fluid flow through each evaporator, the control means permitting fluid flow through the first evaporator to be controlled independently of fluid flow through the second evaporator; and a housing exposed to the atmosphere through the exterior wall of the structure and forming a portion of the common interior wall of the rooms, the evaporators, condenser, compressor, and control means being disposed within the housing.

Mintz, A.

1988-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

17

Optimizing Electric Humidifier Operation with an Air Side Economizer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air side economizer cycle is a control scheme that is often used in WAC systems to reduce cooling energy consumption by introducing variable quantities of ambient air into a conditioned space to satisfy the space cooling load (free cooling). Humidifiers are used to maintain the pre-set humidity levels in a conditioned space by introducing steam or atomized water into the space. An WAC system containing both electric humidifier and air side economizer cycle can appear to be energy efficient, but has the potential of being inefficient due to lack of proper controls. The economizer, which often operates independently of the humidifier, introduces large quantities of cool and dry ambient air into the space to reduce the mechanical cooling energy, but because of the environmental requirement of the space, the air has to be humidified. The humidification energy could offset the energy savings from the reduction in mechanical cooling energy. The solution for this potential problem is a control scheme that makes the operation of the economizer and electric humidifier interdependent. The control scheme will use ambient conditions and space environmental requirements to calculate the appropriate amount of outside air that the economizer should draw into the space. The control scheme can be implemented through a Direct Digital Control system.

Shami, U. F.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Definition: Evaporative Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Evaporative Cooling An evaporative cooler is a device that cools air through the evaporation of water. Evaporative cooling works by employing water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation), which can cool air using much less energy than refrigeration. Evaporative cooling requires a water source, and must continually consume water to operate.[1] References ↑ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Evaporative_Cooling&oldid=601323" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes

19

Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that evaporative cooling is an effective and logical substitute for mechanical cooling in hot-arid climates. This paper explores the application of evaporative coolers to the hot-humid climates using a controlled temperature of the incoming water. With exploitation of the effect of the thermal conduction between cool underground water and entering air, the performance of an evaporative cooler can be enhanced and its use in hot and moderately humid climates should also be considered. Usually the dry-bulb depression performed by an evaporative cooler depends solely on the ambient wet-bulb temperature. The cool underground water in an evaporative cooler can cause not only adiabatic evaporation but also sensible heat transfer between water and entering air for thermal comfort. This hybrid system outperforms the two-stage evaporative cooler without employing a complicated heat exchanger (indirect system), if the temperature of underground water is lower than the ambient wet-bulb temperature. Several areas in the southern hot-humid parts of the U.S. meet this condition.

Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. .sup.4 He, .sup.3 He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3-4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel.

Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Sunnyvale, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Cryogenic cooler apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A Malone-type final stage for utilization in a Stirling cycle cryogenic cooler apparatus includes a displacer slidable within a vessel. [sup 4]He, [sup 3]He, or a mixture thereof is made to flow in a pulsating unidirectional manner through a regenerator in the displacer by utilization of check valves in separate fluid channels. Stacked copper screen members extend through the channels and through a second static thermodynamic medium within the displacer to provide efficient lateral heat exchange and enable cooling to temperatures in the range of 3--4 K. Another embodiment utilizes sintered copper particles in the regenerator. Also described is a final stage that has a non-thermally conducting displacer having passages with check valves for directing fluid past a regenerator formed in the surrounding vessel. 10 figs.

Wheatley, J.C.; Paulson, D.N.; Allen, P.C.

1983-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

22

Custom Coolers: Order (2013-CE-5315)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered Custom Coolers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Custom Coolers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

23

Sandia Cooler Blows Traditional CPU Coolers Away | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

21, 2012 - 10:02am Addthis The Sandia Cooler's innovative, compact design combines a fan and a finned metal heat sink into a single element, efficiently transferring heat in...

24

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009. Bangalore Electricity Tariff Hike. My Bangulru.resources/2248-Bangalore-Electricity-Tariff-Hike.aspx [US

Sahai, Rashmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cost using the specific electricity rate of each city. TableJose Bangalore CCD Electricity Rate (USD/kWh) Reference USfrom increased electricity and water rates in the future.

Sahai, Rashmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOE] U.S. Electric Utility Companies and Rates: Look-up by1999. U.S. Electric Utility Companies and Rates: Look-up bySalt Lake City Public Utilities Tier 2 Rates - http://

Sahai, Rashmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

efficiency compared to vapor compression air conditioners,with conventional vapor compression air conditioners.that the efficiency of vapor compression air conditioners

Sahai, Rashmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

URL https:isswprod.lbl.govlibraryview-docspublicoutputrpt81997.PDF Attachment Size PDF 2.09 MB Google Scholar BibTex RIS RTF XML Alternate URL: http:eetd.lbl.govnode...

29

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

multi-storey buildings. Desalination 190: 221234. Godfrey,HUBER MBR process. Desalination 250: 1027103. Pistochini,Mallorca Island, Spain). Desalination 164: 241-247. McNeil,

Sahai, Rashmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Addressing Water Consumption of Evaporative Coolers with Greywater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

heat into the home, solar radiation, infiltration of outsideunits. Heat gain from solar radiation onto the walls, roof,

Sahai, Rashmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Off gas film cooler cleaner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is described for cleaning depositions of particulate matter from the inside of tubular piping while the piping is in use. The apparatus is remotely controlled in order to operate in hazardous environments. A housing containing brush and shaft assemblies is mounted on top of the tubular piping. Pneumatic cylinders provide linear motion. A roller nut bearing provides rotary motion. The combined motion causes the brush assembly to rotate as it travels along the tube dislodging particulate matter. The main application for this invention is to clean the off gas cooler of a radioactive waste vitrification unit.

Dhingra, H.S.; Koch, W.C.; Burns, D.C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Initial Evaluation of a New Electromechanical Cooler for Safeguards Applications  

SciTech Connect

The use of liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) constitutes the current state of the art in cryogenic cooling for high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, which are widely used for {gamma}-ray and characteristic X-ray spectroscopy because of their excellent energy discrimination. Use of LN{sub 2} requires a liquid nitrogen supply, cumbersome storage tanks and plumbing, and the frequent attention of personnel to be sure that nitrogen levels are sufficient to maintain the detectors at a sufficiently low operating temperature. Safety hazards also are associated with the use of LN{sub 2}, both because of the potential for severe frostbite on exposure to skin and because it displaces ambient oxygen when it evaporates in closed spaces. Existing electromechanical coolers have, until now, been more expensive to procure and maintain than LN{sub 2} systems. Performance and reliability have also been serious issues because of microphonic degradation of photon energy peak resolution and cooler failures due to compressor oil becoming entrained in the refrigerant. This report describes the results of tests of a new HPGe detector cooling technology, the PerkinElmer ORTEC{reg_sign} Products X-Cooler{trademark} that, according to the manufacturer, significantly reduces the lifetime cost of the cooling system without degradation of the output signal. The manufacturer claims to have overcome cost, performance and reliability problems of older-generation electromechanical coolers, but the product has no significant history of use, and this project is the first independent evaluation of its performance for Total cost savings for the DOE and other agencies that use HPGe systems extensively for safeguards monitoring is expected to be quite significant if the new electromechanical cooler technology is shown to be reliable and if performance characteristics indicate its usefulness for this application. The technology also promises to make HPGe monitoring, characterization and detection available for unattended or covert operation and in remote or inaccessible locations where the unavailability of LN{sub 2} and signal degradation from existing mechanical coolers prevent its use at the present time.

Coleman, RL

2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

33

Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

process equipment used in the gasification island. The syngas cooler (SC) is a fire tube heat exchanger located after the coal gasifier before the syngas combustion turbine. The...

34

The Sandia Cooler - Energy Innovation Portal  

A Fundamental Breakthrough in Heat Transfer Technology for Microelectronics In a conventional CPU cooler, the heat transfer bottleneck is the boundary layer of "dead ...

35

New and Underutilized Technology: Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling New and Underutilized Technology: Multi-stage Indirect Evaporative Cooling October 4, 2013 - 4:33pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for multi-stage evaporative cooling within the Federal sector. Benefits Multi-stage indirect evaporative cooling is an advanced evaporative cooler that can lower air temperatures without adding moisture. These systems evaporate water in a secondary (or working) airstream, which is discharged in multiple stages. No water or humidity is added to the primary (or product) airstream in the process. Application Multi-stage indirect evaporative cooling is applicable in office, research and development, service, and school applications. Climate and Regional Considerations

36

Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: Cooler cabins...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of solar reflective car shells: Cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions Title Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: Cooler cabins, fuel savings and...

37

Direct Evaporative Precooling Model and Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Evaporative condenser pre-cooling expands the availability of energy saving, cost-effective technology options (market engagement) and serves to expedite the range of options in upcoming codes and equipment standards (impacting regulation). Commercially available evaporative pre-coolers provide a low cost retrofit for existing packaged rooftop units, commercial unitary split systems, and air cooled chillers. We map the impact of energy savings and peak energy reduction in the 3 building types (medium office, secondary school, and supermarket) in 16 locations for three building types with four pad effectivenesses and show the effect for HVAC systems using either refrigerants R22 or R410A

Shen, Bo [ORNL; Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Craddick, William G [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kick-off Meeting, Kick-off Meeting, Wash. D.C - 10/01/2009 Materials and Modules for Low Cost, High Performance Fuel Cell Humidifiers Prime Contractor: W. L. Gore & Associates Elkton, MD Principal Investigator: William B. Johnson Sub-Contractor: dPoint Technologies Vancouver, BC W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. DOE Kick-off Meeting, Wash. D.C - 10/01/2009 Ahluwalia, et. al, ibid. Mirza, Z. DOE Hydrogen Program Review, June 9-13, 2008; Washington, DC Background W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. DOE Kick-off Meeting, Wash. D.C - 10/01/2009 Objective and Technical Barriers Addressed More efficient, low-cost humidifiers can increase fuel cell inlet humidity: Reduce system cost and size of balance of plant; Improve fuel cell performance; Improve fuel cell durability. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate a durable, high performance water

40

Muon ring cooler for the MUCOOL experiment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A possibility to use a ring cooler for the MUCOOL experiment is considered. The cooler is a ring accelerator of about 37 m in circumference consisting of 8 dipole magnets, 4 short solenoids with a field flip of {+-} 2:5 T, and 4 long solenoids with adiabatic field 2-5 T. The 201.25 MHz linacs provide accelerating gradient 15 MV/min in the long straight sections. Four 1.3 m long liquid hydrogen absorbers are put between the linacs for transverse cooling, and LiH wedge absorbers in the short SS are used for the emittance exchange. To simplify the injection problem, {pi}-{mu}-production on an internal target is considered as an option for the MUCOOL experiment.

Valeri Balbekov et al.

2001-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Testing of a Stirling cycle cooler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stirling cycle coolers have long been used as low temperature refrigeration devices. They are relatively compact, reliable, commercially available, and use helium as the working fluid. The Stirling cycle, in principle, can be used for household refrigeration and heat pumping applications as well. Currently, these applications are almost entirely provided by the vapor compression technology using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as working fluids. It has been known that CFCs cause depletion of the ozone layer that protects the earth against harmful levels of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. A recent report of a ''hole'' in the ozone layer above Antarctica and of possible environmental and health consequences from ozone depletion aroused public attention. The urgent need to reduce the future used of CFCs should instigate investigation of non-CFC alternative technologies. The Stirling cooler technology, which does not use CFCs, could be a viable alternative. A laboratory test of the performance of a Stirling cooler is reported and its implications for household refrigeration are explored. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Chen, F.C.; Keshock, E.G.; Murphy, R.W.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Material Optimization for Heterostructure Integrated Thermionic Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The material figure-of-merit for conventional thermoelectrics is p meff ' '43 where p is the electron or hole mobility, meff its effective mass, and p the material thermal conductivity. From the electronic point of view, in order to optimize the cooler performance, there is a trade off between electron effective mass and its mobility. While high mobility is inherently important to facilitate electron transport in the material and reduce the Joule heating, a large effective mass is only required due to the syrnnzetry of electronic density-of-states with respect to the Fermi energy in an energy range on the order of thermal energy (ks*T) near the Fermi level. It is possible to increase this asymmetry by using doping densities so that the Fermi level is close to the bandedge. In this case there is a small number of electrons participating in the conduction and the net transport of heat is small. We clarify how this trade off is alleviated in high barrier thermionic coolers. Prospects for different material systems to realize bulk and superlattice thermionic coolers are also discussed.

Ali Shakouri; Chris Labounty

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

American Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) American Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) January 31, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that American Cooler Technologies failed to certify walk-in coolers and freezers as compliant with the energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. American Cooler Technologies: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5305) More Documents & Publications American Cooler Technologies: Order (2013-CE-5305)

44

Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) February 21, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Golden Cooler failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Golden Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5345) More Documents & Publications Golden Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5345)

45

NETL: Gasification Systems - Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and Fouling Project No.: DE-FE0007952 Reaction Engineering International (REI) is working to develop practical solutions to mitigate the plugging and fouling of syngas coolers (SC) - fire tube heat exchangers located between the coal gasifier and the combustion turbine. Syngas coolers used in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants offer high efficiency, but their reliability is generally lower than other process equipment in the gasification island. The principle downtime events associated with syngas coolers are typically a result of ash deposits that: form on (wall) surfaces upstream of the syngas cooler, break loose, and then lodge in the tubes; or form on the fireside surface of the syngas cooler tubes that lead to fouling and reduced heat transfer. Both ash deposit mechanisms result in reduced equipment life and increased maintenance costs.

46

The evaporative gas turbine (EGT) cycle  

SciTech Connect

Humidification of the flow through a gas turbine has been proposed in a variety of forms. The STIG plant involves the generation of steam by the gas turbine exhaust in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and its injection into or downstream of the combustion chamber. This increases the mass flow through the turbine and the power output from the plant, with a small increase in efficiency. In the evaporative gas turbine (or EGT) cycle, water is injected in the compressor discharge in a regenerative gas turbine cycle (a so-called CBTX plant--compressor [C], burner [B], turbine [T], heat exchanger [X]); the air is evaporatively cooled before it enters the heat exchanger. While the addition of water increases the turbine mass flow and power output, there is also apparent benefit in reducing the temperature drop in the exhaust stack. In one variation of the basic EGT cycle, water is also added downstream of the evaporative aftercooler, even continuously in the heat exchanger. There are several other variations on the basic cycle (e.g., the cascaded humidified advanced turbine [CHAT]). The present paper analyzes the performance of the EGT cycle. The basic thermodynamics are first discussed, and related to the cycle analysis of a dry regenerative gas turbine plant. Subsequently some detailed calculations of EGT cycles are presented. The main purpose of the work is to seek the optimum pressure ratio in the EGT cycle for given constraints (e.g., fixed maximum to minimum temperature). It is argued that this optimum has a relatively low value.

Horlock, J.H. [Whittle Lab., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

NETL: Gasification - Mitigation of Syngas Cooler Plugging and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the coal gasifier and the combustion turbine. Syngas coolers used in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants offer high efficiency, but their reliability is...

48

The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses the history of the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium using small coolers. This history dates form the 1960's when two stage GM coolers capable of reaching 7 K were used to liquefy helium and hydrogen by suing an added compressor and J-T circuit. Liquefaction using the added circuit failed to become mainstream because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because of impurities in the gas being liquefied. Liquefaction using a GM cooler without an added J-T circuit proved to be difficult because the first stage was not used to pre-cool the gas coming to the second stage of the cooler. Once the gas being liquefied was pre-cooled using the cooler first stage, improvements in the liquefaction rates were noted. The advent of low temperature pulse tube cooler (down to 2.5 K) permitted one to achieve dramatic improvement is the liquefactions rates for helium. Similar but less dramatic improvements are expected for hydrogen as well. Using the PT-415 cooler, one can expect liquefaction rates of 15 to 20 liters per day for helium or hydrogen provided the heat leak into the cooler and the storage vessel is low. A hydrogen liquefier for MICE is presented at the end of this report.

Green, Michael A.

2006-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

49

Custom Coolers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) Custom Coolers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) January 31, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Custom Coolers, LLC, failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer (WICF) components as compliant with the energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Custom Coolers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5315) More Documents & Publications Custom Coolers: Order (2013-CE-5315) Imperial Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5322)

50

Southeast Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) Southeast Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) January 31, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Southeast Cooler Corp. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Southeast Cooler: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5331) More Documents & Publications Southeast Cooler: Order (2013-CE-5331) Dade Engineering: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5316)

51

Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler fouling has become a significant issue for compliance with NOX emissions standards. This paper reports results of a study of fundamental aspects of EGR cooler fouling. An apparatus and procedure were developed to allow surrogate EGR cooler tubes to be exposed to diesel engine exhaust under controlled conditions. The resulting fouled tubes were removed and analyzed. Volatile and non-volatile deposit mass was measured for each tube. Thermal diffusivity of the deposited soot cake was measured by milling a window into the tube and using the Xenon flash lamp method. The heat capacity of the deposit was measured at temperatures up to 430 C and was slightly higher than graphite, presumably due to the presence of hydrocarbons. These measurements were combined to allow calculation of the deposit thermal conductivity, which was determined to be 0.041 W/mK, only ~1.5 times that of air and much lower than the 304 stainless steel tube (14.7 W/mK). The main determinant of the deposit thermal conductivity is density, which was measured to be just 2% that of the density of the primary soot particles (or 98% porous). The deposit layer thermal resistance was calculated and compared with estimates of the thermal resistance calculated from gas temperature data during the experiment. The deposit properties were also used to further analyze the temperature data collected during the experiment.

Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Energy Efficient, Evaporative Desalination Using ...  

Energy Efficient, Evaporative Desalination Using Superhydrophobic (SH) Technology Evaporative desalination is a simple and easy way to convert salt ...

53

Summary of Fermilab's Recycler Electron Cooler Operation and Studies  

SciTech Connect

Fermilab's Recycler ring was used as a storage ring for accumulation and subsequent manipulations of 8 GeV antiprotons destined for the Tevatron collider. To satisfy these missions, a unique electron cooling system was designed, developed and successfully implemented. The most important features that distinguish the Recycler cooler from other existing electron coolers are its relativistic energy, 4.3 MV combined with 0.1-0.5 A DC beam current, a weak continuous longitudinal magnetic field in the cooling section, 100 G, and lumped focusing elsewhere. With the termination of the Tevatron collider operation, so did the cooler. In this article, we summarize the experience of running this unique machine.

Prost, L.R.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

NETL: Gasification - A Technology to Mitigate Syngas Cooler Fouling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the coal gasification process depositing on the inner walls of the tubes in the fire tube heat exchanger used in the syngas cooler. Current project plans include the development of...

55

Tests of Four PT-415 Coolers Installed in the Drop-in Mode  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The superconducting magnets and absorbers for MICE will be cooled using PT415 pulse tube coolers. The cooler 2nd stage will be connected to magnets and the absorbers through a helium or hydrogen re-condensing system. It was proposed that the coolers be connected to the magnets in such a way that the cooler can be easily installed and removed, which permits the magnets to be shipped without the coolers. The drop-in mode requires that the cooler 1st stage be well connected to the magnet shields and leads through a low temperature drop demountable connection. The results of the PT415 drop-in cooler tests are presented.

Green, Michael A.; Wang, S.T.

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

56

Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities Cool Roofs Lead to Cooler Cities July 23, 2010 - 2:07pm Addthis John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Dark-colored roofs and roadways create what is called the "urban heat island effect," meaning a city is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas. Light colored roofs reduce the heat island effect and improve air quality by reducing emissions. Lighter-colored roofing surfaces reflect more of the sun's heat, which helps to improve building efficiency by reducing cooling costs and offsetting carbon emissions. Roofs and road pavement cover 50 to 65 percent of urban areas. Because they absorb so much heat, dark-colored roofs and roadways create what is called

57

Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money October 22, 2010 - 11:33am Addthis EAA Executive Director Luis Bernal addresses an audience about Puerto Rico’s State Energy Program. | Photo courtesy EAA EAA Executive Director Luis Bernal addresses an audience about Puerto Rico's State Energy Program. | Photo courtesy EAA Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? Market saving $16,000 annually from cooling upgrades $37 million in Recovery Act funding projected to save millions on island Recovery Act funded 11 programs 22 direct jobs, 394 indirect jobs in Puerto Rico Buying fruits and vegetables at the Las Piedras farmers market is now more comfortable for the thousands of Puerto Ricans who shop there regularly.

58

Soluble Substances and Evaporation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Soluble Substances and Evaporation Soluble Substances and Evaporation Name: JD Status: student Grade: 9-12 Location: FL Country: New Zealand Date: Winter 2011-2012 Question: Do soluble substances evaporate with the water? Replies: JD, As a general rule, no. If the soluble substance is a solid, then its boiling point is well above that of water, so it cannot possibly boil off. If the substance is a liquid, it may have a boiling point that is below that of water and will boil off at a lower temperature than water. If the boiling point is higher than that of water, than it will boil off after the water has evaporated. Some substances, like ethanol for example, form an "azeotrope" with water. The combination of ethanol and water form a tight intermolecular connection that makes the two substances boil off at the same time.

59

Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

COMMISSIONING COSY COOLER WITH ELECTRON BEAM AT NOVOSIBIRSK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is assembled in BINP [1]. Results of experiments with high voltage, with electron beam, cascade transformer for distribution power along acceleration tube will be discussed in this report. The COSY cooler is designed HV power supply (plus/minus 30 kV) and power supply of the magnetic coils. The electrical power

Kozak, Victor R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Hot air drum evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, Roger L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Study on drywell cooler applicability to severe accident management  

SciTech Connect

This paper concerns applicability of drywell cooler (DWC) heat removal under severe accident condition in BWR plants. Newly developed heat removal models based on DWC heat removal experiments were built into the MAAP3 code. And then, two types of Japanese BWR were selected to evaluate DWC heat removal performance under typical severe accident scenarios. According to the results of the evaluation, DWC delays or prevents containment failure or venting. (authors)

Nakagawa, Takahiro [Information and manufacturing systems division, Toshiba Plant Systems and Services Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Akinaga, Makoto [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Center, Toshiba Corporation, 4-1 Ukishima-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki, 210-0862 (Japan); Hamazaki, Ryoichi [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Matsuo, Toshihiro [Nuclear Power Engineering Department, Tokyo Electric Power Company, 1-3 Uchisaiwai-cho 1-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-0011 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kouji [Nuclear Plant Engineering Department, HITACHI, Ltd., 1-1, Saiwai-cho, 3-chome, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 317-8511 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Heat recirculating cooler for fluid stream pollutant removal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process by which heat is removed from a reactant fluid to reach the operating temperature of a known pollutant removal method and said heat is recirculated to raise the temperature of the product fluid. The process can be utilized whenever an intermediate step reaction requires a lower reaction temperature than the prior and next steps. The benefits of a heat-recirculating cooler include the ability to use known pollutant removal methods and increased thermal efficiency of the system.

Richards, George A. (Morgantown, WV); Berry, David A. (Morgantown, WV)

2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

64

Mapping evaporate minerals by ASTER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporate minerals are important industrial raw materials that have been used in diverse industries for many years. As one of the most extensively used evaporate minerals, gypsum is an important raw material in the construction, agriculture, textile, ...

N. Serkan Oztan; M. Lutfi Suzen

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Falling film evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

Bruns, Lester E. (Kennewick, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Integral finned heater and cooler for stirling engines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A piston and cylinder for a Stirling engine and the like having top and bottom meshing or nesting finned conical surfaces to provide large surface areas in close proximity to the working gas for good thermal (addition and subtraction of heat) exchange to the working gas and elimination of the usual heater and cooler dead volume. The piston fins at the hot end of the cylinder are perforated to permit the gas to pass into the piston interior and through a regenerator contained therein.

Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Projected Benefits of New Residential Evaporative Cooling Systems: Progress Report #2  

SciTech Connect

The use of conventional evaporative cooling has rapidly declined in the United States despite the fact that it has high potential for energy savings in dry climates. Evaporative systems are very competitive in terms of first cost and provide significant reductions in operating energy use, as well as peak-load reduction benefits. Significant market barriers still remain and can be addressed through improved systems integration. This report investigates the first of these approaches, exploring innovative components. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America research teams are investigating the use of two promising new pieces of residential cooling equipment that employ evaporative cooling as a part of their system design. The OASys unit, which is a combination of direct and indirect evaporative cooling stages developed by Davis Energy Group (DEG) and manufactured by Speakman CRS, is used to ultimately provide outside air to the living space. The outdoor air provided is indirectly and directly evaporatively cooled in two stages to a condition that can be below the wet-bulb (wb) temperature of the outside air, thus outperforming a conventional single-stage direct evaporative cooler.

Kutscher, C.; Eastment, M.; Hancock, E.; Reeves, P.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, John D. (Kennewick, WA); Gross, Mark E. (Pasco, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

71

Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved evaporator section for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes.

Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Rawlinson, K. Scott (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Green Data Center Cooling: Achieving 90% Reduction: Airside Economization and Unique Indirect Evaporative Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center's constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant change is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling system. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. This project's geographic location allowed maximizing the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling, but these strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the U.S.

Weerts, B. A.; Gallaher, D.; Weaver, R.; Van Geet, O.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Design of a Veneer Cooler/Sorter for the Plywood Industry.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radio Frequency (rf) dryers offer the opportunity for veneer manufacturers to process more high grade veneer and to do it more efficiently. A veneer cooler has been designed to enhance the use of rf technology in this industry by eliminating certain problems associated with cooling and inventory delays. The objective of this study was to determine the economic and technical feasibility of a veneer cooler/sorter for use with rf dryers in the plywood manufacturing industry. The second part of this report provides an accurate cost estimate for building a forced air cooler system to be used in conjunction with an rf veneer redryer. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Inlet Air Spray Cooler for Gas Turbine Power Augmentation: Plans, Specifications and Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field tests on a commercial combustion turbine generator show that novel cooling technology economically augments power output. This report details the results and presents key spray cooler design parameters.

1997-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

75

Re-Condensation and Liquefaction of Helium and Hydrogen Using Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

K despite the lack of a heat exchanger on the first stage.FIGURE 4. Cooler and Heat Exchanger Configurations that canapply (provided the heat exchanger area is infinite): Mc p (

Green, Michael A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Progress in Development of a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler for Space Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pulse tube cryocooler is under development for high?reliability spacecraft applications. Recent developments in the assembly and verification of a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) are presented

A. S. Gibson; R. Hunt; I. Charles; L. Duband; M. R. Crook; A. H. Orlowska; T. W. Bradshaw; M. Linder

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Indirect evaporative cooling in retail  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

JCPenney Co., Inc., recently opened a 126,000-sq ft, two-level retail store in Albuquerque, NM. The project construction was accomplished using a design-build format. This process allows preliminary construction processes to begin while the design is finalized. Law/Kingdom, Inc. was assigned the architectural and engineering services for this building. During the process of design, the team decided to study the addition of evaporative cooling into the air system. This article reviews system design, selection, and performance using an indirect evaporative system in the HVAC system. It also demonstrates the company`s design approach on the original equipment selection for a typical anchor store.

Bartlett, T.A. [JCPenney Co., Plano, TX (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Practical Estimates of Lake Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Practical estimates of lake evaporation must rely on data that can be observed in the land environment. This requires the ability to take into account the changes in the temperature and humidity that occur when the air passes from the land to the ...

F. I. Morton

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Iodine retention during evaporative volume reduction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for retaining radioactive iodine in aqueous waste solutions during volume reduction is disclosed. The method applies to evaporative volume reduction processes whereby the decontaminated (evaporated) water can be returned safely to the environment. The method generally comprises isotopically diluting the waste solution with a nonradioactive iodide and maintaining the solution at a high pH during evaporation.

Godbee, H.W.; Cathers, G.I.; Blanco, R.E.

1975-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

80

Direct numerical simulation of evaporating droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for the three-dimensional direct numerical simulation of evaporating, deforming droplets in incompressible flow is presented. It is based on the volume-of-fluid method and is therefore capable of capturing very strong deformations. The evaporation ... Keywords: DNS, Deformed droplets, Evaporation, Multiphase flow, Stefan flow, VOF

Jan Schlottke; Bernhard Weigand

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students September 21, 2010 - 4:30pm Addthis Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Loretta Prencipe Senior Communications Analyst, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy It is back to school time for the 513 students at Ring Factory Elementary School in Harford County, Md. And there's something new and cool --

82

Southeast Cooler Corp. Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Southeast Cooler Corp. Southeast Cooler Corp. Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Case Number: 2013-CE-5331 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: I. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and Southeast Cooler Corp. ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations of the compliance certification requirements located at 10 C.P.R.§§ 429.12 and 429.53. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

83

Commercial Cooler, Inc. Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Commercial Cooler, Inc. Commercial Cooler, Inc. Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Case Number: 2013-CE-5343 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: I. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and Commercial Cooler, Inc. ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations of the compliance certification requirements located at I 0 C.F.R. §§ 429.12 and 429.53. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

84

NASA Lewis Stirling SPRE testing and analysis with reduced number of cooler tubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Free-piston Stirling power converters are a candidate for high capacity space power applications. The Space Power Research Engine (SPRE), a free-piston Stirling engine coupled with a linear alternator, is being tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of the Civil Space Technology Initiative. The SPRE is used as a test bed for evaluating converter modifications which have the potential to improve converter performance and for validating computer code predictions. Reducing the number of cooler tubes on the SPRE has been identified as a modification with the potential to significantly improve power and efficiency. This paper describes experimental tests designed to investigate the effects of reducing the number of cooler tubes on converter power, efficiency and dynamics. Presented are test results from the converter operating with a reduced number of cooler tubes and comparisons between this data and both baseline test data and computer code predictions.

Wong, W.A.; Cairelli, J.E.; Swec, D.M.; Doeberling, T.J.; Lakatos, T.F. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Madi, F.J. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center Group

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students Learning is Now Much 'Cooler' for Maryland School Students September 21, 2010 - 4:30pm Addthis Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Ring Factory Elementary School has installed a new ENERGY STAR-rated "cool" roof that is estimated to be 57 percent more energy efficient than the previous roof. | U.S. Department of Energy Loretta Prencipe Senior Communications Analyst, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy It is back to school time for the 513 students at Ring Factory Elementary School in Harford County, Md. And there's something new and cool --

86

Custom Coolers, LLC Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Custom Coolers, LLC Custom Coolers, LLC Respondent BEFORE THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Case Number: 2013-CE-5315 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: I. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and Custom Coolers, LLC ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations ofthe compliance certification requirements located at 10 C.F.R. §§ 429.12 and 429.53. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

87

Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Office of Science (SC) is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, providing more than 40 percent of total funding for the Nations research programs in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, and fusion energy sciences.

An Esnet Perspective; Joint Techs; William E. Johnston; Esnet Department Head; Senior Scientist; Snow Melt

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Diffusion-Controlled Evaporating Completely Wetting Meniscus in a Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coefficient of grooved heat pipe evaporator walls. Int. J.ranging from micro heat pipes to grooved evaporators. In

Njante, Jean-Pierre

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Buddy's is now offering a self-service cooler and checkout system in the SNS b  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Buddy's is now offering a self-service cooler and checkout system in the SNS building 8600 after its Buddy's is now offering a self-service cooler and checkout system in the SNS building 8600 after its normal operating hours. The self-service cooler and kiosk will be open from 1:15 pm to 6:30 am the following morning. Buddy's employees will not be available or present during this time. The cafeteria will be operating on the Honor System, choose what you like and make sure to ring up each item you wish to purchase, as the items are inventoried every day. While traditional cafeteria style buffet etc. will not be offered, Buddy's will offer a wide variety of the following: sandwiches, salads, soups, side items, yogurts, drinks and desserts. The self-service cooler is located next to the salad bar and behind the drink station. All items have been tagged with custom barcodes (if they didn't have one already, ex. Chips and

90

THE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR THE ACCELERATING COLUMN OF THE 2 MEV ELECTRON COOLER FOR COSY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

filter, and various power supplies for these elements. The cascade transformer is to provide a requiredTHE POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM FOR THE ACCELERATING COLUMN OF THE 2 MEV ELECTRON COOLER FOR COSY D a high-energy electron beam. The power supply for the accelerating column of the electron cooling system

Kozak, Victor R.

91

Evaporative Enhancement for Air Cooled Condensers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes research into condenser air evaporative pre-cooling technologies and the associated potential for energy and peak power savings. The interest in this project is evaluation of the specific application of evaporative cooling to the inlet air of condenser coils, particularly for large roof-top type air cooled chillers. While the technology is established and understood particularly well for hot, dry climates, this report is intended to also examine evaporative ...

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

92

Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

Dew-Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Presentation on innovative indirect evaporative cooling technology developed by Coolerado Corporation given at the Rocky Mountain Chapter ASHRAE conference in April 2012.

Dean, J.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

A Parameterization of the Evaporation of Rainfall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study we develop theoretical expressions for the rainfall rate, P(z), and the total evaporation rate from cloud base to a level z below cloud base, E(z). The resultant parameterization for the total evaporation is given by E(z) = CP?(0)?(...

Michael E. Schlesinger; Jai-Ho Oh; Daniel Rosenfeld

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A. [and others

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Ion-Drop Interaction During Drop Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a basic experiment in warm cloud electrification, evaporating large drops were studied as they floated in an ion-rich environment in a vertical wind tunnel. The drops were found to acquire a positive charge during their evaporation, a result ...

Tsutomu Takahashi; Tatsuo Endoh

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system. DEVAP uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less

98

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system.

99

Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Model-Based Controls Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler Background The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) develops affordable and clean energy from coal and other fossil fuels to secure a sustainable energy economy. To further this mission, NETL funds research and development of advanced sensor and control technologies that can function under the extreme operating conditions often found in advanced power systems, particularly

100

Materials Testing in a Syngas Cooler of a Coal Gasification Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of an ongoing study of the corrosion of metallic alloys, several steels and protective coatings were exposed for up to 17,000 hrs in a syngas cooler of a coal-slurry-fed, entrained slagging gasifier. The materials suffered from corrosion during high-temperature service as well as during shutdown. Stainless steels containing molybdenum and low-alloy steels protected by a silicon-carbide refractory showed promising low corrosion rates, which decreased with increasing service time.

1996-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission  

SciTech Connect

The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

Schock, Alfred

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Black Hole Evaporation as a Nonequilibrium Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a black hole evaporates, there arises a net energy flow from the black hole into its outside environment due to the Hawking radiation and the energy accretion onto black hole. Exactly speaking, due to the net energy flow, the black hole evaporation is a nonequilibrium process. To study details of evaporation process, nonequilibrium effects of the net energy flow should be taken into account. In this article we simplify the situation so that the Hawking radiation consists of non-self-interacting massless matter fields and also the energy accretion onto the black hole consists of the same fields. Then we find that the nonequilibrium nature of black hole evaporation is described by a nonequilibrium state of that field, and we formulate nonequilibrium thermodynamics of non-self-interacting massless fields. By applying it to black hole evaporation, followings are shown: (1) Nonequilibrium effects of the energy flow tends to accelerate the black hole evaporation, and, consequently, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon of semi-classical black hole evaporation is suggested. Furthermore a suggestion about the end state of quantum size black hole evaporation is proposed in the context of information loss paradox. (2) Negative heat capacity of black hole is the physical essence of the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics, and self-entropy production inside the matter around black hole is not necessary to ensure the generalized second law. Furthermore a lower bound for total entropy at the end of black hole evaporation is given. A relation of the lower bound with the so-called covariant entropy bound conjecture is interesting but left as an open issue.

Hiromi Saida

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

103

On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

104

Analysis of Evaporation Data From Heated Ponds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Controlled field experiments have improved understanding of the role evaporation plays in the thermal performance and water consumption of utility cooling ponds. The data show significant effects of water surface temperature, fetch or wind direction, and pond sheltering.

1987-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

105

The Temperature of Evaporating Sea Spray Droplets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporating sea spray droplets are often assumed to be at the temperature of a well-ventilated wet-bulb thermometer, Twet. Although this assumption may be accurate enough in practice, it is incorrect on theoretical grounds. Spray droplets have ...

Edgar L. Andreas

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

Felde, D.K.; McKoon, R.H.

1993-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

107

Ball feeder for replenishing evaporator feed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Vapor source material such as uranium, which is to be dropped into a melt in an evaporator, is made into many balls of identical diameters and placed inside a container. An elongated sloping pipe is connected to the container and leads to the evaporator such that these balls can travel sequentially therealong by gravity. A metering valve in this pipe for passing these balls one at a time is opened in response to a signal when it is ascertained by a detector that there is a ball ready to be passed. A gate in the pipe near the evaporator momentarily stops the motion of the traveling ball and is then opened to allow the ball drop into the melt at a reduced speed.

Felde, David K. (Oak Ridge, TN); McKoon, Robert H. (San Ramon, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

Carr, P.

1991-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Hot air drum evaporator. [Patent application  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An evaporation system for aqueous radioactive waste uses standard 30 and 55 gallon drums. Waste solutions form cascading water sprays as they pass over a number of trays arranged in a vertical stack within a drum. Hot dry air is circulated radially of the drum through the water sprays thereby removing water vapor. The system is encased in concrete to prevent exposure to radioactivity. The use of standard 30 and 55 gallon drums permits an inexpensive compact modular design that is readily disposable, thus eliminating maintenance and radiation build-up problems encountered with conventional evaporation systems.

Black, R.L.

1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

110

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

111

New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems New and Underutilized Technology: Evaporative Pre-Cooling Systems October 4, 2013 - 4:43pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for evaporated pre-cooling systems within the Federal sector. Benefits Evaporative pre-cooling systems install ahead of the condenser to lower the condenser pressure. These systems can also work with an economizer. Evaporative pre-cooling reduces the requirement for energy intensive DX cooling. Application Evaporative pre-cooling systems are applicable in most building categories. Climate and Regional Considerations Evaporative pre-cooling systems are well suited in dry climates. Key Factors for Deployment Water usage needs to be taken into account in evaporative pre-cooling

112

Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

Adu-Wusu, K.

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

113

Making Maps from Planck LFI 30GHz Data with Asymmetric Beams and Cooler Noise  

SciTech Connect

The Planck satellite will observe the full sky at nine frequencies from 30 to 857 GHz. Temperature and polarization frequency maps made from these observations are prime deliverables of the Planck mission. The goal of this paper is to examine the effects of four realistic instrument systematics in the 30 GHz frequency maps: non-axially-symmetric beams, sample integration, sorption cooler noise, and pointing errors. They simulated one year long observations of four 30 GHz detectors. The simulated timestreams contained CMB, foreground component (both galactic and extra-galactic), instrument nolise (correlated and white), and the four instrument systematic effects. They made maps from the timelines and examined the magnitudes of the systematics effects in the maps and their angular power spectra. They also compared the maps of different mapmaking codes to see how they performed. They used five mapmaking codes (two destripers and three optimal codes). None of their mapmaking codes makes an attempt to deconvolve the beam from its output map. Therefore all our maps had similar smoothing due to beams and sample integration. This is a complicated smoothing, because every map pixel has its own effective beam. Temperature to polarization cross-coupling due to beam mismatch causes a detectable bias in the TE spectrum of the CMB map. The effects of cooler noise and pointing errors did not appear to be major concerns for the 30 GHz channel. The only essential difference found so far between mapmaking codes that affects accuracy (in terms of residual RMS) is baseline length. All optimal codes give essentially indistiguishable results. A destriper gives the same result as the optimal codes when the baseline is set short enough (Madam). For longer baselines destripers (Springtide and Madam) require less computing resources but deliver a noisier map.

The Planck CTP Working Group; Ashdown, M.A.J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Bartlett, J.G.; Borrill, J.; Cantalupo, C.; de Gasperis, G.; Gorski, K.M.; Hivon, E.; Huffenberger, K.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Hurki-Suonio, H.; Lawrence, C.R.; Natoli, P.; Poutanen, T.; Prezeau, G.; Reinecke, M.; Rocha, G.; Sandri, M.; Stompor, R..; Villa, F.; Wandelt, B.; de Troia, G.

2008-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

114

Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option  

SciTech Connect

The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes--A Stage 2 Scoping Assessment, ORNL/TM-2005/194 (Baxter 2005). The 2005 study report describes the HVAC options considered, the ranking criteria used, and the system rankings by priority. In 2006, the two top-ranked options from the 2005 study, air-source and ground-source versions of a centrally ducted integrated heat pump (IHP) system, were subjected to an initial business case study. The IHPs were subjected to a more rigorous hourly-based assessment of their performance potential compared to a baseline suite of equipment of legally minimum efficiency that provided the same heating, cooling, water heating, demand dehumidification, and ventilation services as the IHPs. Results were summarized in a project report, Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes, ORNL/TM-2006/130 (Baxter 2006a). The present report is an update to that document which summarizes results of an analysis of the impact of adding a humidifier to the HVAC system to maintain minimum levels of space relative humidity (RH) in winter. The space RH in winter has direct impact on occupant comfort and on control of dust mites, many types of disease bacteria, and 'dry air' electric shocks. Chapter 8 in ASHRAE's 2005 Handbook of Fundamentals (HOF) suggests a 30% lower limit on RH for indoor temperatures in the range of {approx}68-69F based on comfort (ASHRAE 2005). Table 3 in chapter 9 of the same reference suggests a 30-55% RH range for winter as established by a Canadian study of exposure limits for residential indoor environments (EHD 1987). Harriman, et al (2001) note that for RH levels of 35% or higher, electrostatic shocks are minimized and that dust mites cannot live at RH levels below 40%. They also indicate that many disease bacteria life spans are minimized when space RH is held within a 30-60% range. From the foregoing it is reasonable to assume that a winter space RH range of 30-40% would be an acceptable compromise between comfort considerations and limitation of growth rates for dust mites and many bacteria. In addition it reports som

Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Convection-Evaporation Feedback in the Equatorial pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coupling between convection and surface evaporation is investigated to assess the importance of evaporative cooling in regulating the tropical sea surface temperature. It is found that such a coupling is scale dependent. On timescales of ...

Guang Jun Zhang; V. Ramanathan; Michael J. McPhaden

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

On the Evaporation Duct for Inhomogeneous Conditions in Coastal Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporation ducts are ubiquitous phenomena over the oceans, and they are responsible for much of the over-the-horizon propagation occurring with millimeter and microwave radars. The height of the evaporation duct depends on meteorological ...

G. L. Geernaert

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

New Approach to the Measurement of Interception Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporation of water intercepted by vegetation represents an important (sometimes major) part of evapotranspiration in temperate regions. Interception evaporation is an important process where insufficient measurement techniques hamper progress ...

A. Lundberg; M. Eriksson; S. Halldin; E. Kellner; J. Seibert

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Sensible Heat Observations Reveal Soil-Water Evaporation Dynamics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil-water evaporation is important at scales ranging from microbial ecology to large-scale climate. Yet routine measurements are unable to capture rapidly shifting near-surface soil heat and water processes involved in soil-water evaporation. ...

J. L. Heitman; R. Horton; T. J. Sauer; T. M. DeSutter

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Global Atmospheric Evaporative Demand over Land from 1973 to 2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pan evaporation (EP), an index of atmospheric evaporative demand, has been widely reported to have weakened in the past decades. However, its interpretation remains controversial because EP observations are not globally available and observations ...

Kaicun Wang; Robert E. Dickinson; Shunlin Liang

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Chemical Potential Jump during Evaporation of a Quantum Bose Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The dependence of the chemical potential jump coefficient on the evaporation coefficient is analyzed for the case in which the evaporating component is a Bose gas. The concentration of the evaporating component is assumed to be much lower than the concentration of the carrier gas. The expression for the chemical potential jump is derived from the analytic solution of the problem for the case in which the collision frequency of molecules of the evaporating component is constant.

E. A. Bedrikova; A. V. Latyshev

2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Application Research of Evaporative Cooling in the Waste Heat Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporative condenser is one kind of high-efficient and energy-water saving heat exchange equipment, which has been widely applied in many engineering fields. The theory and product characteristic of evaporative condenser is introduced in this paper. ... Keywords: Evaporative condenser, Waste heat recovery, Energy saving, Water saving

Zhijiang Wu; Nan Wang; Gongsheng Zhu

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

EVAPORATIVE COOLING - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR ATLAS SCT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The conceptual design of an evaporative two-phase flow cooling system for the ATLAS SCT detector is described, using perfluorinated propane (C3F8) as a coolant. Comparison with perfluorinated butane (C4F10) is made, although the detailed design is presented only for C3F8. The two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are calculated in order to determine the dimensions of the cooling pipes and module contacts for the Barrel SCT. The region in which the flow is homogeneous is determined. The cooling cycle, pipework, compressor, heat exchangers and other main elements of the system are calculated in order to be able to discuss the system control, safety and reliability. Evaporative cooling appears to be substantially better than the binary ice system from the point of view of safety, reliability, detector thickness, heat transfer coefficient, cost and simplicity.

Niinikoski, T O

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

The Partitioning of Evapotranspiration into Transpiration, Soil Evaporation, and Canopy Evaporation in a GCM: Impacts on LandAtmosphere Interaction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the global partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into transpiration, soil evaporation, and canopy evaporation is not well known, most current land surface schemes and the few available observations indicate that transpiration is the ...

David M. Lawrence; Peter E. Thornton; Keith W. Oleson; Gordon B. Bonan

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Information Loss in Black Hole Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parikh-Wilczek tunnelling framework is investigated again. We argue that Parikh-Wilczek's treatment, which satisfies the first law of black hole thermodynamics and consists with an underlying unitary theory, is only suitable for a reversible process. Because of the negative heat capacity, an evaporating black hole is a highly unstable system. That is, the factual emission process is irreversible, the unitary theory will not be satisfied and the information loss is possible.

Jingyi Zhang; Yapeng Hu; Zheng Zhao

2005-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

125

Colloidal Shape Effects in Evaporating Drops  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the influence of particle shape on the behavior of evaporating drops. A first set of experiments discovered that particle shape modifies particle deposition after drying. For sessile drops, spheres are deposited in a ring-like stain, while ellipsoids are deposited uniformly. Experiments elucidate the kinetics of ellipsoids and spheres at the drop's edge. A second set of experiments examined evaporating drops confined between glass plates. In this case, colloidal particles coat the ribbon-like air-water interface, forming colloidal monolayer membranes (CMMs). As particle anisotropy increases, CMM bending rigidity was found to increase, which in turn introduces a new mechanism that produces a uniform deposition of ellipsoids and a heterogeneous deposition of spheres after drying. A final set of experiments investigates the effect of surfactants in evaporating drops. The radially outward flow that pushes particles to the drop's edge also pushes surfactants to the drop's edge, which leads to a radially inward flow on the drop surface. The presence of radially outward flows in the bulk fluid and radially inward flows at the drop surface creates a Marangoni eddy, among other effects, which also modifies deposition after drying.

Peter J. Yunker; Tim Still; A. G. Yodh

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

126

Evaporated lithium surface coatings in NSTX.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

Zakharov, L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gates, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Menard, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Maingi, R. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Schneider, H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mueller, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wampler, William R.; Roquemore, A. L. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kallman, Jeffrey K. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Sabbagh, S. (Columbia University, New York, NY); LeBlanc, B. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Raman, R. (University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Ono, M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Wilgren, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Allain, J.P. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Timberlake, J. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Stevenson, T. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Ross, P. W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Majeski, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kugel, Henry W. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Skinner, C. H. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Gerhardt, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Paul, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Bell, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaye, S. M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Kaita, R. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Soukhanovskii, V. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Bell, Michael G. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ); Mansfield, D. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ)

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Nuclear evaporation process with simultaneous multiparticle emission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The nuclear evaporation process is reformulated by taking into account simultaneous multiparticle emission from a hot compound nucleus appearing as an intermediate state in many nuclear reaction mechanisms. The simultaneous emission of many particles is particularly relevant for high excitation energy of the compound nucleus.These channels are effectively open in competition with the single particle emissions and fission in this energy regime. Indeed, the inclusion of these channels along the decay evaporating chain shows that the yield of charged particles and occurrence of fission are affected by these multiparticle emission processes of the compounded nucleus, when compared to the single sequential emission results. The effect also shows a qualitative change in the neutron multiplicity of different heavy compound nucleus considered. This should be an important aspect for the study of spallation reaction in Acceleration Driven System (ADS) reactors. The majority of neutrons generated in these reactions come from the evaporation stage of the reaction, the source of neutron for the system. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to determine the effect of these channels on the particle yield and fission process. The relevance of the simultaneous particle emission with the increasing of excitation energy of the compound nucleus is explicitly shown.

Leonardo P. G. De Assis; Sergio B. Duarte; Bianca M. Santos

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

128

Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies Deposit Properties and Microstructure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the results of experimental efforts aimed at improving the understanding of the mechanisms and conditions at play in the fouling of EGR coolers. An experimental apparatus was constructed to utilize simplified surrogate heat exchanger tubes in lieu of full-size heat exchangers. The use of these surrogate tubes allowed removal of the tubes after exposure to engine exhaust for study of the deposit layer and its properties. The exhaust used for fouling the surrogate tubes was produced using a modern medium-duty diesel engine fueled with both ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel blends. At long exposure times, no significant difference in the fouling rate was observed between fuel types and HC levels. Surface coatings for the tubes were also evaluated to determine their impact on deposit growth. No surface treatment or coating produced a reduction in the fouling rate or any evidence of deposit removal. In addition, microstructural analysis of the fouling layers was performed using optical and electron microscopy in order to better understand the deposition mechanism. The experimental results are consistent with thermophoretic deposition for deposit formation, and van der Waals attraction between the deposit surface and exhaust-borne particulate.

Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL; Lance, Michael J [ORNL; Styles, Dan [Ford Motor Company; Simko, Steve [Ford Motor Company

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Radion clouds around evaporating black holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Kaluza-Klein model, with a matter source associated with Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole, is used to obtain a simple form for the radion effective potential. The environmental effect generally causes a matter-induced shift of the radion vacuum, resulting in the formation of a radion cloud around the hole. There is an albedo due to the radion cloud, with an energy dependent reflection coefficient that depends upon the size of the extra dimensions and the temperature of the hole.

J. R. Morris

2009-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

130

Study of falling-jet flash evaporators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experimental results of flash evaporation from sheets of water, 3.2 mm and 6.3 mm thick and 27.9 cm wide, falling freely in the presence of their own vapor, are reported. With no flashing the jets fall in coherent sheets, but with flashing the jets were observed to spread and break up into droplets. Flashing was characterized by an effectiveness parameter, which was found to increase with increasing water temperature and jet length. Variations in water flow rate and heat flux did not influence the effectiveness appreciably.

Kreith, F.; Olson, D.A.; Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The Cost of Helium Refrigerators and Coolers for SuperconductingDevices as a Function of Cooling at 4 K  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an update of papers written in 1991 and in1997 by Rod Byrns and this author concerning estimating the cost ofrefrigeration for superconducting magnets and cavities. The actual costsof helium refrigerators and coolers (escalated to 2007 dollars) areplotted and compared to a correlation function. A correlation functionbetween cost and refrigeration at 4.5 K is given. The capital cost oflarger refrigerators (greater than 10 W at 4.5 K) is plotted as afunction of 4.5-K cooling. The cost of small coolers is plotted as afunction of refrigeration available at 4.2 K. A correlation function forestimating efficiency (percent of Carnot) of both types of refrigeratorsis also given.

Green, Michael A.

2007-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

132

Program on Technology Innovation: Feasibility Study of Using a Thermosyphon Cooler Hybrid System to Reduce Cooling Tower Water Consu mption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Technical Update describes the initial work accomplished by a feasibility study for using a newly developed Thermosyphon Cooler (TSC) Hybrid System to reduce cooling-tower water consumption at steam power plants. The report outlines the overall project and then details the applicable codes and standards that would apply to this technology. It also briefly touches on the literature and patents relating to this field. It describes the rationale and constraints involved in setting up the ...

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

133

A Comparison of Australian Open Water Body Evaporation Trends for Current and Future Climates Estimated from Class A Evaporation Pans and General Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Trends of decreasing pan evaporation around the world have renewed interest in evaporation and its behavior in a warming world. Observed pan evaporation around Australia has been modeled to attribute changes in its constituent variables. It is ...

Fiona Johnson; Ashish Sharma

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle. Author(s), Donna Post Guillen, Helge Klockow, Matthew Lehar, Sebastian

135

"Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Increasing Solar Panel Efficiency And Reliability By Evaporative Cooling" Inventors..--.. Lewis Meixler, Charles Gentile, Patricia Hillyer, Dylan Carpe, Jason Wang, Caroline Brooks...

136

Electron Beam Evaporator Systems for Thin Film Deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Thin Film and Nanostructure Processing Group has two high-vacuum, electron beam evaporator systems for fabrication of single and multilayer ...

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

137

Reaction mechanism and reaction rate of Sn evaporation from liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although Sn is not easily removed by oxidation, Sn can be evaporated as Sn(g) and SnS(g), respectively. Increasing [%S] thus accelerates detinning rate.

138

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

+ ][Dca ? ]. Figure 2. Aerosol particle size distribution ofhypergolic ionic liquid aerosols Christine J. Koh , Chen-ionization of evaporated IL aerosols Isolated ion pairs of a

Koh, Christine J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Modeling Coupled Evaporation and Seepage in Ventilated Cavities  

SciTech Connect

Cavities excavated in unsaturated geological formations are important to activities such as nuclear waste disposal and mining. Such cavities provide a unique setting for simultaneous occurrence of seepage and evaporation. Previously, inverse numerical modeling of field liquid-release tests and associated seepage into cavities were used to provide seepage-related large-scale formation properties by ignoring the impact of evaporation. The applicability of such models was limited to the narrow range of ventilation conditions under which the models were calibrated. The objective of this study was to alleviate this limitation by incorporating evaporation into the seepage models. We modeled evaporation as an isothermal vapor diffusion process. The semi-physical model accounts for the relative humidity, temperature, and ventilation conditions of the cavities. The evaporation boundary layer thickness (BLT) over which diffusion occurs was estimated by calibration against free-water evaporation data collected inside the experimental cavities. The estimated values of BLT were 5 to 7 mm for the open underground drifts and 20 mm for niches closed off by bulkheads. Compared to previous models that neglected the effect of evaporation, this new approach showed significant improvement in capturing seepage fluctuations into open cavities of low relative humidity. At high relative-humidity values (greater than 85%), the effect of evaporation on seepage was very small.

T. Ghezzehei; R. Trautz; S. Finsterle; P. Cook; C. Ahlers

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Steam compression with inner evaporative spray cooling: a case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An adiabatic dry saturated steam compression process with inner evaporative spray cooling in screw compressors for steam heat pump systems is studied. Thermodynamic model and simulation of this variable-mass compression process are devised. Differential ... Keywords: inner evaporative spray cooling, screw compressors, simulation, steam compression, steam heat pumps, thermodynamic modelling, variable-mass compression, water injection

Jian Qui; Zhaolin Gu; Guoguang Cai

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

THERMOCHEMICAL AND PHOTOCHEMICAL KINETICS IN COOLER HYDROGEN-DOMINATED EXTRASOLAR PLANETS: A METHANE-POOR GJ436b?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce a thermochemical kinetics and photochemical model. We use high-temperature bidirectional reaction rates for important H, C, O, and N reactions (most importantly for CH{sub 4} to CO interconversion), allowing us to attain thermochemical equilibrium, deep in an atmosphere, purely kinetically. This allows the chemical modeling of an entire atmosphere, from deep-atmosphere thermochemical equilibrium to the photochemically dominated regime. We use our model to explore the atmospheric chemistry of cooler (T{sub eff} < 10{sup 3} K) extrasolar giant planets. In particular, we choose to model the nearby hot-Neptune GJ436b, the only planet in this temperature regime for which spectroscopic measurements and estimates of chemical abundances now exist. Recent Spitzer measurements with retrieval have shown that methane is driven strongly out of equilibrium and is deeply depleted on the day side of GJ436b, whereas quenched carbon monoxide is abundant. This is surprising because GJ436b is cooler than many of the heavily irradiated hot Jovians and thermally favorable for CH{sub 4}, and thus requires an efficient mechanism for destroying it. We include realistic estimates of ultraviolet flux from the parent dM star GJ436, to bound the direct photolysis and photosensitized depletion of CH{sub 4}. While our models indicate fairly rich disequilibrium conditions are likely in cooler exoplanets over a range of planetary metallicities, we are unable to generate the conditions for substantial CH{sub 4} destruction. One possibility is an anomalous source of abundant H atoms between 0.01 and 1 bars (which attack CH{sub 4}), but we cannot as yet identify an efficient means to produce these hot atoms.

Line, Michael R.; Yung, Yuk L. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Vasisht, Gautam; Chen, Pin [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Angerhausen, D., E-mail: mrl@gps.caltech.edu, E-mail: gv@s383.jpl.nasa.gov [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, 21029 Hamburg (Germany)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Disk evaporation in a planetary nebula  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the Galactic bulge planetary nebula M 2-29 (for which a 3-year eclipse event of the central star has been attributed to a dust disk) using HST imaging and VLT spectroscopy, both long-slit and integral field. The central cavity of M 2-29 is filled with a decreasing, slow wind. An inner high density core is detected, with radius less than 250 AU, interpreted as a rotating gas/dust disk with a bipolar disk wind. The evaporating disk is argued to be the source of the slow wind. The central star is a source of a very fast wind (1000 km/s). An outer, partial ring is seen in the equatorial plane, expanding at 12 km/s. The azimuthal asymmetry is attributed to mass-loss modulation by an eccentric binary. M 2-29 presents a crucial point in disk evolution, where ionization causes the gas to be lost, leaving a low-mass dust disk behind.

Gesicki, K; Szyszka, C; Hajduk, M; Lagadec, E; Ramirez, L Guzman

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The Importance of Spring and Autumn Atmospheric Conditions for the Evaporation Regime of Lake Superior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedbacks between ice extent and evaporation have long been suspected to be important for Lake Superior evaporation because it is during autumn and winter when latent heat fluxes are highest. Recent direct measurements of evaporation made at the ...

C. Spence; P. D. Blanken; J. D. Lenters; N. Hedstrom

144

Toward a Robust Phenomenological Expression of Evaporation Efficiency for Unsaturated Soil Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaporation rates of water from several soil types were measured under controlled conditions. When the layer of soil is sufficiently thin, the evaporation efficiency ?, the ratio of the evaporation rate from the soil surface relative to that ...

Teruhisa S. Komatsu

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

The Importance of Spring and Autumn Atmospheric Conditions for the Evaporation Regime of Lake Superior  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feedbacks between ice extent and evaporation have long been suspected to be important for Lake Superior evaporation because it is during autumn and winter when latent heat fluxes are highest. Recent direct measurements of evaporation made at the ...

C. Spence; P. D. Blanken; J. D. Lenters; N. Hedstrom

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

A Self-consistent Model of the Black Hole Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a self-consistent model which describes a black hole from formation to evaporation including the back reaction from the Hawking radiation. In the case where a null shell collapses, at the beginning the evaporation occurs, but it stops eventually, and a horizon and singularity appear. On the other hand, in the generic collapse process of a continuously distributed null matter, the black hole evaporates completely without forming a macroscopically large horizon nor singularity. We also find a stationary solution in the heat bath, which can be regarded as a normal thermodynamic object.

Hikaru Kawai; Yoshinori Matsuo; Yuki Yokokura

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

147

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Swenson Evaporator Co - IL 23  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Swenson Evaporator Co - IL 23 Swenson Evaporator Co - IL 23 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: SWENSON EVAPORATOR CO. (IL.23 ) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Harvey , Illinois IL.23-1 Evaluation Year: 1987 IL.23-1 Site Operations: Scheduled a raffinate spray drying test that was later cancelled. IL.23-1 Site Disposition: Eliminated - No indication that radioactive materials were handled at this site IL.23-1 Radioactive Materials Handled: None Indicated Primary Radioactive Materials Handled: None Radiological Survey(s): None Indicated Site Status: Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Also see Documents Related to SWENSON EVAPORATOR CO. IL.23-1 - Memorandum/Checklist; D.Levine to the File; Subject:

148

Monitoring Free-Water Evaporation at Automated Weather Stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The automation of weather stations necessitates an alternative approach to the traditional manual measure of free-water evaporation made using a class A pan. This study compared commercially available water-level sensing transducers mounted on ...

S. M. McGinn; H. D. J. McLean

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Decadal Trends in Evaporation from Global Energy and Water Balances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite and gridded meteorological data can be used to estimate evaporation (E) from land surfaces using simple diagnostic models. Two satellite datasets indicate a positive trend (first time derivative) in global available energy from 1983 to ...

Yongqiang Zhang; Ray Leuning; Francis H. S. Chiew; Enli Wang; Lu Zhang; Changming Liu; Fubao Sun; Murray C. Peel; Yanjun Shen; Martin Jung

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Arctic Precipitation and Evaporation: Model Results and Observational Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observational estimates of precipitation and evaporation over the Arctic Ocean and its terrestrial watersheds are compared with corresponding values from the climate model simulations of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). ...

John E. Walsh; Vladimir Kattsov; Diane Portis; Valentin Meleshko

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Correcting Microwave Precipitation Retrievals for near-Surface Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper compares two methods for correcting passive or active microwave surface precipitation estimates based on hydrometeors sensed aloft that may evaporate before landing. These corrections were derived using two years ...

Surussavadee, Chinnawat

152

Potential Evaporation and Soil Moisture in General Circulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The parameterization of continental evaporation in many atmospheric general circulation models (GCMS) used for simulation of climate is demonstrably inconsistent with the empirical work upon which the parameterization is based. In the turbulent ...

P. C. D. Milly

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Evaporation of Nonequilibrium Raindrops as a Fog Formation Mechanism  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To gain insights into the poorly understood phenomenon of precipitation fog, this study assesses the evaporation of freely falling drops departing from equilibrium as a possible contributing factor to fog formation in rainy conditions. The study ...

Robert Tardif; Roy M. Rasmussen

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Removal of Sulfate Ion From AN-107 by Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid.

GJ Lumetta; GS Klinger; DE Kurath; RL Sell; LP Darnell; LR Greenwood; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

155

Spacetime Structure of an Evaporating Black Hole in Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The impact of the leading quantum gravity effects on the dynamics of the Hawking evaporation process of a black hole is investigated. Its spacetime structure is described by a renormalization group improved Vaidya metric. Its event horizon, apparent horizon, and timelike limit surface are obtained taking the scale dependence of Newton's constant into account. The emergence of a quantum ergosphere is discussed. The final state of the evaporation process is a cold, Planck size remnant.

Bonanno, A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a super-heated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

Bharathan, D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory  

SciTech Connect

An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

Boardman, R.D.; Lamb, K.M.; Matejka, L.A.; Nenni, J.A.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

159

NWCF Evaporator Tank System 2001 Offgas Emissions Inventory  

SciTech Connect

An offgas emissions inventory and liquid stream characterization of the Idaho New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) Evaporator Tank System (ETS), formerly known as the High Level Liquid Waste Evaporator (HLLWE), has been completed. The emissions rates of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, multiple metals, particulate, and hydrochloric acid were measured in accordance with an approved Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) and Test Plan that invoked U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard sample collection and analysis procedures. Offgas samples were collected during the start up and at the end of evaporator batches when it was hypothesized the emissions would be at peak rates. Corresponding collection of samples from the evaporator feed overhead condensate, and bottoms was made at approximately the same time as the emissions inventory to support material balance determinations for the evaporator process. The data indicate that organic compound emissions are slightly higher at the beginning of the batch while metals emissions, including mercury, are slightly higher at the end of the evaporator batch. The maximum emissions concentrations are low for all constituents of primary concern. Mercury emissions were less than 5 ppbv, while the sum of HCl and Cl2 emissions was less than 1 ppmv. The sum of all organic emissions also was less than 1 ppmv. The estimated hazardous quotient (HQ) for the evaporator was 6.2e-6 as compared to 0.25 for the EPA target criteria. The cancer risk was 1.3e-10 compared to an EPA target of le-5.

Boardman, Richard Doin; Lamb, Kenneth Mitchel; Matejka, Leon Anthony; Nenni, Joseph A

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Upward-facing Lithium Flash Evaporator for NSTX-U  

SciTech Connect

NSTX plasma performance has been significantly enhanced by lithium conditioning [1]. To date, the lower divertor and passive plates have been conditioned by downward facing lithium evaporators (LITER) as appropriate for lower null plasmas. The higher power operation expected from NSTX-U requires double null plasma operation in order to distribute the heat flux between the upper and lower divertors making it desirable to coat the upper divertor region with Li as well. An upward aiming LITER (U-LITER) is presently under development and will be inserted into NSTX-U using a horizontal probe drive located in a 6" upper midplane port. In the retracted position the evaporator will be loaded with up to 300 mg of Li granules utilizing one of the calibrated NSTX Li powder droppers[2]. The evaporator will then be inserted into the vessel in a location within the shadow of the RF limiters and will remain in the vessel during the discharge. About 10 seconds before a discharge, it will be rapidly heated and the lithium completely evaporated onto the upper divertor, thus avoiding the complication of a shutter that prevents evaporation during the shot when the diagnostic shutters are open. The minimal time interval between the evaporation and the start of the discharge will avoid the passivation of the lithium by residual gases and enable the study of the conditioning effects of un-passivated Li surfaces [3]. Two methods are being investigated to accomplish the rapid (few second) heating of the lithium. A resistive method relies on passing a large current through a Li filled crucible. A second method requires using a 3 kW e-beam gun to heat the Li. In this paper the evaporator systems will be described and the pros and cons of each heating method will be discussed.

Roquemore, A. L.

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Evaporative Roof Cooling - A Simple Solution to Cut Cooling Costs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since the "Energy Crisis" Evaporative Roof Cooling Systems have gained increased acceptance as a cost effective method to reduce the high cost of air conditioning. Documented case histories in retrofit installations show direct energy savings and paybacks from twelve to thirty months. The main operating cost of an Evaporative Roof Cooling System is water. One thousand gallons of water, completely evaporated, will produce over 700 tons of cooling capability. Water usage seldom averages over 100 gallons per 1000 ft^2 of roof area per day or 10 oz. of water per 100 ft^2 every six minutes. Roof Cooling Systems, when planned in new construction, return 1-1/2 times the investment the first year in equipment savings and operating costs. Roof sprays are a low cost cooling solution for warehouses, distribution centers and light manufacturing or assembly areas with light internal loads. See text "Flywheel Cooling."

Abernethy, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Development of a Direct Evaporator for the Organic Rankine Cycle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes research and development currently underway to place the evaporator of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system directly in the path of a hot exhaust stream produced by a gas turbine engine. The main goal of this research effort is to improve cycle efficiency and cost by eliminating the usual secondary heat transfer loop. The projects technical objective is to eliminate the pumps, heat exchangers and all other added cost and complexity of the secondary loop by developing an evaporator that resides in the waste heat stream, yet virtually eliminates the risk of a working fluid leakage into the gaseous exhaust stream. The research team comprised of Idaho National Laboratory and General Electric Company engineers leverages previous research in advanced ORC technology to develop a new direct evaporator design that will reduce the ORC system cost by up to 15%, enabling the rapid adoption of ORCs for waste heat recovery.

Donna Post Guillen; Helge Klockow; Matthew Lehar; Sebastian Freund; Jennifer Jackson

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Open cycle OTEC system with falling jet evaporator and condenser  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A configuration for the open cycle (OC) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system is presented incorporating a countercurrent falling jet evaporator and a concurrent falling jet condenser. The parameters governing performance of the proposed configuration are discussed and the sizing of equipment for a 100-MWe net power output OC OTEC plant is performed, based on recent experimental falling jet heat and mass transfer results. The performance of an OC OTEC plant with falling jet evaporator-condenser is compared with the Westinghouse conceptual design that uses an open-channel evaporator and a surface condenser. Preliminary calculations indicate that falling jet heat and mass transfer, when applied in the proposed configuration, leads to a very simple and compact plant assembly resulting in substantial capital cost savings.

Kogan, A.; Johnson, D. H.; Green, H. J.; Olson, D. A.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Classical black hole evaporation in Randall-Sundrum infinite braneworld  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After the gravity induced on the brane in the Randall-Sundrum (RS) infinite braneworld is briefly reviewed, we discuss the possibility that black holes evaporate as a result of classical evolution in this model based on the AdS/CFT correspondence. If this possibility is really the case, the existence of long-lived solar mass black holes will give the strongest constraint on the bulk curvature radius. At the same time, we can propose a new method to simulate the evaporation of a 4D black hole due to the Hawking radiation as a 5D process.

Takahiro Tanaka

2002-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

165

Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues  

SciTech Connect

Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose chemical compositions and magnesium and silicon isotopic compositions have been previously measured.

Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

2009-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

166

Simultaneous multiparticle emissions in hot nuclei evaporation process  

SciTech Connect

This work presents a new mechanism for the evaporation with simultaneous particles emission mechanism in the evaporation chain as new channels opened to high excitation energy regime of the compound nucleus. The probability of multiple simultaneous emissions is determined based on phase space approach. A Monte Carlo simulation is employed to compute the final average yield of emitted particles after the decay chain. The neutron, proton, alpha and fission yields are obtained and compared to the conventional calculation with sequential simple particles emission and the relevance of the different channels in competition is also analyzed.

Santos, B. M. [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade Federal Fluminense Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, 24210-346 Niteroi. RJ (Brazil); De Assis, L. P.; Duarte, S. B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas - CBPF Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro. RJ (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

167

Simulation of Diffusive Lithium Evaporation Onto the NSTX Vessel Walls  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model for simulating the diffusive evaporation of lithium into a helium filled NSTX vacuum vessel is described and validated against an initial set of deposition experiments. The DEGAS 2 based model consists of a three-dimensional representation of the vacuum vessel, the elastic scattering process, and a kinetic description of the evaporated atoms. Additional assumptions are required to account for deuterium out-gassing during the validation experiments. The model agrees with the data over a range of pressures to within the estimated uncertainties. Suggestions are made for more discriminating experiments that will lead to an improved model.

D.P. Stotler, C.H. Skinner, W.R. Blanchard, P.S. Krstic, H.W. Kugel, H. Schneider, and L.E. Zakharov

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

168

Promoting emerging energy-efficiency technologies and practices by utilities in a restructured energy industry: A report from California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

performance analysis tool Evaporative condenser cooling Optimized air conditioners Indirect/direct evaporative coolers Daylighting tools and controls Commercial

Vine, Edward L.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Process Control Plan for 242A Evaporator Campaign  

SciTech Connect

The wastes in tanks 107-AP and 108-AP are designated as feed for 242-A Evaporator Campaign 2000-1, which is currently scheduled for the week of April 17, 2000. Waste in tanks 107-AP and 108-AP is predominantly comprised of saltwell liquor from 200 West Tank Farms.

LE, E.Q.

2000-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

170

Laboratory Measurements of Particle Capture by Evaporating Cloud Drops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The capture efficiencies of evaporating cloud drops (5693 ?m radius) for particles of manganese hypophosphite (0.583.2 ?m radius) were obtained experimentally. In each experimental run, a large number of widely spaced uniform size drops fell ...

K. H. Leong; K. V. Beard; Harry T. Ochs III

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Low-Cost Wind Speed Measurements Using Naphthalene Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Six 125-cm3 metal mesh cages, filled with 99% pure naphthalene mothballs, were suspended near anemometers during 8 winter weeks. Each week the cages were weighed to determine how much evaporation had occurred. A least-squares linear regression of ...

Pierre Y. Bernier

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Restart oversight assessment of Hanford 242-A evaporator: Technical report  

SciTech Connect

An assessment team from the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH), US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted an independent assessment of the 242-A Evaporator at the Hanford Site during January 17--28, 1994. An EH team member remained on-site following the assessment to track corrective actions and resolve prestart findings. The primary objective of this assessment was independent assurance that the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) can safely restart the evaporator. Another objective of the EH team was to assess EM`s Operational Readiness Evaluation (ORE) to determine if the programs, procedures, and management systems implemented for operation of the 241-A Evaporator ensure the protection of worker safety and health. The following section of this report provides background information on the 242-A Evaporator and Operational Readiness Review (ORR) activities conducted to date. The next chapter is divided into sections that address the results of discrete assessment activities. Each section includes a brief statement of conclusions for the functional area in question, descriptions of the review bases and methods, and a detailed discussion of the results. Concerns identified during the assessment are listed for the section to which they apply, and the specific findings upon which the concern is based can be found immediately thereafter.

Lagdon, R.; Lasky, R.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Applications of Mechanical Vapor Recompression to Evaporation and Crystallization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Over the past 10-15 years, mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) has become the preferred system in many industrial evaporation and crystallization applications, because of its economy and simplicity of operation. In most instances, the need for steam to provide heat for the evaporation and cooling water for condensing the overhead vapors is virtually eliminated; and, at the same time, a wide range of turndown is available. An MVR is generally found to be the most economical choice when there is no boiler plant available or when electrical power is priced competitively in comparison to steam. Vapor recompression is accomplished using centrifugal, axial-flow, or positive displacement compressors and these compressors can be powered by electricity, steam turbine or a gas turbine. The use of an MVR Evaporator/Crystallizer provides a comparatively low cost means of expanding the production capability of an existing evaporation plant either by adding a "stand alone" unit or by reconfiguring a multiple-effect system into several single-effect MVR's.

Outland, J. S.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Is Virga Rain That Evaporates before Reaching the Ground?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The visual phenomenon called virga, a sudden change in the brightness of a precipitation shaft below a cloud, is commonly attributed to evaporation of raindrops. It is said to be rain that does not reach the ground. The optical thickness of an ...

Alistair B. Fraser; Craig F. Bohren

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Evaporation of iodine-containing off-gas scrubber solution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrub solutions containing radioiodine may be reduced in volume without excessive loss of volatile iodine. The use of concentrated nitric acid during an evaporation process oxidizes the mercury-iodide complex to a less volatile mercuric iodate precipitate.

Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

1980-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

176

Passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Computer models have been developed to describe the operation of both solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Design studies are being conducted at the present time to use the towers for cooling an experimental, well instrumented, structure to study passive cooling in residential buildings. (MHR)

Mignon, G.V.; Cunningham, W.A.; Thompson, T.L.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A Parameterization of Evaporation from Bare Soil Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple model of evaporation from a bare soil surface is developed. This model combines two processes of water vapor transport: one is the vapor transport in air expressed by the bulk formula, and the other is molecular diffusion of vapor in the ...

Junsei Kondo; Nobuko Saigusa; Takeshi Sato

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

Analysis of design tradeoffs for diplay case evaporators  

SciTech Connect

A model for simulating a display case evaporator under frosting conditions has been developed, using a quasi-steady and finite-volume approach and a Newton-Raphson based solution algorithm. It is capable of simulating evaporators with multiple modules having different geometries, e.g. tube and fin thicknesses and pitch. The model was validated against data taken at two-minute intervals from a well-instrumented medium-temperature vertical display case, for two evaporators having very different configurations. The data from these experiments provided both the input data for the model and also the data to compare the modeling results. The validated model has been used to generate some general guidelines for coil design. Effects of various geometrical parameters were quantified, and compressor performance data were used to express the results in terms of total power consumption. Using these general guidelines, a new prototype evaporator was designed for the subject display case, keeping in mind the current packaging restrictions, tube and fin availabilities. It is an optimum coil for the given external load conditions. Subsequently, the validated model was used in a more extensive analysis to design prototype coils with some of the current tube and fin spacing restrictions removed. A new microchannel based suction line heat exchanger was installed in the display case system. The performance of this suction line heat exchanger is reported.

Bullard, CLARK

2004-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

180

Micro loop heat pipe evaporator coherent pore structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Loop heat pipes seem a promising approach for application in modern technologies where such thermal devices as cooling fans and radiators cannot satisfy overall requirements. Even though a loop heat pipe has a big potential to remove the thermal energy from a high heat flux source, the heat removal performance of heat pipes cannot be predicted well since a first principles of evaporation has not been established. An evaporation model based on statistical rate theory has been recently suggested by Ward and developed for a single pore by Oinuma. A loop heat pipe with coherent pore wick structure has been proposed as a design model. To limit product development risk and to enhance performance assurance, design model features and performance parameters have been carefully reviewed during the concept development phase and have been deliberately selected so as to be well-founded on the limited existing loop heat pipe knowledge base. A first principles evaporation model has been applied for evaporator geometry optimization. A number of iteration calculations have been performed to satisfy design and operating limitations. A set of recommendations for design optimization has been formulated. An optimal model has been found and proposed for manufacture and experimental investigation.

Alexseev, Alexandre Viktorovich

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

3D Imaging of Evaporating Fuel Droplets by Stereoscopic PIV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A gun-type burner is a widely used oil burner for industrial and domestic applications. The oil is pressure-atomized and mixed with air generating a recirculating, swirling flow. Because of the surrounding flame, fuel droplets evaporate, being difficult ... Keywords: 3D PIV, Stereoscopic PIV, droplet dynamics, spray combustion

V. Palero; Y. Ikeda

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Promoting emerging energy-efficiency technologies and practices by utilities in a restructured energy industry: A report from California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

condenser cooling Optimized air conditioners Indirect/direct evaporative coolers Daylighting tools and controls Commercial

Vine, Edward L.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Reconstruction of a Daily Large-Pan Evaporation Dataset over China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface evaporation is an important component of the earths surface hydrological cycle, as well as in the atmospheric energy and water balances. In China, different instruments have been used over time to measure evaporation. A small pan ...

An-Yuan Xiong; Jie Liao; Bin Xu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Evaporation-Limited Tropical Temperatures as a Constraint on Climate Sensitivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies of paleoclimate and modern observations indicate that evaporative effects limit thermal response in equatorial regions. We develop a latitude-resolved, steady-state energy balance model which incorporates the effect of an evaporative ...

Martin I. Hoffert; Brian P. Flannery; Andrew J. Callegari; C. T. Hsieh; Warren Wiscombe

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Modeling the Hydroclimatology of Kuwait: The Role of Subcloud Evaporation in Semiarid Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new subcloud layer evaporation scheme is incorporated into Regional Climate Model, version 3 (RegCM3), to better simulate the rainfall distribution over a semiarid region around Kuwait. The new scheme represents subcloud layer evaporation of ...

Marc P. Marcella; Elfatih A. B. Eltahir

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

A Simple Model of Evaporatively Driven Dowadraft: Application to Microburst Downdraft  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple one-dimensional, time-dependent model of an evaporatively driven downdraft is presented. The model is described by equations for raindrop evaporation, raindrop concentration, water substance, thermodynamic energy and vertical air ...

R. C. Srivastava

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

A Rapid-Circulation Evaporation Chamber for Measuring Bulk Stomatal Resistance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A relatively simple method is described for determining evaporation of short vegetation at any moment of time. The method is based on the measurement of bulk stomatal resistance of the crop with an evaporation chamber. Once this quantity is known,...

W. Kohsiek

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Wind Run Changes: The Dominant Factor Affecting Pan Evaporation Trends in Australia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Class A pan evaporation rates at many Australian observing stations have reportedly decreased between 1970 and 2002. That pan evaporation rates have decreased at the same time that temperatures have increased has become known as the pan ...

D. P. Rayner

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Evaporation from Nonvegetated Surfaces: Surface Aridity Methods and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture for the estimation of evaporation is investigated. Two widely used parameterizations of evaporation, the so-called ? and ? methods, which use near-surface soil moisture to reduce some measure ...

Anthony T. Cahill; Marc B. Parlange; Thomas J. Jackson; Peggy ONeill; T. J. Schmugge

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A model-based predictive supervisory controller for multi-evaporator HVAC systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multi-evaporator vapor compression cooling systems are representative of the complex, distributed nature of modern HVAC systems. Earlier research efforts focused on the development of a decentralized control architecture for individual evaporators that ...

Matthew S. Elliott; Bryan P. Rasmussen

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Exploring the Limits of Boiling and Evaporative Heat Transfer Using Micro/Nano Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a porous wick between the condenser and the evaporation. Theat the evaporator and condenser sections.. 26 Fig. 3.3a heat pipe Length of the condenser section in a heat pipe

Lu, Ming-Chang

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

A Model of Intense Downdrafts Driven by the Melting and Evaporation of Precipitation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A ono-dimensioral time-dependent model of a downdraft driven by the melting and evaporation of precipitation and precipitation loading is formulated. Equations for particle melting, particle evaporation, particle concentration, precipitation ...

R. C. Srivastava

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

EvaporationPrecipitation Variability over the Mediterranean and the Black Seas from Satellite and Reanalysis Estimates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite retrievals of surface evaporation and precipitation from the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS-3) dataset are used to document the distribution of evaporation, precipitation, and freshwater flux ...

A. Romanou; G. Tselioudis; C. S. Zerefos; C-A. Clayson; J. A. Curry; A. Andersson

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Temperature Dependence of Evaporation Coefficient for Water Measured in Droplets in Nitrogen under Atmospheric Pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The evaporation and the thermal accommodation coefficients for water in nitrogen were investigated by means of the analysis of evaporation of pure water droplet as a function of temperature. The droplet was levitated in an electrodynamic trap ...

D. Jakubczyk; M. Zientara; K. Kolwas; M. Kolwas

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Bench-Scale Evaporation of a Large Hanford Envelope C Sample (Tank 241-AN-102)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report contains the results of the Bench Scale evaporation of a large sample of pretreated Envelope C (AN102).

Crowder, M.L.

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

196

Converting Simulated Sodium-bearing Waste into a Single Solid Waste Form by Evaporation: Laboratory- and Pilot-Scale Test Results on Recycling Evaporator Overheads  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory radioactive sodium-bearing waste into a single solid waste form by evaporation was demonstrated in both flask-scale and pilot-scale agitated thin film evaporator tests. A sodium-bearing waste simulant was adjusted to represent an evaporator feed in which the acid from the distillate is concentrated, neutralized, and recycled back through the evaporator. The advantage to this flowsheet is that a single remote-handled transuranic waste form is produced in the evaporator bottoms without the generation of any low-level mixed secondary waste. However, use of a recycle flowsheet in sodium-bearing waste evaporation results in a 50% increase in remote-handled transuranic volume in comparison to a non-recycle flowsheet.

Griffith, D.; D. L. Griffith; R. J. Kirkham; L. G. Olson; S. J. Losinski

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Experimental Research of the Falling-Film Evaporation Characteristic outside Horizontal Heat Pipe in the Vacuum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Face the energy crisis in the world, it is important to improve the utilization efficiency of the energy conversion. The evaporation characteristic of the falling film outside heat pipe in the vacuum as a good evaporation method was studied in the paper. ... Keywords: Falling film, Evaporation, Vacuum

Penghui Gao; Lixi Zhang; Hefei Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Optimal design of a micro evaporator with lateral gaps Taijong Sung a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

­compression refrigeration sys- tem. The experimental design is adopted to determine the optimal parameters of the evaporatorOptimal design of a micro evaporator with lateral gaps Taijong Sung a , Daesik Oh b , Sangrok Jin online 1 March 2009 Keywords: Micro evaporator Optimal design Design of experiment Lateral gaps Two

Kim, Jongwon

199

An air cooled tube-fin evaporator model for an expansion valve control law  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For control purposes, a mathematical model of a tube-fin evaporator of a vapour compression plant running with R22 is analyzed. The refrigerant behavior in an evaporating region is described by a homogeneous model. The balance equations, together with ... Keywords: Control devices, Evaporator models, Heat transfer, Nonlinear differential systems, Numerical methods, Phase transition

C. Aprea; C. Renno

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Potential of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Buildings in India  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporative cooling potential for building in various climatic zones in India is investigated. Maintainable indoor conditions are obtained from the load - capacity analysis for the prevailing ambient conditions. For the assumed activity level, clothing and air velocity, the predicted mean vote (PMV), predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD), and cumulative dissatisfaction levels for each month are estimated. Time - air condition contours of ambient, supply air and indoor air are plotted on a psychrometric chart for different cities in India like Ahmadabad, Jodhpur, Nagpur and New Delhi representing different climatic conditions of India. While satisfactorily comfort can be achieved at cool and dry weather conditions by evaporative cooling system throughout the year, some discomfort prevailed for few months around July at hot and dry/humid weather conditions. The results are also quantified in terms of PMV, PPD and their cumulative factors; PMV-hour and PPD-hour.

Maiya, M. P.; Vijay, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Solid material evaporation into an ECR source by laser ablation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an effort to explore new methods of producing ion beams from solid materials, we are attempting to develop a laser-ablation technique for evaporating materials directly into an ECR ion source plasma. A pulsed NdYaG laser with approximately 25 watts average power and peak power density on the order of 10{sup 7} W/cm{sup 2} has been used off-line to measure ablation rates of various materials as a function of peak laser power. The benefits anticipated from the successful demonstration of this technique include the ability to use very small quantities of materials efficiently, improved material efficiency of incorporation into the ECR plasma, and decoupling of the material evaporation process from the ECR source tuning operation. Here we report on the results of these tests and describe the design for incorporating such a system directly with the ATLAS PII-ECR ion source.

Harkewicz, R.; Stacy, J.; Greene, J.; Pardo, R.C.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Phases of information release during black hole evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent article, we have shown how quantum fluctuations of the background geometry modify Hawking's density matrix for black hole (BH) radiation. Hawking's diagonal matrix picks up small off-diagonal elements whose influence becomes larger with the number of emitted particles. We have calculated the "time-of-first-bit", when the first bit of information comes out of the BH, and the "transparency time", when the rate of information release becomes order unity. We have found that the transparency time is equal to the "Page time", when the BH has lost half of its initial entropy to the radiation, in agreement with Page's results. Here, we improve our previous calculation by keeping track of the time of emission of the Hawking particles and their back-reaction on the BH. Our analysis reveals a new time scale, the radiation "coherence time", which is equal to the geometric mean of the evaporation time and the light crossing time. We find, as for our previous treatment, that the time-of-first-bit is equal to the coherence time, which is much shorter than the Page time. But the transparency time is now much later than the Page time, just one coherence time before the end of evaporation. Close to the end, when the BH is parametrically of Planckian dimensions but still large, the coherence time becomes parametrically equal to the evaporation time, thus allowing the radiation to purify. We also determine the time dependence of the entanglement entropy of the early and late-emitted radiation. This entropy is small during most of the lifetime of the BH, but our qualitative analysis suggests that it becomes parametrically maximal near the end of evaporation.

Ram Brustein; A. J. M. Medved

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

203

Evaporation Time of Ho?ava Gravity Black Holes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently it has been a lot of interest in the theory proposed by Ho?ava because is a remormalizable theory of gravity and may be a candidate for the UV completion of Einstein gravity. In the present work we study thermodynamical properties of black hole type solutions in this setup. In particular we are able to obtain times of evaporation for black hole solution in this formalism.

S. Prez?Payn; M. Sabido

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Mesoporous-silica films, fibers, and powders by evaporation  

SciTech Connect

This invention pertains to surfactant-templated nanometer-scale porosity of a silica precursor solution and forming a mesoporous material by first forming the silica precursor solution into a preform having a high surface area to volume ratio, then rapid drying or evaporating a solvent from the silica precursor solution. The mesoporous material may be in any geometric form, but is preferably in the form of a film, fiber, powder or combinations thereof. The rapid drying or evaporation of solvent from the solution is accomplished by layer thinning, for example spin casting, liquid drawing, and liquid spraying respectively. Production of a film is by layer thinning, wherein a layer of the silica precursor solution is formed on a surface followed by removal of an amount of the silica precursor solution and leaving a geometrically thinner layer of the silica precursor solution from which the solvent quickly escapes via evaporation. Layer thinning may be by any method including but not limited to squeegeeing and/or spin casting. In powder formation by spray drying, the same conditions of fast drying exists as in spin-casting (as well as in fiber spinning) because of the high surface-area to volume ratio of the product. When a powder is produced by liquid spraying, the particles or micro-bubbles within the powder are hollow spheres with walls composed of mesoporous silica. Mesoporous fiber formation starts with a similar silica precursor solution but with an added pre-polymer making a pituitous mixture that is drawn into a thin strand from which solvent is evaporated leaving the mesoporous fiber(s).

Bruinsma, Paul J. (Kennewick, WA); Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Bontha, Jagannadha R. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (West Richland, WA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Heavy quark production in the black hole evaporation at LHC  

SciTech Connect

The understanding of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) and Quantum Gravity are currently two of the main open questions in Physics. In order to understand these problems some authors proposed the existence of extra dimensions in the Nature. These extra dimensions would be compacted and not visible on the macroscopic world, but the effects would be manifest in ultrarelativistic colision process. In particular, black holes (BH) could be produced in proton-proton colisions in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and in future colliders. The BH is an object characterized by its mass and temperature wich also characterizes the evaporation process. All kind of particle should be produced in this process. Our goal in this contribution is to study the BH production in proton - proton collisions at LHC and its evaporation rate in heavy quarks. We present our estimate considering two scenarios (with and without trapped energy corrections) and compare our predictions with those obtained using perturbative QCD. Our results demonstrate that in both scenarios the charm and bottom production in the BH evaporation are smaller than the QCD prediction at LHC. In contrast, the top production is similar or larger than the QCD prediction, if the trapped energy corrections are disregarded.

Thiel, M.; Goncalves, V. P.; Sauter, W. K. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, Universidade Federal de Pelotas (Brazil)

2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

207

Evaporation of a Large Decontaminated Hanford Tank Sample  

SciTech Connect

A radioactive sample (approximately 15 L) from Hanford tank 241-AN-102 was concentrated via evaporation at reduced pressure and temperature, to support flowsheet development and regulatory approval for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP). The received sample (Envelope C) had been pretreated at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) for removal of strontium and transuranic ions by precipitation and removal of cesium and technetium via ion exchange. The resulting pretreated Low Activity Waste (LAW) stream was the feed material for this evaporation test. The goals of this evaporation were to: (1) provide operating data -- including foaming and scaling tendencies -- for scale-up purposes, (2) obtain liquid and off-gas samples during steady-state operation for regulatory analysis, (3) conduct a ''final boildown'' after the steady-state operation to determine the solubility endpoint of the solution and the major precipitants, and (4) provide concentrated feed for a melter vitrification study to produce several kilograms of immobilized LAW glass product.

Crawford, C.L.

2001-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

208

Moduli Vacuum Bubbles Produced by Evaporating Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a model with a toroidally compactified extra dimension giving rise to a temperature-dependent 4d effective potential with one-loop contributions due to the Casimir effect, along with a 5d cosmological constant. The forms of the effective potential at low and high temperatures indicates a possibility for the formation of a domain wall bubble, formed by the modulus scalar field, surrounding an evaporating black hole. This is viewed as an example of a recently proposed black hole vacuum bubble arising from matter-sourced moduli fields in the vicinity of an evaporating black hole [D. Green, E. Silverstein, and D. Starr, Phys. Rev. D74, 024004 (2006), arXiv:hep-th/0605047]. The black hole bubble can be highly opaque to lower energy particles and photons, and thereby entrap them within. For high temperature black holes, there may also be a symmetry-breaking black hole bubble of false vacuum of the type previously conjectured by Moss [I.G. Moss, Phys. Rev. D32,1333 (1985)], tending to reflect low energy particles from its wall. A double bubble composed of these two different types of bubble may form around the black hole, altering the hole's emission spectrum that reaches outside observers. Smaller mass black holes that have already evaporated away could have left vacuum bubbles behind that contribute to the dark matter.

J. R. Morris

2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

209

The Sandia Cooler  

Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation,

210

Cash for Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009. The Implied Cost of Carbon Dioxide under the Cash forwhile also reducing carbon dioxide emissions and otherwithout accounting for carbon dioxide emissions or other

Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Hotter Cements, Cooler Concretes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 7: Measured concrete temperatures for Texas highway mass ... refer to the east and West sides of ... Through the use of an intermediate size lightweight ...

212

Cash for Coolers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

appliance replacement program in Mexico that since 2009 has helped 1.5 million households replace their old refrigerators and air-conditioners with energy-efficient models....

213

Cash for Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electricity consumption is calculated over the previous year.electricity consumption by 79 kilowatt hours per year. Atelectricity consumption is 1,836 kilowatt hour per year and

Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

RFOFO RING COOLER.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This note describes the design of an ionization cooling ring that uses an alternating polarity solenoid lattice. The ring is approximately 33 m in circumference and has 12 cells. Each cell has two opposing focusing solenoids placed either side of a hydrogen wedge absorber. The solenoid coils are located outside pillbox rf cavities. Bending is provided by tipping the solenoid coils. The simulated merit factor ({approx} the increase in 6D phase space density) is 81.

BERG,J.S.FERNOW,R.C.PALMER,R.B.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Cash for Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Domestic Refrigerators in Mexico Energy Policy, 37, 4737-oversees the broader energy sector in Mexico and carries outin 2014 (76 FR 179). Mexicos energy-efficiency standards

Davis, Lucas W.; Fuchs, Alan; Gertler, Paul J.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Nanoparticle enhanced evaporation of liquids: A case study of silicone oil and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporation is a fundamental physical phenomenon, of which many challenging questions remain unanswered. Enhanced evaporation of liquids in some occasions is of enormous practical significance. Here we report the enhanced evaporation of the nearly permanently stable silicone oil by dispersing with nanopariticles including CaTiO3, anatase and rutile TiO2. The results can inspire the research of atomistic mechanism for nanoparticle enhanced evaporation and exploration of evaporation control techniques for treatment of oil pollution and restoration of dirty water.

Wenbin Zhang; Rong Shen; Kunquan Lu; Ailing Ji; Zexian Cao

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

217

Integrated Sensing and Controls for Coal Gasification - Development of Model-Based Controls for GE's Gasifier and Syngas Cooler  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the achievements and final results of this program. The objective of this program is to develop a comprehensive systems approach to integrated design of sensing and control systems for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, using advanced model-based techniques. In particular, this program is focused on the model-based sensing and control system design for the core gasification section of an IGCC plant. The overall approach consists of (i) developing a first-principles physics-based dynamic model of the gasification section, (ii) performing model-reduction where needed to derive low-order models suitable for controls analysis and design, (iii) developing a sensing system solution combining online sensors with model-based estimation for important process variables not measured directly, and (iv) optimizing the steady-state and transient operation of the plant for normal operation as well as for startup using model predictive controls (MPC). Initially, available process unit models were implemented in a common platform using Matlab/Simulink{reg_sign}, and appropriate model reduction and model updates were performed to obtain the overall gasification section dynamic model. Also, a set of sensor packages were developed through extensive lab testing and implemented in the Tampa Electric Company IGCC plant at Polk power station in 2009, to measure temperature and strain in the radiant syngas cooler (RSC). Plant operation data was also used to validate the overall gasification section model. The overall dynamic model was then used to develop a sensing solution including a set of online sensors coupled with model-based estimation using nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF). Its performance in terms of estimating key unmeasured variables like gasifier temperature, carbon conversion, etc., was studied through extensive simulations in the presence sensing errors (noise and bias) and modeling errors (e.g. unknown gasifier kinetics, RSC fouling). In parallel, an MPC solution was initially developed using ideal sensing to optimize the plant operation during startup pre-heating as well as steady state and transient operation under normal high-pressure conditions, e.g. part-load, base-load, load transition and fuel changes. The MPC simulation studies showed significant improvements both for startup pre-heating and for normal operation. Finally, the EKF and MPC solutions were coupled to achieve the integrated sensing and control solution and its performance was studied through extensive steady state and transient simulations in the presence of sensor and modeling errors. The results of each task in the program and overall conclusions are summarized in this final report.

Aditya Kumar

2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

218

Soft ionization of thermally evaporated hypergolic ionic liquid aerosols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isolated ion pairs of a conventional ionic liquid, 1-Ethyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim+][Tf2N?]), and a reactive hypergolic ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-3-Methyl-Imidazolium Dicyanamide ([Bmim+][Dca?]), are generated by vaporizing ionic liquid submicron aerosol particles for the first time; the vaporized species are investigated by dissociative ionization with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light, exhibiting clear intact cations, Emim+ and Bmim+, presumably originating from intact ion pairs. Mass spectra of ion pair vapor from an effusive source of the hypergolic ionic liquid show substantial reactive decomposition due to the internal energy of the molecules emanating from the source. Photoionization efficiency curves in the near threshold ionization region of isolated ion pairs of [Emim+][Tf2N?]ionic liquid vapor are compared for an aerosol source and an effusive source, revealing changes in the appearance energy due to the amount of internal energy in the ion pairs. The aerosol source has a shift to higher threshold energy (~;;0.3 eV), attributed to reduced internal energy of the isolated ion pairs. The method of ionic liquid submicron aerosol particle vaporization, for reactive ionic liquids such as hypergolic species, is a convenient, thermally ?cooler? source of isolated intact ion pairs in the gas phase compared to effusive sources.

University of California; ERC, Incorporated, Edwards Air Force Base; Air Force Research Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base; National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC); Institute of Chemistry, Hebrew University; Koh, Christine J.; Liu, Chen-Lin; Harmon, Christopher W.; Strasser, Daniel; Golan, Amir; Kostko, Oleg; Chambreau, Steven D.; Vaghjiani, Ghanshyam L.; Leone, Stephen R.

2011-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

219

Thermodynamics of an Evaporating Schwarzschild Black Hole in Noncommutative Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of space noncommutativity and the generalized uncertainty principle on the thermodynamics of a radiating Schwarzschild black hole. We show that evaporation process is in such a way that black hole reaches to a maximum temperature before its final stage of evolution and then cools down to a nonsingular remnant with zero temperature and entropy. We compare our results with more reliable results of string theory. This comparison Shows that GUP and space noncommutativity are similar concepts at least from view point of black hole thermodynamics.

Kourosh Nozari; Behnaz Fazlpour

2006-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

220

Black Hole evaporation in semi-classical approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As well as known, the black hole evaporation problem is famous problem. Because the S.W.Hawking found the black holes emit light at the future null infinity as a thermal radiation \\cite{H}, we think that the black holes may be vanish. However, to prove this problem, we should solve field equation, i.e. forth order partial differential equations \\cite{Ford}\\cite{BD}. However, we can find a method to solve this equation, and we could prove that the black holes finally vanish. To solve this problem we use dynamical horizons equation in the Vaidya spacetime.

Shintaro Sawayama

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A field evaporation deuterium ion source for neutron generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proof-of-principle experiments have demonstrated an electrostatic field evaporation based deuterium ion source for use in compact, high-output deuterium-tritium neutron generators. The ion source produces principally atomic deuterium and titanium ions. More than 100 monolayers of deuterated titanium thin film can be removed and ionized from a single tip in less than 20 ns. The measurements indicate that with the use of microfabricated tip arrays the deuterium ion source could provide sufficient ion current to produce 10^9 to 10^10 n/cm^2 of tip array area.

Reichenbach, Birk; Schwoebel, P R; 10.1063/1.2913331

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

On the interface instability during rapid evaporation in microgravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The rapid evaporation of a superheated liquid (vapor explosion) under microgravity conditions is studied by direct numerical simulation. The time-dependent Navier-Stokes and energy equations coupled to the interface dynamics are solved using a two-dimensional finite-difference/front-tracking method. Large interface deformations, topology change, latent heat, surface tension and unequal material properties between the liquid and vapor phases are included in the simulations. A comparison of numerical results to the exact solution of a one-dimensional test problem shows excellent agreement. For the two-dimensional rapid evaporation problem, the vapor volume growth rate and unstable interface dynamics are studied for increasing levels of initial liquid superheat. As the superheat is increased the liquid-vapor interface experiences increasingly unstable energetic growth. These results indicate that heat transfer plays a very important role in the instability mechanism leading to vapor explosions. It is suggested that the Mullins-Sekerka instability could play a role in the instability initiation mechanism.

Juric, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

EVAPORATIVE METAL BONDING OF CM247LC TO KANTHAL APMT John P...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

joining alloys tested, one of which evaporates from the structures. Project Overview * Welding of advanced alloys is not possible because critical structures are destroyed. *...

224

Characterizing the Variability of the Indian Monsoon: Changes in the Evaporative Sources for Summertime Rainfall Events.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? This study focuses on the interannual and intraseasonal variability of evaporative sources for rainfall events during the Indian monsoon. The monsoon is an important (more)

Pantina, Peter

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

The use of carbonation and fractional evaporative crystallization in the pretreatment of Hanford nuclear wastes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this work was to explore the use of fractional evaporative crystallization as a technology that can be used to separate medium-curie waste (more)

Dumont, George Pierre, Jr.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Study of falling-jet flash evaporator...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Study of falling-jet flash evaporators Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us | Admin Log On HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced...

227

Vibration Induced Droplet Generation from a Liquid Layer for Evaporative Cooling in a Heat Transfer Cell .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??During this investigation, vibration induced droplet generation from a liquid layer was examined as a means for achieving high heat flux evaporative cooling. Experiments were (more)

Pyrtle, Frank, III

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Rain on the Roof-Evaporative Spray Roof Cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes evaporative spray roof cooling systems, their components, performance and applications in various climates and building types. The evolution of this indirect evaporative cooling technique is discussed. Psychrometric and sol-air principles are covered and a simplified method of evaluation presented. A life cycle energy savings example is discussed. Benefits of roof life and roof top equipment efficiency and maintenance are covered as well as water consumption and performance trade-offs with alternate methods of roof heat gain control. Testimonials and case studies are presented. The gradual migration of business, industry, and populace to the southern United States was largely brought on by the advent of the practical air-conditioner, cheap electricity, and the harshness of northern winters. But while "wintering at Palm Beach" has been replaced by "Sun Belt industries" ; the compression-refrigeration cooling cycle is about the only thing separating millions of southerners (native and adopted) from August heat stroke and the Detroit News employment ads. This migration has been spurred by economic recessions which hit harder at the competitively populated northern centers than at the still growing industries of the south. These trends are important illustrations of the concern for efficient cooling strategies. Not only are homes in hot climates vulnerable to the now not-so-low cost of electricity but large, compact. and heavily occupied buildings (offices, schools, hospitals, theaters, etc.) often must air-condition year-around. In 1968. air-conditioning was 3% of U.S. end energy consumption compared to 18% for space heating and 25% for transportation. By 1980, according to Electric Power Research Institute's Oliver Yu, air-conditioning use was 12.5% of all electricity generated and by the year 2000 is projected to reach 16.7% "as migration slows and the GNP reaches a stable 3% growth rate" (EPRI 1982 to 1986 Overview and Strategy). Of further significance is the effect of air-conditioning loads on the peak generating requirements of electrical utilities. Because utilities must build generating capacity to meet peak requirements, they normally charge a higher summer kWh rate (for residential) and levy a peak kW demand charge on a monthly or even annual "ratchet" rate (for larger service customers). The June '83 cover of Houston City Magazine, in reference to future electrical rates, promised: "Pay or Sweat". Typical of many cooling or heat gain prevention strategies being employed on "innovative" buildings in warm climates, evaporative spray roof cooling (ESRC) systems (not to be confused with roof ponds) are not new. Like ventilated structures, ice house roofs, enhanced ventilation, masonry walls, night sky radiation and ground contact cooling, evaporative cooling in many forms has been around for centuries. (See Solar Age, July '82 and February '81 for related articles). Even the development of roof spray systems is not as newly founded as one might suspect.

Bachman, L. R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Fixture for forming evaporative pattern (EPC) process patterns  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of casting metal using evaporative pattern casting process patterns in combination with a fixture for creating and maintaining a desired configuration in flexible patterns. A pattern is constructed and gently bent to the curvature of a suitable fixture. String or thin wire, which burns off during casting, is used to tie the pattern to the fixture. The fixture with pattern is dipped in a commercially available refractory wash to prevent metal adherence and sticking to the fixture. When the refractory wash is dry, the fixture and pattern are placed in a flask, and sand is added and compacted by vibration. The pattern remains in position, restrained by the fixture. Metal that is poured directly into the pattern replaces the pattern exactly but does not contact or weld to the fixture due to the protective refractory layer. When solid, the casting is easily separated from the fixture. The fixture can be cleaned for reuse in conventional casting cleaning equipment.

Turner, Paul C. (Albany, OR); Jordan, Ronald R. (Albany, OR); Hansen, Jeffrey S. (Corvallis, OR)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

A graphics processor-based intranuclear cascade and evaporation simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of protons in human tissue have been deployed on graphics processing units (GPUs) with impressive results. To provide a more complete treatment of non-elastic nuclear interactions in these simulations, we developed a fast intranuclear cascade-evaporation simulation for the GPU. This can be used to model non-elastic proton collisions on any therapeutically relevant nuclei at incident energies between 20 and 250 MeV. Predictions are in good agreement with Geant4.9.6p2. It takes approximately 2 s to calculate $1\\times 10^6$ 200 MeV proton-$^{16}$O interactions on a NVIDIA GTX680 GPU. A speed-up factor of $\\sim$20 relative to one Intel i7-3820 core processor thread was achieved.

H. Wan Chan Tseung; C. Beltran

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

231

Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation is disclosed. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment. 1 fig.

Bunshah, R.; Nath, P.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

232

Transparent electrical conducting films by activated reactive evaporation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Process and apparatus for producing transparent electrical conducting thin films by activated reactive evaporation. Thin films of low melting point metals and alloys, such as indium oxide and indium oxide doped with tin, are produced by physical vapor deposition. The metal or alloy is vaporized by electrical resistance heating in a vacuum chamber, oxygen and an inert gas such as argon are introduced into the chamber, and vapor and gas are ionized by a beam of low energy electrons in a reaction zone between the resistance heater and the substrate. There is a reaction between the ionized oxygen and the metal vapor resulting in the metal oxide which deposits on the substrate as a thin film which is ready for use without requiring post deposition heat treatment.

Bunshah, Rointan (Los Angeles, CA); Nath, Prem (Troy, MI)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Growth study of ion assisted evaporated molybdenum thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We reported optimization of ion-to-atom ratios and ion energy for growth of molybdenum thin film on oxidized silicon substrate using ion assisted electron beam evaporation system. The ion-to-atom ratio is varied by independently adjusting the ion current density and deposition rate. The structural characterization of the films is carried out by hard X-ray reflectivity. We observed improvement in film density from 85.5% to 98.2% and film roughness from {approx}2 nm to 0.84nm on {approx}26 nm thick Mo film by optimizing ion parameters. The observed results are discussed considering the effect of kinetic of adatoms during growth of film.

Yadav, P. K.; Nayak, M.; Lodha, G. S.; Rai, S. [X-ray Optics Section, Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre For Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

234

A note on the evaporation of a stagnant liquid  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this report was the understanding of the effect of higher pressures on the velocity of the gas-liquid interface. Experimental evidence (Le Romancer et al.) suggests that high-pressure gas injection results under certain conditions in a decrease of the rate of the interface motion, a result that may be due to gas dissolution and diffusion in the liquid phase. To explore this possibility, it was considered in this paper a simple 1-D model of this process as illustrated schematically in a figure. A liquid A, originally occupying a semi-infinite medium, is subject to evaporation and diffusion in a flowing gas B, the composition of which at the top of the medium (at z = 0) remains constant. Due to the possible high pressure in the gas, component B may solubilize and counter-diffuse in the liquid phase.

Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Yortsos, Yanis C.; Stubos, A.K.

2000-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

235

CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation heat exchanger are found to result in large discrepancies with their own experimental data

Kandlikar, Satish

236

Stochastic modeling of evaporating sprays within a consistent hybrid joint PDF framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study, a framework for modeling two-phase evaporating flow is presented, which employs an Eulerian-Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach. For the continuous phase, a joint velocity-composition probability density function (PDF) method is used. ... Keywords: Evaporation, Hybrid algorithm, Multi-phase flow, PDF method, Particle local time-stepping, Spray, Stochastic method, Time-averaging, Turbulent flow

Gaurav Anand; Patrick Jenny

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

EVAPORATION OF CAI LIQUIDS INTO SOLAR GAS. A. V. , L. Grossman1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EVAPORATION OF CAI LIQUIDS INTO SOLAR GAS. A. V. Fedkin1 , L. Grossman1,2 and S. B. Simon1 , 1-like liquids evaporating into more general gas compositions. In this work, we assume that a CAI precursor liquid is immersed in a gas whose composition is solar except for the amounts of CMAS components which

Grossman, Lawrence

238

Temperature Effect on Pump Oil and Alkanes Evaporation Nathaniel A. Waldstein and Alex A. Volinsky  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature Effect on Pump Oil and Alkanes Evaporation Nathaniel A. Waldstein and Alex A. Volinsky rates of pump oil and several alkanes, which have a wide range of applications. Both static and dynamic systems. Pump oil was also evaporated from two types of microchannels. Developed testing procedures help

Volinsky, Alex A.

239

An Analytical Model of Evaporation Efficiency for Unsaturated Soil Surfaces with an Arbitrary Thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical expressions of evaporative efficiency over bare soil (defined as the ratio of actual to potential soil evaporation) have been limited to soil layers with a fixed depth and/or to specific atmospheric conditions. To fill the gap, a new ...

Olivier Merlin; Ahmad Al Bitar; Vincent Rivalland; Pierre Bziat; Eric Ceschia; Grard Dedieu

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Organic emission calculations for the 242-A evaporator vessel vent system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document contains historical calculations originally published in the 242-A Evaporator Dangerous Waste Permit Application, DOE/RL-90-42, Rev 0. They are being released as a supporting document, along with brief explanatory information, to be used as a reference in Rev 1 of the permit application and in other supporting documents, such as the 242-A Evaporator Data Quality Objectives.

Bowman, M.R.

1996-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Comparative Detoxification of Vacuum Evaporation/Steam Stripping Combined with Overliming on Corn Stover Prehydrolyzate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tow kinds of physical methods, vacuum evaporation and steam stripping, combined with overliming (calcium hydroxide) were applied to remove inhibitors which were produced simultaneously during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. Corn stover was ... Keywords: vacuum evaporation, steam stripping, overliming, corn stover prehydrolyzate, detoxification

Jun-jun Zhu; Qiang Yong; Yong Xu; Shi-yuan Yu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

A Model and Experimental Study of Evaporation from Bare-Soil Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model is constructed for estimating evaporation from bare-soil surfaces. In the model, the evaporation is parameterized with the soil-water content for the upper 2 cm of the soil (Kondo et al.), and the heat and water transport within the soil ...

Junsei Kondo; Nobuko Saigusa; Takeshi Sato

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

The Study of Solar Desalination System with Falling Film Evaporation and Its Operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seawater desalination system with falling film evaporation was set up, which was driven by solar-wind energy. In addition, the basic principles of system operation were expounded?and the main factors affecting the system performance were discussed. ... Keywords: Seawater desalination, Solar energy, Falling film evaporation

Chen Zhi-li; He Qiang; Zheng Hong-fei; Long Xiang-yu; Wang Wen-biao; Zhuang Chun-long; Yi Qi-zhen

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Steam Oxidation and Chromia Evaporation in Ultra-Supercritical Steam Boilers and Turbines  

SciTech Connect

U.S. Department of Energys goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 C and 340 atm, so-called ultra-supercritical (USC) conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is expected to be a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was predicted to be quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Gordon H. Holcomb

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Microsoft PowerPoint - 3-04_Tedeschi_Wiped Film Evaporator.pptx  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of a Thin Film Evaporator for Development of a Thin Film Evaporator for of a Thin Film Evaporator for Development of a Thin Film Evaporator for Deployment at Hanford Tank Farms Deployment at Hanford Tank Farms EM Waste Processing Technical Exchange November, 2010 Atlanta, GA Allan R. "Rick" Tedeschi Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC Contractor to the United States Department of Energy Print Close Agenda Page 2 Summary Development and Project Background Pilot-scale Development Laboratory-scale Development Full-scale Development and Deployment Print Close Summary Report on thin-film evaporative technology development effort, and describe path forward for technology deployment Page 3  Pilot-scale testing has successfully demonstrated concentration of supernatant simulants to 1.4 - 1.5 specific gravity (sp gr)  Pilot-scale testing has refined and confirmed

246

Compact Liquid Waste Evaporator for Cleanup on Hanfords Hot Cells [FULL PAPER  

SciTech Connect

Removal of radionuclide and hazardous contaminants from hot cells in Hanford's 324 Building will produce an aqueous waste stream requiring volume reduction and packaging. This paper describes a compact and remotely-operated evaporator system that was designed for use in the 324 Building's B-Cell (a shielded hot cell) to volume-reduce the waste waters that are generated from pressure washing of hot cell ceiling, wall, and floor surfaces. The evaporator incorporates an electric-heated reboiler to provide evaporation and drying to allow disposal of waste material. Design features of the evaporator system were strongly influenced by the need for remote handling and remote maintenance. Purified water vapor from the evaporation process will be released directly to the hot cell ventilation air.

HOBART, R.L.

2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

247

Steam oxidation and chromia evaporation in ultrasupercritical steam boilers and turbines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy's goals include power generation from coal at 60% efficiency, which requires steam conditions of up to 760 {sup o}C and 340 atm, so-called ultrasupercritical conditions. Evaporation of protective chromia scales is a primary corrosion mechanism. A methodology to calculate Cr evaporation rates from chromia scales was developed and combined with Cr diffusion calculations within the alloy (with a constant flux of Cr leaving the alloy from evaporation) to predict Cr concentration profiles and to predict the time until breakaway oxidation. At the highest temperatures and pressures, the time until breakaway oxidation was quite short for the turbine blade, and of concern within the steam pipe and the higher temperature portions of the superheater tube. Alloy additions such as Ti may allow for a reduction in evaporation rate with time, mitigating the deleterious effects of chromia evaporation.

Holcomb, G.R. [US DOE, Albany, OR (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

2F and 2H evaporator loop evaluation closure report  

SciTech Connect

As a result of the Concentrate Transfer System (CTS) tank ventilation system contamination event, a task team was formed to evaluate instrument loops associated with waste reduction equipment. During the event a conductivity probe designed to provide an alarm and initiate an interlock failed to respond to the presence of liquid. An investigation revealed that the probe had become disconnected from the loop. The daily functional check of the conductivity probe circuit only tested the circuit continuity from the ventilation unit to the control room and did not actually test the probe. To test the continuity, a test switch was used to simulate the conducting probe. Because the functional check did not test each part of the loop, the test could be satisfactorily completed even though the probe itself was inoperable. The function of the task team was to develop a list of loops and interlocks prioritized by importance and likelihood of similar failure. The team evaluated the associated loop calibration and functional test procedures to verify that they are adequate to ensure loop performance on a periodic frequency. This report documents the evaluation findings and associated actions required prior to startup of the 2F and 2H evaporators.

Bates, W.F.

1994-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

249

Heat exchanger efficiently operable alternatively as evaporator or condenser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger adapted for efficient operation alternatively as evaporator or condenser and characterized by flexible outer tube having a plurality of inner conduits and check valves sealingly disposed within the outer tube and connected with respective inlet and outlet master flow conduits and configured so as to define a parallel flow path for a first fluid such as a refrigerant when flowed in one direction and to define a serpentine and series flow path for the first fluid when flowed in the opposite direction. The flexible outer tube has a heat exchange fluid, such as water, flowed therethrough by way of suitable inlet and outlet connections. The inner conduits and check valves form a package that is twistable so as to define a spiral annular flow path within the flexible outer tube for the heat exchange fluid. The inner conduits have thin walls of highly efficient heat transfer material for transferring heat between the first and second fluids. Also disclosed are specific materials and configurations.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Failure Analysis of 6.8 Evaporator Thermowell  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Technology Center Materials technology Section was requested to determine the cause of failure for a resistance temperature device and thermowell assembly that was used in the 6.8 Low Activity Waste evaporator. A methodical and well planned approach was used for the failure analysis task with special precautions because of the high radiation and contamination levels. Two sections of the failed assembly were selected for thorough analysis, the bottom of the inner tube with the end-cap and a piece of inner tube at the vapor/waste interface. The failure analysis consisted of macroscopic examination and metallographic analysis. Intergranular attack (IGA) was found to be the primary corrosion mechanism that led to eventual failure. IGA of the end cap occurred because of a presumed preferential microstructure and accelerated the corrosion rate over that of inner-tube side wall. Once the end cap was breached, the waste quickly attacked the RTD components, leading to the low resistance to ground readings that indicated the initial RTD malfunction. A metallographic analysis of an unexposed end cap is recommended to confirm the suspect microstructure.

MICKALONIS, JOHNI.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

An Analysis of the Effect of Local Heat Advection on Evaporation over Wet and Dry Surface Strips  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of local advection on evaporation and Bowen ratio over alternating crosswind infinite dry-warm and wet-cool surface strips (patches), by redistribution of surface heat, is analysed. The analysis shows that evaporation over the region ...

Ya Guo; Peter H. Schuepp

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

ACID EVAPORATION OF ULTIMA GOLD TM AB LIQUID SCINTILLATION COCKTAIL RESIDUE  

SciTech Connect

Prior analyses of samples from the F/H Lab solutions showed the presence of diisopropylnapthalene (DIN), a major component of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC). These solutions are processed through H-Canyon Tank 10.5 and ultimately through the 17.8E evaporator. Similar solutions originated in SRNL streams sent to the same H Canyon tanks. This study examined whether the presence of these organics poses a process-significant hazard for the evaporator. Evaporation and calorimetry testing of surrogate samples containing 2000 ppm of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB LSC in 8 M nitric acid have been completed. These experiments showed that although reactions between nitric acid and the organic components do occur, they do not appear to pose a significant hazard for runaway reactions or generation of energetic compounds in canyon evaporators. The amount of off-gas generated was relatively modest and appeared to be well within the venting capacity of the H-Canyon evaporators. A significant fraction of the organic components likely survives the evaporation process primarily as non-volatile components that are not expected to represent any new process concerns during downstream operations such as neutralization. Laboratory Waste solutions containing minor amounts of DIN can be safely received, stored, transferred, and processed through the canyon waste evaporator.

Kyser, E.; Fondeur, F.; Crump, S.

2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

253

SIMULATED WASTE TESTING OF GLYCOLATE IMPACTS ON THE 2H-EVAPORATOR SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Glycolic acid is being studied as a total or partial replacement for formic acid in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. After implementation, the recycle stream from DWPF back to the high-level waste tank farm will contain soluble sodium glycolate. Most of the potential impacts of glycolate in the tank farm were addressed via a literature review, but several outstanding issues remained. This report documents the non-radioactive simulant tests impacts of glycolate on storage and evaporation of Savannah River Site high-level waste. The testing for which non-radioactive simulants could be used involved the following: the partitioning of glycolate into the evaporator condensate, the impacts of glycolate on metal solubility, and the impacts of glycolate on the formation and dissolution of sodium aluminosilicate scale within the evaporator. The following are among the conclusions from this work: ? Evaporator condensate did not contain appreciable amounts of glycolate anion. Of all tests, the highest glycolate concentration in the evaporator condensate was 0.38 mg/L. A significant portion of the tests had glycolate concentration in the condensate at less than the limit of quantification (0.1 mg/L). ? At ambient conditions, evaporator testing did not show significant effects of glycolate on the soluble components in the evaporator concentrates. ? Testing with sodalite solids and silicon containing solutions did not show significant effects of glycolate on sodium aluminosilicate formation or dissolution.

Martino, C. J.

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

254

An area-dependent wind function for estimating open water evaporation using land-based meteorological data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a generally applicable formula for estimating evaporation rate from open water bodies which utilizes readily available land-based meteorological data. We follow the well-known aerodynamic approach in which evaporation rate is modelled as the ... Keywords: Evaporation, Lake, Open water, Pond, Uncertainty, Water body, Wind function, Wind speed

D. L. McJannet; I. T. Webster; F. J. Cook

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Evaporation of Picolitre Droplets on Surfaces with a Range of Wettabilities and Thermal Conductivities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of inkjet droplets ranges between 10 m and 100 m. Evaporation should still be limited by dif- fusion at this scale. Convection occurs in evaporating sessile droplets [12] where, in order to conserve mass, evaporating liquid is replenished by a convective... at 10 W for 5 minutes at different lo- cations in the reactor, resulting in different roughnesses. S1 showed a root mean squared (rms) roughness of ?130 nm by AFM (Digital Instruments Nanoscope III scanning probe microscope), whereas S2 had an RMS...

Talbot, E.L.; Berson, A.; Brown, P.S.; Bain, C.D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Comparative Study of Various Formulations of Evaporations from Bare Soil Using In Situ Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vajious formulations of surface evaporation are tested against in situ data collected over a plot of loamy bare ground. Numerical simulations lasting seven days are compared with observations of near-surface water content and cumulative ...

J. F. Mahfouf; J. Noilhan

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Modeling the Effect of Land Surface Evaporation Variability on Precipitation Variability. Part I: General Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the first of a two-part article that investigates the impact of land surface evaporation variability on the interannual variability of precipitation and compares it with the impact caused by sea surface temperature variability. Previous ...

Oreste Reale; Paul Dirmeyer

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Estimating the Role of Local Evaporation in Precipitation for a Two-Dimensional Region  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Budyko's model for estimating the contributions of locally evaporated and advected moisture to regional precipitation is extended to two dimensions. It is shown that a simple extension by analogy of the one-dimensional Budyko's formula to a two-...

Georgy I. Burde; Abraham Zangvil; Peter J. Lamb

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Wind-evaporation feedback, angular momentum conservation, and the abrupt onset of monsoons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis examines the mechanisms responsible for the abrupt onset of monsoon circulations, focusing on the role played by wind-evaporation feedback and its interaction with angular momentum conserving flow. The first ...

Boos, William R. (William Ronald), 1975-

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Numerical Investigations of the Roles of Radiative and Evaporative Feedbacks in Stratocumulus Entrainment and Breakup  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When the surface buoyancy flux is small and the shear is weak, turbulence circulations within a stratus-topped boundary layer are driven by two buoyancy-generating processes at cloud top: radiative cooling and evaporative cooling. These two ...

Chin-Hoh Moeng; Don H. Lenschow; David A. Randall

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Examining Rapid Onset Drought Development Using the Thermal InfraredBased Evaporative Stress Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reliable indicators of rapid drought onset can help to improve the effectiveness of drought early warning systems. In this study, the evaporative stress index (ESI), which uses remotely sensed thermal infrared imagery to estimate ...

Jason A. Otkin; Martha C. Anderson; Christopher Hain; Iliana E. Mladenova; Jeffrey B. Basara; Mark Svoboda

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Global Variations in Oceanic Evaporation (19582005): The Role of the Changing Wind Speed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global estimates of oceanic evaporation (Evp) from 1958 to 2005 have been recently developed by the Objectively Analyzed AirSea Fluxes (OAFlux) project at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). The nearly 50-yr time series shows that ...

Lisan Yu

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Comparing Evaporative Sources of Terrestrial Precipitation and Their Extremes in MERRA Using Relative Entropy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A quasi-isentropic back trajectory scheme is applied to output from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications and a land-only replay with corrected precipitation to estimate surface evaporative sources of moisture ...

Paul A. Dirmeyer; Jiangfeng Wei; Michael G. Bosilovich; David M. Mocko

264

Sensitivity of Annual Evaporation to Soil and Root Properties in Two Models of Contrasting Complexity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of soil water and evapotranspiration with physically based models at broad scales vary in both complexity of processes modeled and in parameterization of soil and root properties. Sensitivity of annual evaporation Eann to some of ...

C. A. Federer; C. Vrsmarty; B. Fekete

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar updraft and a natural evaporative downdraft tower built onto an existing residence structure and a greenhouse were completed and operating. Performance data for the hottest days of June, July, and August, 1985 are included. (MHR)

Cunningham, W.A.; Migon, G.V.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Trends of Calculated and Simulated Actual Evaporation in the Yangtze River Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Actual evaporation in the Yangtze River basin is calculated by the complementary relationship approachthat is, the advectionaridity (AA) model with parameter validation from 1961 to 2007and simulated by the general circulation model (GCM) ...

Yanjun Wang; Bo Liu; Buda Su; Jianqing Zhai; Marco Gemmer

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Enhancement of Tropical Ocean Evaporation and Sensible Heat Flux by Atmospheric Mesoscale Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The enhancement of monthly averaged evaporation by atmospheric mesoscale systems is estimated from long-term hourly observations of surface meteorological data from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TAO) buoy ...

Steven K. Esbensen; Michael J. McPhaden

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

The Melting Layer: A Laboratory Investigation of Ice Particle Melt and Evaporation near 0C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Melting, freezing, and evaporation of individual and aggregates of snow crystals are simulated in the laboratory under controlled temperature, relative humidity, and air velocity. Crystals of selected habit are grown on a vertical filament and ...

R. G. Oraltay; J. Hallett

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Estimating the Evaporative Cooling Bias of an Airborne Reverse Flow Thermometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne reverse flow immersion thermometers were designed to prevent sensor wetting in cloud. Yet there is strong evidence that some wetting does occur and therefore also sensor evaporative cooling as the aircraft exits a cloud. Numerous ...

Yonggang Wang; Bart Geerts

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

An Automated Microlysimeter to Study Dew Formation and Evaporation in Arid and Semiarid Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The development of a simple and low-cost portable weighing microlysimeter that makes use of a load cell for automated recording and for studying daily dew formation, rate of accumulation, and subsequent evaporation in arid or semiarid regions ...

Bert G. Heusinkveld; Simon M. Berkowicz; Adrie F. G. Jacobs; Albert A. M. Holtslag; Willy C. A. M. Hillen

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Floating dry cooling: a competitive alternative to evaporative cooling in a binary cycle geothermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The application of the floating cooling concept to non-evaporative and evaporative atmospheric heat rejection systems was studied as a method of improving the performance of geothermal powerplants operating upon medium temperature hydrothermal resources. The LBL thermodynamic process computer code GEOTHM is used in the case study of a 50 MWe isobutane binary cycle power plant at Heber, California. It is shown that operating a fixed capacity plant in the floating cooling mode can generate significantly more electrical energy at a higher thermodynamic efficiency and reduced but bar cost for approximately the same capital investment. Floating cooling is shown to benefit a plant which is dry cooled to an even greater extent than the same plant operating with an evaporative heat rejection system. Results of the Heber case study indicate that a dry floating cooling geothermal binary cycle plant can produce energy at a bus bar cost which is competitive with the cost of energy associated with evaporatively cooled systems.

Pines, H.S.; Green, M.A.; Pope, W.L.; Doyle, P.A.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

What Drives the Variability of Evaporative Demand across the Conterminous United States?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To understand the sources of temporal and spatial variability of atmospheric evaporative demand across the conterminous United States (CONUS), a mean-value, second-moment uncertainty analysis is applied to a spatially distributed dataset of daily ...

Michael Hobbins; Andrew Wood; David Streubel; Kevin Werner

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Use of DOE-2 to Evaluate Evaporative Cooling in Texas Correctional Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study investigates the feasibility of using direct and indirect evaporative cooling systems for correctional facilities in two different Texas climatic regions with the DOE-2.1E hourly energy simulation program. The analysis is based on adding user defined functions to the DOE-2 SYSTEMS subprogram to simulate direct and indirect evaporative cooling configurations. The DOE-2 program was run with two weather tapes, one for Kingsville, Texas and one for Abilene, Texas during April, July, and October to resemble neutral, summer and winter weather conditions. The results showed that direct evaporative cooling is applicable in April for Abilene and October for Kingsville. The indirect evaporative cooling is feasible in July for Abilene and April for Kingsville.

Saman, N.; Heneghan, T.; Bou-Saada, T. E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

A New Metric for Estimating the Influence of Evaporation on Seasonal Precipitation Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to introduce a diagnostic metrictermed the local-convergence ratiothat can be used to quantify the contribution of evaporation (and transpiration) to the atmospheric hydrologic cycle, and precipitation in ...

Bruce T. Anderson; Guido Salvucci; Alex C. Ruane; John O. Roads; Masao Kanamitsu

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Evaporation and Condensation of Large Droplets in the Presence of Inert Admixtures Containing Soluble Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the mutual influence of heat and mass transfer during gas absorption and evaporation or condensation on the surface of a stagnant droplet in the presence of inert admixtures containing noncondensable soluble gas is investigated ...

T. Elperin; A. Fominykh; B. Krasovitov

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

The Sensitivity of the ECMWF Model to the Parameterization of Evaporation from the Tropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stimulated by the results of a simple SST anomaly experiment with the ECMWF forecast model, a study was carried out to examine the model parameterization of evaporation from the tropica] oceans. In earlier versions of the model, these fluxes were ...

M. J. Miller; A. C. M. Beljaars; T. N. Palmer

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

An experimental study of evaporative cooling from liquid droplets impinging on a hot surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have performed a series of experiments to characterize the different regimes observed in drop impacts during evaporative cooling of heated surfaces. We found four regimes which were named splashing, fizzing, flat film, ...

Koveal, Catherine Helene

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

A New Shipborne Microwave Refractometer for Estimating the Evaporation Flux at the Sea Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After a brief description of humidity measurement and a short presentation of methods of microwave refractometry for evaporation flux, a new X-band refractometer system is presented. Based on a new design and a new material for the microwave ...

J.-Y. Delahaye; C. Guerin; J. P. Vinson; H. Dupuis; A. Weill; H. Branger; L. Eymard; J. Lavergnat; G. Lachaud

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Triode electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum thin film deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new electron bombardment evaporation source for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) thin film deposition is presented. It is based on an original electrodes configuration (modeled on that of a vacuum triode) featuring

R. Verucchi; S. Nannarone

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Fusion-evaporation reactions: a tool for gamma-ray spectroscopy on light nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the weak-decay channels of fusion/evaporation in light projectile/light target systems in order to provide reliable predictions for gamma-spectroscopy experiments.

Gibelin, J.; Phair, L.; Wiedeking, M.; Clark, R. M.; Cromaz, M.; Deleplanque, M.-A.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.-Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; McMahan, M. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bernstein, L. A.; Burke, J. T.; Bleuel, D. L.; Lesher, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hatarik, R. [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08854 (United States); Lake, P. T.; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E.; Moretto, L. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); University of California, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Lyles, B. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); University of California, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)

2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have minor/major impacts are chlorination, pH adjustment, 1st mercury removal, organics removal, 2nd mercury removal, and ion exchange. For minor impacts, the general approach is to use historical process operations data/modeling software like OLI/ESP and/or monitoring/compiled process operations data to resolve any uncertainties with testing as a last resort. For major impacts (i.e., glycolate concentrations > 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM), testing is recommended. No impact is envisaged for the following ETF unit operations regardless of the glycolate concentration - filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange resin regeneration, and evaporation.

Adu-Wusu, K.

2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

282

Water Data Report: An Annotated Bibliography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Towers Dishwashers Evaporative coolers Faucets Food steamers Hot water dispensers Ice machines Landscape irrigation Pre-rinse spray

Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Melody, Moya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Design and optimization of a humidifier for an HDH system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two billion people around the world do not access to clean drinking water. 98% of deaths caused by water related illness occur in the developing world. The humidification dehumidification desalination system currently being ...

St. John, Maximus Gladstone

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Procedure for Applying an Open-Cycle Heat Pump to An Existing Evaporator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An open-cycle heat pump, or mechanical vapor compression (MVC) system, is often an attractive technique for increasing the energy efficiency of an evaporator. With proper design, an MVC system is capable of dramatic cost savings when retrofitted to an existing evaporator. This is especially true if the evaporator is a single or double effect design. Many such evaporators were built when energy was cheap, or because a particular process is not amenable to modern designs incorporating many effects. Advances in compressor design have made MVC applicable to a broader range of processes than ever before. This paper discusses the basic steps required to apply MVC as a retrofit to an existing evaporator. Because of their importance to identification of candidate applications, this paper emphasizes the preliminary analysis and premonitoring steps. For illustration purposes the authors refer to an MVC retrofit in progress at a plant operated by Kraft, Inc. The project is cofunded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Albany, NY), and will serve as a demonstration site to facilitate increased adoption of MVC by other industrial firms.

Wagner, J. R.; Brush, F. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Economic and Technical Tradeoffs Between Open and Closed Cycle Vapor Compression Evaporators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evaporators are used extensively in the chemical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, and related industries. Mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) evaporators are a type using an open heat pump cycle with steam as the working fluid. The technology is widely used and time-proven. Closed cycle vapor compression is an emerging technology. A secondary working fluid such as a halocarbon is used in a closed heat pump cycle to transfer heat from the steam condenser to the hottest surface. Advantages of closed cycle evaporation include flexibility in working fluid selection, potential savings in compressor first cost, and isolation of the compressor from potentially corrosive or troublesome gases and liquid droplets in the suction vapor. A major disadvantage of closed cycle evaporation is that the driving force developed by the compressor (temperature difference) must be shared between two heat transfer surfaces, vs. one in the open cycle design. This paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of open and closed cycle evaporators. Factors considered include working fluid physical properties and thermodynamics, compressor operating limits and cost, and surface area sizing and cost.

Timm, M. L.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Preliminary experimental studies with seawater on OTEC spout evaporator thermal effectiveness and phase transition in upcomer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) test facility has been erected to perform spout evaporator experiments with seawater. The facility, located at Ke-ahole Point, Kona, Hawaii, consists of a spout evaporator, a spray condenser and an on-line deaerator. Warm seawater at 25-27/sup 0/C from 8 m depth and cold deep seawater at 7-10/sup 0/C from 580 m depth is available throughout the year to the facility. The results of thermal effectiveness tests are reported. The error due to instrumental uncertainties in thermal effectiveness measurements has been estimated to be of the order +-5.5 percent. The effect of design parameters; spout height, spout diameter and liquid loading on thermal effectiveness have been observed and compared with the existing theoretical predictions. A modified thermodynamic approach is proposed to evaluate average heat transfer characteristics of spout evaporators using a three component heat transfer coefficient approach. It adequately describes heat transfer characteristics of the spout evaporator under study. Results essentially agree with data obtained by others for fresh water, but clearly indicate the need for improvement of the existing model to take into account a number of identified factors associated with the real life OC-OTEC conditions, such as the transience in evaporator performance associated with the ocean-generated flow and pressure fluctuations and effects of noncondensable gases.

Sonwalkar, N.; Larsen-Basse, J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Applications of geothermal resources in the evaporation and crystallization industry. Final report, September 1976--October 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective in this study was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using low-temperature geothermal energy (hot brines) in place of steam from conventional sources in the evaporation and crystallization industry. A survey of major industries was carried out in order to choose three industries that were significant users of energy, could utilize geothermal brine, and demonstrate the broad range of industrial evaporation and crystallization operations. The selected industries were the preserved fruit and vegetable, sugar and confectionary products, and chemical industries. From among each of the selected industries, an example case was chosen for technical and economic evaluation. This evaluation included use of the ''feed-and-bleed'' process for energy extraction from the low-temperature geothermal brine. This process was chosen as the best process to use because it provides one of the most efficient means of utilizing geothermal brine in evaporation/crystallization operations. This study concludes that, under certain conditions, geothermal energy could be used economically in the evaporation and crystallization industry. The factors that would most affect cost include geothermal resource characteristics (well flow, temperature, and distance of transportation); the energy extraction process chosen (the feed-and-bleed process uses the least amount of brine); and the duration of the evaporation/crystallization process. A program to aid in implementing the use of geothermal energy is included.

May, S.C.; Basuino, D.J.; Doyle, P.T.; Rogers, A.N.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Energy Basics: Cooling Systems  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

or "swamp cooling" provides an experience like air conditioning, but with much lower energy use. An evaporative cooler uses the outside air's heat to evaporate water inside the...

289

NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

Not Available

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

The Effect of Reduced Evaporator Air Flow on the Performance of a Residential Central Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses the measured degradation in performance of a residential air conditioning system operating under reduced evaporator air flow. Experiments were conducted using a R-22 three-ton split-type cooling system with a short-tube orifice expansion device. Results are presented here for a series of tests in which the evaporator air flow was reduced from 25 to 90% below what is normally recommended for this air conditioner. At present, very little information is available which quantifies the performance of a residential cooling system operating under degraded conditions such as reduced evaporator air flow. Degraded performance measurements can provide information which could help electric utilities evaluate the potential impact of system-wide maintenance programs.

Palani, M.; O'Neal, D.; Haberl, J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Vacuum-evaporated ferroelectric films and heterostructures of vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer  

SciTech Connect

The potential of the vacuum method for preparing ferroelectric films and photonic heterostructures from organic materials is studied. Vacuum-evaporated films of fluoropolymers and heterostructures on their basis are obtained and their ferroelectric and spectral properties are studied. In particular, homogeneous films of the well-known piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride and ferroelectric material vinylidene fluoride/trifluoroethylene copolymer (P(VDF/TFE)) are produced. Experimental studies of vacuum-evaporated P(VDF/TFE) films confirmed their ferroelectric properties. The heterostructures composed of alternating layers of P(VDF/TFE) copolymer molecules and azodye molecules are fabricated by vacuum evaporation. Owing to the controlled layer thickness and a significant difference in the refractive indices of the P(VDF/TFE) copolymer and azodyes, these heterostructures exhibit properties of photonic crystals. This finding is confirmed by the occurrence of a photonic band in the absorption spectra of the heterostructures.

Draginda, Yu. A., E-mail: lbf@ns.crys.ras.ru; Yudin, S. G.; Lazarev, V. V.; Yablonskii, S. V.; Palto, S. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

292

Evaporation and wetting dynamics of sessile water droplets on submicron-scale patterned silicon hydrophobic surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The evaporation characteristics of 1 l sessile water droplets on hydrophobic surfaces are experimentally examined. The proposed hydrophobic surfaces are composed of submicron diameter and 4.2- m-height silicon post arrays. A digital image analysis algorithm was developed to obtain time-dependent contact angles, contact diameters, and center heights for both non-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces and patterned post array surfaces, which have the same hydrophobic contact angles. While the contact angles exhibit three distinct stages during evaporation in the non-patterned surface case, those in the patterned silicon post array surface case decrease linearly. In the case of post array hydrophobic surfaces, the initial contact diameter remains unchanged until the portion of the droplet above the posts completely dries out. The edge shrinking velocity of the droplet shows nonlinear characteristics, and the velocity magnitude increases rapidly near the last stage of evaporation.

Choi, Chang Kyoung [Michigan Technological University; Shin, Dong Hwan [Chung-Ang University; Lee, Seong Hyuk [Chung-Ang University; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Spallation process with simultaneous multi-particle emission in nuclear evaporation  

SciTech Connect

High energy probes have been used currently to explore nuclear reaction mechanism and nuclear structure. The spallation process governs the reaction process around 1 GeV energy regime. A new aspect introduced here to describe the nuclear reaction is the in-medium nucleonnucleon collision framework. The nucleon-nucleon scattering is kinematically treated by using an effective mass to represent the nuclear binding. In respect to the evaporation phase of the reaction, we introduce the simultaneous particles emission decay. This process becomes important due to the rise of new channels at high excitation energy regime of the compound nucleus. As results, the particles yields in the rapid and evaporation phases are obtained and compared to experimental data. The effect and relevance of these simultaneous emission processes in the evaporation chain is also discussed.

Santos, B. M. [Instituto de Fisica/UFF - Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, Praia Vermelha, Niteroi - RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, M. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear/CNEN - Rua Gal Severiano, nr. 90, Botafogo - RJ (Brazil); Assis, L. P. G. de; Duarte, S. B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas/CBPF - Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, nr.150, Urca - RJ (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

294

Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

Schmitt, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning, The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Innovative Evaporative and Innovative Evaporative and Thermally Activated Technologies Improve Air Conditioning Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way-with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. Desiccants are an example of a thermally activated technology (TAT) that relies on heat instead

296

Advances in the application of passive down-draft evaporative cooling technology in the cooling of buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A passive down-draft evaporative cooling (PDEC) tower is a component that is designed to capture the wind at the top of a tower and cool (more)

Kang, Daeho

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Demolition of the waste evaporator facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, in conjunction with Allied Technology Group, Inc., successfully executed the decommissioning of a former waste evaporator facility at ONRL. This project was conducted as a non-time critical removal action under CERCLA. The decommissioning alternative selected for the Waste Evaporator Facility was partial dismantlement. This alternative provided for the demolition of all above-grade structures; concrete which did not exceed pre-established radiological levels were eligible for placement in the below-grade portion of the facility. This project demonstrated a coordinated team approach that allowed the successful completion of one of the first full-scale decommissioning projects at ORNL.

Mandry, G.J. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Becker, C.L. [Allied Technology Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Feasibility Study Using a Solar Evaporator to Reduce the Metalworking Fluid (MWF) Waste Stream  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar evaporator was designed, built, and operated to reduce the water-based metalworking fluid waste stream. The evaporator was setup in Waste Managements barrel lot inside one of the confinement areas. The unit processed three batches of waste fluid during the prototype testing. Initial tests removed 13% of the fluid waste stream. Subsequent modifications to the collector improved the rate to almost 20% per week. Evaluation of the risk during operation showed that even a small spill when associated with precipitation, and the unit placement within a confinement area, gave it the potential to contaminate more fluid that what it could save.

Lazarus, Lloyd

2008-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

299

Role of the target orientation angle and orbital angular momentum in the evaporation residue production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The influence of the orientation angles of the target nucleus symmetry axis relative to the beam direction on the production of the evaporation residues is investigated for the $^{48}$Ca+$^{154}$Sm reaction as a function of the beam energy. At low energies ($E_{\\rm c.m.}orientation angles ($\\alpha_Torientation angles $\\alpha_T$ can contribute to the evaporation residue cross section $\\sigma_{ER}$ in the 10--100 mb range, and at $E_{c.m.}>$180 MeV $\\sigma_{ER}$ ranges around 0.1--10 mb because the fission barrier for a compound nucleus decreases by increasing its excitation energy and angular momentum.

Giovanni Fazio; Giorgio Giardina; Francis Hanappe; Giuseppe Mandaglio; Marina Manganaro; Akhtam I. Muminov; Avazbek K. Nasirov; Carmelo Sacca

2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

300

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Environmental sampling program for a solar evaporation pond for liquid radioactive wastes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is evaluating solar evaporation as a method for disposal of liquid radioactive wastes. This report describes a sampling program designed to monitor possible escape of radioactivity to the environment from a solar evaporation pond prototype constructed at LASL. Background radioactivity levels at the pond site were determined from soil and vegetation analyses before construction. When the pond is operative, the sampling program will qualitatively and quantitatively detect the transport of radioactivity to the soil, air, and vegetation in the vicinity. Possible correlation of meteorological data with sampling results is being investigated and measures to control export of radioactivity by biological vectors are being assessed.

Romero, R.; Gunderson, T.C.; Talley, A.D.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Spectral Lags of Gamma-Ray Bursts from Primordial Black Hole (PBH) Evaporations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), which may have been created in the early Universe, are predicted to be detectable by their Hawking radiation. PBHs with an initial mass of 5.0 * 10^14 g should be expiring today with a burst of high energy particles. Evaporating PBHs in the solar neighborhood are candidate Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) progenitors. We propose spectral lag, which is the temporal delay between the high energy photon pulse and the low energy photon pulse, as a possible method to detect PBH evaporation events with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observatory.

T. N. Ukwatta; J. H. MacGibbon; W. C. Parke; K. S. Dhuga; A. Eskandarian; N. Gehrels; L. Maximon; D. C. Morris

2009-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

304

Steps toward a cooler greenhouse  

SciTech Connect

In April a committee of the National Academies of Science and Engineering and the Institute of Medicine urged the Bush Administration and Congress to begin cutting emissions of greenhouse gases immediately. The risk of delay is great, and the cost of insurance against disastrous climate warming is cheap. Now the committee's panel on mitigation has issued a 500-page report describing just how cheap that hedge against a climate calamity could be. The panel found that it would not be unreasonable to expect that a 25% reduction in US greenhouse gas emissions might be achieved at a cost of less than $10 per ton of carbon dioxide or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases. In more familiar terms, that considerable reduction in greenhouse emissions would cost about $4.75 for each barrel of oil burned or $0.11 per gallon of gasoline. The most cost-effective measures for reducing emissions, are increasing the energy efficiency of residential and commercial buildings and activities, vehicles, and industrial processes that use electricity.

Kerr, R.A.

1991-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

305

Development of the Sandia Cooler  

Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia ... This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored ...

306

ANALYSIS OF 2H-EVAPORATOR SCALE POT BOTTOM SAMPLE [HTF-13-11-28H  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is planning to remove a buildup of sodium aluminosilicate scale from the 2H-evaporator pot by loading and soaking the pot with heated 1.5 M nitric acid solution. Sampling and analysis of the scale material from the 2H evaporator has been performed so that the evaporator can be chemically cleaned beginning July of 2013. Historically, since the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), silicon in the DWPF recycle stream combines with aluminum in the typical tank farm supernate to form sodium aluminosilicate scale mineral deposits in the 2H-evaporator pot and gravity drain line. The 2H-evaporator scale samples analyzed by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) came from the bottom cone sections of the 2H-evaporator pot. The sample holder from the 2Hevaporator wall was virtually empty and was not included in the analysis. It is worth noting that after the delivery of these 2H-evaporator scale samples to SRNL for the analyses, the plant customer determined that the 2H evaporator could be operated for additional period prior to requiring cleaning. Therefore, there was no need for expedited sample analysis as was presented in the Technical Task Request. However, a second set of 2H evaporator scale samples were expected in May of 2013, which would need expedited sample analysis. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) confirmed the bottom cone section sample from the 2Hevaporator pot consisted of nitrated cancrinite, (a crystalline sodium aluminosilicate solid), clarkeite and uranium oxide. There were also mercury compound XRD peaks which could not be matched and further X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of the sample confirmed the existence of elemental mercury or mercuric oxide. On ?as received? basis, the scale contained an average of 7.09E+00 wt % total uranium (n = 3; st.dev. = 8.31E-01 wt %) with a U-235 enrichment of 5.80E-01 % (n = 3; st.dev. = 3.96E-02 %). The measured U-238 concentration was 7.05E+00 wt % (n=3, st. dev. = 8.25E-01 wt %). Analyses results for Pu-238 and Pu-239, and Pu-241 are 7.06E-05 ? 7.63E-06 wt %, 9.45E-04 ? 3.52E-05 wt %, and <2.24E-06 wt %, respectively. These results are provided so that SRR can calculate the equivalent uranium-235 concentrations for the NCSA. Because this 2H evaporator pot bottom scale sample contained a significant amount of elemental mercury (11.7 wt % average), it is recommended that analysis for mercury be included in future Technical Task Requests on 2H evaporator sample analysis at SRNL. Results confirm that the uranium contained in the scale remains depleted with respect to natural uranium. SRNL did not calculate an equivalent U-235 enrichment, which takes into account other fissionable isotopes U-233, Pu-239 and Pu-241.

Oji, L.

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

Crea, B.A.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

308

Pasquills Influence: On the Evaporation from Various Liquids into the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theory of evaporation from a plane, free-liquid surface was first introduced by O. G. Sutton. However, in recognizing the shortcomings of Suttons theory, F. Pasquill proposed a generalized theorythat is, to modify Suttons theory by replacing ...

C. H. Huang

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

CFD Simulation and Analysis of the Combined Evaporative Cooling and Radiant Ceiling Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to such disadvantages as large air duct and high energy consumption of the current all- outdoor air evaporative cooling systems used in the dry region of Northwest China, as well as the superiority of the ceiling cooling system in improving thermal comfort and saving energy, a combined system is presented in this paper. It combines an evaporative cooling system with ceiling cooling, in which the evaporative cooling system handles the entire latent load and one part of the sensible loads, and the ceiling cooling system deals with the other part of sensible loads in the air-conditioned zone, so that the condensation on radiant panels and the insufficiency of cooling capacity can be avoided. The cooling water at 18? used in the cooling coils of ceiling cooling system can be ground water, tap water or the cooled water from cooling towers in the summer. This new air-conditioning system and existing all- outdoor air evaporative cooling system are applied to a project in the city of Lanzhou. Energy consumption analysis of the building is carried out using the energy consumption code. Velocity and temperature distribution in the air-conditioned zone is computed using CFD. According to the results, the energy consumption and indoor human thermal comfort of both systems are then compared. It is concluded that the new system occupies less building space, reduces energy consumption, improves indoor human thermal comfort and saves initial investment.

Xiang, H.; Yinming, L.; Junmei, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

The Effect of Manganese Additions on the Reactive Evaporation of Chromium in Ni-Cr Alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Chromium is used as an alloy addition in stainless steels and nickel-chromium alloys to form protective chromium oxide scales. Chromium oxide undergoes reactive evaporation in high temperature exposures in the presence of oxygen and/or water vapor. The deposition of gaseous chromium species onto solid oxide fuel cell electrodes can reduce the efficiency of the fuel cell. Manganese additions to the alloy can reduce the activity of chromium in the oxide, either from solid solution replacement of chromium with manganese (at low levels of manganese) or from the formation of manganese-chromium spinels (at high levels of manganese). This reduction in chromium activity leads to a predicted reduction in chromium evaporation by as much as a factor of 35 at 800 C and 55 at 700 C. The results of evaporation loss measurements on nickel-chromium-manganese alloys are compared with the predicted reduction. Quantifying the effects of manganese additions on chromium evaporation should aid alloy development of metallic interconnects and balance-of-plant alloys.

Holcomb, Gordon R.; Alman, David E.

2004-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

311

Evaporation-Wind Feedback and Low-Frequency Variability in the Tropical Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mechanism by which feedback between zonal wind perturbations and evaporation can create unstable, low-frequency modes in a simple two-layer model of the tropical troposphere is presented. The modes resemble the 3050 day oscillation. A series ...

J. David Neelin; Isaac M. Held; Kerry H. Cook

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water Robin J. Speedy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The evaporation rate, free energy, and entropy of amorphous water at 150 K Robin J. Speedy can be interpreted as giving a measure of their free energy difference, i a G 150 K 1100 100 J of amorphous water (a) and ice (i) near 150 K and suppose that their ratio gives a measure of their free energy

313

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Evaporation and combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Evaporation and combustion of thin films the tendency to destabilize the planar interface, combustion acts to reduce this effect. In particular, when the heat release by combustion is substantial, all disturbances are obliterated, the film remains nearly

314

The Impact of Sea Spray Evaporation in a Numerical Weather Prediction Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Strong winds above the sea lead to large amounts of spray in the lowest part of the boundary layer. Through their evaporation, spray droplets influence the exchange of sensible and latent heat between sea and air. In this study, the impact of ...

Jan F. Meirink; Vladimir K. Makin

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Heat-transfer characteristics of climbing film evaporation in a vertical tube  

SciTech Connect

Heat-transfer characteristics of climbing film evaporation were experimentally investigated on a vertical climbing film evaporator heated by tube-outside hot water. The experimental setup was designed for determining the effect of the height of feed water inside a vertical tube and the range of temperature difference on local heat transfer coefficient inside a vertical tube (h{sub i}). In this setup, the height of feed water was successfully controlled and the polypropylene shell effectively impedes the heat loss to the ground. The results indicated that a reduction in the height of feed water contributed to a significant increase in h{sub i} if no dry patches around the wall of the heated tube appeared inside the tube. The height ratio of feed water R{sub h} = 0.3 was proposed as the optimal one as dry patches destroyed the continuous climbing film when R{sub h} is under 0.3. It was found that the minimum temperature difference driving climbing film evaporation is suggested as 5 C due to a sharp reduction in h{sub i} for temperature difference below 5 C. The experiment also showed that h{sub i} increased with an increase in temperature difference, which proved the superiority of climbing film evaporation in utilizing low-grade surplus heating source due to its wide range of driving temperature difference. The experimental results were compared with the previous literature and demonstrated a satisfactory agreement. (author)

Yang, Luopeng; Chen, Xue; Shen, Shengqiang [Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Thermally Evaporated Iron (Oxide) on an Alumina Barrier Layer, by XPS  

SciTech Connect

We report the XPS characterization of a thermally evaporated iron thin film (6 nm) deposited on an Si/SiO_2/Al_2O_3 substrate using Al Ka X-rays. An XPS survey spectrum, narrow Fe 2p scan, narrow O 1s, and valence band scan are shown.

Madaan, Nitesh; Kanyal, Supriya S.; Jensen, David S.; Vail, Michael A.; Dadson, Andrew; Engelhard, Mark H.; Linford, Matthew R.

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

317

Direct Numerical Simulation of Evaporative Cooling at the Lateral Boundary of Shallow Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the dynamics of the subsiding shell at the lateral boundary of cumulus clouds, focusing on the role of evaporative cooling. Since the size of this shell is well below what large-eddy simulations can resolve, the authors ...

Dick Abma; Thijs Heus; Juan Pedro Mellado

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Experimental Studies of Droplet Evaporation Kinetics: Validation of Models for Binary and Ternary Aqueous Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted with an electrodynamic levitation system to study the kinetics of droplet evaporation under chemically rich conditions. Single solution droplets of known composition (HNO3/H2O or H2SO4/HNO3/H2O) were introduced into an ...

Huiwen Xue; Alfred M. Moyle; Nathan Magee; Jerry Y. Harrington; Dennis Lamb

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Enhancement of Evaporation from a Large Northern Lake by the Entrainment of Warm, Dry Air  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The turbulent exchange of water vapor and heat were measured above Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada, using the eddy covariance method for most of the ice-free period in 1997, 1998, and 1999. In all years, evaporation tended to ...

Peter D. Blanken; Wayne R. Rouse; William M. Schertzer

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

242-16H 2H EVAPORATOR POT SAMPLING FINAL REPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to the materials that are processed through 2H Evaporator, scale is constantly being deposited on the surfaces of the evaporator pot. In order to meet the requirements of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis/Evaluation (NCSA/NCSE) for 2H Evaporator, inspections of the pot are performed to determine the extent of scaling. Once the volume of scale reaches a certain threshold, the pot must be chemically cleaned to remove the scale. Prior to cleaning the pot, samples of the scale are obtained to determine the concentration of uranium and plutonium and also to provide information to assist with pot cleaning. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) Engineering to obtain these samples from two locations within the evaporator. Past experience has proven the difficulty of successfully obtaining solids samples from the 2H Evaporator pot. To mitigate this risk, a total of four samplers were designed and fabricated to ensure that two samples could be obtained. Samples had previously been obtained from the cone surface directly below the vertical access riser using a custom scraping tool. This tool was fabricated and deployed successfully. A second scraper was designed to obtain sample from the nearby vertical thermowell and a third scraper was designed to obtain sample from the vertical pot wall. The newly developed scrapers both employed a pneumatically actuated elbow. The scrapers were designed to be easily attached/removed from the elbow assembly. These tools were fabricated and deployed successfully. A fourth tool was designed to obtain sample from the opposite side of the pot under the tube bundle. This tool was fabricated and tested, but the additional modifications required to make the tool field-ready could not be complete in time to meet the aggressive deployment schedule. Two samples were obtained near the pot entry location, one from the pot wall and the other from the evaporator feed pipe. Since a third sampler was available and all of the radiological controls were in place, the decision was made to obtain a third sample. The third sampler dropped directly below the riser to obtain a scrape sample from the evaporator cone. Samples were obtained from all of these locations in sufficient quantities to perform the required analysis.

Krementz, D; William Cheng, W

2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Effect of adding flash tank on the evaporator's thermal load of the combined ejector-absorption cooling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modified combined absorption-ejector cooling system using aqua-ammonia (NH3-H2O) refrigerant has been investigated. Removable flash tank was added between the condenser and the evaporator. The modified cycle brings the advantage of improving in the ... Keywords: absorption system, combined absorption cooling system, ejectors, evaporators

Ranj Sirwan; Yusoff Ali; A. Zaharim; K. Sopian

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Original papers: Aerodynamic analysis and CFD simulation of several cellulose evaporative cooling pads used in Mediterranean greenhouses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work makes an aerodynamic analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the four commercial models of corrugated cellulose evaporative cooling pads that are most widely used in Mediterranean greenhouses. The geometric characteristics ... Keywords: Aerodynamic analysis, CFD, Evaporative cooling, Fan and pad, Greenhouse, Pressure drop

A. Franco; D. L. Valera; A. Pea; A. M. Prez

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

VELOCITY CHARACTERISTICS OF EVAPORATED PLASMA USING HINODE/EUV IMAGING SPECTROMETER  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a detailed study of chromospheric evaporation using the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode in conjunction with hard X-ray (HXR) observations from Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). The advanced capabilities of EIS were used to measure Doppler shifts in 15 emission lines covering the temperature range T = 0.05-16 MK during the impulsive phase of a C-class flare on 2007 December 14. Blueshifts indicative of the evaporated material were observed in six emission lines from Fe XIV-XXIV (2-16 MK). Upflow velocity (v{sub up}) was found to scale with temperature as v{sub up} (km s{sup -1}) {approx} 8-18T(MK). Although the hottest emission lines, Fe XXIII and Fe XXIV, exhibited upflows of >200 km s{sup -1}, their line profiles were found to be dominated by a stationary component in contrast to the predictions of the standard flare model. Emission from O VI-Fe XIII lines (0.5-1.5 MK) was found to be redshifted by v{sub down} (km s{sup -1}) {approx} 60-17T (MK) and was interpreted as the downward-moving 'plug' characteristic of explosive evaporation. These downflows occur at temperatures significantly higher than previously expected. Both upflows and downflows were spatially and temporally correlated with HXR emission observed by RHESSI that provided the properties of the electron beam deemed to be the driver of the evaporation. The energy flux of the electron beam was found to be {approx}>5 x 10{sup 10} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, consistent with the value required to drive explosive chromospheric evaporation from hydrodynamic simulations.

Milligan, Ryan O.; Dennis, Brian R. [Solar Physics Laboratory (Code 671), Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2009-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

324

Does Evaporation over the Arabian Sea Play a Crucial Role in Moisture Transport across the West Coast of India during an Active Monsoon Period?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study interannual variability of the contributions of evaporation and moisture flux from the Southern Hemisphere towards the moisture transport across the west coast of India is examined. The mean rates of evaporation and ...

Y. Sadhuram; M. R. Ramesh Kumar

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

An evaporation-based model of thermal neutron induced ternary fission of plutonium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ternary fission probabilities for thermal neutron induced fission of plutonium are analyzed within the framework of an evaporation-based model where the complexity of time-varying potentials, associated with the neck collapse, are included in a simplistic fashion. If the nuclear temperature at scission and the fission-neck-collapse time are assumed to be ~1.2 MeV and ~10^-22 s, respectively, then calculated relative probabilities of ternary-fission light-charged-particle emission follow the trends seen in the experimental data. The ability of this model to reproduce ternary fission probabilities spanning seven orders of magnitude for a wide range of light-particle charges and masses implies that ternary fission is caused by the coupling of an evaporation-like process with the rapid re-arrangement of the nuclear fluid following scission.

J. P. Lestone

2007-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

326

Evaporation-Induced Buckling and Fission of Microscale Droplet Interface Bilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) are a robust platform for studying synthetic cellular membranes; however, to date no DIBs have been produced at cellular length scales. Here, we create microscale droplet interface bilayers ( DIBs) at the interface between aqueous femtoliter-volume droplets within an oil-filled microfluidic channel. The uniquely large area-to-volume ratio of the droplets results in strong evaporation effects, causing the system to transition through three distinct regimes. First, the two adjacent droplets shrink into the shape of a single spherical droplet, where an augmented lipid bilayer partitions two hemi-spherical volumes. In the second regime, the combined effects of the shrinking monolayers and growing bilayer force the confined bilayer to buckle to conserve its mass. Finally, at a bending moment corresponding to a critical shear stress, the buckling bilayer fissions a vesicle to regulate its shape and stress. The DIBs produced here enable evaporation-induced bilayer dynamics reminiscent of endo- and exocytosis in cells.

Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Mruetusatorn, Prachya [ORNL; Sarles, Stephen A [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Concentration of Melton Valley Storage Tank surrogates with a wiped film evaporator  

SciTech Connect

This report describes experiments to determine whether a wiped film evaporator (WFE) might be used to concentrate low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLLW). Solutions used in these studies were surrogates that contain no radionuclides. The compositions of the surrogates were based on one of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). It was found that a WFE could be used to concentrate LLLW to varying degrees by manipulating various parameters. The parameters studied were rotor speed, process fluid feed temperature and feed rate, and evaporator temperature. Product consistency varied from an unsaturated liquid to a dry powder. Volume reductions up to 68% were achieved. System decontamination factors were consistently in the range of 10{sup 4}.

Boring, M.D.; Farr, L.L.; Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Co-Evaporated Cu2ZnSnSe4 Films and Devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of vacuum co-evaporation to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 photovoltaic devices with 9.15% total-area efficiency is described. These new results suggest that the early success of the atmospheric techniques for kesterite photovoltaics may be related to the ease with which one can control film composition and volatile phases, rather than a fundamental benefit of atmospheric conditions for film properties. The co-evaporation growth recipe is documented, as is the motivation for various features of the recipe. Characteristics of the resulting kesterite films and devices are shown in scanning electron micrographs, including photoluminescence, current-voltage, and quantum efficiency. Current-voltage curves demonstrate low series resistance without the light-dark cross-over seen in many devices in the literature. Band gap indicated by quantum efficiency and photoluminescence is roughly consistent with that expected from first principles calculation.

Repins, I.; Beall, C.; Vora, N.; DeHart, C.; Kuciauskas, D.; Dippo, P.; To, B.; Mann, J.; Hsu, W. C.; Goodrich, A.; Noufi, R.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Research on Convective Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer of the Evaporator in Micro/Mini-Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the development of science and technology, various heating and cooling equipment have a development trend of micromation. Micro-fabrication processes make it possible to conduct research on condensation heat transfer in micro-channels. Based on the reviewers on the present household air conditioners, the potential requirements for new heat transfer enhancement used for household air conditioners are discussed. Investigations on condensation and boiling of refrigerants in mini/micro channels have indicated that the evaporator and condenser of air conditioner would be more efficient and more compact by using microchannels, and hence it could improve the coefficient of performance of air conditioners to meet the new energy conversion standards in China. The relationship between condensation heat transfer of refrigerants and surface physical characteristics of the evaporator are pointed out and analyzed in order to achieving the corresponding heat transfer coefficients.

Su, J.; Li, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Emerging Technologies for Efficient Data Centers: Uninterruptible Power Supply Eco Mode, Liquid Cooling, and Evaporative Cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes research in emerging technologies that improve data center energy efficiency, including evaporative cooling, liquid cooling, and high-efficiency eco mode operation of the uninterruptible power supply. The report describes the efficiency gains of these technologies and their impact on total data center energy use. It also identifies market barriers for each technology and potential next steps to promote adoption of these efficient technologies.

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

331

A feasibility study of internal evaporative cooling for proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine the feasibility of using the technique of ultrasonic nebulization of water into the anode gas stream for evaporative cooling of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The basic concept of this form of internal evaporative cooling of the PEM fuel cell is to introduce finely atomized liquid water into the anode gas stream, so that the finely atomized liquid water adsorbs onto the anode and then moves to the cathode via electro-osmotic drag, where this water then evaporates into the relatively dry cathode gas stream, carrying with it the waste thermal energy generated within the fuel cell. The thermal and electrical performance of a 50 cm2 PEM fuel cell utilizing this technique was compared to the performance obtained with conventional water management. Both techniques were compared over a range of humidification chamber temperatures for both the anode and cathode gas streams so as to determine the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method produced only meager levels of evaporative cooling (at best 2 watts, for which a minimum of 30 watts was required for adequate cooling), but the average cell voltage increased considerably (as much as a 10% gain), and the technique increased the fault tolerance of the fuel cell (the Nafion? membrane did not dry out even if cell temperature went well in excess of 70° C despite both anode and cathode humidification temperatures of 55° C). An interesting phenomena was also observed wherein the fuel cell voltage oscillated regularly with a period of tens of seconds, and that the amplitude of this oscillation corresponded inversely with the level of humidification received by the fuel cell.

Snyder, Loren E

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Determination of uranium distribution in the evaporation of simulated Savannah River Site waste  

SciTech Connect

The results of an experimental program addressing the distribution of uranium in saltcake and supernate for two Savannah River Site waste compositions are presented. Successive batch evaporations were performed on simulated H-Area Modified Purex low-heat and post-aluminum dissolution wastes spiked with depleted uranium. Waste compositions and physical data were obtained for supernate and saltcake samples. For the H-Area Modified Purex low-heat waste, the product saltcake contained 42% of the total uranium from the original evaporator feed solution. However, precipitated solids only accounted for 10% of the original uranium mass; the interstitial liquid within the saltcake matrix contained the remainder of the uranium. In the case of the simulated post-aluminum dissolution waste; the product saltcake contained 68% of the total uranium from the original evaporator feed solution. Precipitated solids accounted for 52% of the original uranium mass; again, the interstitial liquid within the saltcake matrix contained the remainder of the uranium. An understanding of the distribution of uranium between supernatant liquid, saltcake, and sludge is required to develop a material balance for waste processing operations. This information is necessary to address nuclear criticality safety concerns.

Barnes, M.J.; Chandler, G.T.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Modification of the Thermodynamic Structure of the Lower Troposphere by the Evaporation of Precipitation: A GEWEX Cloud System Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of subcloud evaporation to the thermodynamics and movement of cold fronts is investigated through inclusion of an explicit cloud scheme within a 30-km resolution limited-area model. Two cases are examined: 18 November 1984 and 26 ...

J. J. Katzfey; B. F. Ryan

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Modeling the Effect of Land Surface Evaporation Variability on Precipitation Variability. Part II: Time- and Space-Scale structure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the second of a two-part article investigating the impact of variations of land surface evaporability on the interannual variability of precipitation. The first goal of this part is to analyze the relationship between the atmospheric ...

Oreste Reale; Paul Dirmeyer; Adam Schlosser

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Progress report, March 1985--September 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar updraft and a natural evaporative downdraft tower built onto an existing residence structure and a greenhouse were completed and operating. Performance data for the hottest days of June, July, and August, 1985 are included. (MHR)

Cunningham, W.A.; Migon, G.V.

1985-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

336

A Resistance Representation of Schemes for Evaporation from Bare and Partly Plant-covered Surfaces for Use in Atmospheric Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the parameterization of land surface processes, attention must be devoted to surface evaporation, one of the main processes in the air-land energy exchange. One of the most used approaches is the resistance representation which requires the ...

Dragutin T. Mihailovi?; Roger A. Pielke; Borivoj Rajkovi?; Tsengdar J. Lee; Milan Jefti?

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Does the Influence of Oblate-Like Distortions in Larger Raindrops Make a Difference in Collection and Evaporation Parameterizations?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This note documents the results of more exact parameterizations for continuous-collection growth and evaporation against simpler traditional ones. Although the main focus is on improving research models, the research results also apply to high-...

Jerry M. Straka; Matthew S. Gilmore

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The evaporation phenomenon of a liquid droplet was investigated by using microfabricated heaters. All 32 microheaters were designed to have the same resistance. Gold microheaters worked both as temperature indicators and as heaters. The first experiment was performed under a constant voltage mode to investigate the temperature and heat flux variation of the heated surface by the evaporating droplet. The second experiment was performed under constant temperature mode to investigate the spatial and temporal heat flux variation of the constant temperature heater surface by the evaporating droplet heater. Droplet evaporation was recorded with a CCD camera. Experimental data showed temperature and heat flux variations inside and outside of the droplet with respect to time and radial position from the center of the droplet by tomographic deconvolution.

Paik, Sokwon

339

Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

Sullivan, N.

1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

340

APPLICATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT HANFORD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORP/DOE), through Columbia Energy & Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper discusses results of pre-project pilot-scale testing by Columbia Energy and ongoing technology maturation development scope through fiscal year 2012, including planned additional pilot-scale and full-scale simulant testing and operation with actual radioactive tank waste.

TEDESCHI AR; WILSON RA

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The Economic and Environmental Aspects of Heat Exchanger Cleaning -- How FP&L Has Used the Newly Patented MCC Process to Clean Turbine Lube Oil Coolers to Maximize Efficiency and Minimize Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The fouling of heat exchangers of all types can affect a company's bottom line. Today, with better operational record keeping and the development of new research and modeling, we are beginning to get a better understanding of the importance of efficient and timely cleaning of heat exchangers. There are great differences in the cleaning processes that are used to clean exchanger bundles in industry today. The cleaning of turbine lube oil coolers is a specialized case in point. A newly patented process developed in Ohio has been tried in Florida at FP&L with significant results. Cleaning efficiencies of 92% are 30% greater than those achieved with high-pressure washing. Using a constantly filtered solvent and 1000 gpm flow rates form up to 180 nozzles this new process eliminates or reduces wastewater generation by 85%. The process appears to offer significant advantages in the power, petroleum, and petrochemical industries.

Wood, H. A. T.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

OTEC performance tests of the Union Carbide flooded-bundle evaporator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of performance tests conducted on a Union Carbide flooded-bundle evaporator with High Flux titanium tubes are reported. At design operating conditions (a heat duty of 3.2 million Btu/hr, an inlet water temperature of 80/sup 0/F, and a water flow rate of 3200 gpm) the steady-state value of the overall heat transfer coefficient (U/sub 0/) was found to be 785 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ /sup 0/F, and the ammonia-side and water-side heat transfer coefficients were 4800 and 1400 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ /sup 0/F, respectively. The water-side pressure drop was 2.7 psi. Variations in heat duty (+-25%) and liquid ammonia feed temperature (over the range of 48 to 64/sup 0/F) did not affect thermal performance significantly. On the other hand, U/sub 0/ was reduced appreciably by operational shutdowns during which nonboiling ammonia remained in contact with the High Flux surface for periods of 30 minutes or more. During a one-hour shutdown the value of U/sub 0/ decreased to 690 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ /sup 0/F, and values as low as 600 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ /sup 0/F were reached for longer shutdowns. Such contact appears to deactivate some of the nucleate boiling sites, thus reducing the heat transfer coefficient. Although operation of the evaporator under boiling conditions reverses this effect, reactivation takes place much more slowly than deactivation. Procedures for avoiding this problem in the operation of the High Flux flooded-bundle evaporator are given.

Lewis, L G; Sather, N F

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Self-organized Archimedean Spiral Pattern: Regular Bundling of Fullerene through Solvent Evaporation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the spontaneous generation of an Archimedean spiral pattern of fullerene via the evaporation of solvent. The self-organized spiral pattern exhibited equi-spacing on the order of micrometer between neighboring stripes. The characteristics of the spirals, such as the spacing between stripes, the number of stripes and the band width of stripes, could be controlled by tuning the thickness of the liquid bridge and the concentration of solution. The mechanism of pattern formation is interpreted in terms of a specific traveling wave on the liquid-solid interface accompanied by a stick-slip process of the contact line.

Yong-Jun Chen; Kosuke Suzuki; Hitoshi Mahara; Kenichi Yoshikawa; Tomohiko Yamaguchi

2013-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

344

Literature survey on vertical tube evaporators (VTE's). Part I. Bibliographical entries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A bibliography of the literature pertinent to vertical tube heat exchangers for OTEC application has been prepared. More than 200 references from different sources (journals, books, companies and government reports) on heat exchanger design, operation and performance have been identified and surveyed for a two part report on the state-of-the-art of vertical tube evaporators. This bibliography represents Part I. Each bibliographical entry has been coded to facilitate references to particular articles in the narrative account of the survey represented in Part II.

Rothfus, R.R.; Neuman, C.P.; Lavi, G.H.; Farthing, G.A. Jr.; Prengaman, R.

1977-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Blue Emission Peak of GeO{sub 2} Particles Grown Using Thermal Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we report a simple thermal evaporation technique (horizontal tube furnace) to grow large quantities of GeO{sub 2} particles with diameters ranging from tens of nanometer to 500 nm on n-type (100) Si substrate free of catalyst. The particles were grown at temperature about 1000 degree sign C for 2 hrs and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals several emission peaks around 400 nm at room temperature. Raman measurement also measured at room temperature for this GeO{sub 2} particles.

Sulieman, Kamal Mahir [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Physics Department, Alzaiem Alazhary University, 1432-Khartoum (Sudan); Jumidali, M. M. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 13500 Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, M. R. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

2010-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

346

Sodium waste technology: A summary report. [Melt-drain-evaporation-calcination (MEDEC)  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds.

Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Giant Magnetoresistance In Ni/Cu Multilayers Fabricated By Electron-Beam Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electron beam evaporation technique has been used to deposit the multilayers of Ni-Cu, represented by Si[BL{sub t}/[Ni(t{sub FM})/Cu(t{sub NM})]xn] where Si is used as a substrate and BL is buffer layer, n is the number of bilayers, t, t{sub FM} and t{sub NM} are thicknesses of buffer layer, ferromagnetic (Ni) and nonmagnetic (Cu) layers, respectively. We characterize the multilayers using M-H curves, magnetoresistance measurement (at room temperature)

Vikram, V.; Rahman, Md. Rizwanur; Katiyar, Monica [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, 208016 (India)

2008-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

348

Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the present time all experimental towers (chimneys) are completed and operating. This consists of both a solar updraft and a natural-evaporative downdraft tower retrofitted to an existing residence structure and a greenhouse. The residential, experimental, natural-draft cooling system was completed in May, 1985, and five months of summer data on a Hewlet Packard 85 data acquisition computer with a digital voltmeter were acquired. The cooling tower and solar chimney on the experimental greenhouse became operational in September of 1985. A conceptual drawing of both the greenhouse and the residence natural-draft towers is included in the appendix along with the September 85 progress report.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Sensitivity of the FERMI Detectors to Gamma-Ray Bursts from Evaporating Primordial Black Holes (PBHs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Primordial Black Holes (PBHs), which may have been created in the early Universe, are predicted to be detectable by their Hawking radiation. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observatory offers increased sensitivity to the gamma-ray bursts produced by PBHs with an initial mass of $\\sim 5\\times 10^{14}$ g expiring today. PBHs are candidate progenitors of unidentified Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) that lack X-ray afterglow. We propose spectral lag, which is the temporal delay between the high and low energy pulses, as an efficient method to identify PBH evaporation events with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT).

T. N. Ukwatta; Jane H. MacGibbon; W. C. Parke; K. S. Dhuga; S. Rhodes; A. Eskandarian; N. Gehrels; L. Maximon; D. C. Morris

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

350

OTEC performance tests of the Carnegie-Mellon University vertical fluted-tube evaporator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Performance tests were conducted with the Carnegie-Mellon University (C-MU) vertical fluted-tube evaporator. Under nominal operating conditions (3200 gpm water flow, 3.2 million Btu/hr heat duty, and 100 gpm ammonia feed rate), the overall heat transfer coefficient (U/sub 0/) was 825 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ /sup 0/F and the ammonia-side and water-side heat transfer coefficients were 1800 and 2610 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ /sup 0/F, respectively. The water-side pressure drop was 3.2 psi. Tests were conducted at heat duties ranging from 2.4 million to 4.0 million Btu/hr and ammonia feed rates from 30 to 110 gpm. Over these ranges, U/sub 0/ increased with ammonia feed rate and decreased with heat duty. For all runs the quality of the ammonia vapor leaving the evaporator exceeded 99.9%. The measured U/sub 0/ values were very stable and repeatable for any continuous run at fixed operating conditions; however, they were not always repeatable following operating state changes or shutdown of the ammonia feed. These repeatability problems were attributed to variations in tube wetting and to the poor design of the ammonia applicator. Test results suggested that to ensure sufficient wetting and good thermal performance, the system should be started with a high ammonia feed rate and then cut back to the desired operating value.

Lorenz, J J; Yung, D T; Hillis, D L; Sather, N F

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

One-Step Growth of Ge doped ZnO Tubes by Thermal Evaporation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we report a simple thermal evaporation technique (horizontal tube furnace) to grow the bulk-quantity of germanium (Ge) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) tubes on the Si substrate by using one-step thermal evaporation of a mixed powder of Ge and ZnO. The microstructure and optical properties of the Ge doped ZnO tubes have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) spectrometer and Raman spectrometer. The investigation of structural properties indicated that the structures consist of bulk quantities of cylindrical rod and tube with diameter around 1micron. EDX reveals that the tube structures have Ge, Zn and O{sub 2} compositions and XRD analysis indicated the product is mainly composed of Ge, zinc germanium oxide (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}) and small proportion of ZnO. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows broad emission peaks around 400 nm, opening up a route to potential applications in future optoelectronic devices. Raman measurement also measured at room temperature for these tubes.

Jumidali, M. M. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 13500 Penang (Malaysia); Hashim, M. R. [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia); Sulieman, K. M. [Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 13500 Penang (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

352

Crystallization Temperature of Aqueous Lithium Bromide Solutions at Low Evaporation Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water- aqueous Lithium Bromide (LiBr) solutions have shown superior performance as working fluid pairs for absorption refrigeration cycles. Most of the available literature (e.g. ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, etc.) provide crystallization behavior down to only 10 C. The typical evaporating temperature for an absorption chiller system is usually lower than 10 C. Hence, it is essential to have an accurate prediction of the crystallization temperature in this range in order to avoid crystallization during the design phase. We have therefore conducted a systematic study to explore the crystallization temperatures of LiBr/Water solutions that fall below an evaporating temperature of 10 C. Our preliminary studies revealed that the rate of cooling of the sample solution influences the crystallization temperature; therefore we have performed a quasi steady test where the sample was cooled gradually by reducing the sample temperature in small steps. Results from this study are reported in this paper and can be used to extend the data available in open literature.

Kisari, Padmaja [ORNL; Wang, Kai [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Evaporative Concentration of 100x J13 Ground Water at 60% Relative Humidity and 90C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In these experiments we studied the behavior of a synthetic concentrated J13 solution as it comes in contact with a Ni-Cr-Mo-alloy selected for waste canisters in the designated high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concentrated synthetic J13 solution was allowed to drip slowly onto heated test specimens (90 C, 60% relative humidity) where the water moved down the surface of the specimens, evaporated and minerals precipitated. Mineral separation or zoning along the evaporation path was not observed. We infer from solid analyses and geochemical modeling, that the most corrosive components (Ca, Mg, and F) are limited by mineral precipitation. Minerals identified by x-ray diffraction include thermonatrite, natrite, and trona, all sodium carbonate minerals, as well as kogarkoite (Na{sub 3}SO{sub 4}F), halite (NaCl), and niter (KNO{sub 3}). Calcite and a magnesium silicate precipitation are based on chemical analyses of the solids and geochemical modeling. The most significant finding of this study is that sulfate and fluoride concentrations are controlled by the solubility of kogarkoite. Kogarkoite thermodynamic data are needed in the Yucca Mountain Project database to predict the corrosiveness of carbonate brines and to establish the extent to which fluoride is removed from the brines as a solid.

Staggs, K; Maureen Alai,; Hailey, P; Carroll, S A; Sutton, M; Nguyen, Q A

2003-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

354

Cu-Ga-Se Thin Films Prepared by a Combination of Electrodeposition and Evaporation Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cu-Ga-Se thin films were prepared using a combination of electrodeposition and evaporation techniques. A Cu-Se/Mo/glass precursor thin film was first prepared by galvanostatic electrodeposition. On top of this film three different thicknesses of Ga were deposited by evaporation. The Cu-Ga-Se thin films were formed by annealing the Ga/Cu-Se/Mo/glass thin film configuration in a tubular chamber with Se powder, at different temperatures. Thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photocurrent spectroscopy (PS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The detailed analysis from X-ray reveals that after annealing at 550 C the CuGaSe{sub 2} phase is formed when the thickness of Ga is 0.25 {mu}m, however at 0.5 {mu}m and 1.0 {mu}m Ga the formation of CuGa{sub 3}Se{sub 5} and CuGa{sub 5}Se{sub 8} phases is observed respectively. Band gap values were obtained using photocurrent spectroscopy.

Fernandez, A. M.; Turner, J. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

TANK 26F SUPERNATANT AND 2F EVAPORATOR EDUCTOR PUMP SAMPLE CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an effort to understand the reasons for system plugging problems in the SRS 2F evaporator, supernatant samples were retrieved from the evaporator feed tank (Tank 26F) and solids were collected from the evaporator eductor feed pump for characterization. The variable depth supernatant samples were retrieved from Tank 26F in early December of 2010 and samples were provided to SRNL and the F/H Area laboratories for analysis. Inspection and analysis of the samples at SRNL was initiated in early March of 2011. During the interim period, samples were frequently exposed to temperatures as low as 12 C with daily temperature fluctuations as high as 10 C. The temperature at the time of sample collection from the waste tank was 51 C. Upon opening the supernatant bottles at SRNL, many brown solids were observed in both of the Tank 26F supernatant samples. In contrast, no solids were observed in the supernatant samples sent to the F/H Area laboratories, where the analysis was completed within a few days after receipt. Based on these results, it is believed that the original Tank 26F supernatant samples did not contain solids, but solids formed during the interim period while samples were stored at ambient temperature in the SRNL shielded cells without direct climate control. Many insoluble solids (>11 wt. % for one sample) were observed in the Tank 26F supernatant samples after three months of storage at SRNL which would not dissolve in the supernatant solution in two days at 51 C. Characterization of these solids along with the eductor pump solids revealed the presence of sodium oxalate and clarkeite (uranyl oxyhydroxide) as major crystalline phases. Sodium nitrate was the dominant crystalline phase present in the unwashed Eductor Pump solids. Crystalline sodium nitrate may have formed during the drying of the solids after filtration or may have been formed in the Tank 26F supernatant during storage since the solution was found to be very concentrated (9-12 M Na{sup +}). Concentrated mineral acids and elevated temperature were required to dissolve all of these solids. The refractory nature of some of the solids is consistent with the presence of metal oxides such as aluminosilicates (observed as a minor phase by XRD). Characterization of the water wash solutions and the digested solids confirmed the presence of oxalate salts in both solid samples. Sulfate enrichment was also observed in the Tank 26F solids wash solution, indicating the presence of sulfate precipitates such as burkeite. OLI modeling of the Tank 26F filtered supernatant composition revealed that sodium oxalate has a very low solubility in this solution. The model predicts that the sodium oxalate solubility in the Tank 26F supernatant is only 0.0011 M at 50 C. The results indicate that the highly concentrated nature of the evaporator feed solution and the addition of oxalate anion to the waste stream each contribute to the formation of insoluble solids in the 2F evaporator system.

King, W.; Hay, M.; Coleman, C.

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

356

Results for the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, Off Gas Condensate Tank, And Recycle Collection Tank Samples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, currently generates approximately 1.4 million gallons of recycle water per year during Sludge-Only operations. DWPF has minimized condensate generation to 1.4 million gallons by not operating the Steam Atomized Scrubbers, SASs, for the melter off gas system. By not operating the SASs, DWPF has reduced the total volume by approximately 800,000 gallons of condensate per year. Currently, the recycle stream is sent to back to the Tank Farm and processed through the 2H Evaporator system. To alleviate the load on the 2H Evaporator system, an acid evaporator design is being considered as an alternate processing and/or concentration method for the DWPF recycle stream. In order to support this alternate processing option, the DWPF has requested that the chemical and radionuclide compositions of the Off Gas Condensate Tank, OGCT, Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank, SMECT, Recycle Collection Tank, RCT, and the Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank, DWTT, be determined as a part of the process development work for the acid evaporator design. Samples have been retrieved from the OGCT, RCT, and SMECT and have been sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL for this characterization. The DWTT samples have been recently shipped to SRNL. The results for the DWTT samples will be issued at later date.

TERRI, FELLINGER

2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

357

Salinity controls on trophic interactions among invertebrates and algae of solar evaporation ponds in the Mojave Desert and relation to shorebird foraging and selenium risk  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AMONG INVERTEBRATES AND ALGAE OF SOLAR EVAPORATION PONDS INplanktonic invertebrates and algae present along with avianof invertebrates and algae, and avian foraging were examined

Herbst, David B

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Effects of vaporizer and evaporative-condenser size on geofluid effectiveness and cost of electricity for geothermal binary power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A special study was conducted to investigate the influences of minimum approach temperature differences occurring in supercritical-heater/vaporizer and evaporative-condenser heat rejection systems on geothermal-electric binary power plant performance and cost of electricity. For the systems investigated optimum pinch points for minimizing cost of electricity were estimated to range from 5 to 7/sup 0/F for the heater vaporizer. The minimum approach of condensing temperature to wet-bulb temperature for evaporative condensers was estimated to be about 30/sup 0/F in order to achieve the lowest cost of electricity.

Demuth, O.J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Catalyst free growth of ZnO nanorods by thermal evaporation method  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we report catalyst free growth of ZnO nanorods on n-Si substrate by a low cost thermal evaporation method. The surface morphology, chemical composition and crystalline structure of ZnO nanorods have been determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy respectively. It is found that, the as -deposited ZnO seed layer reduces lattice mismatching between ZnO and Si from 40.3 to 0.28%, therefore enhances the subsequent growth and crystalline quality of ZnO nanorods on Si substrate. The present methodology is simple, cost effective and highly applicable for synthesis of ZnO nanorods for optoelectronics applications.

Somvanshi, Divya; Jit, S. [Centre for Research in Microelectronics (CRME), Department of Electronics Engineering Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi Uttar Pradesh-221005 (India)

2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in silicon for the future LHCb vertex detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The extreme radiation dose received by vertex detectors at the Large Hadron Collider dictates stringent requirements on their cooling systems. To be robust against radiation damage, sensors should be maintained below -20 degree C and at the same time, the considerable heat load generated in the readout chips and the sensors must be removed. Evaporative CO2 cooling using microchannels etched in a silicon plane in thermal contact with the readout chips is an attractive option. In this paper, we present the first results of microchannel prototypes with circulating, two-phase CO2 and compare them to simulations. We also discuss a practical design of upgraded VELO detector for the LHCb experiment employing this approach.

A. Nomerotski; J. Buytart; P. Collins; R. Dumps; E. Greening; M. John; A. Mapelli; A. Leflat; Y. Li; G. Romagnoli; B. Verlaat

2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

362

In-situ biofouling of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) evaporator tubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Puerto Rico Center for Energy and Environmental Research equipped a LCU facility in 1100 m of water near Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico to measure in situ biofouling of simulated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion evaporator tubes. The system consisted of two 5052 aluminum alloy and two titanium tubes, through which a continuous flow of ocean water was maintained. The tubes were cleaned three times and the fouling resistance was measured, showing only slight differences between the tubes with respect to heat transfer loss resulting from biofouling. In all units, the average fouling rate after cleaning was greater than before cleaning, and only after the first cleaning did the aluminum units show greater fouling rates than did the titanium. The titanium units showed a progressive increase in the fouling rates with each cleaning. The subsequent average fouling rates for all units after eight months were between 4 and 4.6 x 0.000010 sq m-k/W-day.

Sasscer, D.S. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez); Morgan, T. (Argonne National Lab., IL)

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator  

SciTech Connect

A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

Xu, Guoying [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, 210096 Nanjing (China); Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Deng, Shiming [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, 210096 Nanjing (China)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

AC microcalorimetry of adsorbates on evaporated metal films: Orientational ordering of H sub 2 multilayers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have improved and extended a novel ac calorimetric technique for measuring the heat capacity of adsorbates on evaporated metal films. Metallic substrates are of particular interest in current studies of the thermodynamics of adsorbed molecules. The method described in the present work is only calorimetric technique which allows measurements of molecules on simple metallic surfaces. Among other improvements, we have achieved significant progress in the preparation and characterization of the evaporated metal film. We have applied this novel technique to a study of hydrogen multilayers on gold and sapphire substrates. We have shown that samples of normal-hydrogen with a nominal coverage n of approximately 25 monolayers (ML) undergo a bulk-like orientational ordering transition. The transition is suppressed as the coverage is decreased, and no sign of the transition remains above 1.6 K for n {approx} 1 ML. For n {approx lt} 8 ML, the peak in the heat capacity exhibits signs of finite-size effects. At higher coverages, finite-size effects are not observed, and the shape of the peak depends strongly on the substrate. We conclude that the peak is inhomogeneously broadened for n {approx lt} 8 ML. This work represents the first measurements of the heat capacity due to orientational ordering in adsorbed hydrogen. The results of an earlier experiment involving vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbed molecules are included in the Appendix. In this work, we have used infrared emission spectroscopy to study the spectral region in the vicinity of the C=O stretch vibration of bridge-bonded CO on Pt(111).

Phelps, R.B.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

AC microcalorimetry of adsorbates on evaporated metal films: Orientational ordering of H{sub 2} multilayers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have improved and extended a novel ac calorimetric technique for measuring the heat capacity of adsorbates on evaporated metal films. Metallic substrates are of particular interest in current studies of the thermodynamics of adsorbed molecules. The method described in the present work is only calorimetric technique which allows measurements of molecules on simple metallic surfaces. Among other improvements, we have achieved significant progress in the preparation and characterization of the evaporated metal film. We have applied this novel technique to a study of hydrogen multilayers on gold and sapphire substrates. We have shown that samples of normal-hydrogen with a nominal coverage n of approximately 25 monolayers (ML) undergo a bulk-like orientational ordering transition. The transition is suppressed as the coverage is decreased, and no sign of the transition remains above 1.6 K for n {approx} 1 ML. For n {approx_lt} 8 ML, the peak in the heat capacity exhibits signs of finite-size effects. At higher coverages, finite-size effects are not observed, and the shape of the peak depends strongly on the substrate. We conclude that the peak is inhomogeneously broadened for n {approx_lt} 8 ML. This work represents the first measurements of the heat capacity due to orientational ordering in adsorbed hydrogen. The results of an earlier experiment involving vibrational spectroscopy of adsorbed molecules are included in the Appendix. In this work, we have used infrared emission spectroscopy to study the spectral region in the vicinity of the C=O stretch vibration of bridge-bonded CO on Pt(111).

Phelps, R.B.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Heat capacity of quantum adsorbates: Hydrogen and helium on evaporated gold films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The author has constructed an apparatus to make specific heat measurements of quantum gases adsorbed on metallic films at temperatures between 0.3 and 4 K. He has used this apparatus to study quench-condensed hydrogen films between 4 and 923 layers thick with J = 1 concentrations between 0.28 and 0.75 deposited on an evaporated gold surface. He has observed that the orientational ordering of the J = 1 molecules depends on the substrate temperature during deposition of the hydrogen film. He has inferred that the density of the films condensed at the lowest temperatures is 25% higher than in bulk H{sub 2} crystals and have observed that the structure of those films is affected by annealing at 3.4 K. The author has measured the J = 1 to J = 0 conversion rate to be comparable to that of the bulk for thick films; however, he found evidence that the gold surface catalyzes conversion in the first two to four layers. He has also used this apparatus to study films of {sup 4}He less than one layer thick adsorbed on an evaporated gold surface. He shows that the phase diagram of the system is similar to that for {sup 4}He/graphite although not as rich in structure, and the phase boundaries occur at different coverages and temperatures. At coverages below about half a layer and at sufficiently high temperatures, the {sup 4}He behaves like a two-dimensional noninteracting Bose gas. At lower temperatures and higher coverages, liquidlike and solidlike behavior is observed. The Appendix shows measurements of the far-infrared absorptivity of the high-{Tc} superconductor La{sub 1.87}Sr{sub 0.13}CuO{sub 4}.

Birmingham, J.T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Materials Sciences Div.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Waste-heat vertical tube foam evaporation for cooling tower blowdown renovation/recycle. Project summary report  

SciTech Connect

A prototype waste-heat vertical tube foam evaporation (WH-VTFE) plant was designed, constructed, and field-tested for reducing power plant cooling tower blowdown to a small residual volume of solids slurried in brine, while producing distilled water for reuse. Facility design was based on previously-developed pilot plant test data. The WH-VTFE facility was constructed for initial parametric testing in upflow/downflow evaporation modes with boiler steam. The field test/demonstration phase was conducted at a power plant site using turbine exhaust steam for the up to 50-fold cooling tower blowdown concentration in a foamy-flow seed-slurried mode of downflow vertical tube evaporation. The VTFE heat transfer coefficient ranged between 5600 to 9000 W/sq m/degree, over 4-fold the level considered as acceptable in another study. Further, a sufficient temperature difference is available within a typical power plant heat rejection system to operate a WH-VTFE when the plant load is above 50% of its design capacity. Scale formed from inadequate brine recycle rates was readily removed by recycling fresh water through the evaporator to restore the high heat transfer performance of the WH-VTFE. It was concluded that WH-VTFE was demonstrated as feasible and commercially viable.

Sephton, H.H.; Someahsaraii, K.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

FULL SCALE TESTING TECHNOLOGY MATURATION OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR FOR HIGH-LEVEL LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT AT HANFORD - 12125  

SciTech Connect

Simulant testing of a full-scale thin-film evaporator system was conducted in 2011 for technology development at the Hanford tank farms. Test results met objectives of water removal rate, effluent quality, and operational evaluation. Dilute tank waste simulant, representing a typical double-shell tank supernatant liquid layer, was concentrated from a 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.5 using a 4.6 m{sup 2} (50 ft{sup 2}) heated transfer area Rototherm{reg_sign} evaporator from Artisan Industries. The condensed evaporator vapor stream was collected and sampled validating efficient separation of the water. An overall decontamination factor of 1.2E+06 was achieved demonstrating excellent retention of key radioactive species within the concentrated liquid stream. The evaporator system was supported by a modular steam supply, chiller, and control computer systems which would be typically implemented at the tank farms. Operation of these support systems demonstrated successful integration while identifying areas for efficiency improvement. Overall testing effort increased the maturation of this technology to support final deployment design and continued project implementation.

TEDESCHI AR; CORBETT JE; WILSON RA; LARKIN J

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

369

On Sea Surface Salinity Skin Effect Induced by Evaporation and Implications for Remote Sensing of Ocean Salinity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The existence of a cool and salty sea surface skin under evaporation was first proposed by Saunders in 1967, but few efforts have since been made to perceive the salt component of the skin layer. With two salinity missions scheduled to launch in ...

Lisan Yu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Simulation Studies on a Multi-stage Distillation with Slope-Plate Falling Film Evaporation Desalination System Using Solar Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An innovative, multi-stage solar distillation with slope-plate falling film system for seawater desalination is investigated. The system consists of a solar heater (flat plate solar collector) and one evaporation-condensation set that is composed of ... Keywords: solar energy, falling film, desalination

Penghui Gao; Guoqing Zhou; Henglin Lv

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID)  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 3) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Safeguards and Security, Engineering Design, and Maintenance.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 6  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 6) outlines the standards and requirements for the sections on: Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Research and Development and Experimental Activities, and Nuclear Safety.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Interim report, June 15, 1984--March 1, 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Computer models have been developed to describe the operation of both solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Design studies are being conducted at the present time to use the towers for cooling an experimental, well instrumented, structure to study passive cooling in residential buildings. (MHR)

Mignon, G.V.; Cunningham, W.A.; Thompson, T.L.

1985-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

374

High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 2) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Quality Assurance, Training and Qualification, Emergency Planning and Preparedness, and Construction.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

The influence of igneous intrusions on the peak temperatures of host rocks: Finite-time emplacement, evaporation, dehydration, and decarbonation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using a 13-m-thick basic sill and its limestone host rocks of the Permian Irati Formation from the Parana Basin, South America, as an example, this paper presents a numerical investigation based on heat conduction models on the effect of the emplacement ... Keywords: Dehydration and decarbonation, Evaporation, Igneous intrusions, Intrusion mechanism, Peak temperature

Dayong Wang; Yongchen Song; Yu Liu; Minglong Zhao; Tian Qi; Weiguo Liu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Free and Forced Variability of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean: Role of the WindEvaporationSea Surface Temperature Feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of the windevaporationsea surface temperature (WES) feedback in the low-frequency natural variability of the tropical Atlantic is studied using an atmospheric global climate modelthe NCAR Community Climate Model, version 3 (CCM3)...

Salil Mahajan; R. Saravanan; Ping Chang

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Evaporation and condensation of spherical interstellar clouds. Self-consistent models with saturated heat conduction and cooling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shortened version: The fate of IS clouds embedded in a hot tenuous medium depends on whether the clouds suffer from evaporation or whether material condensates onto them. Analytical solutions for the rate of evaporative mass loss from an isolated spherical cloud embedded in a hot tenuous gas are deduced by Cowie & McKee (1977). In order to test the validity of the analytical results for more realistic IS conditions the full hydrodynamical equations must be treated. Therefore, 2D numerical simulations of the evolution of IS clouds %are performed with different internal density structures and surrounded by a hot plasma reservoir. Self-gravity, interstellar heating and cooling effects and heat conduction by electrons are added. Classical thermal conductivity of a fully ionized hydrogen plasma and saturated heat flux are considered. Using pure hydrodynamics and classical heat flux we can reproduce the analytical results. Heat flux saturation reduces the evaporation rate by one order of magnitude below the analytical value. The evolution changes totally for more realistic conditions when interstellar heating and cooling effects stabilize the self-gravity. Evaporation then turns into condensation, because the additional energy by heat conduction can be transported away from the interface and radiated off efficiently from the cloud's inner parts. I.e. that the saturated heat flux consideration is inevitable for IS clouds embedded in hot tenuous gas. Various consequences are discussed in the paper.

W. Vieser; G. Hensler

2007-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

378

High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 4  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 4) presents the standards and requirements for the following sections: Radiation Protection and Operations.

Not Available

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

HAPEXMOBLIHY: A Hydrologic Atmospheric Experiment for the Study of Water Budget and Evaporation Flux at the Climatic Scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The HAPEX-MOBILHY program is aimed at studying the hydrological budget and evaporation flux at the scale of a GCM (general circulation model) grid square, i.e., 104 km2. Different surface and subsurface networks will be operated during the year ...

Jean-Claude Andr; Jean-Paul Goutorbe; Alain Perrier

1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

High-level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID), Volume 5  

SciTech Connect

The High-Level Waste Storage Tank Farms/242-A Evaporator Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is contained in multiple volumes. This document (Volume 5) outlines the standards and requirements for the Fire Protection and Packaging and Transportation sections.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Heat capacity measurements of atoms and molecules adsorbed on evaporated metal films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investigations of the properties of absorbed monolayers have received great experimental and theoretical attention recently, both because of the importance of surface processes in practical applications such as catalysis, and the importance of such systems to the understanding of the fundamentals of thermodynamics in two dimensions. We have adapted the composite bolometer technology to the construction of microcalorimeters. For these calorimeters, the adsorption substrate is an evaporated film deposited on one surface of an optically polished sapphire wafer. This approach has allowed us to make the first measurements of the heat capacity of submonolayer films of /sup 4/He adsorbed on metallic films. In contrast to measurements of /sup 4/He adsorbed on all other insulating substrates, we have shown that /sup 4/He on silver films occupies a two-dimensional gas phase over a broad range of coverages and temperatures. Our apparatus has been used to study the heat capacity of Indium flakes. CO multilayers, /sup 4/He adsorbed on sapphire and on Ag films and H/sub 2/ adsorbed on Ag films. The results are compared with appropriate theories. 68 refs., 19 figs.

Kenny, T.W.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Investigations on Vapour Compression Air Conditioner with Direct Contact Desiccant Loop over Condenser and Evaporator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Perceived air quality increases when relative humidity is decreased till about 30% in the range of comfort temperature. In the present scenario, humidity is considered as a pollutant. Hence, a controlled environment not only at low temperature but also at low humidity is desired for many applications such as archives, data centers, etc. Either a separate dehumidifier or a precision air conditioning (AC) system needs to be employed for such an application. In fact, the latter forms a reheat AC system which happens to be energy inefficient. In view of this, a vapor compression window air conditioner is investigated with a superimposed liquid desiccant loop harnessing the advantages of both the compression system (high COP) and desiccant system (low humidity). Operation of such a novel system is explained, elucidating the operational feasibility. The results presented consider the characteristics of such a system with respect to changes in the evaporator inlet air temperature and humidity. The change in the specific humidity of air is compared for vapor compression system and the direct contact hybrid system for different values of inlet air temperature.

Maiya, M. P.; Ravi, J.; Tiwari, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Concentrating solar collector system for the evaporation of low-level radioactive waste water  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Los Alamos National Laboratory has recently been awarded a grant under the Solar Federal Buildings Program to design, construct, and operate a high-temperature solar energy system for the processing of low-level radioactive waste water. Conceptual design studies have been completed, and detailed design work is under way for a solar system to produce process heat to evaporate 38,000 gal (143,830 L) of waste water per month. The system will use approximately 11,000 ft/sup 2/ (1022 m/sup 2/) of concentrating parabolic trough collectors operating at about 500/sup 0/F (262/sup 0/C). Construction of the system is anticipated to begin in 1981. Performance optimization of collector array size and configuration, storage medium and capacity, system operation, and control schemes are done using the active solar system simulator in the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program. Results of this optimization are reported. This project represents a unique application of solar energy to an increasingly significant problem area in the energy field.

Diamond, S.C.; Cappiello, C.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Stochastic modeling of evaporating sprays within a consistent hybrid joint PDF framework  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, a framework for modeling two-phase evaporating flow is presented, which employs an Eulerian-Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach. For the continuous phase, a joint velocity-composition probability density function (PDF) method is used. Opposed to other approaches, such PDF methods require no modeling for turbulent convection and chemical source terms. For the dispersed phase, the PDF of velocity, diameter, temperature, seen gas velocity and seen gas composition is calculated. This provides a unified formulation, which allows to consistently address the different modeling issues associated with such a system. Because of the high dimensionality, particle methods are employed to solve the PDF transport equations. To further enhance computational efficiency, a local particle time-stepping algorithm is implemented and a particle time-averaging technique is employed to reduce statistical and bias errors. In comparison to previous studies, a significantly smaller number of droplet particles per grid cell can be employed for the computations, which rely on two-way coupling between the droplet and gas phases. The framework was validated using established experimental data and a good overall agreement can be observed.

Anand, Gaurav [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Sonneggstrasse 3, ETH Zurich, Zuerich CH-8092 (Switzerland)], E-mail: anand@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch; Jenny, Patrick [Institute of Fluid Dynamics, Sonneggstrasse 3, ETH Zurich, Zuerich CH-8092 (Switzerland)], E-mail: jenny@ifd.mavt.ethz.ch

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Enhancement Methods for Air-Cooled Geothermal Power Plants: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many binary-cycle geothermal power plants are air cooled because insufficient water is available to provide year-round water cooling. The performance of air-cooled geothermal plants is highly dependent on the dry bulb temperature of the air (much more so than fossil fuel plants that operate at higher boiler temperatures), and plant electric output can drop by 50% or more on hot summer days, compared to winter performance. This problem of reduced summer performance is exacerbated by the fact that electricity has a higher value in the summer. This paper describes a spreadsheet model that was developed to assess the cost and performance of four methods for using supplemental evaporative cooling to boost summer performance: (1) pre-cooling with spray nozzles, (2) pre-cooling with Munters media, (3) a hybrid combination of nozzles and Munters media, and (4) direct deluge cooling of the air-cooled condenser tubes. Although all four options show significant benefit, deluge cooling has the potential to be the most economic. However, issues of scaling and corrosion would need to be addressed.

Kutscher, C.; Costenaro, D.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Moving zone Marangoni drying of wet objects using naturally evaporated solvent vapor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A surface tension gradient driven flow (a Marangoni flow) is used to remove the thin film of water remaining on the surface of an object following rinsing. The process passively introduces by natural evaporation and diffusion of minute amounts of alcohol (or other suitable material) vapor in the immediate vicinity of a continuously refreshed meniscus of deionized water or another aqueous-based, nonsurfactant rinsing agent. Used in conjunction with cleaning, developing or wet etching application, rinsing coupled with Marangoni drying provides a single-step process for (1) cleaning, developing or etching, (2) rinsing, and (3) drying objects such as flat substrates or coatings on flat substrates without necessarily using heat, forced air flow, contact wiping, centrifugation or large amounts of flammable solvents. This process is useful in one-step cleaning and drying of large flat optical substrates, one-step developing/rinsing and drying or etching/rinsing/drying of large flat patterned substrates and flat panel displays during lithographic processing, and room-temperature rinsing/drying of other large parts, sheets or continuous rolls of material. 5 figs.

Britten, J.A.

1997-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

387

Oxidation behavior of arc evaporated Al-Cr-Si-N thin films  

SciTech Connect

The impact of Al and Si on the oxidation behavior of Al-Cr-(Si)-N thin films synthesized by arc evaporation of powder metallurgically prepared Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x} targets with x = Al/(Al + Cr) of 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 and (Al{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}){sub 1-z}Si{sub z} targets with Si contents of z = 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 in N{sub 2} atmosphere was studied in detail by means of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamical measurements in synthetic air (up to 1440 Degree-Sign C) revealed the highest onset temperature of pronounced oxidation for nitride coatings prepared from the Al{sub 0.4}Cr{sub 0.4}Si{sub 0.2} target. Isothermal TGA at 1100, 1200, 1250, and 1300 Degree-Sign C highlight the pronounced improvement of the oxidation resistance of Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x}N coatings by the addition of Si. The results show that Si promotes the formation of a dense coating morphology as well as a dense oxide scale when exposed to air.

Tritremmel, Christian; Daniel, Rostislav; Mitterer, Christian; Mayrhofer, Paul H.; Lechthaler, Markus; Polcik, Peter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Advanced Hard Coatings, Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Application Oriented Coating Development, Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); OC Oerlikon Balzers AG, Iramali 18, LI-9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein); PLANSEE Composite Materials GmbH, Siebenbuergerstrasse 23, D-86983 Lechbruck am See (Germany)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

ARE LARGE, COMETARY-SHAPED PROPLYDS REALLY (FREE-FLOATING) EVAPORATING GAS GLOBULES?  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of strong and compact molecular line emission (in the CO J = 3-2, 4-3, 6-5, 7-6, {sup 13}CO J = 3-2, HCN, and HCO{sup +} J = 4-3 transitions) from a cometary-shaped object (Carina-frEGG1) in the Carina star-forming region (SFR) previously classified as a photoevaporating protoplanetary disk (proplyd). We derive a molecular mass of 0.35 M{sub Sun} for Carina-frEGG1, which shows that it is not a proplyd, but belongs to a class of free-floating evaporating gas globules (frEGGs) recently found in the Cygnus SFR by Sahai et al. Archival adaptive optics near-IR (Ks) images show a central hourglass-shaped nebula. The derived source luminosity (about 8-18 L{sub Sun }), the hourglass morphology, and the presence of collimated jets seen in Hubble Space Telescope images imply the presence of a jet-driving, young, low-mass star deeply embedded in the dust inside Carina-frEGG1. Our results suggest that the true nature of many or most such cometary-shaped objects seen in massive SFRs and previously labeled as proplyds has been misunderstood, and that these are really frEGGs.

Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Guesten, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Morris, M. R., E-mail: raghvendra.sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

389

ANALYSES AND COMPARISON OF BULK AND COIL SURFACE SAMPLES FROM THE DWPF SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sludge samples from the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) heating coil frame and coil surface were characterized to identify differences that might help identify heat transfer fouling materials. The SME steam coils have seen increased fouling leading to lower boil-up rates. Samples of the sludge were taken from the coil frame somewhat distant from the coil (bulk tank material) and from the coil surface (coil surface sample). The results of the analysis indicate the composition of the two SME samples are very similar with the exception that the coil surface sample shows {approx}5-10X higher mercury concentration than the bulk tank sample. Elemental analyses and x-ray diffraction results did not indicate notable differences between the two samples. The ICP-MS and Cs-137 data indicate no significant differences in the radionuclide composition of the two SME samples. Semi-volatile organic analysis revealed numerous organic molecules, these likely result from antifoaming additives. The compositions of the two SME samples also match well with the analyzed composition of the SME batch with the exception of significantly higher silicon, lithium, and boron content in the batch sample indicating the coil samples are deficient in frit relative to the SME batch composition.

Hay, M.; Nash, C.; Stone, M.

2012-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

390

Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films grown by flash evaporation and pulsed laser deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bismuth-Strontium-Calcium-Copper-Oxide (BSCCO) compounds are an important family of compounds that have one of the highest transition temperatures among all high-temperature superconductors. The compound is known to exist in three distinct phases, commonly referred to as the 2201, 2212 and 2223 phases. Of these three phases, the 2212 and 2223 phases are the most important, as their transition temperature is higher than the boiling point of liquid nitrogen. It is desirable to produce the compound in thin film form, as the bulk samples are normally polycrystalline. This thesis compares thin films produced by two techniques for depositing BSCCO in order to understand the effect of various processing parameters on the final quality of the thin films. Thin films were grown by flash evaporation at Texas A&M University, and by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at the University of Wollongong, Australia. The latter of these techniques is widely used for growing thin films of various compounds. Single-phase 2212 films were grown on a MgO substrate using the pulsed laser deposition technique from commercially available 2212 powder. The effect of annealing on the thin films was also studied.

Ganapathy Subramanian, Santhana

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Austin Utilities (Gas and Electric) - Commercial and Industrial...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dishwasher, Furnaces, Heat pumps, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motors, Steam-system upgrades, Water Heaters, Evaporative Coolers, Vending Machine Controls,...

392

Black Hills Energy (Electric) - Commercial Energy Efficiency...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Programmable Thermostats, Evaporative Coolers, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Energy Audits, LED Lighting, Retro-Commissioning Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector Utility Energy...

393

Colorado Springs Utilities - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Central Air conditioners, Heat pumps, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motors, Windows, Evaporative Coolers, Belts and Pulleys, HE Air Conditioning, NEMA Motors, Occupancy...

394

NIST Standard Reference Database 49  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... cycle (a gas cooler for the transcritical cycle), an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor suction line, and an optional liquid-line/suction ...

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

395

www.eia.gov  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... 105,485 The sample design for RECS is not a simple ... Hence, the consumption of electricity to operate these fans and evaporative coolers was not ...

396

The University of Texas at El Paso and El Paso Community College...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

POLYSTYRENE BOARD (INSULATION) EQ EQUAL EQT EQUIPMENT EQUIP EQUIPMENT ERD EXISTING ROOF DRAIN EST ESTIMATED EVAP EVAPORATE EW EACH WAY EWC ELECTRIC WATER COOLER EWH ELECTRIC...

397

Chain Stores and Franchises Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Case Door; LED Reach-In Case Lighting and Occupancy Sensors; Evaporator andor Condenser Fan ECM Motors; Night Curtains; Beverage Cooler Controls; Floating Head Pressure...

398

Experimental study of a R-407C drop-in test on an off-the-shelf air conditioner with a counter-cross-flow evaporator  

SciTech Connect

An off-the-shelf 2-ton window air conditioner having an energy efficiency ratio of 10 was used to perform a drop-in test with R-407C. Laboratory tests were performed using a parallel-cross-flow (PCF) evaporator and a counter-cross-flow (CCF) evaporator. The CCF configuration is designed to take advantage of the temperature glide of R-407C so that the warm evaporator inlet air will be in contact with the higher temperature part of the evaporator coils first. The test results indicated that, at the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute-rated indoor and outdoor conditions, the cooling capacity was 8% higher and system coefficient of performance about 3.8% higher for the CCF evaporator than for the PCF evaporator. The test results also showed that the latent load for CCF was 30.6% higher than for PCF. The far better dehumidification effect provided by the CCF evaporator design is desirable for areas where the latent load is high. The experimental findings should be useful for future efforts to design a dehumidifier that uses a zeotropic refrigerant that provides a significant temperature glide. R-22 test data from a previous project are included as a reference.

Mei, V.C.; Domitrovic, R.; Chen, F.C.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine's helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

HAZWOPER project documents for demolition of the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This document, in support of the Waste Evaporator Facility (WEF) demolition project and contains the Project Work Plan and the Project Health and Safety Plan for demolition and partial remediation actions by ATG at the Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 3506. Various activities will be conducted during the course of demolition, and this plan provides details on the work steps involved, the identification of hazards, and the health and safety practices necessary to mitigate these hazards. The objective of this document is to develop an approach for implementing demolition activities at the WEF. This approach is based on prior site characterization information and takes into account all of the known hazards at this facility. The Project Work Plan provides instructions and requirements for identified work steps that will be utilized during the performance of demolition, while the Health and Safety Plan addresses the radiological, hazardous material exposure, and industrial safety concerns that will be encountered.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Effects of vaporizer and evaporative condenser pinch points on geofluid effectiveness and cost of electricity for geothermal binary power plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief study was conducted in support of the DOE/DGHT Heat Cycle Research Program to investigate the influences of minimum approach temperature differences occurring in supercritical-heater/vaporizer and evaporative-condenser heat rejection systems on geothermal-electric binary power plant performance and cost of electricity. For the systems investigated optimum pinch points for minimizing cost of electricity were estimated to range from 5 to 7/sup 0/F (3 to 4/sup 0/C) for the heater vaporizer. The minimum approach of condensing temperature to wet-bulb temperature for evaporative condensers was estimated to be about 15/sup 0/F (8/sup 0/C) in order to achieve the highest plant net geofluid effectiveness, and approximately 30/sup 0/F (17/sup 0/C) to attain the minimum cost of electricity.

Demuth, O.J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Design, fabrication, and testing of a sodium evaporator for the STM4-120 kinematic Stirling engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the development and testing of a compact heat-pipe heat exchanger kW(e) designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases. The liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine, where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15 kW(t) of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760 C. Four of these prototype units were eventually used to power a 25-kW(e) Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this report.

Rawlinson, K.S.; Adkins, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Constraints for the accretion disk evaporation rate in AGN from the existence of the Broad Line Region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the consequences of the hypothesis that the formation of the Broad Line Region is intrinsically connected with the existence of the cold accretion disk. We assume that the Broad Line Region radius is well estimated by the formula of Kaspi et al. (2000). We consider three models of the disappearance of the inner disk which limit the existence of the Broad Line Region: (i) classical ADAF approach, i.e. the inner hot flow develops whenever it can exist (ii) disk evaporation model of Meyer & Meyer-Hofmeister (2002) (iii) generalized disk evaporation model of Rozanska & Czerny (2000b). For each of the models, we determine the minimum value of the Eddington ratio and the maximum value of the broad line widths as functions of the viscosity parameter alpha and the magnetic field parameter beta. We compare the predicted parameter space with observations of several AGN. Weak dependence of the maximum value of the FWHM and minimum value of the Eddington ratio on the black hole mass in our sample is noticeable. It seems to favor the description of the cold disk/hot inner flow transition as in the classical ADAF approach than with the model of disk evaporation due to conduction between the disk and accreting corona.

B. Czerny; A. Rozanska; J. Kuraszkiewicz

2004-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

405

Sheath expansion and plasma dynamics in the presence of electrode evaporation: Application to a vacuum circuit breaker  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the postarc dielectric recovery phase in a vacuum circuit breaker, a cathode sheath forms and expels the plasma from the electrode gap. The success or failure of current breaking depends on how efficiently the plasma is expelled from the electrode gap. The sheath expansion in the postarc phase can be compared to sheath expansion in plasma immersion ion implantation except that collisions between charged particles and atoms generated by electrode evaporation may become important in a vacuum circuit breaker. In this paper, we show that electrode evaporation plays a significant role in the dynamics of the sheath expansion in this context not only because charged particle transport is no longer collisionless but also because the neutral flow due to evaporation and temperature gradients may push the plasma toward one of the electrodes. Using a hybrid model of the nonequilibrium postarc plasma and cathode sheath coupled with a direct simulation Monte Carlo method to describe collisions between heavy species, we present a parametric study of the sheath and plasma dynamics and of the time needed for the sheath to expel the plasma from the gap for different values of plasma density and electrode temperatures at the beginning of the postarc phase. This work constitutes a preliminary step toward understanding and quantifying the risk of current breaking failure of a vacuum arc.

Sarrailh, P. [UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); LAPLACE, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Schneider Electric, Centre de Recherche 38 TEC, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G. J. M.; Boeuf, J. P. [UPS, INPT, LAPLACE (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d'Energie), Universite de Toulouse, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); LAPLACE, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Sandolache, G.; Rowe, S. [Schneider Electric, Centre de Recherche 38 TEC, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Effects of system cycling, evaporator airflow, and condenser coil fouling on the performance of residential split-system air conditioners  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three experimental studies were conducted to quantify the effects of system cycling, evaporator airflow, and condenser coil fouling on the performance of residential air conditioners. For all studies, the indoor dry-bulb (db) temperature was 80F (26.7C) db. The cycling study consisted of twelve transient tests conducted with an outdoor temperature of 95F (35C) db for cycle times of 6, 10, 15, and 24 minutes. Indoor relative humidities of 40%, 50%, and 60% were also considered. The evaporator airflow study consisted of twenty-four steady-state tests conducted with an indoor condition of 67F (19.4C) wet-bulb (wb) for evaporator airflows ranging from 50% below to 37.5% above rated airflow. Outdoor temperatures of 85F (29.4C) db, 95F (35C) db, and 105F (40.6C) db were also considered. The coil fouling study used a total of six condensers that were exposed to an outdoor environment for predetermined amounts of time and tested periodically. Three of the condensers were cleaned and retested during the periodic testing cycles. Testing consisted of thirty-three steady-state tests conducted with an indoor condition of 67F (19.4C) wb for outdoor exposure times of 0, 2000, 4000, and 8000 hours. Outdoor temperatures of 82F (27.8C) db and 95F (35C) db were also considered.

Dooley, Jeffrey Brandon

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Evaporation heat transfer and friction characteristics of R-134a flowing downward in a vertical corrugated tube  

SciTech Connect

Differently from most previous studies, the heat transfer and friction characteristics of the pure refrigerant HFC-134a during evaporation inside a vertical corrugated tube are experimentally investigated. The double tube test sections are 0.5 m long with refrigerant flowing in the inner tube and heating water flowing in the annulus. The inner tubes are one smooth tube and two corrugated tubes, which are constructed from smooth copper tube of 8.7 mm inner diameter. The test runs are performed at evaporating temperatures of 10, 15, and 20 C, heat fluxes of 20, 25, and 30 kW/m{sup 2}, and mass fluxes of 200, 300, and 400 kg/m{sup 2} s. The quality of the refrigerant in the test section is calculated using the temperature and pressure obtained from the experiment. The pressure drop across the test section is measured directly by a differential pressure transducer. The effects of heat flux, mass flux, and evaporation temperature on the heat transfer coefficient and two-phase friction factor are also discussed. It is found that the percentage increases of the heat transfer coefficient and the two-phase friction factor of the corrugated tubes compared with those of the smooth tube are approximately 0-10% and 70-140%, respectively. (author)

Aroonrat, Kanit; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

408

OTEC performance tests of the Union Carbide sprayed-bundle evaporator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of performance tests on a Union Carbide sprayed-bundle evaporator with High Flux titanium tubes are reported. This unit performed satisfactorily and was free of operational problems. Under nominal operating conditions (3200 gpm water flow rate, 3.2 million Btu/hr heat duty, and 40 gpm ammonia feed rate), the overall heat transfer coefficient (U/sub 0/) was found to be 760 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ /sup 0/F and the ammonia-side and water-side coefficients were 4600 and 1300 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ /sup 0/F, respectively. The overall water-side pressure drop in the heat exchanger was 4.0 psi, and the vapor quality measured at various heat duties and ammonia feed rates was 99.2 +- 0.25%. Variations in heat duty (from 2.4 million to 4.0 million Btu/hr) and ammonia inlet temperature (from 52 to 72/sup 0/F) did not affect the value of U/sub 0/, nor did changes in ammonia feed rate in the range of 40 to 100 gpm. However, a minimum ammonia feed rate below which U/sub 0/ decreased sharply was observed; this corresponded to a local tube loading of 20 lb/hr ft and was essentially independent of heat duty. Finally contact between the liquid ammonia and the High Flux surface under nonboiling conditions appeared to deactivate nucleation sites, reducing U/sub 0/ to < 700 Btu/hr ft/sup 2/ /sup 0/F. The deactivated surface could be reactivated by drying out the tubes while maintaining warm water flow.

Hillis, D L; Lorenz, J J; Yung, D T; Sather, N F

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

The Sandia Cooler - Sandia National Laboratories: Exceptional ...  

Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation,

410

Variably insulating portable heater/cooler  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

Potter, T.F.

1998-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

411

The Sandia Cooler - Energy Innovation Portal  

HVAC Automotive Large Appliances Any device comprising one or more forced-air exchangers. More Information. Several U.S. Patents Pending. Technology ...

412

Gas cooler sets the perfect balance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In July 1991, a 65-ton electric chiller was in need of major repair at NutraSweet's R and D facility outside of Chicago. Instead of automatically repairing or replacing that chiller, NutraSweet engineers Larry Aubry and Gerald Schwartz began to look at other alternatives. What they discovered was that a natural gas absorption chiller was a cost-effective, environmentally safe alternative effective, environmentally safe alternative perfectly suited for their application. The benefits for NutraSweet are straightforward: energy bills have been cut by more than [dollar sign]70,000 annually, existing boiler capacity is better utilized, existing electrical cooling system life is extended, maintenance costs are reduced, and no-ozone-depleting CFCs are utilized by the natural gas chiller. Simple payback on the unit, originally expected to be almost four years, has been reduced to closer to three.

Bilder, M.; Aubry, L.; Schwartz, G.; Anderson, R.; Burkhardt, C. (NutraSweet Co., Mount Prospect, IL (United States)); Wilson, J.; Vallort, J.; Ransick, M.F. (Northern Illinois Gas, Glenview, IL (United States))

1993-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

413

The Sandia Cooler - Sandia National Laboratories: Exceptional ...  

R airgap R internal The air bearing interface does not constitute a thermal bottleneck. The main limitation is heat-sink-impeller ...

414

Results from the Cooler and Lead Tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design of Current Leads for the MICE Coupling Magnet, Proceedings International Conference of Cryogenics and Refrigeration

Green, Michael A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Variably insulating portable heater/cooler  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Creation of the WATCH Forcing Data and Its Use to Assess Global and Regional Reference Crop Evaporation over Land during the Twentieth Century  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Water and Global Change (WATCH) project evaluation of the terrestrial water cycle involves using land surface models and general hydrological models to assess hydrologically important variables including evaporation, soil moisture, and runoff. ...

G. P. Weedon; S. Gomes; P. Viterbo; W. J. Shuttleworth; E. Blyth; H. sterle; J. C. Adam; N. Bellouin; O. Boucher; M. Best

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

PILOT-SCALE TEST RESULTS OF A THIN FILM EVAPORATOR SYSTEM FOR MANAGEMENT OF LIQUID HIGH-LEVEL WASTES AT THE HANFORD SITE WASHINGTON USA -11364  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A modular, transportable evaporator system, using thin film evaporative technology, is planned for deployment at the Hanford radioactive waste storage tank complex. This technology, herein referred to as a wiped film evaporator (WFE), will be located at grade level above an underground storage tank to receive pumped liquids, concentrate the liquid stream from 1.1 specific gravity to approximately 1.4 and then return the concentrated solution back into the tank. Water is removed by evaporation at an internal heated drum surface exposed to high vacuum. The condensed water stream will be shipped to the site effluent treatment facility for final disposal. This operation provides significant risk mitigation to failure of the aging 242-A Evaporator facility; the only operating evaporative system at Hanford maximizing waste storage. This technology is being implemented through a development and deployment project by the tank farm operating contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), for the Office of River Protection/Department of Energy (ORPIDOE), through Columbia Energy and Environmental Services, Inc. (Columbia Energy). The project will finalize technology maturity and install a system at one of the double-shell tank farms. This paper summarizes results of a pilot-scale test program conducted during calendar year 2010 as part of the ongoing technology maturation development scope for the WFE.

CORBETT JE; TEDESCH AR; WILSON RA; BECK TH; LARKIN J

2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

418

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 5.7, Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent  

SciTech Connect

Atomobile evaporative emission canisters contain activated carbon sorbents that trap and store fuel vapors emitted from automobile fuel tanks during periods of hot ambient temperatures and after engine operation. When a vehicle is started, combustion air is pulled through the canister, and adsorbed vapors are removed from the sorbent and routed to the intake manifold for combustion along with fuel from the tank. The two primary requirements of an effective canister sorbent are that (1) it must be a strong enough adsorbent to hold on to the fuel vapors that contact it and (2) it must be a weak enough adsorbent to release the captured vapors in the presence of the airflow required by the engine for fuel combustion. Most currently available commercial canister sorbents are made from wood, which is reacted with phosphoric acid and heat to yield an activated carbon with optimum pore size for gasoline vapor adsorption. The objectives of Task 5.7 were to (1) design and construct a test system for evaluating the performance of different sorbents in trapping and releasing butane, gasoline, and other organic vapors; (2) investigate the use of lignite char as an automobile fuel evaporation canister sorbent; (3) compare the adsorbing and desorbing characteristics of lignite chars with those of several commercial sorbents; and (4) investigate whether the presence of ethanol in fuel vapors affects sorbent performance in any way. Tests with two different sorbents (a wood-derived activated carbon and a lignite char) showed that with both sorbents, ethanol vapor breakthrough took about twice as long as hydrocarbon vapor breakthrough. Possible reasons for this, including an increased sorbent affinity for ethanol vapors, will be investigated. If this effect is real (i.e., reproducible over an extensive series of tests under varying conditions), it may help explain why ethanol vapor concentrations in SHED test evaporative emissions are often lower than would be expected.

Aulich, T.R.; Grisanti, A.A.; Knudson, C.L.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Operation of a low temperature absorption chiller at rating point and at reduced evaporator temperature. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The returned SAM 015 (fifteen ton Solar Absorption Machine) chiller was given a cursory visual inspection, some obvious problems were remedied, and then it was placed on a test stand to get a measure of dirty performance. It was then given a standard acid clean, the water side of the tubes was brushed clean, and then the machine was retested. The before and after cleaning data were compared to equivalent data taken before the machine was shipped. The second part of our work statement was to experimentally demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating the chiller at evaporator temperatures below O/sup 0/C (32/sup 0/F) and identify any operational problems.

Best, R.; Biermann, W.; Reimann, R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser irradiated silica particles with evaporative shrinking: Measurements and modeling  

SciTech Connect

The heating dynamics of CO{sub 2}-laser heated micron-sized particles were determined for temperatures <3500 K measured using infrared imaging. A coupled mass and energy conservation model is derived to predict single particle temperatures and sizes, which were compared with data from particles deposited on non-absorbing substrates to assess the relevant heat transfer processes. Analysis reveals substrate conduction dominates all other heat losses, while laser absorption determined from Mie theory is strongly modulated by particle evaporative shrinking. This study provides insights into the light coupling and heating of particle arrays where the material optical properties are temperature-dependent and particle size changes are significant.

Elhadj, S.; Qiu, S. R.; Stolz, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Monterrosa, A. M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94704 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Establishing feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Progress report, October 1985--February 1986  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At the present time all experimental towers (chimneys) are completed and operating. This consists of both a solar updraft and a natural-evaporative downdraft tower retrofitted to an existing residence structure and a greenhouse. The residential, experimental, natural-draft cooling system was completed in May, 1985, and five months of summer data on a Hewlet Packard 85 data acquisition computer with a digital voltmeter were acquired. The cooling tower and solar chimney on the experimental greenhouse became operational in September of 1985. A conceptual drawing of both the greenhouse and the residence natural-draft towers is included in the appendix along with the September 85 progress report.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.

1986-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

422

Audit of the Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator at Savannah River, ER-B-95-04  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL REPORT ON THE AUDIT OF THE REPLACEMENT HIGH LEVEL WASTE EVAPORATOR AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE The Office of Audit Services wants to make the distribution of its audit reports as customer friendly and cost effective as possible. Therefore, this report will be available electroni- cally through the Internet five to seven days after publication at the following alternative addresses: Department of Energy Headquarters Gopher gopher.hr.doc.gov Department of Energy Headquarters Anonymous FTP vm1.hqadmin.doe.gov U.S. Department of Energy Human Resources and Administration

423

RESULTS OF CAUSTIC DISSOLUTION OF ALUMINOSILICATE SCALE AND CHARACTERIZATION DATA FOR SAMPLES FROM THE EVAPORATOR POT AND GRAVITY DRAIN LINE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The build-up of sodium aluminosilicate scale in the 2H Evaporator system continues to cause operational difficulties. The use of a nitric acid cleaning operation proved successful in 2001. However, the operation required additional facilities to support spent cleaning solution neutralization and was quite costly. A proposed caustic cleaning flowsheet has many advantages over the acid flowsheet. Therefore, samples were retrieved from the evaporator system (gravity drain line and pot) for both chemical and radiological characterization and dissolution testing. The characterization of these scale samples showed the presence of nitrated cancrinite along with a dehydrated zeolite. Small amounts of depleted uranium were also found in these samples as expected and the amount of uranium ranged from 0.5 wt% to 2 wt%. Dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions of various caustic concentrations showed that the scale slowly dissolves at elevated temperature (90 C). Data from similar testing indicate that the scale removed from the GDL in 2005 dissolves slower than that removed in 1997. Differences in the particle size of these samples of scale may well explain the measured dissolution rate differences.

Wilmarth, B; Rita Sullivan, R; Chris Martino, C

2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

424

Final characterization and safety screen report of double shell tank 241-AP-105 for evaporator campaign 97-1  

SciTech Connect

Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-105 (hereafter referred to as AP-105) was characterized for physical, inorganic, organic and radiochemical parameters by the 222-S Laboratory as directed by the Tank Sample and Analysis Plan (TSAP), References 1 through 4, and Engineering Change Notice, number 635332, Reference 5. This data package satisfies the requirement for a format IV, final report as described in Reference 1. This data package is also a follow-up to the 45-Day safety screen results for tank AP-105, Reference 8, which was issued on November 5, 1996, and is attached as Section II to this report. Preliminary data in the form of summary analytical tables were provided to the project in advance of this final report to enable early estimation of evaporator operational parameters, using the Predict modeling program. Analyses were performed at the 222-S Laboratory as defined and specified in the TSAP and the Laboratory's Quality Assurance P1an, References 6 and 7. Any deviations from the instructions documented in the TSAP are discussed in this narrative and are supported with additional documentation.

Miller, G.L.

1997-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

425

Milestone Report #2: Direct Evaporator Leak and Flammability Analysis Modifications and Optimization of the Organic Rankine Cycle to Improve the Recovery of Waste Heat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The direct evaporator is a simplified heat exchange system for an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) that generates electricity from a gas turbine exhaust stream. Typically, the heat of the exhaust stream is transferred indirectly to the ORC by means of an intermediate thermal oil loop. In this project, the goal is to design a direct evaporator where the working fluid is evaporated in the exhaust gas heat exchanger. By eliminating one of the heat exchangers and the intermediate oil loop, the overall ORC system cost can be reduced by approximately 15%. However, placing a heat exchanger operating with a flammable hydrocarbon working fluid directly in the hot exhaust gas stream presents potential safety risks. The purpose of the analyses presented in this report is to assess the flammability of the selected working fluid in the hot exhaust gas stream stemming from a potential leak in the evaporator. Ignition delay time for cyclopentane at temperatures and pressure corresponding to direct evaporator operation was obtained for several equivalence ratios. Results of a computational fluid dynamic analysis of a pinhole leak scenario are given.

Donna Post Guillen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Evaluation of Cascaded Humidified Advanced Turbine (CHAT) Power Plant Options for TVA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel CHAT plants offer very high efficiency with superior cycling load capabilities. They integrate with gasification for significantly reduced capital cost.

1997-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

427

Influence of Humidified Aerosol on Lidar Depolarization Measurements below Ice-Precipitating Arctic Stratus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lidar measurements obtained during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment under a mixed-phase stratus cloud that was lightly precipitating ice show a range of surprisingly low depolarization ratios (4%23%), despite an ...

Bastiaan van Diedenhoven; Ann M. Fridlind; Andrew S. Ackerman

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporate downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some applications.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

Establish feasibility for providing passive cooling with solar updraft and evaporative downdraft chimneys. Final report, June 15, 1984--December 31, 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Natural draft towers can be used for cooling and ventilating structures. From an operational perspective, the downdraft evaporatively cooled tower is preferred for a dry climate. Solar chimneys, when used alone, tend to require an excessively large solar collector area when appreciable quantities of air must be moved. When used in combination with a downdraft tower, the roof and attic of buildings may assist the solar chimney and their use becomes more attractive. Both a frame building and a greenhouse were successfully cooled during this program. The economics of the downdraft tower compare favorably with conventional evaporative cooling for some application.

Cunningham, W.A.; Mignon, G.V.; Thompson, T.L.

1987-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

430

Distribution of the 83Rb/83mKr activity on vacuum evaporated samples examined with the Timepix position sensitive detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Properties of vacuum evaporated 83Rb/83mKr sources of low-energy conversion electrons, which are under development for monitoring the energy scale stability of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment KATRIN, were examined by the Timepix pixel detector exhibiting the position resolution of at least 55 microm. No distinct local inhomogeneities in the surface distribution of 83Rb/83mKr were observed. The source diameter derived from the recorded image agrees within 5 % with that expected from evaporation geometry. More precise determination of the actual source diameter is complicated by Compton scattered electrons caused by 83Rb gamma-rays.

D. Venos; J. Jakubek; O. Dragoun; S. Pospisil

2007-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

431

Hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the SAES St707 non-evaporable getter at various temperatures.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A prototype of a tritium thermoelectric generator (TTG) is currently being developed at Sandia. In the TTG, a vacuum jacket reduces the amount of heat lost from the high temperature source via convection. However, outgassing presents challenges to maintaining a vacuum for many years. Getters are chemically active substances that scavenge residual gases in a vacuum system. In order to maintain the vacuum jacket at approximately 1.0 x 10{sup -4} torr for decades, nonevaporable getters that can operate from -55 C to 60 C are going to be used. This paper focuses on the hydrogen capacity and absorption rate of the St707{trademark} non-evaporable getter by SAES. Using a getter testing manifold, we have carried out experiments to test these characteristics of the getter over the temperature range of -77 C to 60 C. The results from this study can be used to size the getter appropriately.

Hsu, Irving; Mills, Bernice E.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Schemes for Parameterizing Evaporation from a Non-Plant-Covered Surface and Their Impact on Partitioning the Surface Energy in Land?Air Exchange Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The correct simulation of the sensible and latent heat fluxes from a non-plant-covered surface is very important in designing the surface scheme for modeling the processes in the land?air exchange. However, using different bare soil evaporation ...

Dragutin T. Mihailovi?; Borivoj Rajkovi?; Branislava Lali?; Ljiljana Deki?

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Development of a Land Surface Model Including Evaporation and Adsorption Processes in the Soil for the LandAir Exchange in Arid Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional soil model has been developed to better predict heat and water exchanges in arid and semiarid regions. New schemes to calculate evaporation and adsorption in the soil were incorporated in the model. High performance of the model ...

Genki Katata; Haruyasu Nagai; Hiromasa Ueda; Nurit Agam; Pedro R. Berliner

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Concentration of remote-handled, transuranic, sodium nitrate-based sludge using agitated thin-film evaporators  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Handling and Packaging Plant (WHPP) is being designed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to prepared transuranic waste for final disposal. Once operational, this facility will process, package, and certify remote-handled transuranic waste for ultimate shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. One of the wastes that will be handled at WHIPP is the transuranic sludge currently stored at ORNL in eight 50,000-gal underground tanks. The use of an Agitated Thin-Film Evaporator (ATFE) for concentration of this waste is being investigated. Tests have shown that the ATFE can be used to produce a thick slurry, a powder, or a fused salt. A computer model developed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to simulate the operation of ATFE's on their waste is being modified for use on the ORNL transuranic sludge. This paper summarizes the results of the test with the ATFEs to date, discusses the changes in the SRP model necessary to use this model with the ORNL waste, and compares the results of the model with the actual data taken from the operation of ATFEs at vendors' test facilities. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.; Berry, J.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Pen, Ben-Li (Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan (Taiwan))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Process for separating dissolved solids from a liquid using an anti-solvent and multiple effect evaporators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and system are disclosed for treating aluminum salt cake containing water soluble halide salts by contacting the salt cake with water to dissolve water soluble halide salts forming a saturated brine solution. Transporting a portion of about 25% of the saturated brine solution to a reactor and introducing into the saturated brine solution at least an equal volume of a water-miscible low-boiling organic material such as acetone to precipitate a portion of the dissolved halide salts forming a three-phase mixture of an aqueous-organic-salt solution phase and a precipitated salt phase and an organic rich phase. The precipitated salt phase is separated from the other phases and the organic rich phase is recycled to the reactor. The remainder of the saturated brine solution is sent to a multiple effect evaporator having a plurality of stages with the last stage thereof producing low grade steam which is used to boil off the organic portion of the solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

436

Configuration management plan for waste tank farms and the 242-A evaporator of tank waste remediation system  

SciTech Connect

The configuration management architecture presented in this Configuration Management Plan is based on the functional model established by DOE-STD-1073-93, ``Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program.`` The DOE Standard defines the configuration management program by the five basic program elements of ``program management,`` ``design requirements,`` ``document control,`` ``change control,`` and ``assessments,`` and the two adjunct recovery programs of ``design reconstitution,`` and ``material condition and aging management.`` The CM model of five elements and two adjunct programs strengthen the necessary technical and administrative control to establish and maintain a consistent technical relationship among the requirements, physical configuration, and documentation. Although the DOE Standard was originally developed for the operational phase of nuclear facilities, this plan has the flexibility to be adapted and applied to all life-cycle phases of both nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. The configuration management criteria presented in this plan endorses the DOE Standard and has been tailored specifically to address the technical relationship of requirements, physical configuration, and documentation during the full life cycle of the Waste Tank Farms and 242-A Evaporator of Tank Waste Remediation System.

Laney, T.

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

437

The effect of biofouling in simulated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) evaporator tubes at a potential site in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Since 29 January 1980, continuous flow of ocean surface water has been maintained through simulated Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) evaporator tubes in order to determine in situ, long-term effects of microbiofouling on heat exchanger efficiency. The experimental apparatus consists of two aluminum and two titanium modules mounted on a research platform moored at the potential OTEC site off Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico. The fouling resistance (R /SUB f/ ), a relative measure of heat transfer efficiency, is being monitored regularly, and the units have been cleaned four times. Postcleaning fouling rates (dR /SUB f/ /dt) for the aluminum units have not changed significantly but are considerably higher than the initial fouling rates. At first, post-cleaning fouling rates for the titanium units were less than for the aluminum units, but this value has been progressively increasing and now all units are fouling at approximately the same rate. Cleaning with manually operated M.A.N. brushes did not reduce R /SUB f/ to zero. On four occasions, flow velocity through the units has been increased. Results from these experiments suggest that initially the fouling layer is easily dislodged from the tube surface but that, with time, it becomes more firmly attached.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.; Tosteson, T.R.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Phase identification and control of thin films deposited by co-evaporation of elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kesterite thin films [(i.e., Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} and related alloys] have been the subject of recent interest for use as an absorber layer for thin film photovoltaics due to their high absorption coefficient (>10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}), their similarity to successful chalcopyrites (like CuInxGa{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2}) in structure, and their earth-abundance. The process window for growing a single-phase kesterite film is narrow. In this work, we have documented, for our 9.15%-efficient kesterite co-evaporation process, (1) how appearance of certain undesirable phases are controlled via choice of processing conditions, (2) several techniques for identification of phases in these films with resolution adequate to discern changes that are important to device performance, and (3) reference measurements for those performing such phase identification. Data from x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Raman scattering, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and current-voltage characterization are presented.

Vora, Nirav; Blackburn, Jeffrey; Repins, Ingrid; Beall, Carolyn; To, Bobby; Pankow, Joel; Teeter, Glenn; Young, Matthew; Noufi, Rommel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd., MS 3219, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

Synthesis, structural and electrochemical properties of electron beam evaporated V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Vanadium pentoxide is one of the most promising cathode materials because it offers high energy density, low cost, low toxicity over the other cathode materials. Its layered and open structure makes this material in thin film form well suited for electro-chemical insertion reactions with the Li ions. In the present investigation, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation technique on gold coated silicon substrates maintained at a substrate temperature of 250 Degree-Sign C in an oxygen partial pressure of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} mbar. The XRD patterns exhibited three predominant diffraction peaks corresponding to (200) (001) and (400) planes of orthorhombic phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} with P{sub mnm} space group. The electrochemical characteristics of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films with thickness of 600 nm were examined in non-aqueous region. The film exhibited step wise discharge with two plateaus. The as-deposited film delivered a discharge capacity of 70 {mu}Ah/(cm{sup 2}-{mu}m) at a current density of 30 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Annealing of these films at 450 Degree-Sign C exhibited a better discharge capacity of 90 {mu}Ah/(cm{sup 2}-{mu}m).

Hussain, O. M.; Rosaiah, P. [Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati-517 502 (India)

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

440

Phase Identification and Control of Thin Films Deposited by Co-Evaporation of Elemental Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kesterite thin films (i.e., Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} and related alloys) have been the subject of recent interest for use as an absorber layer for thin film photovoltaics due to their high absorption coefficient (> 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}), their similarity to successful chalcopyrites (like CuInxGa{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2}) in structure, and their earth-abundance. The process window for growing a single-phase kesterite film is narrow. In this work, we have documented, for our 9.15%-efficient kesterite co-evaporation process, (1) how appearance of certain undesirable phases are controlled via choice of processing conditions, (2) several techniques for identification of phases in these films with resolution adequate to discern changes that are important to device performance, and (3) reference measurements for those performing such phase identification. Data from x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, Raman scattering, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and current-voltage characterization are presented.

Vora, N.; Blackburn, J.; Repins, I.; Beall, C.; To, B.; Pankow, J.; Teeter, G.; Young, M.; Noufi, R.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

Ken Mortensen

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

442

Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of freeze-crystallization is being increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. Freeze-crystallization has been shown to be effective in removing a wide variety of contaminants from water. Water purification by using natural conditions to promote freezing appears to be an extremely attractive process for the treatment of contaminated water in many areas where natural climatic conditions will seasonally promote freezing. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year-round in regions where subfreezing temperatures seasonally occur. The objectives of this research are related to development of a commercially-economic natural freeze-thaw/evaporation (FTE) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and gas.

Boysen, J.; Morotti, J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Plasma-Assisted Co-evaporation of S and Se for Wide Band Gap Chalcopyrite Photovoltaics: Final Subcontract Report, December 2001 -- April 2005  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this work, ITN Energy Systems (ITN) and lower-tier subcontractor Colorado School of Mines (CSM) explore the replacement of the molecular chalcogen precursors during deposition (e.g., Se2 or H2Se) with more reactive chalcogen monomers or radicals (e.g., Se). Molecular species are converted to atomic species in a low-pressure inductively coupled plasma (ICP). This program explored the use of plasma-activated chalcogen sources in CIGS co-evaporation to lower CIGS deposition temperature, increase utilization, increase deposition rate, and improve S:Se stoichiometry control. Plasma activation sources were designed and built, then operated and characterized over a wide range of conditions. Optical emission and mass spectrometry data show that chalcogens are effectively dissociated in the plasma. The enhanced reactivity achieved by the plasma processing was demonstrated by conversion of pre-deposited metal films to respective chalcogen-containing phases at low temperature and low chalcogen flux. The plasma-assisted co-evaporation (PACE) sources were also implemented in CIGS co-evaporation. No benefit from PACE was observed in device results, and frequent deposition failures occurred.

Repins, I.; Wolden, C.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Interfacial temperature measurements, high-speed visualization and finite-element simulations of droplet impact and evaporation on a solid surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate the coupling of fluid dynamics, heat transfer and mass transfer during the impact and evaporation of droplets on a heated solid substrate. A laser-based thermoreflectance method is used to measure the temperature at the solid-liquid interface, with a time and space resolution of 100 {\\mu}s and 20 {\\mu}m, respectively. Isopropanol droplets with micro- and nanoliter volumes are considered. A finite-element model is used to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the droplet deposition process, considering the dynamics of wetting as well as Laplace and Marangoni stresses on the liquid-gas boundary. For cases involving evaporation, the diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. High-speed visualizations are performed to provide matching parameters for the wetting model used in the simulations. Numerical and experimental results are compar...

Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

RESULTS OF GROUNDWATER MONITORING FOR THE 183-H SOLAR EVAPORATION BASINS AND 300 AREA PROCESS TRENCHES JANUARY THRU JUNE 2008  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is one of a series of reports on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) monitoring at the 183-H solar evaporation basins and the 300 Area process trenches. It fulfills the requirement of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-645(11)(g), 'Release from Regulated Units', to report twice each year on the effectiveness of the corrective action program. This report covers the period from January through June 2008. The current objective of corrective action monitoring the 183-H basins is simply to track trends. Although there is short-term variability in contaminant concentrations, trends over the past 10 years are downward. The current Hanford Facility RCRA Permit (Dangerous Waste Portion of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit for the Treatment, Storage, and Disposal of Dangerous Waste [Permit No. WA 7890008967]) and monitoring plan remain adequate for the objective of tracking trends. The objective of groundwater monitoring at the 300 Area process trenches is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corrective action program by examining the trend of the constituents of interest to confirm that they are attenuating naturally. The overall concentration of uranium in network wells remained above the 30 {micro}g/L drinking water standard in the three downgradient wells screened at the water table. Fluctuations of uranium concentration are caused by changes in river stage. The concentration of cis-1,2-dichloroethene remained above the 70 {micro}g/L drinking water standard in one well (399-1-16B). Concentrations are relatively steady at this well and are not affected by river stage. Trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene concentrations were below detection limits in all wells during the reporting period.

HARTMAN MJ

2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

446

The design and evaluation of a water delivery system for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was performed to demonstrate system design for the delivery of water required for evaporative cooling of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The water delivery system uses spray nozzles capable of injecting water directly and uniformly to the nickel metal foam flow-field (element for distributing the reactant gases over the surface of the electrodes) on the anode side from which water can migrate to the cathode side of the cell via electroosmotic drag. For an effective overall cooling, water distribution over the surface of the nickel foam has to be uniform to avoid creation of hotspots within the cell. A prototype PEMFC structure was constructed modeled after a 35 kW electrical output PEMFC stack. Water was sprayed on the nickel metal foam flow-field using two types of nozzle spray, giving conical fog type flow and flat fan type flow. A detailed investigation of the distribution pattern of water over the surface of the nickel metal flow field was conducted. The motive behind the investigation was to determine if design parameters such as type of water flow from nozzles, vertical location of the water nozzles above the flowfield, area of the nozzles, or operating variables such as reactant gas flow had any effect on water distribution over the surface of the Ni-metal foam flow field. It was found that the design parameters (types of flow, area and location of the nozzle) had a direct impact on the distribution of water in the nickel metal foam. However, the operating variable, reactant gas flow, showed no effect on the water distribution pattern in the Ni-foam.

Al-Asad, Dawood Khaled Abdullah

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation items were: improper amount of refrigerant charge, reduced evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging tests, the indoor room conditions were 80'F (27.8'C) dry-bulb and 50% relative humidity. The outdoor conditions ranged from 95'F (350C) all the way up to 120'F (48.9'C). Charge levels ranged from 30% undercharged to 40% overcharged for the short-tube orifice unit. For the thermal expansion valve (TXV) unit, charge levels ranged from-36% charging to +27% charging. Performance was quantified with the following variables: total capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER), and power. The performance of the orifice unit was more sensitive to charge than it was for the TXV unit. For the TXV unit on the -27% to +27% charging range, the capacity and EER changed little with charge. A TXV unit and a short-tube orifice unit were also tested for reduced evaporator airflow. As evaporator airflow decreased, the capacity and EER both decreased as expected. However, the drop was not as significant as with the charging tests. For the extreme case of 50% reduced evaporator airflow, neither unit's capacity or EER dropped more than 25%. Return air leakage from hot attic spaces was simulated by assuming adiabatic mixing of the indoor air at normal conditions with the attic air at high temperatures. Effective capacity and EER both decreased with increased return air leakage. However, power consumption was relatively constant for all variables except outdoor temperature, which meant that for the same power consumption, the unit delivered much lower performance when there was return air leakage. The increase in sensible heat ratio (SHR) with increasing leakage showed perhaps the most detrimental effect of return air leakage on performance, which was the inability of the unit to absorb moisture from the environment.

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Effect of Refrigerant Charge, Duct Leakage, and Evaporator Air Flow on the High Temperature Performance of Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation items were: improper amount of refrigerant charge, reduced evaporator airflow, and return air leakage from hot attic spaces. There were five sets of tests used for this research: two of them for the charging tests, two for the reduced evaporator airflow, and one for the return air leakage tests. For the charging tests, the indoor room conditions were 80F (27.8C) dry-bulb and 50% relative humidity. The outdoor conditions ranged from 95F (35C) all the way up to 120F (48.9C). Charge levels ranged from 30% undercharged to 40% overcharged for the short-tube orifice unit. For the thermal expansion valve (TXV) unit, charge levels ranged from -36% charging to +27% charging. Performance was quantified with the following variables: total capacity, energy efficiency ratio (EER), and power. The performance of the orifice unit was more sensitive to charge than it was for the TXV unit. For the TXV unit on the -27% to +27% charging range, the capacity and EER changed little with charge. A TXV unit and a short-tube orifice unit were also tested for reduced evaporator airflow. As evaporator airflow decreased, the capacity and EER both decreased as expected. However, the drop was not as significant as with the charging tests. For the extreme case of 50% reduced evaporator airflow, neither unit's capacity or EER dropped more than 25%. Return air leakage from hot attic spaces was simulated by assuming adiabatic mixing of the indoor air at normal conditions with the attic air at high temperatures. Effective capacity and EER both decreased with increased return air leakage. However, power consumption was relatively constant for all variables except outdoor temperature, which meant that for the same power consumption, the unit delivered much lower performance when there was return air leakage. The increase in sensible heat ratio (SHR) with increasing leakage showed perhaps the most detrimental effect of return air leakage on performance, which was the inability of the unit to absorb moisture from the environment.

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

2007-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

449

Estimating the Influence of Evaporation and Moisture-Flux Convergence upon Seasonal Precipitation Rates. Part II: An Analysis for North America Based upon the NCEPDOE Reanalysis II Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a diagnostic metrictermed the local-convergence ratiois used to analyze the contribution of evaporation and atmospheric moisture-flux convergence to model-based estimates of climatological precipitation over the North American ...

Bruce T. Anderson; Alex C. Ruane; John O. Roads; Masao Kanamitsu

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

451

Optical constants of evaporation-deposited silicon monoxide films in the 7.1800 eV photon energy range  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transmittance of silicon monoxide films prepared by thermal evaporation was measured from 7.1 to 800 eV and used to determine the optical constants of the material. SiO filmsdeposited onto C-coated microgrids in ultrahigh vacuum conditions were measured in situ from 7.1 to 23.1 eV. Grid-supported SiO filmsdeposited in high vacuum conditions were characterized ex situ from 28.5 to 800 eV. At each photon energy

Mnica Fernndez-Perea; Manuela Vidal-Dasilva; Juan I. Larruquert; Jos A. Aznrez; Jos A. Mndez; Eric Gullikson; Andy Aquila; Regina Soufli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR BATCH ACCEPTABILITY AND TEST CASES OF THE PRODUCT COMPOSITION CONTROL SYSTEM WITH THORIUM AS A REPORTABLE ELEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), which is operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), has recently begun processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) by combining it with Frit 418 at a nominal waste loading (WL) of 36%. A unique feature of the SB6/Frit 418 glass system, as compared to the previous glass systems processed in DWPF, is that thorium will be a reportable element (i.e., concentrations of elemental thorium in the final glass product greater than 0.5 weight percent (wt%)) for the resulting wasteform. Several activities were initiated based upon this unique aspect of SB6. One of these was an investigation into the impact of thorium on the models utilized in DWPF's Product Composition and Control System (PCCS). While the PCCS is described in more detail below, for now note that it is utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to evaluate the acceptability of each batch of material in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) before this material is passed on to the melter. The evaluation employs models that predict properties associated with processability and product quality from the composition of vitrified samples of the SME material. The investigation of the impact of thorium on these models was conducted by Peeler and Edwards [1] and led to a recommendation that DWPF can process the SB6/Frit 418 glass system with ThO{sub 2} concentrations up to 1.8 wt% in glass. Questions also arose regarding the handling of thorium in the SME batch acceptability process as documented by Brown, Postles, and Edwards [2]. Specifically, that document is the technical bases of PCCS, and while Peeler and Edwards confirmed the reliability of the models, there is a need to confirm that the current implementation of DWPF's PCCS appropriately handles thorium as a reportable element. Realization of this need led to a Technical Task Request (TTR) prepared by Bricker [3] that identified some specific SME-related activities that the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to conduct. SRNL issued a Task Technical and Quality Assurance (TT&QA) plan [4] in response to the SRR request. The conclusions provided in this report are that no changes need to be made to the SME acceptability process (i.e., no modifications to WSRC-TR-95-00364, Revision 5, are needed) and no changes need to be made to the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) itself (i.e. the spreadsheet utilized by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) for acceptability decisions does not require modification) in response to thorium becoming a reportable element for DWPF operations. In addition, the inputs and results for the two test cases requested by WSE for use in confirming the successful activation of thorium as a reportable element for DWPF operations during the processing of SB6 are presented in this report.

Edwards, T.

2010-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

453

Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided, wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

Rasor, N.S.; Riley, D.R.; Murray, C.S.; Geller, C.B.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Performance evaluation of an active solar cooling system utilizing low cost plastic collectors and an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the summer of 1982, air conditioning in Solar House III at Colorado State University was provided by an evaporatively-cooled absorption chiller. The single-effect lithium bromide chiller provided by Arkla Industries is an experimental three-ton unit from which heat is rejected by direct evaporative cooling of the condenser and absorber walls, thereby eliminating the need for a separate cooling tower. Domestic hot water was also provided by use of a double-walled heat exchanger and 300-l (80-gal) hot water tank. For solar heat supply to the cooling system, plastic thin film collectors developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory were installed on the roof of Solar House III. Failure to withstand stagnation temperatures forced replacement of solar energy with an electric heat source. Objectives of the project were: (1) evaluation of system performance over the course of one cooling season in Fort collins, Colorado; (2) optimization of system operation and control; (3) development of a TRNSYS compatible model of the chiller; and (4) determination of cooling system performance in several US climates by use of the model.

Lof, G.O.G.; Westhoff, M.A.; Karaki, S.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The use of freeze-crystallization is being increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year round in regions where sub-freezing temperatures seasonally occur. The objectives of this research are related to development of a commercially-economic natural freeze-thaw/evaporation (FTE) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and gas. Research efforts this quarter were: to complete the required annual reports; to continue work to finalize the draft of the Task 1 and Task 2 Report; and to obtain site information and design a 200 bbl/day FTE demonstration plant to operate in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. Specific objectives of the whole project are to: develop an economic model for determining the commercial viability, economically significant parameters, and research issues of the FTE process; conduct laboratory-scale process simulations to optimize the design of the FTE process; and to evaluate on-location treatment of water from a producing well to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the FTE process.

Boysen, J.; Morotti, J.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

SCE - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Freezer Recycling: 35 Electric Water Heater: 30 Room Air Conditioner: 20 Whole House Fan: 50 Evaporative Cooler: 300 Summer AC Cycling: 100-200 Pool Pump and Motor: 200...

457

Evaporative Testing Requirements for Dual-Fuel Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)/Gasoline and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)/Gasoline Vehicles Revision of MAC #99-01 To Allow Subtraction of Methane Emissions from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The attached MAC clarifies the Air Resources Board's procedures regarding evaporative emission testing of dual-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles. This MAC revises and supersedes MAC #99-01 by allowing manufacturers to determine, report, and subtract methane emissions when a dual-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicle is tested for evaporative emissions. A related revision clarifies that for dual-fuel CNG/gasoline medium-duty vehicles, the applicable LEV I evaporative emission standards, which are dependent on the fuel tank capacity of the medium-duty vehicles, are determined solely on the fuel tank capacity of the gasoline fuel system. If you have any questions or comments, please contact Mr. Steven Hada, Air

Alan C. Lloyd, Ph.D.; Arnold Schwarzenegger; All Heavy-duty Vehicle Manufacturers

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Evaporative evolution of a NaClNO 3KCaSO 4MgSi brine at 95 C: Experiments and modeling relevant to Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff water representative of one type of pore water at Yucca Mountain, NV was evaporated at 95 C in a series of experiments to determine the geochemical controls for brines that may form on, and possibly impact upon the long-term integrity of waste containers and drip shields at the designated high-level, nuclear-waste repository. Solution chemistry, condensed vapor chemistry, and precipitate mineralogy were used to identify important chemical divides and to validate geochemical calculations of evaporating water chemistry using a high temperature Pitzer thermodynamic database. The water evolved toward a complex sulfate type brine that contained

Maureen Alai; A Mark Sutton; Susan Carroll

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Cooler Than Ever: NIST Mechanical Micro-Drum Chilled to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Each departing photon takes with it one mechanical unit of energyone phononfrom the drum motion. At a drive intensity that corresponds to ...

2011-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

460

Cooler-than-normal August relieves strain on Texas electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. Nuclear & Uranium. Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, spent fuel. Total Energy.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "humidifier evaporative cooler" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Technology Installation Review - Coolerado Cooler Helps to Save...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design Conditions, Chapter 27.7 - Climatic Design Information, 2001 ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals. Figure 14. Wet-bulb efficiency rating versus wet-bulb temperature...

462

Integrated hydraulic cooler and return rail in camless cylinder head  

SciTech Connect

An engine assembly may include a cylinder head defining an engine coolant reservoir, a pressurized fluid supply, a valve actuation assembly, and a hydraulic fluid reservoir. The valve actuation assembly may be in fluid communication with the pressurized fluid supply and may include a valve member displaceable by a force applied by the pressurized fluid supply. The hydraulic fluid reservoir may be in fluid communication with the valve actuation assembly and in a heat exchange relation to the engine coolant reservoir.

Marriott, Craig D. (Clawson, MI); Neal, Timothy L. (Ortonville, MI); Swain, Jeff L. (Flushing, MI); Raimao, Miguel A. (Colorado Springs, CO)

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

463

Testing a Prototype Adsorption Cooler in a Research Dwelling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cooling with heat is hot. Demand for cooling often coincides with the supply of solar heat. This makes thermally driven chillers (TDC's) in combination with solar collectors interesting for improving the energy efficiency of comfort cooling. Several TDC's are already available on the market. Only small scale (comfort) TDC's for applications in dwellings are not commercially available yet. This is why the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) developed a prototype adsorption chiller, based on silica gel water, with a nominal cooling capacity of 2.5 kW. This paper will explain the working principle of the water-silica adsorption chiller, and will summarize executed measurements and their results. These results show that the choice of water and silica is successful and that the technology is ready to be commercialised.

Sijpheer, N.; Bakker, E.J.; De Boer, R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Puerto Rico Farmers Market Cooler, Saving Money | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the reason for that comfort - revamped air conditioning - is costing the city less in energy costs than before. From market to city hall -- energy across the island Through the...

465

Cooler and particulate separator for an off-gas stack  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This report describes an off-gas stack for a melter, furnace or reaction vessel comprising an air conduit leading to two sets of holes, one set injecting air into the off-gas stack near the melter plenum and the second set injecting air downstream of the first set. The first set injects air at a compound angle, having both downward and tangential components, to create a reverse vortex flow, counter to the direction of flow of gas through the stack and also along the periphery of the stack interior surface. Air from the first set of holes prevents recirculation zones from forming and the attendant accumulation of particulate deposits on the wall of the stack and will also return to the plenum any particulate swept up in the gas entering the stack. The second set of holes injects air in the same direction as the gas in the stack to compensate for the pressure drop and to prevent the concentration of condensate in the stack. A set of sprayers, receiving water from a second conduit, is located downstream of the second set of holes and sprays water into the gas to further cool it.

Wright, G.T.

1991-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

466

The Cooling of a Liquid Absorber using a Small Cooler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

helium gas at 14 K to a heat exchanger on the absorber tank.S Fill Neck 304 S S H2 Heat Exchanger T5 H T4 H2 Fill ValveTube Seal Cool Down Heat Exchanger Absorber Heater H T2

Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Liggins, N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

because the J-T valve and heat exchanger clogged because ofseparate J-T valve and J-T heat exchanger had to be used. Itadded J-T circuit and heat exchanger, to liquefy helium have

Green, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

The Cooling of a Liquid Absorber using a Small Cooler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquid absorber with its condenser and surge volume and theMICE liquid absorber, the condenser, and the absorber 4 Ka liquid surge tank (with condenser). The heat leak estimate

Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Liggins, N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

The Liquefaction of Hydrogen and Helium Using Small Coolers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the gas being liquefied on a condenser mounted on the secondwith an efficient second-stage condenser can be used for re-cooling before it enters the condenser region of the cooling

Green, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Cooler-than-normal August relieves strain on Texas electricity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration - EIA ... Electricity. Sales, revenue and prices, power plants, fuel use, stocks, generation, trade, demand & emissions.

471

The Cooling of a Liquid Absorber using a Small Cooler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

absorber is to use a gravity heat pipe. Liquid hydrogen (orcirculates the liquid. A heat pipe can have a very low DT (heat pipe. A copper strap shown is

Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Liggins, N.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

What's Cooler Than Being Cool? UltraCold Neutrons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland; and b Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos, we are developing a detailed model of the detector response to neutrons using high-energy physics tools which incorporate fundamental physical models of neutron interactions with nuclei. This model

Martin, Jeff

473

Design and manufacture of low cost vaccine cooler  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vaccines are very sensitive to temperature, needing to be held between 2 and 80C to maintain potency. In developing countries where electricity and fuel supplies are unreliable, many vaccines are ruined due to thermal ...

Panas, Cynthia Dawn Walker.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Predicting Particle Critical Supersaturation from Hygroscopic Growth Measurements in the Humidified TDMA. Part II: Laboratory and Ambient Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory studies are used to test the method proposed in Part I for estimating the critical supersaturation of quasi-monodisperse, dry particles from measurements of hygroscopic growth at relative humidities below 100%. An advantage of the ...

Fred J. Brechtel; Sonia M. Kreidenweis

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Predicting Particle Critical Supersaturation from Hygroscopic Growth Measurements in the Humidified TDMA. Part I: Theory and Sensitivity Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is described to estimate the critical supersaturation of quasi-monodisperse, dry particles using measurements of hygroscopic growth at relative humidities below 100%. Khler theory is used to derive two chemical compositiondependent ...

Fred J. Brechtel; Sonia M. Kreidenweis

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z