National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for human skin model

  1. The Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on Inflammatory Response Proteins in a 3D Reconstituted Human Skin Tissue Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Springer, David L.; Chaffee, Mary E.; Lien, Katie A.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Sacksteder, Colette A.

    2012-12-01

    Skin responses to moderate and high doses of ionizing radiation include the induction of DNA repair, apoptosis, and stress response pathways. Additionally, numerous studies indicate that radiation exposure leads to inflammatory responses in skin cells and tissue. However, the inflammatory response of skin tissue to low dose radiation (<10 cGy) is poorly understood. In order to address this, we have utilized a reconstituted human skin tissue model (MatTek EpiDerm FT) and assessed changes in 23 cytokines twenty-four and forty eight hours following treatment of skin with either 3 or 10 cGy low-dose of radiation. Three cytokines, IFN-?, IL-2, MIP-1?, were significantly altered in response to low dose radiation. In contrast, seven cytokines were significantly altered in response to a high radiation dose of 200 cGy (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-?, MIP-1?, TNF ?, and VEGF) or the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-1?, IL-8, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES). Additionally, radiation induced inflammation appears to have a distinct cytokine response relative to the non-radiation induced stressor, TPA. Overall, these results indicate that there are subtle changes in the inflammatory protein levels following exposure to low dose radiation and this response is a sub-set of what is seen following a high dose in a human skin tissue model.

  2. The effect of low dose ionizing radiation on homeostasis and functional integrity in an organotypic human skin model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Neubeck, Claere; Geniza, Matthew; Kauer, Paula M.; Robinson, Joseph E.; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2015-05-01

    Outside the protection of earth’s atmosphere, astronauts are exposed to low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Future NASA plans for deep space missions or a permanent settlement on the moon are limited by the health risks associated with space radiation exposures. There is a paucity of direct epidemiological data for low dose exposures to space radiation-relevant high LET ions. Health risk models are used to estimate the risk for such exposures, though these models are based on high dose experiments. There is increasing evidence, however, that low and high dose exposures result in different signaling events at the molecular level, and may involve different response mechanisms. Further, despite their low abundance, high LET particles have been identified as the major contributor to health risk during manned space flight. The human skin is exposed in every external radiation scenario, making it an ideal epithelial tissue model in which to study radiation induced effects. Here, we exposed an in vitro three dimensional (3-D) human organotypic skin tissue model to low doses of high LET oxygen (O), silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) ions. We measured proliferation and differentiation profiles in the skin tissue and examined the integrity of the skin’s barrier function. We discuss the role of secondary particles in changing the proportion of cells receiving a radiation dose, emphasizing the possible impact on radiation-induced health issues in astronauts.

  3. Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation of Human Hair and Skin Heated by Broadband Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    distribution within the hair follicle is highly non-uniform: the minimum temperature occurs at the follicle Sun, PhD,1 Alex Chaney,1 Robert Anderson, PhD,2 and Guillermo Aguilar, PhD 1 * 1 Department:(a)determinetheoveralleffectofPPxonskinhumidi- tyandassociatedskinopticalproperties,and;(b)developaPT numerical model to study the spatial and temporal hair and skin temperature

  4. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Effects in a Human Skin Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hengel, Shawna; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Waters, Katrina M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Stenoien, David L.

    2014-07-29

    To assess molecular responses to low doses of radiation that may be encountered during medical diagnostic procedures, nuclear accidents, or terrorist acts, a quantitative global proteomic approach was used to identify protein alterations in a reconstituted human skin tissue treated with 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Subcellular fractionation was employed to remove highly abundant structural proteins and provide insight on radiation induced alterations in protein abundance and localization. In addition, peptides were post-fractionated using high resolution 2-dimensional liquid chromatography to increase the dynamic range of detection of protein abundance and translocation changes. Quantitative data was obtained by labeling peptides with 8-plex isobaric iTRAQ tags. A total of 207 proteins were detected with statistically significant alterations in abundance and/or subcellular localization compared to sham irradiated tissues. Bioinformatics analysis of the data indicated that the top canonical pathways affected by low dose radiation are related to cellular metabolism. Among the proteins showing alterations in abundance, localization and proteolytic processing was the skin barrier protein filaggrin which is consistent with our previous observation that ionizing radiation alters profilaggrin processing with potential effects on skin barrier functions. In addition, a large number of proteases and protease regulators were affected by low dose radiation exposure indicating that altered proteolytic activity may be a hallmark of low dose radiation exposure. While several studies have demonstrated altered transcriptional regulation occurs following low dose radiation exposures, the data presented here indicates post-transcriptional regulation of protein abundance, localization, and proteolytic processing play an important role in regulating radiation responses in complex human tissues.

  5. High and Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation Induce Different Secretome Profiles in a Human Skin Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qibin; Matzke, Melissa M.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hu, Zeping; Monroe, Matthew E.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Morgan, William F.

    2014-03-18

    It is postulated that secreted soluble factors are important contributors of bystander effect and adaptive responses observed in low dose ionizing radiation. Using multidimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry based proteomics, we quantified the changes of skin tissue secretome – the proteins secreted from a full thickness, reconstituted 3-dimensional skin tissue model 48 hr after exposure to 3, 10 and 200 cGy of X-rays. Overall, 135 proteins showed statistical significant difference between the sham (0 cGy) and any of the irradiated groups (3, 10 or 200 cGy) on the basis of Dunnett adjusted t-test; among these, 97 proteins showed a trend of downregulation and 9 proteins showed a trend of upregulation with increasing radiation dose. In addition, there were 21 and 8 proteins observed to have irregular trends with the 10 cGy irradiated group either having the highest or the lowest level among all three radiated doses. Moreover, two proteins, carboxypeptidase E and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 were sensitive to ionizing radiation, but relatively independent of radiation dose. Conversely, proteasome activator complex subunit 2 protein appeared to be sensitive to the dose of radiation, as rapid upregulation of this protein was observed when radiation doses were increased from 3, to 10 or 200 cGy. These results suggest that different mechanisms of action exist at the secretome level for low and high doses of ionizing radiation.

  6. Development of a method for assessing non-targeted radiation damage in an artificial 3D human skin model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    at doses as low as 0.1 Gy in the directly irradiated as well as in the bystander cells. Conclusions. #12;critical relevance in low-dose and/or non-Development of a method for assessing non-targeted radiation damage in an artificial 3D human skin

  7. Skin electronics is one of the most promising applications of stretchable electronics. The versatility of skin electronics can only be guaranteed when it has conformal contact with human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skin electronics is one of the most promising applications of stretchable electronics. The versatility of skin electronics can only be guaranteed when it has conformal contact with human skin. While analysis for the conformability of skin electronics, including modeling, meshing method and step setup etc

  8. Screen-Space Perceptual Rendering of Human Skin JORGE JIMENEZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, Diego

    SUNDSTEDT Trinity College Dublin and DIEGO GUTIERREZ Universidad de Zaragoza We propose a novel skin shader., Sundstedt, V., and Gutierrez, D. 2009. Screen-Space perceptual rendering of human skin. ACM Trans. Appl.Sundstedt@cs.tcd.ie; D. Gutierrez, Departamento de Inform´atica e Ingenier´ia de Sistemas, Universidad de Zaragoza

  9. Three-Dimensional Model on Thermal Response of Skin Subject to Laser Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    thermal response. The time-dependent equation is discretized using the #12;nite di#11;erence methodThree-Dimensional Model on Thermal Response of Skin Subject to Laser Heating #3; Wensheng Shen y to investigate the transient thermal response of human skin subject to laser heating. The temperature

  10. Thermal analysis of ultrathin, compliant sensors for characterization of the human skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    and identifying optimized designs. This paper presents an analytical model, validated by the finite element method that have the ability to bend, twist, and stretch like human skin, with minimal effect on natural processes onto a thin, low elastic modulus (60 mm thick, 30 kPa) elastomeric sheet. A cross-sectional view

  11. In vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in human and rat skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Michael F.; Edwards, Brenda C.

    2010-07-15

    Dermal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides can occur during manufacture and application. This study examined the in vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroids using rat and human skin. Dermatomed skin from adult male Long Evans rats or human cadavers was mounted in flow-through diffusion cells, and radiolabeled bifenthrin, deltamethrin or cis-permethrin was applied in acetone to the skin. Fractions of receptor fluid were collected every 4 h. At 24 h, the skins were washed with soap and water to remove unabsorbed chemical. The skin was then solubilized. Two additional experiments were performed after washing the skin; the first was tape-stripping the skin and the second was the collection of receptor fluid for an additional 24 h. Receptor fluid, skin washes, tape strips and skin were analyzed for radioactivity. For rat skin, the wash removed 53-71% of the dose and 26-43% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid ranged from 1 to 5%. For human skin, the wash removed 71-83% of the dose and 14-25% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid was 1-2%. Tape-stripping removed 50-56% and 79-95% of the dose in rat and human skin, respectively, after the wash. From 24-48 h, 1-3% and about 1% of the dose diffused into the receptor fluid of rat and human skin, respectively. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, deltamethrin and cis-permethrin penetrated rat and human skin following dermal application in vitro. However, a skin wash removed 50% or more of the dose from rat and human skin. Rat skin was more permeable to the pyrethroids than human skin. Of the dose in skin, 50% or more was removed by tape-stripping, suggesting that permeation of pyrethroids into viable tissue could be impeded. The percentage of the dose absorbed into the receptor fluid was considerably less than the dose in rat and human skin. Therefore, consideration of the skin type used and fractions analyzed are important when using in vitro dermal absorption data for risk assessment.

  12. Deep sequencing of small RNAs from human skin reveals major alterations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Weixiong

    Deep sequencing of small RNAs from human skin reveals major alterations in the psoriasis mi Psoriasis is a chronic and complex inflammatory skin disease with lesions displaying dramatically altered m for functional characterization of miRNAs in healthy and diseased skin. INTRODUCTION Psoriasis (PS) is a chronic

  13. The skin's role in human thermoregulation and comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward A; Zhang, H.

    2006-01-01

    the convective and radiation heat transfer are about equal (heat transfer at the skin surface (via conduction, convection, and radiation (Heat transfer through and above the skin. outdoors, wind strongly affects convective heat loss or gain, and radiation (

  14. Skin strain analysis software for the study of human skin deformation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marecki, Andrew T. (Andrew Thomas)

    2012-01-01

    Skin strain studies have never been conducted in a precise and automated fashion. Previous in vivo strain investigations have been labor intensive and the data resolution was extremely limited such that their results were ...

  15. Changes in Women’s Facial Skin Color Over the Ovulatory Cycle are Not Detectable by the Human Visual System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burriss, Robert P.; Troscianko, Jolyon; Lovell, P. George; Fulford, Anthony J. C.; Stevens, Martin; Quigley, Rachael; Payne, Jenny; Saxton, Tamsin K.; Rowland, Hannah M.

    2015-01-01

    the mean RGB values for each patch, and converted these to photon 197 catch values equivalent to long, medium, and short wave (LMS) cone responses, and to CIE 198 XYZ responses. We then averaged the left and right patch values, giving one color value per... 199 photograph. Cone-catch models were generated following the methodology of Párraga et al. 200 Running head: FACIAL SKIN COLOR AND THE OVULATORY CYCLE 11 [59]. Human cone-catch quanta (LMS sensitivities from Stockman and Sharpe [71], and CIE 201...

  16. EVALUATION OF SUB-ZERO AND RESIDENCE TIMES AFTER CONTINUOUS VERSUS MULTIPLE INTERMITTENT CRYOGEN SPRAY COOLING EXPOSURE ON HUMAN SKIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    ; (2) high heat transfer rates as cryogen is deposited onto the skin and evaporates at the sprayed SPRAY COOLING EXPOSURE ON HUMAN SKIN PHANTOM Julio C. Ramirez-San-Juan Beckman Laser Institute Guillermo Aguilar Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California Riverside ABSTRACT Cryogen

  17. Enhanced human papillomavirus type 8 oncogene expression levels are crucial for skin tumorigenesis in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hufbauer, M.; Lazic, D.; Akguel, B.; Brandsma, J.L.; Pfister, H.; Weissenborn, S.J.

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus 8 (HPV8) is involved in skin cancer development in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients. Transgenic mice expressing HPV8 early genes (HPV8-CER) developed papillomas, dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas. UVA/B-irradiation and mechanical wounding of HPV8-CER mouse skin led to prompt papilloma induction in about 3 weeks. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinetics and level of transgene expression in response to skin irritations. Transgene expression was already enhanced 1 to 2 days after UVA/B-irradiation or tape-stripping and maintained during papilloma development. The enhanced transgene expression could be assigned to UVB and not to UVA. Papilloma development was thus always paralleled by an increased transgene expression irrespective of the type of skin irritation. A knock-down of E6 mRNA by tattooing HPV8-E6-specific siRNA led to a delay and a lower incidence of papilloma development. This indicates that the early increase of viral oncogene expression is crucial for induction of papillomatosis.

  18. Green tea polyphenol, (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induces toxicity in human skin cancer cells by targeting ?-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Tripti; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2013-12-01

    The green tea polyphenol, (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic effects in several skin tumor models, and efforts are continued to investigate the molecular targets responsible for its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. Our recent observation that ?-catenin is upregulated in skin tumors suggested the possibility that the anti-skin carcinogenic effects of EGCG are mediated, at least in part, through its effects on ?-catenin signaling. We have found that treatment of the A431 and SCC13 human skin cancer cell lines with EGCG resulted in reduced cell viability and increased cell death and that these cytotoxic effects were associated with inactivation of ?-catenin signaling. Evidence of EGCG-induced inactivation of ?-catenin included: (i) reduced accumulation of nuclear ?-catenin; (ii) enhanced levels of casein kinase1?, reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3?, and increased phosphorylation of ?-catenin on critical serine{sup 45,33/37} residues; and (iii) reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which are down-stream targets of ?-catenin. Treatment of cells with prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) enhanced the accumulation of ?-catenin and enhanced ?-catenin signaling. Treatment with either EGCG or an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) reduced the PGE{sub 2}-enhanced levels of cAMP, an upstream regulator of ?-catenin. Inactivation of ?-catenin by EGCG resulted in suppression of cell survival signaling proteins. siRNA knockdown of ?-catenin in A431 and SCC13 cells reduced cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that induction of cytotoxicity in skin cancer cells by EGCG is mediated by targeting of ?-catenin signaling and that the ?-catenin signaling is upregulated by inflammatory mediators. - Highlights: • EGCG inhibits cancer cell viability through inactivation of ?-catenin signaling. • Inactivation of ?-catenin involves the downregulation of inflammatory mediators. • EGCG inactivates ?-catenin in skin cancer cells by inhibition of cAMP and PGE{sub 2}. • siRNA knockdown of ?-catenin or COX-2 reduces the viability of cancer cells.

  19. Field, laboratory, and modeling investigation of the skin effect at wells with slotted casing, Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    reserved. Keywords: Wellbore skin; Well hydraulics; Modeling; Pumping tests 1. Introduction Wellbore skin is a general term for imperfect hydraulic connection between a wellbore and the well structure and/or formationField, laboratory, and modeling investigation of the skin effect at wells with slotted casing

  20. Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

    2013-01-01

    of human skin was used for hydration experiments whereby itthe human skin, was used for the hydration experiments and

  1. Ultraviolet-light-induced transformation of human primary cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    The development of model systems for probing the ultraviolet radiation induced oncogenic transformation of human skin cells is described. (ACR)

  2. p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Shi-Wei [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chun-Ying [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yen-Ting [Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kao, Jun-Kai [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Husan-Wen [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chuan-Hsun [Department of Surgical Oncology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nutrition Therapy, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liang, Shu-Mei [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Ju [Department of Dermatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jau-Ling [Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Shieh, Jeng-Jer, E-mail: shiehjj@vghtc.gov.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ? Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ? Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ? Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ? p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ? Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

  3. On the deformation of human skin for mechanical counter pressure space suit development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obropta, Edward William, Jr

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of planetary bodies requires space suits that do not inhibit astronaut mobility. Gas pressurized suits are typically bulky and stiff to operate or require unnatural human motion. Development of mechanical counter ...

  4. Modeling, Animation, and Rendering of Human Figures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Güdükbay, Ugur

    7 Modeling, Animation, and Rendering of Human Figures Ugur G¨ud¨ukbay, B¨ulent ¨Ozg¨u¸c, Aydemir, Ankara, Turkey Human body modeling and animation has long been an important and challenging area virtual humans in action: video games, films, television, virtual reality, ergonomics, medicine

  5. An EFE model on skin-sleeve interactions during arm rotation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Malcolm M Q; Sun, Zhiguo; Pan, Ning; Zhong, Wen; Maibach, Howard I

    2006-01-01

    Sleeve Interactions During Arm Rotation Skin and garmentduring rotation of the arm. Normalized effective shearand the sleeve during the arm rotation are provided to re?

  6. Distribution of mutant cells in human skin : exploration of the fetal-juvenile mutability hypothesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kao, Leslie E

    2009-01-01

    The multiple "hits" carcinogenesis models are extensions of the cancer incidence theory developed by researchers from Nordling (1953), Armitage-Doll (1954 and 1957), Knudson (1971), Moolgavkar and Verzon (1979), to Moolgavkar ...

  7. Skin flicks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

    1993-01-01

    The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

  8. Modeling Human Foraging Brian D. Glass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Modeling Human Foraging Brian D. Glass Department of Psychology University of Texas at Austin Thanks to W. Todd Maddox Arthur B. Markman Scott Lauritzen Cognition & Perception Group #12;Foraging What from group experiments like these? You learn about group behavior, with little to say about behavior

  9. Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau, Don C.

    into contact with the rest of the world. It holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration (dee when your skin is injured If you do get a cut or scratch, clean it right away with soap and warm water

  10. MODELING HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS USING MIDAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P. Hallbert; Brian F. Gore

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarizes an emerging collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and NASA Ames Research Center regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error with novel control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of risk significance in recreating past event scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of novel staffing levels in control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of risk in next generation control rooms.

  11. Human walking model predicts joint mechanics, electromyography and mechanical economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endo, Ken

    In this paper, we present an under-actuated model of human walking, comprising only a soleus muscle and flexion/extension monoarticular hip muscles. The remaining muscle groups of the human leg are modeled using quasi-passive, ...

  12. Digital Human Modeling for Palpatory Medical Training with Haptic Feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams II, Robert L.

    Modeling for Applied Ergonomics and Human Factors Engineering, Chapter 48, ISBN 978- 0-8058-5646. #12 Evaluation Results

  13. Issues in the theory of models -1 Models and Modeling in Human Geography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Keith

    Issues in the theory of models -1 Models and Modeling in Human Geography Batty, Michael. 1976 and planning: reflections, retrodictions and prescriptions. in Remodelling geography. Ed. Bill Macmillan, 147 are always worth reading. Clarke, Martin, and Alan Wilson. 1989. Mathematical models in human geography: 20

  14. Technical Challenges in Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Krishanu

    Reprogramming of human somatic cells uses readily accessible tissue, such as skin or blood, to generate embryonic-like induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). This procedure has been applied to somatic cells from patients ...

  15. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  16. Symposium on Human Performance Modeling Wayne D. Gray (Organizer)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Wayne

    -TG) of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society. Three Research Talks and a Panel Discussion were presented. Each The Human Performance Modeling Technical Group (HPM-TG) of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES by Pew (2007, 2008). Technical Talks An Accessible Cognitive Modeling Tool for Evaluation of Pilot

  17. Transgenic rats overexpressing the human MrgX3 gene show cataracts and an abnormal skin phenotype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaisho, Yoshihiko . E-mail: Kaisho_Yoshihiko@takeda.co.jp; Watanabe, Takuya; Nakata, Mitsugu; Yano, Takashi; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Shimakawa, Kozo; Mori, Ikuo; Sakura, Yasufumi; Terao, Yasuko; Matsui, Hideki; Taketomi, Shigehisa

    2005-05-13

    The human MrgX3 gene, belonging to the mrgs/SNSRs (mass related genes/sensory neuron specific receptors) family, was overexpressed in transgenic rats using the actin promoter. Two animal lines showed cataracts with liquification/degeneration and swelling of the lens fiber cells. The transient epidermal desquamation was observed in line with higher gene expression. Histopathology of the transgenic rats showed acanthosis and focal parakeratosis. In the epidermis, there was an increase in cellular keratin 14, keratin 10, and loricrin, as well as PGP 9.5 in innervating nerve fibers. These phenotypes accompanied an increase in the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that overexpression of the human MrgX3 gene causes a disturbance of the normal cell-differentiation process.

  18. The Skin Microbiome in Healthy and Allergic Dogs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Aline Rodrigues; Patterson, Adam P.; Diesel, Alison; Lawhon, Sara D.; Ly, Hoai Jaclyn; Stephenson, Christine Elkins; Mansell, Joanne; Steiner, Jö rg M.; Dowd, Scot E.; Olivry, Thierry; Suchodolski, Jan S.

    2014-01-08

    Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse...

  19. Sandia Energy - Results from the Human Resilience Index and Modeling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Results from the Human Resilience Index and Modeling project were reported recently in the National Intelligence Council's Global Trends 2030 Report Home Infrastructure Security...

  20. Skin Bleaching in Jamaica: A Colonial Legacy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Petra Alaine

    2012-07-16

    -1 SKIN BLEACHING IN JAMAICA: A COLONIAL LEGACY A Dissertation by PETRA ALAINE ROBINSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY... May 2011 Major Subject: Educational Human Resource Development Skin Bleaching in Jamaica: A Colonial Legacy Copyright 2011 Petra Alaine Robinson SKIN BLEACHING IN JAMAICA: A COLONIAL LEGACY...

  1. Human Motion Capture Data Compression by Model-Based Indexing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhandarkar, Suchendra "Suchi" M.

    Human Motion Capture Data Compression by Model-Based Indexing: A Power Aware Approach Siddhartha Chattopadhyay, Suchendra M. Bhandarkar, Member, IEEE, and Kang Li Abstract--Human Motion Capture (MoCap) data can be used for animation of virtual human-like characters in distributed virtual reality applications

  2. Human Driver Model for SmartAHS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delorme, Delphine; Song, Bongsob

    2001-01-01

    the Human Factors field (Rockwell 1988, Bhises et al.1986,Amsterdam, pp. 91-100. Rockwell, T. H. , (1988) Spare visual

  3. The Emergence of ActualThe Emergence of Actual Human Disease as a Model forHuman Disease as a Model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boguski, Mark S.

    + Chromosomome +e + ""icsics"" == GenomicsGenomics 1990 Human Genome Project launched1990 Human Genome Project launched 1998 Human Genome Project1998 Human Genome Project acceleratedaccelerated 20002000 ""DraftThe Emergence of ActualThe Emergence of Actual Human Disease as a Model forHuman Disease as a Model

  4. Chemoprevention of human skin cancers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loescher, L J; Meyskens, F L Jr

    1991-01-01

    activity of celecoxib, a specific cyclooxygenase- 2ad- ministration of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor,

  5. Chemoprevention of human skin cancers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loescher, L J; Meyskens, F L Jr

    1991-01-01

    chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural productJM, Dannenberg AJ. Resveratrol inhibits cyclooxygenase-2C, Ma WY, Goranson A, Dong Z. Resveratrol sup- presses cell

  6. A multisensory observer model for human spatial orientation perception

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Michael C. (Michael Charles)

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative "observer" models for spatial orientation and eye movements have been developed based on 1-G data from humans and animals (e.g. Oman 1982, 1991, Merfeld, et al 1993, 2002; Haslwanter 2000, Vingerhoets 2006). ...

  7. Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and ...

  8. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  9. INTERACTIVE MODELLING OF MPEG-4 DEFORMABLE HUMAN BODY MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordier, Frederic

    years, human characters have become more and more important in computer animation, virtual reality that are immediately usable for animation. In doing so, we aim to carry out realistic deformations on the human body that encompasses addition of props, face and body animation, coordination along with stages or virtual environments

  10. Photoreactivation in bacteria and in skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, B M

    1980-01-01

    In many procaryotic and eucaryotic cells, photoreactivating enzyme mediates light-dependent repair of uv-induced damage; the enzyme binds to a pyrimidine dimer in DNA, and, on absorption of a photon (300 to 600 nm), specifically monomerizes the dimer, thus repairing the DNA. Photoreactivating enzyme has been found in human tissues and human cells in culture can photoreactivate cellular dimers, and can mediate photoreactivation of Herpes (human fibroblasts) and Epstein-Barr virus (human leukocytes). Measurements of pyrimidine dimer formation and repair in human skin indicate that detectable numbers of dimers are formed at 1 minimal erythemal dose, that the dimiers are rapidly removed in skin kept in the absence of light, and they are more rapidly removed when the skin is exposed to visible light. Whether this apparent photorecovery is true, enzymatic photoreactivation is yet to be determined.

  11. Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models Jonathan Chang Jordan Boyd-Graber Sean, Blei Reading Tea Leaves #12;Topic Models in a Nutshell From an input corpus words to topics Forget Red Light, Green Light: A 2-Tone L.E.D. to Simplify Screens Corpus Chang, Boyd-Graber, Wang, Gerrish

  12. Modeling Human Metabolism of Benzene Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Modeling Human Metabolism of Benzene Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures Sungkyoon) models to investigate nonlinear relationships between levels of benzene metabolites (E,E- muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid, phenol, hydroqui- none, and catechol) and benzene exposure among 386 exposed and control workers

  13. MODELING REAL-TIME HUMAN-AUTOMATION COLLABORATIVE SCHEDULING OF UNMANNED VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    MODELING REAL-TIME HUMAN-AUTOMATION COLLABORATIVE SCHEDULING OF UNMANNED VEHICLES by ANDREW S, Humans and Automation Laboratory Certified by;3 MODELING REAL-TIME HUMAN-AUTOMATION COLLABORATIVE SCHEDULING OF UNMANNED VEHICLES by Andrew S. Clare

  14. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  15. A stochastic evolutionary model for capturing human dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fenner, Trevor; Loizou, George

    2015-01-01

    The recent interest in human dynamics has led researchers to investigate the stochastic processes that explain human behaviour in various contexts. Here we propose a generative model to capture the dynamics of survival analysis, traditionally employed in clinical trials and reliability analysis in engineering. We derive a general solution for the model in the form of a product, and then a continuous approximation to the solution via the renewal equation describing age-structured population dynamics. This enables us to model a wide rage of survival distributions, according to the choice of the mortality distribution. We provide empirical evidence for the validity of the model from a longitudinal data set of popular search engine queries over 114 months, showing that the survival function of these queries is closely matched by the solution for our model with power-law mortality.

  16. Science-Based Simulation Model of Human Performance for Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; Ali Mosleh; Carol Smidts

    2011-10-01

    Human reliability analysis (HRA), a component of an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), is the means by which the human contribution to risk is assessed, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, among the literally dozens of HRA methods that have been developed, most cannot fully model and quantify the types of errors that occurred at Three Mile Island. Furthermore, all of the methods lack a solid empirical basis, relying heavily on expert judgment or empirical results derived in non-reactor domains. Finally, all of the methods are essentially static, and are thus unable to capture the dynamics of an accident in progress. The objective of this work is to begin exploring a dynamic simulation approach to HRA, one whose models have a basis in psychological theories of human performance, and whose quantitative estimates have an empirical basis. This paper highlights a plan to formalize collaboration among the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the University of Maryland, and The Ohio State University (OSU) to continue development of a simulation model initially formulated at the University of Maryland. Initial work will focus on enhancing the underlying human performance models with the most recent psychological research, and on planning follow-on studies to establish an empirical basis for the model, based on simulator experiments to be carried out at the INL and at the OSU.

  17. Modelling of the static and dynamic mechanical properties of human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haslwanter, Thomas

    Modelling of the static and dynamic mechanical properties of human otoliths DISSERTATION zur of the city of Paris #12;#12;Abstract The aim of this study is a numerical investigation of the static in the inner ears. They sense accelerations of the head. In the static case, information retrieved from them

  18. Matching a Human Walking Sequence with a VRML Synthetic Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buades Rubio, Jose María

    animation, computer vision, medical rehabilitation, virtual reality and entertainment. There is a greatMatching a Human Walking Sequence with a VRML Synthetic Model J. M. Buades, Ramon Mas and Francisco University of the Balearic Islands 07071 Palma de Mallorca, SPAIN {josemaria,ramon,paco}@anim.uib.es Abstract

  19. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  20. Development and Investigation of Synthetic Skin Simulant Platform (3SP) in Friction Blister Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerra, Carlos

    2012-02-14

    Skin is the largest organ of the human body. It is the first line of defense between the vulnerable organs and tissues of the body and the environment. Healthy skin is paramount to avoiding infection and disease. Therefore, ...

  1. MODELING HUMAN TRANSCRIPTION TYPING WITH QUEUING NETWORK-MODEL HUMAN PROCESSOR (QN-MHP)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Changxu (Sean)

    ) proposed a PERT (Project-Evaluation-Research-Technique)-based model called TYPIST, which modeled 21 in proactive ergonomic design of typing interfaces are discussed. INTRODUCTION Despite the popularity of speech found by Gentner (1983) and Salthouse & Saults (1987). TYPIST mainly used the Project Evaluation

  2. Modelling of Human Glottis in VLSI for Low Power Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raj, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    The Glottal Source is an important component of voice as it can be considered as the excitation signal to the voice apparatus. Nowadays, new techniques of speech processing such as speech recognition and speech synthesis use the glottal closure and opening instants. Current models of the glottal waves derive their shape from approximate information rather than from exactly measured data. General method concentrate on assessment of the glottis opening using optical, acoustical methods, or on visualization of the larynx position using ultrasound, computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging techniques. In this work, circuit model of Human Glottis using MOS is designed by exploiting fluid volume velocity to current, fluid pressure to voltage, and linear and nonlinear mechanical impedances to linear and nonlinear electrical impedances. The glottis modeled as current source includes linear, non-linear impedances to represent laminar and turbulent flow respectively, in vocal tract. The MOS modelling and simula...

  3. HISTORY OF SKIN GRAFTS and Hauben and colleagues2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    report of successful pinch grafts. Ollier in 1872 pointed out the importance of the dermis in skin grafts, Vandeput, and Olley4 gave us the technology to expand skin grafts with a machine that would cut the graft technology was published by Rheinwald and Green,5 and in 1979 cultured human keratinocytes were grown to form

  4. microRNA Alterations Driving Acute and Late Stages of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in a Murine Skin Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simone, Brittany A.; Ly, David; Savage, Jason E.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Dan, Tu D.; Ylaya, Kris; Shankavaram, Uma; Lim, Meng; Jin, Lianjin; Camphausen, Kevin; Mitchell, James B.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Although ionizing radiation is critical in treating cancer, radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF) can have a devastating impact on patients' quality of life. The molecular changes leading to radiation-induced fibrosis must be elucidated so that novel treatments can be designed. Methods and Materials: To determine whether microRNAs (miRs) could be responsible for RIF, the fibrotic process was induced in the right hind legs of 9-week old CH3 mice by a single-fraction dose of irradiation to 35 Gy, and the left leg served as an unirradiated control. Fibrosis was quantified by measurements of leg length compared with control leg length. By 120 days after irradiation, the irradiated legs were 20% (P=.013) shorter on average than were the control legs. Results: Tissue analysis was done on muscle, skin, and subcutaneous tissue from irradiated and control legs. Fibrosis was noted on both gross and histologic examination by use of a pentachrome stain. Microarrays were performed at various times after irradiation, including 7 days, 14 days, 50 days, 90 days, and 120 days after irradiation. miR-15a, miR-21, miR-30a, and miR-34a were the miRs with the most significant alteration by array with miR-34a, proving most significant on confirmation by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, c-Met, a known effector of fibrosis and downstream molecule of miR-34a, was evaluated by use of 2 cell lines: HCT116 and 1522. The cell lines were exposed to various stressors to induce miR changes, specifically ionizing radiation. Additionally, in vitro transfections with pre-miRs and anti-miRs confirmed the relationship of miR-34a and c-Met. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate an inverse relationship with miR-34a and c-Met; the upregulation of miR-34a in RIF causes inhibition of c-Met production. miRs may play a role in RIF; in particular, miR-34a should be investigated as a potential target to prevent or treat this devastating side effect of irradiation.

  5. A biokinetic model for systemic technetium in adult humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Giussani, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently is updating its biokinetic and dosimetric models for internally deposited radionuclides. Technetium (Tc), the lightest element that exists only in radioactive form, has two important isotopes from the standpoint of potential risk to humans: the long-lived isotope 99Tm (T1/2=2.1x105 y) is present in high concentration in nuclear waste, and the short-lived isotope 99mTc (T1/2=6.02 h) is the most commonly used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. This paper reviews data on the biological behavior of technetium and proposes a biokinetic model for systemic technetium in the adult human body for use in radiation protection. Compared with the ICRP s current occupational model for systemic technetium, the proposed model provides a more realistic description of the paths of movement of technetium in the body; provides greater consistency with experimental and medical data; and, for most radiosensitive organs, yields substantially different estimates of cumulative activity (total radioactive decays within the organ) following uptake of 99Tm or 99mTc to blood.

  6. Modeling Honey Bee Behavior for Recognition Using Human Trainable Adam Feldman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminka, Gal A.

    Modeling Honey Bee Behavior for Recognition Using Human Trainable Models Adam Feldman1 , Tucker them, by creating a behavioral model from examples provided by a human expert. Further, in conjunction is to develop a system that can learn to label behavior automatically on the basis of a human expert's labeling

  7. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  8. Virtual Human Animation Based on Movement Observation and Cognitive Behavior Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badler, Norman I.

    Virtual Human Animation Based on Movement Observation and Cognitive Behavior Models Norman I Philadelphia, PA 19104­6389 Abstract Automatically animating virtual humans with actions that reflect real for the future of real­time virtual human animation. 1 Introduction Automatically animating virtual humans

  9. Models and evaluation of human-machine systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayout Alvarenga, Marco Antonio

    1993-01-01

    The field of human-machine systems and human-machine interfaces is very multidisciplinary. We have to navigate between the knowledge waves brought by several areas of the human learning: cognitive psychology, artificial ...

  10. How Ideal Are We? Incorporating Human Limitations into Bayesian Models of Word Segmentation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steyvers, Mark

    How Ideal Are We? Incorporating Human Limitations into Bayesian Models of Word Segmentation* Lisa, this work was supported by NSF grant BCS-0843896 to LP. #12;model (Oaksford & Chater, 1998). Rational models. In this paper, we investigate how to incorporate human limitations into the Bayesian model of GGJ. In particular

  11. Approaches to in vitro tissue regeneration with application for human disease modeling and drug development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Carissa L.

    Reliable in vitro human disease models that capture the complexity of in vivo tissue behaviors are crucial to gain mechanistic insights into human disease and enable the development of treatments that are effective across ...

  12. Modeling hepatitis C virus infection using human induced pluripotent stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Robert E.

    Human pathogens impact patient health through a complex interplay with the host, but models to study the role of host genetics in this process are limited. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer the ability to ...

  13. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  14. Modeling of laser ablation and fragmentation of human calculi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gitomer, S.; Jones, R.D.; Howsare, C.

    1989-01-01

    The large-scale radiation-hydrodynamics computer code LASNEX, has been used to model experimental results in the laser ablation and fragmentation of renal and biliary calculi. Recent experiments have demonstrated laser ablation and fragmentation of human calculi in vitro and in vivo. In the interaction, laser light incident upon the calculus is of sufficient intensity to produce a plasma (a hot ionized gas). The physical picture which emerges is as follows. The plasma couples to acoustic and shear waves which then propagate through the dense stone material, causing spall and fracture by reflection from material discontinuities or boundaries. Experiments have thus far yielded data on the interaction against which models can be tested. Data on the following have been published: (1) light emission, (2) absorption and emission spectra, (3) fragmentation efficiency, (4) cavitation bubble dynamics and (5) mass removal. We have performed one dimensional simulations of the laser-matter interaction to elucidate the important physical mechanisms. We find that good quantitative fits between simulation and experiment are obtained for visible light emission, electron temperature, electron density, plasma pressure and cavitation bubble growth. With regard to mass removal, experiment and simulation are consistent with each other and give an excellent estimate of the ablation threshold. The modeling indicates that a very small ablation layer at the surface of the calculus is responsible for significant mass loss by fragmentation within the bulk of the calculus. With such quantitative fits in hand, we believe this type of modeling can now be applied to the study of other procedures involving plasma formation of interest to the medical community. 25 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Contrasting signals of positive selection in genes involved in human skin color variation from tests based on SNP scans and resequencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Gruijter, Johanna Maria; Lao, Oscar; Vermeulen, Mark; Xue, Yali; Woodwark, Cara; Gillson, Christopher J.; Coffey, Alison J.; Ayub, Qasim; Mehdi, S. Qasim; Kayser, Manfred; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2011-12-01

    Eu NeEA NeA NeEuA Present TsplitEurasia TsplitOOA Figure 2 Out-of-Africa (OOA) model implemented in the forward simulator and further used for approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) estimation. An ancestral population with size NeA splits at Tsplit... OOA into two new populations: Africa (with NeAf) and Eurasia (with NeEuA), and this population at TsplitEurasia splits in two populations, Europe (with NeEu) and Asia (with NeEA). Table 3 Median and dispersion statistics of the posterior distributions...

  16. A model of muscle-tendon function in human walking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endo, Ken, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In order to motivate the design of legged machines that walk as humans do, this thesis investigates how leg muscles and tendons work mechanically during level-ground human walking at self-selected speeds. I hypothesize ...

  17. Learning shape models for monocular human pose estimation from the Microsoft Xbox Kinect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everingham, Mark

    on the popular pictorial structure model (PSM) [8]. Fig. 1 outlines our proposal: using the PSM we infer 2D human

  18. A HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODEL OF COMMERCIAL JETLINER TAXIING Michael D. Byrne, Jeffrey C. Zemla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Mike

    performance between large-scale engineering-oriented simulations and human-in-the-loop experiments. In order are limited in several ways. One common method is to employ human-in-the-loop (HITL) experiments. In orderA HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODEL OF COMMERCIAL JETLINER TAXIING Michael D. Byrne, Jeffrey C. Zemla Rice

  19. A Joint-level Model of Fatigue for the Postural Control of Virtual Humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Inmaculada

    A Joint-level Model of Fatigue for the Postural Control of Virtual Humans Inmaculada Rodríguezb , e. Keywords: human body simulation, posture control, fatigue, computer animation. 1 Introduction Achieving specifically with humans should produce realistic animation in all the sense of the word, including fatigue

  20. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR); Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR)

    2011-06-21

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  1. Hybrid Structural Model of the Complete Human ESCRT-0 Complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Xuefeng; Kloer, Daniel P.; Kim, Young C.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Saidi, Layla F.; Hummer, Gerhard; Hurley, James H.; (NIH)

    2009-03-31

    The human Hrs and STAM proteins comprise the ESCRT-0 complex, which sorts ubiquitinated cell surface receptors to lysosomes for degradation. Here we report a model for the complete ESCRT-0 complex based on the crystal structure of the Hrs-STAM core complex, previously solved domain structures, hydrodynamic measurements, and Monte Carlo simulations. ESCRT-0 expressed in insect cells has a hydrodynamic radius of R{sub H} = 7.9 nm and is a 1:1 heterodimer. The 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of the ESCRT-0 core complex reveals two domain-swapped GAT domains and an antiparallel two-stranded coiled-coil, similar to yeast ESCRT-0. ESCRT-0 typifies a class of biomolecular assemblies that combine structured and unstructured elements, and have dynamic and open conformations to ensure versatility in target recognition. Coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations constrained by experimental R{sub H} values for ESCRT-0 reveal a dynamic ensemble of conformations well suited for diverse functions.

  2. Effects of ultrasound and sodium lauryl sulfate on the transdermal delivery of hydrophilic permeants: Comparative in vitro studies with full-thickness and split-thickness pig and human skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seto, Jennifer E.

    The simultaneous application of ultrasound and the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (referred to as US/SLS) to skin enhances transdermal drug delivery (TDD) in a synergistic mechanical and chemical manner. Since full-thickness ...

  3. A Game Theory Based Model of Human Driving with Application to Autonomous and Mixed Driving 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Je Hong

    2014-08-04

    In this work, I consider the development of a driver model to better understand human drivers’ various behaviors in the upcoming mixed situation of human drivers and autonomous vehicles. For this, my current effort focuses on modeling the driver’s...

  4. Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multi-Camera Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sankaranarayanan, Aswin C.

    of the scene. These are used to render the scene with virtual 3D human models that mimic the observed instant are then presented to a rendering engine that animates a set of virtual actors synthesizing1 Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multi-Camera Networks Aswin C

  5. Is a Swine Model of Arteriovenous Malformation Suitable for Human Extracranial Arteriovenous Malformation? A Preliminary Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lv, Ming-ming, E-mail: lvmingming001@163.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China); Fan, Xin-dong, E-mail: fanxindong@yahoo.com.cn [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (China); Su, Li-xin, E-mail: sulixin1975@126.com [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)] [Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology (China)

    2013-10-15

    Objective: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. Methods: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. Results: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. Conclusions: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model.

  6. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 ?M) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ? Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ? Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ? Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ? Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  7. The development of an image/threshold database for designing and testing human vision models.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Stanley

    The development of an image/threshold database for designing and testing human vision models. Thom for all modelers to use in HVS model development. The group may also provide a threshold database modeling, image database, psychophysics, HVS, image compression 1. INTRODUCTION Digital information

  8. A New Model for Image-Based Humanities Computing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Jacob Hohmann

    2009-05-15

    Image-based humanities computing, the computer-assisted study of digitallyrepresented “objects or artifacts of cultural heritage,” is an increasingly popular yet “established practice” located at the most recent intersections ...

  9. Using system simulation to model the impact of human error in a maritime system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Dorp, Johan René

    the modeling of human error related accident event sequences in a risk assessment of maritime oil framwork was developed for the Prince William Sound Risk Assessment based on interviews with maritime William Sound; Human error; Maritime accidents; Expert judgement; Risk assessment; Risk management 1

  10. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling of Benzene in Humans: A Bayesian Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling of Benzene in Humans: A Bayesian Approach , Suramya Waidyanatha , and Paul M. Schlosser§§ January 12, 2005 Abstract Benzene is myelotoxic and causes periods; however, leukemia risks in humans at lower exposures are uncertain. Benzene occurs widely

  11. Coupling control and human factors in mathematical models of complex systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnik, Roderick

    Coupling control and human factors in mathematical models of complex systems Roderick V.N. Melnik à that in the analysis and control of such systems, human factors should not be eliminated by conventional formal transportation systems (ITS) theory and practice, the problem of speed control, considered here as a decision

  12. A Biomechanical Model of the Human Tongue and Its Clinical Implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Payan, Yohan

    A Biomechanical Model of the Human Tongue and Its Clinical Implications Yohan Payan1 , Georges. This paper presents the biomechanical and dynamical model of the hu- man tongue we have developed]). The development of a biomechanical model of tongue structure seems thus interesting, to understand the role played

  13. A mid-layer model for human reliability analysis : understanding the cognitive causes of human failure events.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Song-Hua; Chang, James Y. H.; Boring,Ronald L.; Whaley, April M.; Lois, Erasmia; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Oxstrand, Johanna H.; Forester, John Alan; Kelly, Dana L.; Mosleh, Ali

    2010-03-01

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method's middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

  14. Model of medical supply demand and astronaut health for long-duration human space flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assad, Albert

    2009-01-01

    The medical care of space crews is the primary limiting factor in the achievement of long-duration space missions. (Nicogossian 2003) The goal of this thesis was to develop a model of long-duration human space flight ...

  15. A Variational Approach to Strand-Based Modeling of the Human Hand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacIver, Malcolm A.

    A Variational Approach to Strand-Based Modeling of the Human Hand Elliot R. Johnson2 , Karen Morris muscles and ac- tivation patterns in dynamic motions compared to static contractions, even #12;2 Elliot R

  16. Toward Real-time Modeling of Human Heart Ventricles at Cellular...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Toward Real-time Modeling of Human Heart Ventricles at Cellular Resolution: Multi-hour Simulation of Drug-induced Arrhythmias Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  17. Capturing skin properties from dynamic mechanical analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandford, Erika J. (Erika Jaye)

    2012-01-01

    Existing skin mechanical testing devices focus on measuring skin elasticity and are not tailored to assess the dynamic behavior of skin. The mathematical techniques used to analyze data collected using these devices are ...

  18. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD curves tended to be steeper. The CHO generated the best quantitative agreement with human observers with its CD curve overlapping with that of human observer. Statistical equivalence between CHO and humans can be claimed within 11% of the human observer results, including both the disk and lesion detection experiments.Conclusions: The model observer method can be used to accurately represent human observer performance with the stochastic DPC-CT noise for SKE tasks with sizes ranging from 8 to 128 pixels. The incorporation of the anatomical noise remains to be studied.

  19. IEEE International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures, 2003. Human Body Tracking with Auxiliary Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Issac

    in interactive virtual environment, human computer interaction, motion capture for human animation and videoIEEE International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures, 2003. Human Body-0273 {munlee|icohen}@usc.edu Abstract This paper presents two techniques for improving human body tracking

  20. A Complete Volumetric 3D Model of the Human Hossam Hassan, Ayman El-Baz, Aly A. Farag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisville, University of

    A Complete Volumetric 3D Model of the Human Jaw Hossam Hassan, Ayman El-Baz, Aly A. Farag * , Allan of the teeth and their roots. A database of volumetric 3D models of teeth will be constructed. The upper part, we can now derive a complete volumetric 3D model of the human jaw. This model is suitable

  1. Agent-based modeling of human decision-making behavior within Spatial Decision Support Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengupta, Raja

    on modeling humans as spatial "agents" that impact the landscape in some fashion. For example, considerable characteristics of the individual, such as age and income, and spatial characteristics of their land holdings for a period of ten years. Modeling Farmers as Agents Traditionally, neoclassical economic theories and profit-maximizing

  2. S.N.A.K.E. : a dynamically reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barroeta Pérez, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    The idea of an Artificial Sensate Skin device that mimics the characteristics and functions of its analogous living tissue whether human or animal is not new. Yet, most of the current related work has been focused in the ...

  3. Sensitive skins and somatic processing for affective and sociable robots based upon a somatic alphabet approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiehl, Walter Daniel, 1980-

    2005-01-01

    The sense of touch is one of the most important senses of the human body. This thesis describes the biologically inspired design of "sensitive skins" for two different robotic platforms: Leonardo, a high degree-of-freedom, ...

  4. User Modeling for Personalized City Tours humanIT Human Information Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobsa, Alfred

    and tourism are aimed at providing informa- tion in a personalized manner, taking users' interests accessed by clients that need personalization services. Keywords: Personalization, user modeling server for travel and tourism has recently attracted considerable interest, both with regard to research

  5. Surety of human elements of high consequence systems: An organic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FORSYTHE,JAMES C.; WENNER,CAREN A.

    2000-04-25

    Despite extensive safety analysis and application of safety measures, there is a frequent lament, ``Why do we continue to have accidents?'' Two breakdowns are prevalent in risk management and prevention. First, accidents result from human actions that engineers, analysts and management never envisioned and second, controls, intended to preclude/mitigate accident sequences, prove inadequate. This paper addresses the first breakdown, the inability to anticipate scenarios involving human action/inaction. The failure of controls has been addressed in a previous publication (Forsythe and Grose, 1998). Specifically, this paper presents an approach referred to as surety. The objective of this approach is to provide high levels of assurance in situations where potential system failure paths cannot be fully characterized. With regard to human elements of complex systems, traditional approaches to human reliability are not sufficient to attain surety. Consequently, an Organic Model has been developed to account for the organic properties exhibited by engineered systems that result from human involvement in those systems.

  6. Skinning Arbitrary Deformations Ladislav Kavan 1,2 Rachel McDonnell1 Simon Dobbyn1 Jiri Zara2 Carol O'Sullivan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    , such as moving human or animal figures. In this paper, we demonstrate how to automatically construct skinning way of representing the animation of quasi- articulated objects, such as virtual characters, is known as skinning (or matrix palette skinning). It is based on the observation that an animation of a virtual

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Human Behavior in Buildings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICESpecialAPPENDIX F Wetlandsof Energy Model RepairCladdings:Tianzhen Hong,

  8. Human-robot cross-training: Computational formulation, modeling and evaluation of a human team training strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaidis, Stefanos

    We design and evaluate human-robot cross-training, a strategy widely used and validated for effective human team training. Cross-training is an interactive planning method in which a human and a robot iteratively switch ...

  9. A critical comparison of human face rendering techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizpe, Arturo Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Human skin exhibits complex light reflectance properties that make it difficult to render realistically. In recent years, many techniques have been introduced to render skin, with varying degrees of complexity and realism. ...

  10. Integrating digital human modeling into virtual environment for ergonomic oriented design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Liang; Bennis, Fouad; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Virtual human simulation integrated into virtual reality applications is mainly used for virtual representation of the user in virtual environment or for interactions between the user and the virtual avatar for cognitive tasks. In this paper, in order to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, the integration of virtual human simulation and VR application is presented to facilitate physical ergonomic evaluation, especially for physical fatigue evaluation of a given population. Immersive working environments are created to avoid expensive physical mock-up in conventional evaluation methods. Peripheral motion capture systems are used to capture natural movements and then to simulate the physical operations in virtual human simulation. Physical aspects of human's movement are then analyzed to determine the effort level of each key joint using inverse kinematics. The physical fatigue level of each joint is further analyzed by integrating a fatigue and recovery model on the basis of physical task parameters. All the pr...

  11. A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors Nicky Kern, Stavros Antifakos, Bernt Schiele Perceptual Computing and Computer Vision ETH Zurich sensors. It is scalable for a large number of sensors, contexts, and situations and allows for online

  12. JOHNSON, EVERINGHAM: CLUSTERED MODELS FOR HUMAN POSE ESTIMATION 1 Clustered Pose and Nonlinear Appearance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everingham, Mark

    Appearance Models for Human Pose Estimation Sam Johnson s.a.johnson04@leeds.ac.uk Mark Everingham m.everingham@leeds.ac.uk School of Computing University of Leeds Leeds, UK Abstract We investigate the task of 2D articulated parts e.g. labeling the position and orientation of the head, torso, arms and legs in an image

  13. Dynamic Skin Triangulation (extended abstract)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John M.

    of physical simulation, where they act as bound- aries of spatial domains that grow and shrink with time stages [1]. Moving bound- aries also arise naturally in mold filling processes, both for metal and other and shrinking. The skin surface is the envelope of this family. Even though the family is infinite, the surface

  14. Effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on in vitro human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Zambrano, Pablo; Mennickent, Sigrid; Villena, Fernando; Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Aguilar, Luis F.; Bolognin, Silvia

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} PPA is a common ingredient in cough-cold medication and appetite suppressants. {yields} Reports on its effects on human erythrocytes are very scarce. {yields} We found that PPA induced in vitro morphological changes to human erythrocytes. {yields} PPA interacted with isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes. {yields} PPA interacted with class of lipid present in the erythrocyte membrane outer monolayer. -- Abstract: Norephedrine, also called phenylpropanolamine (PPA), is a synthetic form of the ephedrine alkaloid. After reports of the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including several deaths, PPA is no longer sold in USA and Canada. Despite the extensive information about PPA toxicity, reports on its effects on cell membranes are scarce. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of PPA with cell membranes, ranges of concentrations were incubated with intact human erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM), and molecular models of cell membranes. The latter consisted in bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), phospholipid classes present in the outer and inner monolayers of most plasmatic cell membranes, respectively. The capacity of PPA to perturb the bilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was assessed by X-ray diffraction, DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study presents evidence that PPA affects human red cell membranes as follows: (a) in SEM studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that 0.5 mM PPA induced shape changes; (b) in IUM PPA induced a sharp decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy in the lipid bilayer acyl chains in a concentration range lower than 100 {mu}M; (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that PPA in the 0.1-0.5 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation to DMPC, but no effects on DMPE multibilayers were detected.

  15. The Emergence of ActualThe Emergence of Actual Human Disease as a Model forHuman Disease as a Model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boguski, Mark S.

    Gene + Chromose + Chromosomome +e + ""icsics"" == GenomicsGenomics 1990 Human Genome Project launched1990 Human Genome Project launched 1998 Human Genome Project1998 Human Genome Project acceleratedaccelerated for human." Jacques Monod, c. 1961 David Botstein, 1988 #12;G. Rubin et al. (2000) Comparative Genomics

  16. Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauroy, Benjamin - Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université Paris 7

    Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree.1088/1478-3975/8/5/056006 Toward the modeling of mucus draining from the human lung: role of the geometry of the airway tree, then therapeutic draining of mucus plays a critical role to keep mucus levels in the lungs acceptable

  17. Fast Synthetic Vision, Memory, and Learning Models for Virtual Humans James J. Kuffner, Jr JeanClaude Latombe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Fast Synthetic Vision, Memory, and Learning Models for Virtual Humans James J. Kuffner, Jr Jean, and learning for au­ tonomous animated characters in real­time virtual environ­ ments. The model is efficient of quickly synthesizing from navigation goals the collision­free mo­ tions for animated human figures

  18. The Use Of Computational Human Performance Modeling As Task Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacuqes Hugo; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    During a review of the Advanced Test Reactor safety basis at the Idaho National Laboratory, human factors engineers identified ergonomic and human reliability risks involving the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element to the air during manual fuel movement and inspection in the canal. There were clear indications that these risks increased the probability of human error and possible severe physical outcomes to the operator. In response to this concern, a detailed study was conducted to determine the probability of the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element. Due to practical and safety constraints, the task network analysis technique was employed to study the work procedures at the canal. Discrete-event simulation software was used to model the entire procedure as well as the salient physical attributes of the task environment, such as distances walked, the effect of dropped tools, the effect of hazardous body postures, and physical exertion due to strenuous tool handling. The model also allowed analysis of the effect of cognitive processes such as visual perception demands, auditory information and verbal communication. The model made it possible to obtain reliable predictions of operator performance and workload estimates. It was also found that operator workload as well as the probability of human error in the fuel inspection and transfer task were influenced by the concurrent nature of certain phases of the task and the associated demand on cognitive and physical resources. More importantly, it was possible to determine with reasonable accuracy the stages as well as physical locations in the fuel handling task where operators would be most at risk of losing their balance and falling into the canal. The model also provided sufficient information for a human reliability analysis that indicated that the postulated fuel exposure accident was less than credible.

  19. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

    2012-07-10

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  20. Active skin for turbulent drag reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mani, Raghavendran

    2002-01-01

    capitalizes on recent advances in active turbulent drag reduction and active material based actuation to develop an active or "smart" skin for turbulent drag reduction in realistic flight conditions. The skin operation principle is based on computational...

  1. Skin Thermal Injury Prediction with Strain Energy Wensheng Shen y and Jun Zhang z

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    Skin Thermal Injury Prediction with Strain Energy #3; Wensheng Shen y and Jun Zhang z Laboratory, in which the activation energy includes chemical reaction only, strain energy of tissue due to thermal-dimensional model is presented for the quantitative prediction of skin injury re- sulting from certain thermal

  2. Master Project in Stem Cell Biology In Vivo Manipulation of Skin Stem Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uppsala Universitet

    Master Project in Stem Cell Biology ­ In Vivo Manipulation of Skin Stem Cells Our lab is interested in understanding how stem cells contribute to tissue homeostasis and disease. Our model system is currently the skin, which harbors several distinct pools of stem cells. In order to identify regulatory networks

  3. Toward hydro-social modeling: Merging human variables and the social sciences with climate-glacier runoff models (Santa River, Peru)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    Toward hydro-social modeling: Merging human variables and the social sciences with climate mountain range, this paper provides a holistic hydro-social framework that identifies five major human of watershed dynamics. This hydro-social framework has wide- spread implications for hydrological modeling

  4. Skin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Protas, Bartosz

    been a flurry of activity in controlling both laminar and turbulent flows in certain idealized settings, and to begin to shed light on how to control fluid flow in practical engineering applications with modelSkin friction and pressure: the "footprints" of turbulence Thomas R. Bewley and Bartosz Protas Flow

  5. A new muscle fatigue and recovery model and its ergonomics application in human simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Liang; Bennis, Fouad; Zhang, Wei; Guillaume, François

    2009-01-01

    Although automatic techniques have been employed in manufacturing industries to increase productivity and efficiency, there are still lots of manual handling jobs, especially for assembly and maintenance jobs. In these jobs, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the major health problems due to overload and cumulative physical fatigue. With combination of conventional posture analysis techniques, digital human modelling and simulation (DHM) techniques have been developed and commercialized to evaluate the potential physical exposures. However, those ergonomics analysis tools are mainly based on posture analysis techniques, and until now there is still no fatigue index available in the commercial software to evaluate the physical fatigue easily and quickly. In this paper, a new muscle fatigue and recovery model is proposed and extended to evaluate joint fatigue level in manual handling jobs. A special application case is described and analyzed by digital human simulation technique.

  6. A new muscle fatigue and recovery model and its ergonomics application in human simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Liang; Bennis, Fouad; Zhang, Wei; Guillaume, François; 10.1080/17452759.2010.504056

    2010-01-01

    Although automatic techniques have been employed in manufacturing industries to increase productivity and efficiency, there are still lots of manual handling jobs, especially for assembly and maintenance jobs. In these jobs, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the major health problems due to overload and cumulative physical fatigue. With combination of conventional posture analysis techniques, digital human modelling and simulation (DHM) techniques have been developed and commercialized to evaluate the potential physical exposures. However, those ergonomics analysis tools are mainly based on posture analysis techniques, and until now there is still no fatigue index available in the commercial software to evaluate the physical fatigue easily and quickly. In this paper, a new muscle fatigue and recovery model is proposed and extended to evaluate joint fatigue level in manual handling jobs. A special application case is described and analyzed by digital human simulation technique.

  7. Investigation of in-vivo skin autofluorescence lifetimes under long-term cw optical excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lihachev, A; Ferulova, I; Vasiljeva, K; Spigulis, J

    2014-08-31

    The main results obtained during the last five years in the field of laser-excited in-vivo human skin photobleaching effects are presented. The main achievements and results obtained, as well as methods and experimental devices are briefly described. In addition, the impact of long-term 405-nm cw low-power laser excitation on the skin autofluorescence lifetime is experimentally investigated. (laser biophotonics)

  8. Motion Capture Based Animation for Virtual Human Demonstrators: Modeling, Parameterization and Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yazhou

    2012-01-01

    sive gaze animation for virtual humans. ” In Proceedings ofCapture Based Animation for Virtual Human Demonstrators:Capture Based Animation for Virtual Human Demonstrators:

  9. Oncogenic Radiation Abscopal Effects In Vivo: Interrogating Mouse Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancuso, Mariateresa, E-mail: mariateresa.mancuso@enea.it [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); Leonardi, Simona [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); Giardullo, Paola; Pasquali, Emanuela [Department of Radiation Physics, Guglielmo Marconi University, Rome (Italy); Tanori, Mirella [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); De Stefano, Ilaria [Department of Radiation Physics, Guglielmo Marconi University, Rome (Italy); Casciati, Arianna [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy); Naus, Christian C. [Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, The Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna [Laboratory of Radiation Biology and Biomedicine, Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Casaccia Research Centre, Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1{sup +/?}) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1{sup +/?} and Cx43{sup +/?} mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1{sup +/?} mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases.

  10. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-08-14

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  11. Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

  12. A human breast cell model of pre-invasive to invasive transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Weaver, Valerie M.; Lee, Sun-Young; Rozenberg, Gabriela I.; Chin, Koei; Myers, Connie A.; Bascom, Jamie L.; Mott, Joni D.; Semeiks, Jeremy R.; Grate, Leslie R.; Mian, I. Saira; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Jensen, Roy A.; Idowu, Michael O.; Chen, Fanqing; Chen, David J.; Petersen, Ole W.; Gray, Joe W.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2008-03-10

    A crucial step in human breast cancer progression is the acquisition of invasiveness. There is a distinct lack of human cell culture models to study the transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype as it may occur 'spontaneously' in vivo. To delineate molecular alterations important for this transition, we isolated human breast epithelial cell lines that showed partial loss of tissue polarity in three-dimensional reconstituted-basement membrane cultures. These cells remained non-invasive; however, unlike their non-malignant counterparts, they exhibited a high propensity to acquire invasiveness through basement membrane in culture. The genomic aberrations and gene expression profiles of the cells in this model showed a high degree of similarity to primary breast tumor profiles. The xenograft tumors formed by the cell lines in three different microenvironments in nude mice displayed metaplastic phenotypes, including squamous and basal characteristics, with invasive cells exhibiting features of higher grade tumors. To find functionally significant changes in transition from pre-invasive to invasive phenotype, we performed attribute profile clustering analysis on the list of genes differentially expressed between pre-invasive and invasive cells. We found integral membrane proteins, transcription factors, kinases, transport molecules, and chemokines to be highly represented. In addition, expression of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-9,-13,-15,-17 was up regulated in the invasive cells. Using siRNA based approaches, we found these MMPs to be required for the invasive phenotype. This model provides a new tool for dissection of mechanisms by which pre-invasive breast cells could acquire invasiveness in a metaplastic context.

  13. COMPARATIVE COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF AIRFLOWS AND VAPOR DOSIMETY IN THE RESPIRATORY TRACTS OF RAT, MONKEY, AND HUMAN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Minard, Kevin R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Timchalk, Charles; Glenny, Robb W.; Pipavath, Sudhaker; Cox, Timothy C.; Wallis, Chris; Larson, Richard; Fanucchi, M.; Postlewait, Ed; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2012-07-01

    Coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models is useful for predicting site-specific dosimetry of airborne materials in the respiratory tract and elucidating the importance of species differences in anatomy, physiology, and breathing patterns. Historically, these models were limited to discrete regions of the respiratory system. CFD/PBPK models have now been developed for the rat, monkey, and human that encompass airways from the nose or mouth to the lung. A PBPK model previously developed to describe acrolein uptake in nasal tissues was adapted to the extended airway models as an example application. Model parameters for each anatomic region were obtained from the literature, measured directly, or estimated from published data. Airflow and site-specific acrolein uptake patterns were determined under steadystate inhalation conditions to provide direct comparisons with prior data and nasalonly simulations. Results confirmed that regional uptake was dependent upon airflow rates and acrolein concentrations with nasal extraction efficiencies predicted to be greatest in the rat, followed by the monkey, then the human. For human oral-breathing simulations, acrolein uptake rates in oropharyngeal and laryngeal tissues were comparable to nasal tissues following nasal breathing under the same exposure conditions. For both breathing modes, higher uptake rates were predicted for lower tracheo-bronchial tissues of humans than either the rat or monkey. These extended airway models provide a unique foundation for comparing dosimetry across a significantly more extensive range of conducting airways in the rat, monkey, and human than prior CFD models.

  14. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711)Revision 3: Update Methodology and Key Revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, S.

    2012-07-22

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. NUREG-0711 is the first document to be addressed. We present the methodology used to update NUREG-0711 and summarize the main changes made. Finally, we discuss the current status of the update program and the future plans.

  15. Modeling and simulation of stable human locomotion using five degree-of-freedom gait model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Vanisri

    2001-01-01

    understood if fuzzy logic systems are viewed as an extension to the rule-based architectures of classical artificial intelligence (AI). Rule-based systems employ a set of rules that prescribe how the system should react to a particular input. When.... . 3. 6. Simulation . . 3. 7. Types of Gait Models. . 3. 8. Control of Legged Locomotion. . 3. 8. 1. Classical and Modern Control. . . . . . . . . 3. 8. 2. Adaptive Control. 3. 8. 3. Neural Networks. . 3. 8. 4. Fuzzy Logic 3sk Merits and Demerits...

  16. Has a thick neutron skin in ${}^{208}$Pb been ruled out?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fattoyev, F J

    2013-01-01

    The Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) has provided the first model-independent evidence in favor of a neutron-rich skin in ${}^{208}$Pb. Although the error bars are large, the reported large central value of 0.33\\,fm is particularly intriguing. To test whether such a thick neutron-skin in ${}^{208}$Pb is already incompatible with laboratory experiments or astrophysical observations, we employ relativistic models with neutron-skin thickness in ${}^{208}$Pb ranging from 0.16 to 0.33 fm to compute ground state properties of finite nuclei, their collective monopole and dipole response, and mass-{\\sl vs}-radius relations for neutron stars. No compelling reason was found to rule out models with large neutron skins in ${}^{208}$Pb from the set of observables considered in this work.

  17. Neutron skin uncertainties of Skyrme energy density functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Kortelainen; J. Erler; W. Nazarewicz; N. Birge; Y. Gao; E. Olsen

    2013-07-16

    Background: Neutron-skin thickness is an excellent indicator of isovector properties of atomic nuclei. As such, it correlates strongly with observables in finite nuclei that depend on neutron-to-proton imbalance and the nuclear symmetry energy that characterizes the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. A rich worldwide experimental program involving studies with rare isotopes, parity violating electron scattering, and astronomical observations is devoted to pinning down the isovector sector of nuclear models. Purpose: We assess the theoretical systematic and statistical uncertainties of neutron-skin thickness and relate them to the equation of state of nuclear matter, and in particular to nuclear symmetry energy parameters. Methods: We use the nuclear superfluid Density Functional Theory with several Skyrme energy density functionals and density dependent pairing. To evaluate statistical errors and their budget, we employ the statistical covariance technique. Results: We find that the errors on neutron skin increase with neutron excess. Statistical errors due to uncertain coupling constants of the density functional are found to be larger than systematic errors, the latter not exceeding 0.06 fm in most neutron-rich nuclei across the nuclear landscape. The single major source of uncertainty is the poorly determined slope L of the symmetry energy that parametrizes its density dependence. Conclusions: To provide essential constraints on the symmetry energy of the nuclear energy density functional, next-generation measurements of neutron skins are required to deliver precision better than 0.06 fm.

  18. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  19. Physics of the Structural Color on the Skin of Cephalopods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Meng 1981-

    2012-10-30

    by leucophore and iridophore cells, are important for cephalopod camou age; however, their scattering properties have not been very well studied. These colors are mainly due to the scattering of the speci c small scatterers inside of the cell. In this work we.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.2 Modeled cephalpod skin with the same sequence of cells as shown in the electron micrograph: chromatophore (a), iridophore (b), and leucophore (c)). The structural color is produced by iridophore (b) and leucophore (c...

  20. Skewed distribution of natural killer cells in psoriasis skin lesions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    of natural killer cells in psoriasis skin lesions Mariana D.and unaf- fected skin of psoriasis patients and normal skinComparisons are made between psoriasis groups (lesional and

  1. Development of a Rhesus Monkey Lung Geometry Model and Application to Particle Deposition in Comparison to Humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; McClellan, Gene; Corley, Richard A.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Rick E.; Harkema, Jack R.; Carey, Stephen A.; Schelegle, Edward; Hyde, D.; Kimbell, Julia; Miller, Frederick J.

    2012-11-01

    The exposure-dose-response characterization of an inhalation hazard established in an animal species needs to be translated to an equivalent characterization in humans relative to comparable doses or exposure scenarios. Here, the first geometry model of the conducting airways for rhesus monkeys is developed based upon CT images of the conducting airways of a 6-month-old male, rhesus monkey. An algorithm was developed for adding the alveolar region airways using published rhesus morphometric data. The resultant lung geometry model can be used in mechanistic particle or gaseous dosimetry models. Such dosimetry models require estimates of the upper respiratory tract volume of the animal and the functional residual capacity, as well as of the tidal volume and breathing frequency of the animal. The relationship of these variables to rhesus monkeys of differing body weights was established by synthesizing and modeling published data as well as modeling pulmonary function measurements on 121 rhesus control animals. Deposition patterns of particles up to 10 ?m in size were examined for endotracheal and and up to 5 ?m for spontaneous breathing in infant and young adult monkeys and compared to those for humans. Deposition fraction of respirable size particles was found to be higher in the conducting airways of infant and young adult rhesus monkeys compared to humans. Due to the filtering effect of the conducting airways, pulmonary deposition in rhesus monkeys was lower than that in humans. Future research areas are identified that would either allow replacing assumptions or improving the newly developed lung model.

  2. Bio-inspired nanocomposite assemblies as smart skin components...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bio-inspired nanocomposite assemblies as smart skin components. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Bio-inspired nanocomposite assemblies as smart skin components. There is...

  3. Oncogenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Rat skin is being utilized as an empirical model for testing dose and time related aspects of the oncogenic action of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecular lesions in the skin DNA, including, strand breaks and thymine dimers, are being measured and compared to tumor induction. The induction and repair kinetics of molcular lesions are being compared to split dose repair. Modifiers and radiosensitizers are being utilized to test specific aspects of a chromosome breakage theory of radiation oncogenesis.

  4. Cognitive models applied to human effectiveness in national security environments (ergonomics of augmented cognition system design and application).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ntuen, Celestine; Winchester, Woodrow III

    2004-06-01

    In complex simulation systems where humans interact with computer-generated agents, information display and the interplay of virtual agents have become dominant media and modalities of interface design. This design strategy is reflected in augmented reality (AR), an environment where humans interact with computer-generated agents in real-time. AR systems can generate large amount of information, multiple solutions in less time, and perform far better in time-constrained problem solving. The capabilities of AR have been leveraged to augment cognition in human information processing. In this sort of augmented cognition (AC) work system, while technology has become the main source for information acquisition from the environment, the human sensory and memory capacities have failed to cope with the magnitude and scale of information they encounter. This situation generates opportunity for excessive cognitive workloads, a major factor in degraded human performance. From the human effectiveness point of view, research is needed to develop, model, and validate simulation tools that can measure the effectiveness of an AR technology used to support the amplification of human cognition. These tools will allow us to predict human performance for tasks executed under an AC tool construct. This paper presents an exploration of ergonomics issues relevant to AR and AC systems design. Additionally, proposed research to investigate those ergonomic issues is discussed.

  5. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II

    1995-12-31

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

  6. Probing the neutron skin thickness in collective modes of excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nils Paar; Andrea Horvat

    2014-01-13

    Nuclear collective motion provides valuable constraint on the size of neutron-skin thickness and the properties of nuclear matter symmetry energy. By employing relativistic nuclear energy density functional (RNEDF) and covariance analysis related to $\\chi^2$ fitting of the model parameters, relevant observables are identified for dipole excitations, which strongly correlate with the neutron-skin thickness $(r_{np})$, symmetry energy at saturation density $(J)$ and slope of the symmetry energy $(L)$. Using the RNEDF framework and experimental data on pygmy dipole strength ($^{68}$Ni, $^{132}$Sn, $^{208}$Pb) and dipole polarizability ($^{208}$Pb), it is shown how the values of $J$, and $L$, and $r_{np}$ are constrained. The isotopic dependence of moments associated to dipole excitations in $^{116-136}$Sn shows that the low-energy dipole strength and polarizability in neutron-rich nuclei display strong sensitivity to the symmetry energy parameter $J$, more pronounced than in isotopes with moderate neutron-to-proton number ratios.

  7. Airflow in a Multiscale Subject-Specific Breathing Human Lung Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A; Tawhai, Merryn H; Lin, Ching-Long

    2013-01-01

    The airflow in a subject-specific breathing human lung is simulated with a multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) lung model. The three-dimensional (3D) airway geometry beginning from the mouth to about 7 generations of airways is reconstructed from the multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) image at the total lung capacity (TLC). Along with the segmented lobe surfaces, we can build an anatomically-consistent one-dimensional (1D) airway tree spanning over more than 20 generations down to the terminal bronchioles, which is specific to the CT resolved airways and lobes (J Biomech 43(11): 2159-2163, 2010). We then register two lung images at TLC and the functional residual capacity (FRC) to specify subject-specific CFD flow boundary conditions and deform the airway surface mesh for a breathing lung simulation (J Comput Phys 244:168-192, 2013). The 1D airway tree bridges the 3D CT-resolved airways and the registration-derived regional ventilation in the lung parenchyma, thus a multiscale model. Larg...

  8. Modeling and analysis of affective influences on human experience, prediction, decision making, and behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Hyungil, 1976-

    2010-01-01

    Subjective and affective elements are well-known to influence human decision making. This dissertation presents a theoretical and empirical framework on how human decision makers' subjective experience and affective ...

  9. Computational Bodybuilding: Anatomically-based Modeling of Human Bodies Shunsuke Saito*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    , allowing us to produce human bodies with varied anthropometry, such as heights and bone lengths. Our goal

  10. ACOUSTIC AND LANGUAGE MODELING OF HUMAN AND NONHUMAN NOISES FOR HUMANTOHUMAN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH RECOGNITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schultz, Tanja

    , cough, etc. so­called human noises, or as nonarticulatory noises, like paper rustle, key click, door

  11. Integrating human and robot decision-making dynamics with feedback: Models and convergence analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard, Naomi

    , a well-studied decision-making task in behavioral experiments. The human subject chooses between two structures, the behavioral experiments show convergence to suboptimal choices. We propose a human- supervised and the kinds of decisions humans make in psychology experiments. We consider a class of sequential binary

  12. A Multi-Methods Approach to HRA and Human Performance Modeling: A Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo; David I Gertman

    2012-06-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a research reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory is primarily designed and used to test materials to be used in other, larger-scale and prototype reactors. The reactor offers various specialized systems and allows certain experiments to be run at their own temperature and pressure. The ATR Canal temporarily stores completed experiments and used fuel. It also has facilities to conduct underwater operations such as experiment examination or removal. In reviewing the ATR safety basis, a number of concerns were identified involving the ATR canal. A brief study identified ergonomic issues involving the manual handling of fuel elements in the canal that may increase the probability of human error and possible unwanted acute physical outcomes to the operator. In response to this concern, that refined the previous HRA scoping analysis by determining the probability of the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element to the air during fuel movement and inspection was conducted. The HRA analysis employed the SPAR-H method and was supplemented by information gained from a detailed analysis of the fuel inspection and transfer tasks. This latter analysis included ergonomics, work cycles, task duration, and workload imposed by tool and workplace characteristics, personal protective clothing, and operational practices that have the potential to increase physical and mental workload. Part of this analysis consisted of NASA-TLX analyses, combined with operational sequence analysis, computational human performance analysis (CHPA), and 3D graphical modeling to determine task failures and precursors to such failures that have safety implications. Experience in applying multiple analysis techniques in support of HRA methods is discussed.

  13. 'Epidermal Electronics' Paste Peelable Circuitry On Your Skin, Just Like A Temporary Tattoo | Popular Science http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2011-08/epidermal-electronics-paste-peelable-circuitry-your-skin-just-temporary-tattoo[8/14/2011 5:57:38 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    - Powered Upgrade New Electric Skin Could Bring the Human Touch to Robots, Artificial Limbs Optical Sensors adhere to the skin not with glue or static electricity, but close-contact atomic forces called van der capacitors and wireless antennas, according to UI. The devices can draw power from induction or even from

  14. Modeling and Simulation Approaches to Developing Human Performance Measures in Nuclear Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce P. Hallbert; Jeffrey C. Joe; Molly J. Keefe; Julius J. Persensky

    2007-08-01

    Human performance is a key component to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Further, human performance is quite variable, and while some variability may be random, much of it may be attributed to factors that are difficult to assess. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assess human performance for purposes of research that can lead to technical basis for developing human factors review criteria.

  15. Model-Based Testing of Infotainment Systems on the Basis of a Graphical Human-Machine Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    have to spend a lot of time for defining tests and adapting existing tests for different system variants and software updates. Test executors have to execute the defined tests step by step manuallyModel-Based Testing of Infotainment Systems on the Basis of a Graphical Human-Machine Interface

  16. The skin's role in human thermoregulation and comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arens, Edward A; Zhang, H.

    2006-01-01

    with sensory organs in the hypothalamus (within the brain),within the anterior hypothalamus sense the core temperatureit. The anterior hypothalamus’s warm sensors outnumber its

  17. Athletic equipment microbiota are shaped by interactions with human skin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvarDOE PAGES11 PPPL- 4811

  18. Athletic equipment microbiota are shaped by interactions with human skin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvarDOE PAGES11 PPPL- 4811(Journal

  19. Athletic equipment microbiota are shaped by interactions with human skin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby a contractor ofvarDOE PAGES11 PPPL-

  20. Athletic equipment microbiota are shaped by interactions with human skin

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing Bacteria (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Assessing theopacityArticle)Wood et

  1. Effects of vocal fold epithelium removal on vibration in an excised human larynx model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, JR; Zhang, Z; Long, JL

    2015-01-01

    theory of vocal fold vibration,” in Speech Science: Recentclosure with in-phase vibration along the anterior-posteriorepithelium removal on vibration in an excised human larynx

  2. Modeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of theModeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of the Human EyeHuman Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Modeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of theModeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA aberration (LCA) and transverse chromatic aberration (TCA). In the presence of polychromatic light, these two types of chromatic aberrations have an impact on the retinal image. Studied isolated, both the LCA

  3. Mechanistic modeling of the interrelationships between indoor/outdoor air quality and human exposure in a GIS framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isukapalli, S.S.; Purushothaman, V.; Georgopoulos, P.G.

    1999-07-01

    Evaluation of human exposure to atmospheric contaminants such as ozone and particulate matter (PM) is often based on measured data from fixed ambient (outdoors) Air Monitoring Stations. This results in an artificial characterization of indoor exposures, as concentrations and physicochemical attributes of indoor pollutants vary significantly and are different from corresponding outdoor values. A mechanistically-based modeling approach is presented here that aims to improve estimates for the outdoor/indoor relationships of photochemical pollutants and of associated fine particles and, subsequently, of human exposure assessments. New approaches for refining the spatial, temporal, and indoor/outdoor patterns of gas phase photochemical contaminants and PM are currently being developed and tested. These approaches are combined with information from either ambient monitoring networks or from ambient air quality models that consider aerosol physics and chemistry coupled with gas phase photochemistry (e.g. UAM-AERO). This process utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Relational Database (RD) methods, to facilitate detailed exposure scenario construction (involving e.g. the geographic location of an individual considered in time) and to aid in the estimation of population exposure over selected geographic areas. The combination of monitor data or air quality modeling with microenvironmental modeling in a GIS framework can potentially provide a useful platform for more accurate assessments of human exposure to co-occurring gas and particulate phase air pollutants.

  4. A Computational Model Incorporating Neural Stem Cell Dynamics Reproduces Glioma Incidence across the Lifespan in the Human Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Roman; Stoll, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most common form of primary brain tumor. Demographically, the risk of occurrence increases until old age. Here we present a novel computational model to reproduce the probability of glioma incidence across the lifespan. Previous mathematical models explaining glioma incidence are framed in a rather abstract way, and do not directly relate to empirical findings. To decrease this gap between theory and experimental observations, we incorporate recent data on cellular and molecular factors underlying gliomagenesis. Since evidence implicates the adult neural stem cell as the likely cell-of-origin of glioma, we have incorporated empirically-determined estimates of neural stem cell number, cell division rate, mutation rate and oncogenic potential into our model. We demonstrate that our model yields results which match actual demographic data in the human population. In particular, this model accounts for the observed peak incidence of glioma at approximately 80 years of age, without the need to assert...

  5. Game Theoretic Modelling of a Human Driver’s Steering Interaction with Vehicle Active Steering Collision Avoidance System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Na, Xiaoxiang; Cole, David J.

    2014-11-10

    deeper insights into physiological and cognitive behaviours of human drivers so that optimization of present or future driver-automation interfaces, e.g. continuous sharing control [8] becomes a possibility. However, little attention has yet been paid... Model Predictive Control (MPC) and the Linear Quadratic (LQ) dynamic optimization approaches. A. Distributed MPC The idea of distributed MPC was presented in [26] as a practical approach to industrial process control of large-scale systems...

  6. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greek, Ray; Pippus, Annalea; Hansen, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    the Human Genome Project ( HGP) [54,55] and other spin-offprojects. Prior to the HGP, scientists thought the number ofscientists involved in the HGP were looking for an estimated

  7. Evo-devo of human adolescence: beyond disease models of early puberty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Ze'ev; Belsky, Jay

    2013-01-01

    April 2013 References 1. Muller GB: Evo-devo: extending theRev Genet 2. Hochberg Z: Evo Devo of Child Growth: TreatizeSci USA 29. Hochberg Z: Evo-devo of child growth II: human

  8. Dynamic Skin Triangulation Ho-Lun Cheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edelsbrunner, Herbert

    that grow and shrink with time. An example is the boundary between the solid and the liquid portions the nu- cleation, growth and coarsening stages [1]. Moving bound- aries also arise naturally in mold the finite collection by convex combina- tion and shrinking. The skin surface is the envelope of this family

  9. Dynamic Skin Triangulation Ho-Lun Cheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, John M.

    of physical simulation, where they act as bound- aries of spatial domains that grow and shrink with time stages [1]. Moving bound- aries also arise naturally in mold filling processes, both for metal and other and shrinking. The skin surface is the envelope of this family. Even though the family is infinite, the surface

  10. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Gunawan, Rudy; Timchalk, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the development and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.

  11. Modeling hematopoietic cell development and chronic myeloid with human embryonic stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rusert, Jessica Marie

    2012-01-01

    of self-renewal in an inducible transgenic mouse model 14 .mouse models, BCR-ABL reduced the self-renewal capacity of

  12. Chemical Agent Induced Reduction of Skin Light Scattering 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirshburg, Jason M.

    2011-02-22

    Skin turbidity limits light based medical applications while increasing the risk of epidermal thermal injury. Collagen fibers are responsible for the majority of light scattering within skin. Chemicals, known as clearing ...

  13. Vaccine delivery with microneedle skin patches in nonhuman primates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Adrienne V

    Transcutaneous drug delivery from planar skin patches is effective for small-molecule drugs and skin-permeable vaccine adjuvants. However, to achieve efficient delivery of vaccines and other macromolecular therapeutics ...

  14. Dietary chromium and nickel enhance UV-carcinogenesis in skin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    chromium and nickel enhance UV-carcinogenesis in skin of hairless mice The skin cancer enhancing effect of chromium (in male mice) and nickel in UVR-irradiated female Skh1...

  15. Human-machine interactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  16. Applying Human-performance Models to Designing and Evaluating Nuclear Power Plants: Review Guidance and Technical Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hara, J.M.

    2009-11-30

    Human performance models (HPMs) are simulations of human behavior with which we can predict human performance. Designers use them to support their human factors engineering (HFE) programs for a wide range of complex systems, including commercial nuclear power plants. Applicants to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can use HPMs for design certifications, operating licenses, and license amendments. In the context of nuclear-plant safety, it is important to assure that HPMs are verified and validated, and their usage is consistent with their intended purpose. Using HPMs improperly may generate misleading or incorrect information, entailing safety concerns. The objective of this research was to develop guidance to support the NRC staff's reviews of an applicant's use of HPMs in an HFE program. The guidance is divided into three topical areas: (1) HPM Verification, (2) HPM Validation, and (3) User Interface Verification. Following this guidance will help ensure the benefits of HPMs are achieved in a technically sound, defensible manner. During the course of developing this guidance, I identified several issues that could not be addressed; they also are discussed.

  17. Water skin anomalies: density, elasticity, hydrophobicity, thermal stability, interface repulsivity, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q. Sun

    2015-02-26

    Molecular undercoordination induced O:H-O bond relaxation and dual polarization dictates the supersolid behavior of water skins interacting with other substances such as flowing in nanochannels, dancing of water droplets, floating of insects. The BOLS-NEP notion unifies the Wenzel-Cassie-Baxter models and explains controllable transition between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity.

  18. Essays on econometric modeling of subjective perceptions of risks in environment and human health 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, To Ngoc

    2009-05-15

    A large body of literature studies the issues of the option price and other ex-ante welfare measures under the microeconomic theory to valuate reductions of risks inherent in environment and human health. However, it does not offer a careful...

  19. Potential hazards to embryo implantation: A human endometrial in vitro model to identify unwanted antigestagenic actions of chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, L.; Deppert, W.R. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Pfeifer, D. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Stanzel, S.; Weimer, M. [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)] [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Hanjalic-Beck, A.; Stein, A.; Straßer, M.; Zahradnik, H.P. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany); Schaefer, W.R., E-mail: wolfgang.schaefer@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Freiburg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Embryo implantation is a crucial step in human reproduction and depends on the timely development of a receptive endometrium. The human endometrium is unique among adult tissues due to its dynamic alterations during each menstrual cycle. It hosts the implantation process which is governed by progesterone, whereas 17?-estradiol regulates the preceding proliferation of the endometrium. The receptors for both steroids are targets for drugs and endocrine disrupting chemicals. Chemicals with unwanted antigestagenic actions are potentially hazardous to embryo implantation since many pharmaceutical antiprogestins adversely affect endometrial receptivity. This risk can be addressed by human tissue-specific in vitro assays. As working basis we compiled data on chemicals interacting with the PR. In our experimental work, we developed a flexible in vitro model based on human endometrial Ishikawa cells. Effects of antiprogestin compounds on pre-selected target genes were characterized by sigmoidal concentration–response curves obtained by RT-qPCR. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) was identified as the most responsive target gene by microarray analysis. The agonistic effect of progesterone on SULT1E1 mRNA was concentration-dependently antagonized by RU486 (mifepristone) and ZK137316 and, with lower potency, by 4-nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin. The negative control methyl acetoacetate showed no effect. The effects of progesterone and RU486 were confirmed on the protein level by Western blotting. We demonstrated proof of principle that our Ishikawa model is suitable to study quantitatively effects of antiprogestin-like chemicals on endometrial target genes in comparison to pharmaceutical reference compounds. This test is useful for hazard identification and may contribute to reduce animal studies. -- Highlights: ? We compare progesterone receptor-mediated endometrial effects of chemicals and drugs. ? 4-Nonylphenol, bisphenol A and apigenin exert weak antigestagenic activity. ? SULT1E1 is a significant marker for endometrial antiprogestin effects. ? Ishikawa cells are a tissue-specific approach for characterization of SPRMs. ? Chemicals acting as progesterone receptor antagonists may exert antifertility effects.

  20. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alm, Eric J.

    Studies of the human microbiome have revealed that even healthy individuals differ remarkably in the microbes that occupy habitats such as the gut, skin and vagina. Much of this diversity remains unexplained, although diet, ...

  1. Mueller matrix imaging for skin cancer detection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Angela Michelle

    2004-09-30

    is suspect, a biopsy is performed to verify the diagnosis. For squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas, the most common treatment options are excision, curettage and electrodesiccation, cryosurgery, radiation, and Moh?s micrographic surgery. Excision... is where all visible cancer is cut away together with a 3 to 10 mm margin of healthy tissue and then the skin is stitched closed with sutures. Curettage and electrodesiccation are where all visible cancer is scraped away and then an electric probe...

  2. Dynamic modeling of injection-induced fault reactivation and ground motion and impact on surface structures and human perception

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Cappa, Frederic; Rinaldi, Antonio P.; Godano, Maxime

    2014-12-31

    We summarize recent modeling studies of injection-induced fault reactivation, seismicity, and its potential impact on surface structures and nuisance to the local human population. We used coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling, dynamic wave propagation modeling, seismology theories, and empirical vibration criteria from mining and construction industries. We first simulated injection-induced fault reactivation, including dynamic fault slip, seismic source, wave propagation, and ground vibrations. From co-seismic average shear displacement and rupture area, we determined the moment magnitude to about Mw = 3 for an injection-induced fault reactivation at a depth of about 1000 m. We then analyzed themore »ground vibration results in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and frequency content, with comparison to the U.S. Bureau of Mines’ vibration criteria for cosmetic damage to buildings, as well as human-perception vibration limits. For the considered synthetic Mw = 3 event, our analysis showed that the short duration, high frequency ground motion may not cause any significant damage to surface structures, and would not cause, in this particular case, upward CO2 leakage, but would certainly be felt by the local population.« less

  3. Dynamic modeling of injection-induced fault reactivation and ground motion and impact on surface structures and human perception

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Cappa, Frederic [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rinaldi, Antonio P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Godano, Maxime [Univ. of Nice Sophia-Antipolis (France)

    2014-12-31

    We summarize recent modeling studies of injection-induced fault reactivation, seismicity, and its potential impact on surface structures and nuisance to the local human population. We used coupled multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling, dynamic wave propagation modeling, seismology theories, and empirical vibration criteria from mining and construction industries. We first simulated injection-induced fault reactivation, including dynamic fault slip, seismic source, wave propagation, and ground vibrations. From co-seismic average shear displacement and rupture area, we determined the moment magnitude to about Mw = 3 for an injection-induced fault reactivation at a depth of about 1000 m. We then analyzed the ground vibration results in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and frequency content, with comparison to the U.S. Bureau of Mines’ vibration criteria for cosmetic damage to buildings, as well as human-perception vibration limits. For the considered synthetic Mw = 3 event, our analysis showed that the short duration, high frequency ground motion may not cause any significant damage to surface structures, and would not cause, in this particular case, upward CO2 leakage, but would certainly be felt by the local population.

  4. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valerio, Luis G. . E-mail: luis.valerio@FDA.HHS.gov; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.; Contrera, Joseph F.

    2007-07-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest is MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200 chemicals, comprised primarily of pharmaceutical, industrial and some natural products developed under an FDA-MDL cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA). The predictive performance for this group of dietary natural products and the control group was 97% sensitivity and 80% concordance. Specificity was marginal at 53%. This study finds that the in silico QSAR analysis employing this software's rodent carcinogenicity database is capable of identifying the rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring organic molecules found in the human diet with a high degree of sensitivity. It is the first study to demonstrate successful QSAR predictive modeling of naturally occurring carcinogens found in the human diet using an external validation test. Further test validation of this software and expansion of the training data set for dietary chemicals will help to support the future use of such QSAR methods for screening and prioritizing the risk of dietary chemicals when actual animal data are inadequate, equivocal, or absent.

  5. Methylation patterns and mathematical models reveal dynamics of stem cell turnover in the human colon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    renewal while the daughter stem cell remains in the niche; each stem cell is ``immortal'' under this modelCommentary Methylation patterns and mathematical models reveal dynamics of stem cell turnover in diseases such as cancer, it is essential to understand the process of somatic cell development and renewal

  6. MODELING INSTABILITY IN THE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HUMAN RESPIRATION: APPLICATIONS TO INFANT NONREM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the ventila­ tion rate in response to the levels of CO 2 and O 2 in the body. Models of the respiratory theory of the control of ventilation in 1946 [33]. The first dynamic model of CO 2 regulation using of ventilation control and CO 2 regulation [43]. Quantitative studies began with Gray and his multiple factor

  7. Modeling hepatitis B-dependent hepatocellular carcinoma in human embryonic stem cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Ephie

    2012-01-01

    Mice Provide a Model for Hepatitis B and C Virus InfectionC. D. (2001). X Protein of Hepatitis B Virus Inhibits Fas-induced during chronic hepatitis B infection promote a

  8. Snow modelling for understanding human ecodynamics in periods of climate change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comeau, Laura Elizabeth Lamplugh

    2013-07-01

    This thesis tests and applies a new, physically based snow distribution and melt model at spatial scales of tens of metres and temporal scales of days across sub-arctic landscapes, in order to assess the significance of ...

  9. Two Models of the Prison:  Accidental Humanity and Hypermasculinity in the L.A. County Jail

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dolovich, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    know, TWO MODELS OF THE PRISON violence. 243 As a result, on2003). Jails hold sentenced prisoners serving short terms,this the response, the prisoner would have a strong case for

  10. A model of human collective decision-making in complex environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbone, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    A continuous-time Markov process is proposed to analyze how a group of humans solves a complex task, consisting in the search of the optimal set of decisions on a fitness landscape. Individuals change their opinions driven by two different forces: (i) the rational behavior which pushes them to change their opinions as to increase their own fitness values, and (ii) the social interactions which push individuals to reduce the diversity of their opinions in order to reach consensus. Results show that the performance of the group is strongly affected by the strength of social interactions and by the level of knowledge of the individuals. Increasing the strength of social interactions improves the performance of the team. However, too strong social interactions slow down the search of the optimal solution and worsen the performance of the group. We prove that a moderate level of knowledge is already enough to guarantee high performance of the group in making decisions.

  11. Encapsulated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by alginate gel beads as an in vitro metastasis model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiao-xi; Liu, Chang [Laboratory of Biomedical Material Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Yang [Laboratory of Biomedical Material Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Nan [Laboratory of Biomedical Material Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A Yuquanlu, Beijing 100049 (China); Guo, Xin [Laboratory of Biomedical Material Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Shu-jun [Laboratory of Biomedical Material Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Dalian University of Technology, 2 Linggong Road, Dalian 116024 (China); Sun, Guang-wei, E-mail: sungw@dicp.ac.cn [Laboratory of Biomedical Material Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Wei [Laboratory of Biomedical Material Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Ma, Xiao-jun, E-mail: maxj@dicp.ac.cn [Laboratory of Biomedical Material Engineering, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and often forms metastases, which are the most important prognostic factors. For further elucidation of the mechanism underlying the progression and metastasis of HCC, a culture system mimicking the in vivo tumor microenvironment is needed. In this study, we investigated the metastatic ability of HCC cells cultured within alginate gel (ALG) beads. In the culture system, HCC cells formed spheroids by proliferation and maintained in nuclear abnormalities. The gene and protein expression of metastasis-related molecules was increased in ALG beads, compared with the traditional adhesion culture. Furthermore, several gene expression levels in ALG bead culture system were even closer to liver cancer tissues. More importantly, in vitro invasion assay showed that the invasion cells derived from ALG beads was 7.8-fold higher than adhesion cells. Our results indicated that the in vitro three-dimensional (3D) model based on ALG beads increased metastatic ability compared with adhesion culture, even partly mimicked the in vivo tumor tissues. Moreover, due to the controllable preparation conditions, steady characteristics and production at large-scale, the 3D ALG bead model would become an important tool used in the high-throughput screening of anti-metastasis drugs and the metastatic mechanism research. -- Highlights: •We established a 3D metastasis model mimicking the metastatic ability in vivo. •The invasion ability of cells derived from our model was increased significantly. •The model is easy to reproduce, convenient to handle, and amenable for large-scale.

  12. Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2012-10-23

    A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.

  13. Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

    2013-01-01

    regions of skin, burns, psoriasis, basal cell carcinomas andinto diseased states like psoriasis, eczema, basal celland cancer, conditions like psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis,

  14. The Direction of Optimal Skin Incisions Derived From Striae Distensae.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemperle, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    of Optimal Skin Incisions Derived from Striae Distensaestriae lines. These are derived from the striae compositecal incisions and scars derived from the Internet. Incision

  15. Summary of the Key Features of Seven Biomathematical Models of Human Fatigue and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennsylvania, University of

    industrialized countries, a growing number of business, transportation, energy, public health, safety. Aviat Space Environ Med 2004; 75(3, Suppl.):A4­A14. Background: Biomathematical models that quantify Aeronautics and Space Administration, U.S. Department of Defense, U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel

  16. Image-based fluidstructure interaction model of the human mitral valve Xingshuang Ma a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Xiaoyu

    cause of mortality in industrialised nations, including the United Kingdom and the Uni- ted States. An initial validation of the model is achieved by comparing the opening height and flow rates to clinical. In 2007, cardiovascular disease accounted for 34% of deaths in the UK, totalling just over 193,000 people

  17. Mathematical Modeling the Zoonotic and Vector Transmission Dynamics of West Nile virus as They Relate to Human Morbidity and Mortality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laine, Christopher Glen

    2014-12-04

    (Culex), and two age classifications of humans (?39 & ?40). The bifurcation of human age was conducted due to the risk of humans developing neuroinvasive disease increases 1.5X for every decade of life. We also divided human infected classes...

  18. TOWARDS AUTOMATED SKIN LESION DIAGNOSIS Paul Wighton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, M. Stella

    for minimal risk human research, by the Office of Research Ethics. A copy of the approval letter has been be improved. Typically, the ASLD pipeline consists of

  19. SU-E-J-107: Supervised Learning Model of Aligned Collagen for Human Breast Carcinoma Prognosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bredfeldt, J; Liu, Y; Conklin, M; Keely, P; Eliceiri, K; Mackie, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Our goal is to develop and apply a set of optical and computational tools to enable large-scale investigations of the interaction between collagen and tumor cells. Methods: We have built a novel imaging system for automating the capture of whole-slide second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen in registry with bright field (BF) images of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue. To analyze our images, we have integrated a suite of supervised learning tools that semi-automatically model and score collagen interactions with tumor cells via a variety of metrics, a method we call Electronic Tumor Associated Collagen Signatures (eTACS). This group of tools first segments regions of epithelial cells and collagen fibers from BF and SHG images respectively. We then associate fibers with groups of epithelial cells and finally compute features based on the angle of interaction and density of the collagen surrounding the epithelial cell clusters. These features are then processed with a support vector machine to separate cancer patients into high and low risk groups. Results: We validated our model by showing that eTACS produces classifications that have statistically significant correlation with manual classifications. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted breast cancer patient survival in a cohort of 196 patients. Feature rank analysis revealed that TACS positive fibers are more well aligned with each other, generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells. Conclusion: We are working to apply our model to predict survival in larger cohorts of breast cancer patients with a diversity of breast cancer types, predict response to treatments such as COX2 inhibitors, and to study collagen architecture changes in other cancer types. In the future, our system may be used to provide metastatic potential information to cancer patients to augment existing clinical assays.

  20. Detecting pornographic images by localizing skin Sotiris Karavarsamisa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blekas, Konstantinos

    specialized sub- classes, namely "bikini" / "porn" and "skin" / "non-skin", respectively. The extracted pornographic image classifiers. Index Terms convex hull calculation, multi-class classification, porn detection unprotected Web services in order to circulate or exchange child pornography and general pornographic content

  1. INVESTIGATION The Lsktm1 Locus Modulates Lung and Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broman, Karl W.

    INVESTIGATION The Lsktm1 Locus Modulates Lung and Skin Tumorigenesis in the Mouse Antonella Galvan to both skin and lung tumorigenesis over the susceptibility of the SWR/J strain. In an effort to map tumor.93) and lung (LOD score = 8.74) tumorigenesis. Two genes, Igfbp5 and Igfbp2, residing in this locus

  2. Neutron skin of 208 Pb in consistency with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neutron skin of 208 Pb in consistency with neutron star observations K. Miyazaki E-mail: miyazakiro as varying the neutron radius of 208Pb. The neutron skin thickness Sn is determined in the comparison with the astronomical observations of massive neutron stars (NSs), the standard scenario of NS cooling

  3. Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Elizabeth Brooks

    2009-05-15

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used...

  4. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  5. Tumorigenic action of beta, proton, alpha and electron radiation on the rat skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Rat skin is utilized as a model system for studying dose and time related aspects of the oncogenic action of ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Molecular lesions in the DNA of the epidermis, including strand breaks and thymine dimers, are measured and compared to the temporal and dose related aspects of tumor induction. The induction and repair kinetics of molecular lesions are compared to split dose recovery as modified by sensitizers and type of radition of oncogenic damage.

  6. Special Issue on Human Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    The seven articles in this special issue focus on human computing. Most focus on two challenging issues in human computing, namely, machine analysis of human behavior in group interactions and context-sensitive modeling.

  7. Quantitative probabilistic modeling of environmental control and life support System resilience for long-duration human spaceflight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Andrew Charles

    2014-01-01

    The future of human space exploration will see crews travel farther and remain in space for longer durations than ever before. For the first time in the history of human spaceflight, the Environmental Control and Life ...

  8. Pulse testing in the presence of wellbore storage and skin effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogbe, D.O.; Brigham, W.E.

    1984-08-01

    A pulse test is conducted by creating a series of short-time pressure transients in an active (pulsing) well and recording the observed pressure response at an observation (responding) well. Using the pressure response and flow rate data, the transmissivity and storativity of the tested formation can be determined. Like any other pressure transient data, the pulse-test response is significantly influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of wellbore storage and skin effects on interference testing in general and on pulse-testing in particular, and to present the type curves and procedures for designing and analyzing pulse-test data when wellbore storage and skin effects are active at either the responding well or the pulsing well. A mathematical model for interference testing was developed by solving the diffusivity equation for radial flow of a single-phase, slightly compressible fluid in an infinitely large, homogeneous reservoir. When wellbore storage and skin effects are present in a pulse test, the observed response amplitude is attenuated and the time lag is inflated. Consequently, neglecting wellbore storage and skin effects in a pulse test causes the calculated storativity to be over-estimated and the transmissivity to be under-estimated. The error can be as high as 30%. New correlations and procedures are developed for correcting the pulse response amplitude and time lag for wellbore storage effects. Using these correlations, it is possible to correct the wellbore storage-dominated response amplitude and time lag to within 3% of their expected values without wellbore storage, and in turn to calculate the corresponding transmissivity and storativity. Worked examples are presented to illustrate how to use the new correction techniques. 45 references.

  9. Mechanistic investigation of skin barrier perturbation induced by surfactants in the presence of humectants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Saswata

    2007-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) of the skin functions as a barrier between the body and the environment. Surfactants such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) are used in skin cleansers and in skin-care formulations because of their ...

  10. Analysis of Symmetry in the Anterior Human Dentition and its Application in the Evaluation and Correction of Postural Distortion in the Photographic Recording of Human Bite Marks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aws, Ghassan

    Postural distortion of human bite marks on skin occurs when photographing a bite mark in a body position other than the position of the body at the time of biting. Postural distortion in the bite mark may introduce ...

  11. Skin-sparing Helical Tomotherapy vs 3D-conformal Radiotherapy for Adjuvant Breast Radiotherapy: In Vivo Skin Dosimetry Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capelle, Lisa; Warkentin, Heather; MacKenzie, Marc; Joseph, Kurian; Gabos, Zsolt; Pervez, Nadeem; Tankel, Keith; Chafe, Susan; Amanie, John; Ghosh, Sunita; Parliament, Matthew; Abdulkarim, Bassam

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether treatment-planning system (TPS)-calculated dose accurately reflects skin dose received for patients receiving adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) with standard three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) or skin-sparing helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating acute skin toxicity from adjuvant breast RT with 3D-CRT compared to skin-sparing HT, where a 5-mm strip of ipsilateral breast skin was spared. Thermoluminescent dosimetry or optically stimulated luminescence measurements were made in multiple locations and were compared to TPS-calculated doses. Skin dosimetric parameters and acute skin toxicity were recorded in these patients. Results: With HT there was a significant correlation between calculated and measured dose in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.67, P<.001; r = 0.44, P=.03, respectively) and the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.73, P<.001; r = 0.88, P<.001, respectively). With 3D-CRT there was a significant correlation in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.45, P=.03; r = 0.68, P<.001, respectively); the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.62, P=.001; r = 0.86, P<.001, respectively); and the mid neck (r = 0.42, P=.04, respectively). On average, HT-calculated dose overestimated the measured dose by 14%; 3D-CRT underestimated the dose by 0.4%. There was a borderline association between highest measured skin dose and moist desquamation (P=.05). Skin-sparing HT had greater skin homogeneity (homogeneity index of 1.39 vs 1.65, respectively; P=.005) than 3D-CRT plans. HT plans had a lower skin{sub V50} (1.4% vs 5.9%, respectively; P=.001) but higher skin{sub V40} and skin{sub V30} (71.7% vs 64.0%, P=.02; and 99.0% vs 93.8%, P=.001, respectively) than 3D-CRT plans. Conclusion: The 3D-CRT TPS more accurately reflected skin dose than the HT TPS, which tended to overestimate dose received by 14% in patients receiving adjuvant breast RT.

  12. Is the duration of skin disease visits decreasing in the united states?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Scott A; Feldman, Steven R; Fleischer Jr., Alan B

    2015-01-01

    2). Visits for impetigo, psoriasis, and unspecified disorderneoplasm of skin (216.9) Psoriasis (696.1) unspecifiedneoplasm of skin (216.9) Psoriasis (696.1) Unspecified

  13. Nuclear matter symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei RID A-2398-2009 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, LW; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba.

    2005-01-01

    Correlations between the thickness of the neutron skin in finite nuclei and the nuclear matter symmetry energy are studied in the Skyrme Hartree-Fock model. From the most recent analysis of the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions based...

  14. Semi-analytical methods for the analysis and interpretation of well test data distorted by wellbore storage and skin effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prachumchon, Sompong

    1996-01-01

    Our objective is to develop approximations of the pressure-time behavior for use in analyzing the pressure response of a well in an infinite-acting reservoir influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. Our resulting approximate models are semi-analytical...

  15. The Kauai Skin Cancer Study--1983 to 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reizner, G.T. )

    1993-05-01

    The Kauai Skin Cancer Study began as a modest effort in 1983 to look at this island's skin cancer incidence. David Elpern MD, Kauai's only dermatologist at the time, was interested in the large number of these tumors in his practice. He first enlisted his office staff to help keep track of the numbers and type of these skin cancers. Along with this information, the basic demographic data on each patient was collected. These records became the first entries into what has become a decade-long project.

  16. Viability of adult rat skin following 13 Mev proton irradiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caraway, Bobby Lamar

    1966-01-01

    alteration resulting from total skin proton irradiation seemed to be dose related. Therefore, since the amount of tissue alteration seems to be dose-dependent, a hypothesis was developed that growth and viability of skin cells removed' by biopsy... rats each were subjected to total-skin proton irradiation of varying doses. The dose varied from 1300 rad in Group I to 200 rad in Group 1V. Two rats from each group served as controls and received no irradiation. Five days and 30 days...

  17. Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep Stephen W. Carmichael Mayo Clinic. Coming Events 2011 EMAS 2011 May 15­19, 2011 Angers, France www.emas-web.net IUMAS-V May 22­27, 2011

  18. Mpemba paradox: Hydrogen bond memory and water-skin supersolidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q Sun

    2015-01-05

    Numerical reproduction of measurements, experimental evidence for skin super-solidity and hydrogen-bond memory clarified that Mpemba paradox integrates the heat emission-conduction-dissipation dynamics in the source-path-drain cycle system.

  19. Involvement of TGF-beta in skin photoaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Won Seon, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this thesis study was to understand the role of TGF-[beta] in skin photoaging, especially in solar elastosis. Solar elastosis, the accumulation of elastotic material in the dermal extracelluar matrix, is a major ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Bronchiectasis in Persons With Skin Lesions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    years of chronic cough underwent high-resolution computed tomography (CT); these scans were read reported chronic cough, CT evidence of bronchiectasis was found in 18 (67%) participants with skin lesions

  1. U.S. Department of Energy Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD) A model for internal oversight and external transparency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2012-12-12

    This poster introduces the Department of Energy (DOE) Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD), which contains information on all Department of Energy research projects involving human subjects that: are funded by DOE; are conducted in DOE facilities; are performed by DOE personnel; include current or former DOE or contract personnel.

  2. Breathing, Laughing, Sneezing, Coughing: Model and Control of an Anatomically Inspired, Physically-Based Human Torso Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiLorenzo, Paul Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Seidel. Head shop: generating ani- mated head models withbased facial modeling, analysis, and ani- mation. Journal of

  3. Physical Properties of Blue Shark Useful in Designing a Skinning Machine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Physical Properties of Blue Shark Useful in Designing a Skinning Machine D. E. BROWN, R. PAUL SINGH for a machine to skin blue shark 2 · A wider market for blue shark products is being sought. For example, if removed in one piece the skin is of value for making leather. The machine proposed to skin blue shark

  4. Homesick L\\'evy walk: A mobility model having Ichi-go Ichi-e and scale-free properties of human encounters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujihara, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, mobility models have been reconsidered based on findings by analyzing some big datasets collected by GPS sensors, cellphone call records, and Geotagging. To understand the fundamental statistical properties of the frequency of serendipitous human encounters, we conducted experiments to collect long-term data on human contact using short-range wireless communication devices which many people frequently carry in daily life. By analyzing the data we showed that the majority of human encounters occur once-in-an-experimental-period: they are Ichi-go Ichi-e. We also found that the remaining more frequent encounters obey a power-law distribution: they are scale-free. To theoretically find the origin of these properties, we introduced as a minimal human mobility model, Homesick L\\'evy walk, where the walker stochastically selects moving long distances as well as L\\'evy walk or returning back home. Using numerical simulations and a simple mean-field theory, we offer a theoretical explanation for the p...

  5. Human cord blood progenitors with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity improve vascular density in a model of acute myocardial infarction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Multi-organ engraftment in NOD/SCID b2m null mice four weekssorted human UCB cells. NOD/SCID b2m null mice with AMI weredeficient (B2 m(null)) NOD/SCID mice are excellent

  6. Transplantation of human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in an animal model of diffuse traumatic axonal injury: Survival and differentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    in a viral model of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol 23.in a chronic model of multiple sclerosis. Nature 422: 60.embryonic fibroblasts; MS, multiple sclerosis; NDM, neural

  7. Humans, Robots and Market Crashes: A Laboratory Study ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Todd; Friedman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Based Models and Human Subject Experiments. Handbook of Com-data from our experiments combining humans and robots, usingbetween laboratory experiment with human subjects and agent

  8. Nuclear pygmy modes and the dynamics of the nuclear skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadia Tsoneva; Horst Lenske

    2012-11-05

    The information on pygmy resonances reveals new aspects on the isospin dynamics of the nucleus with important astrophysical consequences. In this connection, the precise knowledge of nuclear response functions plays a key role in the determination of photonuclear reactions cross sections which are of importance for the synthesis of heavy neutron-rich elements. For that purpose, a theoretical method based on density functional theory and multi-phonon approach is applied for investigations of nuclear excitations with different multipolarities and energies in stable and exotic nuclei. The possible relation of low-energy modes to the properties of neutron or proton skins is systematically investigated for isotonic and isotopic chains. Our studies of dipole and quadrupole response functions and the corresponding transition densities indicate new pygmy dipole and pygmy quadrupole resonances, describing oscillations of the nuclear skin. Also, the presence of skins is found to affect the magnetic response of nuclei.

  9. Transcriptional functions of the corepressor Sin3A in skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Claire

    2013-03-12

    by the fact that disruption of their expression leads to skin disease. For example, a number of members of the S100 gene family have been observed to be up-regulated in psoriasis and skin cancer [Hoffjan and Stemmler, 2007]. Disruption of the expression... of genes in the Flg-like, LCE and SPRR families has been linked with the development of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis as well as ichthyosis vulgaris [de Guzman Strong et al., 2010]. A number of transcription factors have been implicated in the control...

  10. Jonathan Chang, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Chong Wang, Sean Gerrish, and David M. Blei. Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models. Neural Information Processing Systems, 2009, 9 pages.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Jonathan Chang, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Chong Wang, Sean Gerrish, and David M. Blei. Reading Tea Leaves. @inproceedings{Chang:Boyd-Graber:Wang:Gerrish:Blei-2009, Title = {Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic}, } 1 #12;Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models Jonathan Chang Facebook 1601

  11. DNA Double-Strand Breaks Form in Bystander Cells after Microbeam Irradiation of Three-dimensional Human Tissue Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Research Accelerator Facility, Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada; and 3 Radiological implications for cancer radiother- apy and diagnostic radiology as well as for human health in general

  12. HumanWildlife Interactions 6(2):261272, Fall 2012 A model to predict the likelihood of cliff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for construction and maintenance divisions of many departments of transportation. In planning future projects of cliff swallow nesting on a particular highway structure. We used logistic regression on data collected, highway structure, human­wildlife conflicts, logistic regression, nest, occupancy, Petrochelidon

  13. Innovative characteristics of the new dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract studied by the ICRP appointed Task Group of Committee 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melandri, C; Tarroni, G

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, the ICRP appointed a Task Group of Committee 2 to review and revise, as necessary, the current lung dosimetric model. On the basis of the knowledge acquired during the past 20 years, the Task Group's approach has been to review, in depth, the morphology and physiology of the human respiratory tract, inspirability of aerosols and regional deposition of inhaled particles as functions of aerosol size and breathing parameters, clearance of deposited materials, nature and specific sites of damage to the respiratory system caused by inhaled radioactive substances. In the proposed model, clearance from the three regions of the respiratory tract (extrathoracic ET, fast-clearing thoracic T sub f and slow-clearing thoracic T sub s , comprising lymph nodes) is described in terms of competition between the mechanical processes moving particles, which do not depend on the substances, and those of absorption into the blood, determined solely by the material. A Task Group report will also include models for calcula...

  14. Human energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawyer, Suzana

    2010-01-01

    This is the power of human energy that Chevron neverExperience the power of ‘‘Human Energy’’: S. Sawyer (&)s voice returns: ‘‘This is the power of human energy. ’’ In

  15. MOBILE PHONE USE AND TEMPORAL SKIN HEAT SENSATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in the phone by the battery currents and running of the radiofrequency (RF) electronic circuits measured the temperature of the temporal skin due to GSM 1800 MHz MP radiated power (125 mW). We suppressed of the heat produced in the phone by the battery currents and running of the radiofrequency (RF) electronic

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Co-habiting amphibian species harbor unique skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Valerie

    ; microbiome Introduction All species of plants and animals harbor assem- blages of microbes the microbiomes of different species of animals, and fewer still have examined animals in the wild. We sampled: microbe­microbe and microbe­host interactions Keywords: amphibian; skin; bacteria; host specific

  17. OUTLIER ESTIMATION AND DETECTION APPLICATION TO SKIN LESION CLASSIFICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OUTLIER ESTIMATION AND DETECTION APPLICATION TO SKIN LESION CLASSIFICATION S. Sigurdsson£ , J the project Signal and Image Processing for Telemedicine (SITE). Outliers are defined as an input pattern be rewritten as Ô´ Рܵ Ô¼´ Рܵ´½ ¬ µ·¬ (2) where ¬ ¼ ½ ´ ½µ . 3. NETWORK ARCHITECTURE AND INFERENCE

  18. Criminal Skins: Tattoos and Modern Architecture in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canales, Jimena

    Criminal Skins: Tattoos and Modern Architecture in the Work of Adolf Loos by JIMENA CANALES, `Ornament and Crime', decisively linked unornamented architecture with the culture of modernity and, in so doing, became one of the key formulations of modern architecture.1 To a great extent, the essay's force

  19. SKIN CANCER INSTITUTE THE CANCER INSTITUTES AT NORTHWESTERN MEDICINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    of specimens with unclear diagnoses sent from throughout the United States. Our pathologists are thus some than 75 percent of skin cancer deaths. It is now estimated that one in every 55 people will be diagnosed with melanoma. The incidence also is rising at a rate faster than that of the seven most common

  20. The human genome project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yager, T.D.; Zewert, T.E.; Hood, L.E. )

    1994-04-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a coordinated worldwide effort to precisely map the human genome and the genomes of selected model organisms. The first explicit proposal for this project dates from 1985 although its foundations (both conceptual and technological) can be traced back many years in genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology. The HGP has matured rapidly and is producing results of great significance.

  1. Guest editorial: Special issue on human computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantic, Maja

    The seven articles in this special issue focus on human computing. Most focus on two challenging issues in human computing, namely, machine analysis of human behavior in group interactions and context-sensitive modeling.

  2. Safety, Pharmacokinetic, and Efficacy Studies of Oral DB868 in a First Stage Vervet Monkey Model of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thutia, John K.; Wolf, Kristina K.; Murilla, Grace A.; Liu, Qiang; Mutuku, James N.; Chen, Yao; Bridges, Arlene S.; Mdachi, Raymond E.; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Ching, Shelley; Boykin, David W.; Hall, James E.; Tidwell, Richard R.; Paine, Mary F.; Brun, Reto; Wang, Michael Z.

    2013-06-06

    ) by adapting a previously published method [17]. Briefly, incubation Figure 1. Structures of the prodrug (DB868) and active compound (DB829). doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002230.g001 Author Summary Development of orally administered medicines for human African... | e2230 blood by direct microscopy or the haematocrit centrifugation technique [24] by the 4th day of drug administration. The monkeys remained trypanosome-free in body fluids (blood and CSF) for the remaining monitoring period (Table 2). Monkeys 686...

  3. HandWave : design and manufacture of a wearable wireless skin conductance sensor and housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strauss, Marc D

    2005-01-01

    This thesis report details the design and manufacture of HandWave, a wearable wireless Bluetooth skin conductance sensor, and dedicated housing. The HandWave collects Electrodermal Activity (EDA) data by measuring skin ...

  4. Design and optimization of actuation mechanisms for rapid skin closure device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, Andrew T. (Andrew Thomas)

    2012-01-01

    Innovative mechanism designs were explored for the actuation of critical components in a novel rapid skin closure device used to close long surgical incisions. The rapid skin closure device is designed to speed up the wound ...

  5. A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium. Proceedings119. 3. Ohl ME, Miller SI: Salmonella: a model for bacterialcarbon or nitrogen for Salmonella typhimurium LT-2. Journal

  6. FRACTURE OF SKIN-STIFFENER INTERSECTIONS IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FRACTURE OF SKIN-STIFFENER INTERSECTIONS IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES by Darrin John..................................................................4 Stiffener Design Considerations

  7. Skin Cancer: A Young Person's Disease By Lauren Duffy (B.S. Communication, Journalism '14)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Skin Cancer: A Young Person's Disease By Lauren Duffy (B.S. Communication, Journalism '14 is that this behavior is extremely unhealthy and risky for their bodies, specifically their skin. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer found in young adults and second most common cancer found in adolescents

  8. How to Care for Your Wound After It's Treated With DERMABOND* Topical Skin Adhesive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    How to Care for Your Wound After It's Treated With DERMABOND* Topical Skin Adhesive DERMABOND* Topical Skin Adhesive (2-octyl cyanoacrylate) is a sterile, liquid skin adhesive that holds wound edges · If your wound is bandaged, keep the bandage dry. · Replace the dressing daily until the adhesive film has

  9. Development of an in vitro model of contraction by fibroblasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freyman, Toby M., 1974-

    2001-01-01

    Dermal scars in adult humans are mechanically and functionally inferior to normal skin and can be physically disfiguring. The contraction of the wound by fibroblasts has been linked to the formation of scar. The mechanical ...

  10. SmartTouch: A new skin layer to touch the non-touchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto Masahiko Inami Naoki Kawakami Susumu Tachi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachi, Susumu

    skin sensation for Virtual Reality. The idea is to selectively stimulate each kind of receptor the system negligibly thin, so that it can be worn as an unconscious but essential daily interface, just like-mounted tactile display for the behavior modeling. In Conference Abstracts and Applications of SIGGRAPH, 264

  11. Periodic patterning stem cells and induction of skin appendages: p-ERK-dependent mes-enchymal condensation is coupled with Turing mechanism to convert stripes to spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maini, Philip K.

    ABSTRACTS 931 Periodic patterning stem cells and induction of skin appendages: p-ERK-dependent mes patterns remains unknown. Using the feather model, here we show ERK activity-dependent mesenchymal cell chemotaxis toward initial peaks is essential for completing pattern formation. Adding ERK inhibitors produced

  12. European trends in the frequency of original research in acne vulgaris, rosacea, dermatitis, psoriasis, skin cancer, and skin infections, 1970-2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Young M; Garcha, Jaspreet K; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-01-01

    S, Wolk K. Three decades of psoriasis research: where has itrosacea, dermatitis, psoriasis, skin cancer, and skinnotably, we found that psoriasis publications peaked around

  13. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  14. Emergence of pygmy dipole resonances: Magic numbers and neutron skins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsunenori Inakura; Takashi Nakatsukasa; Kazuhiro Yabana

    2011-06-18

    The pygmy dipole resonances (PDR) for even-even nuclei in 8=emerges by showing a peak of the E1 strength at energies less than 10 MeV. The E1 strength of the PDR strongly depends on the position of the Fermi level and shows a clear correlation with the occupation of the orbits with the orbital angular momenta less than 3\\hbar (l =< 2). We also found a strong correlation between the isotopic dependence of the neutron skin thickness and the pygmy dipole strength. The fraction of the energy weighted strength exhausted by the PDR and the neutron skin thickness show a linear correlation with the universal rate of about 0.2/fm.

  15. Towards the modeling of mucus draining from human lung: role of airways deformation on air-mucus interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauroy, Benjamin; Pelca, Dominique; Fausser, Christian; Merckx, Jacques; Mitchell, Barrett R

    2015-01-01

    Chest physiotherapy is an empirical technique used to help secretions to get out of the lung whenever stagnation occurs. Although commonly used, little is known about the inner mechanisms of chest physiotherapy and controversies about its use are coming out regularly. Thus, a scientific validation of chest physiotherapy is needed to evaluate its effects on secretions. We setup a quasi-static numerical model of chest physiotherapy based on thorax and lung physiology and on their respective biophysics. We modeled the lung with an idealized deformable symmetric bifurcating tree. Bronchi and their inner fluids mechanics are assumed axisymmetric. Static data from the literature is used to build a model for the lung's mechanics. Secretions motion is the consequence of the shear constraints apply by the air flow. The input of the model is the pressure on the chest wall at each time, and the output is the bronchi geometry and air and secretions properties. In the limit of our model, we mimicked manual and mechanical ...

  16. Integrating scientific modeling and supporting dynamic hazard management with a GeoAgent-based representation of human-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klippel, Alexander

    Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) A1 Fuxing Road, Haidian District Beijing, P of this representation with scientific modeling of dynamic hazard development, and (3) application of automated reasoning, such as drought, tsunami, hurricane, flood, wildfire, and earthquake, are likely to become ever more costly

  17. Data-Driven Probabilistic Modeling and Verification of Human Driver Behavior D. Sadigh, K. Driggs-Campbell, A. Puggelli,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seshia, Sanjit A.

    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley, CA Introduction The problem of modeling driver behavior in cars has long been studied, due to its relevance to reduce the number of car fatalities (Cacciabue 2007). In particular, one of the major focuses

  18. 31.1 / A. B. Watson 31.1: Invited Paper: The Spatial Standard Observer: A Human Vision Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and measurement applications. Spatial Standard Observer Definition The Spatial Standard Observer (SSO distance, and the pixels have a known relation to luminance. The output of the metric is a measure axis is in units of log contrast energy. The horizontal axis indicates ModelFest stimulus number

  19. Steady-state directional diffuse reflectance and fluorescence of human skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilon, Laurent

    .3660, 170.7050, 290.7050, 300.2530. 1. Introduction Fluorescence is the physical phenomenon in which light

  20. Systematic Identification and Characterization of Novel Human Skin-Associated Genes Encoding Membrane and Secreted Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    atopic dermatitis and psoriasis vulgaris. J Allergy Clinsystem that is active in psoriasis and promotes keratinocyteatopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Br J Dermatol 15. Kim SJ,

  1. Systematic Identification and Characterization of Novel Human Skin-Associated Genes Encoding Membrane and Secreted Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    survey: psoriasis vulgaris (PSO), atopic dermatitis (AD),upregulated significantly in PSO, followed by AK and AD (a proinflammatory protein. PSO represents one of the major

  2. Ultraviolet a irradiation on human skin : nitric oxide mediated cardiovascular responses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Donald

    2012-11-30

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) such as hypertension and stroke are serious illnesses that impact on the lives of millions all over the world, with 972 million (26% of the world’s population) suffering from hypertension in ...

  3. Tracking Human Body Parts Using Particle Filters Constrained by Human Biomechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    Tracking Human Body Parts Using Particle Filters Constrained by Human Biomechanics J. Mart´inez1, J articulated model. It is constrained only by biomechanical knowledge about human bipedal motion, instead. It relies on a generative approach based on a 2D model constrained only by human biomechanics. The inclusion

  4. Diversities in the properties of neutron stars at a fixed neutron-skin thickness in $^{208}$Pb nucleus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Alam; A. Sulaksono; B. K. Agrawal

    2015-07-03

    We study the diversities in the properties of the neutron stars arising due to the different choices for the cross-coupling between various mesons which governs the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy in the extended relativistic mean-field(RMF) model. For this purpose, we obtain two different families of the extended RMF model corresponding to different non-linear cross-coupling term in the isovector part of the effective Lagrangian density. The lowest order contributions for the $\\delta$ mesons are also included. The different models within the same family are so obtained that they yield wide variation in the value of neutron-skin thickness in the $^{208}$Pb nucleus. These models are employed to compute the neutron star properties such as, core-crust transition density, radius and red shift at canonical mass ($1.4M_{\\odot}$), tidal polarizability parameter, and threshold mass required for the enhanced cooling through direct Urca process. Most of the neutron star properties considered are significantly different(10\\%-40\\%) for the different families of models at a smaller neutron-skin thickness ($\\sim 0.15$ fm) in the $^{208}$Pb nucleus.

  5. Apparatus for testing skin samples or the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, J.M.

    1982-08-31

    An apparatus for testing the permeability of living skin samples has a flat base with a plurality of sample-holding cavities formed in its upper surface, the samples being placed in counterbores in the cavities with the epidermis uppermost. O-rings of Teflon washers are respectively placed on the samples and a flat cover is connected to the base to press the rings against the upper surfaces of the samples. Media to maintain tissue viability and recovery of metabolites is introduced into the lower portion of the sample-holding cavities through passages in the base. Test materials are introduced through holes in the cover plate after assembly of the chamber.

  6. Systematics of nucleon density distributions and neutron skin of nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seif, W M

    2015-01-01

    Proton and neutron density profiles of 760 nuclei in the mass region of A=16-304are analyzed using the Skyrme energy density for the parameter set SLy4. Simple formulae are obtained to fit the resulting radii and diffuseness data. These formulae may be useful to estimate the values of the unmeasured radii, and especially in extrapolating charge radius values for nuclei which are far from the valley of stability or to perform analytic calculations for bound and/or scattering problems. The obtained neutron and proton root-mean-square radii and the neutron skin thicknesses are in agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. In-situ measurement of skin friction and point bearing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehmet, Joseph Don

    1970-01-01

    &e Dutch Eri& tion Cone. It is a device which makes separate but non- simultaneous measurement of skin friction and point bc riu;g during a si ati. c test. Objectives The objectives of this study are: 1. To design and fabricate several testing de... resistance to driving is: p P . (l + Jx) dynamic static (2) where P. , =- ma::imum dynamic rosie'lance, d~ j n a la I i (. static ma" imum st atic resist ance a viscous damping consLani used when i i. '' c i ' 'rnq i. he s Jj 1 I ' '. I . '* Lani...

  8. Rapamycin targeting mTOR and hedgehog signaling pathways blocks human rhabdomyosarcoma growth in xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaylani, Samer Z. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States)] [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Xu, Jianmin; Srivastava, Ritesh K. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Pressey, Joseph G. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States)] [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-06-14

    Graphical abstract: Intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by rapamycin: In poorly differentiated RMS, rapamycin blocks mTOR and Hh signaling pathways concomitantly. This leads to dampening in cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by treating patients with rapamycin alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. -- Highlights: •Rapamycin abrogates RMS tumor growth by modulating proliferation and apoptosis. •Co-targeting mTOR/Hh pathways underlie the molecular basis of effectiveness. •Reduction in mTOR/Hh pathways diminish EMT leading to reduced invasiveness. -- Abstract: Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) represent the most common childhood soft-tissue sarcoma. Over the past few decades outcomes for low and intermediate risk RMS patients have slowly improved while patients with metastatic or relapsed RMS still face a grim prognosis. New chemotherapeutic agents or combinations of chemotherapies have largely failed to improve the outcome. Based on the identification of novel molecular targets, potential therapeutic approaches in RMS may offer a decreased reliance on conventional chemotherapy. Thus, identification of effective therapeutic agents that specifically target relevant pathways may be particularly beneficial for patients with metastatic and refractory RMS. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been found to be a potentially attractive target in RMS therapy. In this study, we provide evidence that rapamycin (sirolimus) abrogates growth of RMS development in a RMS xenograft mouse model. As compared to a vehicle-treated control group, more than 95% inhibition in tumor growth was observed in mice receiving parenteral administration of rapamycin. The residual tumors in rapamycin-treated group showed significant reduction in the expression of biomarkers indicative of proliferation and tumor invasiveness. These tumors also showed enhanced apoptosis. Interestingly, the mechanism by which rapamycin diminished RMS tumor growth involved simultaneous inhibition of mTOR and hedgehog (Hh) pathways. Diminution in these pathways in this model of RMS also inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) which then dampened the invasiveness of these tumors. Our data provide bases for using rapamycin either alone or in combination with traditional chemotherapeutic drugs to block the pathogenesis of high risk RMS.

  9. On the nuclear symmetry energy and the neutron skin in neutron-rich nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. E. L. Dieperink; Y. Dewulf; D. Van Neck; M. Waroquier; V. Rodin

    2003-12-10

    The symmetry energy for nuclear matter and its relation to the neutron skin in finite nuclei is discussed. The symmetry energy as a function of density obtained in a self-consistent Green function approach is presented and compared to the results of other recent theoretical approaches. A partial explanation of the linear relation between the symmetry energy and the neutron skin is proposed. The potential of several experimental methods to extract the neutron skin is examined.

  10. Is the duration of skin disease visits decreasing in the united states?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Scott A; Feldman, Steven R; Fleischer Jr., Alan B

    2015-01-01

    Young AC, Williford PM. Time-efficiency of nondermatologistsare generally more time-efficient in managing skin diseasein the most time-efficient manner possible. Although the

  11. Psychological Stress and skin aging: A review of possible mechanisms and potential therapies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, Jeffrey H; Koo, John

    2013-01-01

    N. The grape antioxidant resveratrol for skin disorders:Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence.Kantarjian HM, et al. Resveratrol blocks interleukin-1beta-

  12. Human and Artificial Agents in a Crash-Prone Financial Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Todd; Friedman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    based models and human subject experiments. Handbook ofout that labo- ratory experiments with human subjects oftenas a laboratory experiment with human subjects, and Sect. 4

  13. Nonstochastic effects of different energy beta emitters on pig skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peel, D.M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Wells, J.; Charles, M.W.

    1984-08-01

    Circular areas of pig skin from 1- to 40-mm diameter were irradiated with ..beta.. emitters of high, medium, and low energies, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 170/Tm, and /sup 147/Pm, respectively. The study provides information for radiological protection problems of localized skin exposures. During the first 16 weeks after irradiation /sup 90/Sr produced a first reaction due to epithelial cell death followed by a second reaction attributable to damage to the dermal blood vessels. /sup 170/Tm and /sup 147/Pm produced the epithelial reaction only. The epithelial dose response varied as a function of ..beta.. energy. The doses required to produce moist desquamation in 50% of 15- to 22.5-mm fields (ED/sub 50/) were 30-45 Gy from/sup 90/Sr, approx.80 Gy from /sup 170/Tm, and approx.500 Gy from /sup 147/Pm. An area effect was observed in the epithelial response to /sup 90/Sr irradiation. The ED/sub 50/ for moist desquamation ranged from approx.25 Gy for a 40-mm source to approx.450 Gy for a 1-mm source. It is also suggested that the area effects could be explained by different modes of epithelial repopulation after irradiation.

  14. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  15. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts express pro-inflammatory factors in human breast and ovarian tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erez, Neta; Glanz, Sarah; Raz, Yael; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, LIS Maternity Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv ; Avivi, Camilla; Barshack, Iris; Department of Pathology, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express pro-inflammatory factors. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors correlates with tumor invasiveness. •Expression of pro-inflammatory factors is associated with NF-?b activation in CAFs. -- Abstract: Inflammation has been established in recent years as a hallmark of cancer. Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) support tumorigenesis by stimulating angiogenesis, cancer cell proliferation and invasion. We previously demonstrated that CAFs also mediate tumor-enhancing inflammation in a mouse model of skin carcinoma. Breast and ovarian carcinomas are amongst the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women and cancer-related inflammation is linked with both these tumor types. However, the role of CAFs in mediating inflammation in these malignancies remains obscure. Here we show that CAFs in human breast and ovarian tumors express high levels of the pro-inflammatory factors IL-6, COX-2 and CXCL1, previously identified to be part of a CAF pro-inflammatory gene signature. Moreover, we show that both pro-inflammatory signaling by CAFs and leukocyte infiltration of tumors are enhanced in invasive ductal carcinoma as compared with ductal carcinoma in situ. The pro-inflammatory genes expressed by CAFs are known NF-?B targets and we show that NF-?B is up-regulated in breast and ovarian CAFs. Our data imply that CAFs mediate tumor-promoting inflammation in human breast and ovarian tumors and thus may be an attractive target for stromal-directed therapeutics.

  16. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  17. Video Capture of Skin Motion using Calibrated Fabien DELLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    3D mesh can easily be integrated and adapted in a sequence of an animated virtual human. We of virtual humans remains exhaustive and tedious. For animating virtual characters, 3D animators work similarly as drawers for car- toons, that implies hundreds of hours for only few seconds of animation

  18. Theory of thin-skin eddy-current interaction with surface cracks N. Harfielda)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowler, John R.

    Theory of thin-skin eddy-current interaction with surface cracks N. Harfielda) and J. R. Bowler; accepted for publication 14 July 1997 Eddy-current non-destructive evaluation is commonly performed of a typical crack. A thin-skin analysis of eddy currents is presented in which the electromagnetic fields

  19. In Vivo Biomechanics of the Fingerpad Skin Under Local Tangential Traction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayward, Vincent

    In Vivo Biomechanics of the Fingerpad Skin Under Local Tangential Traction Qi Wang and Vincent tested in vivo for their biomechanical properties under tangential loading and for large deforma- tions words: Fingerpad skin properties; In vivo tissue measurement; Biomechanics; Fingers. Word count (main

  20. HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME P. H or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers-dimensional numerical simulation of the heat transfers through the double skin reveals the most important parameters

  1. Density dependence of the symmetry energy from neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinas, X.; Centelles, M.; Roca-Maza, X.; Warda, M.

    2012-10-20

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy, characterized by the parameter L, is studied using information provided by the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. An estimate of L is obtained from experimental data of antiprotonic atoms. We also discuss the ability of parity violating electron scatering to obtain information about the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb.

  2. Effects of radioactive hot particles on pig skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Baum, J.W.; Schaefer, C.W. [and others

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the incidence and severity of lesions resulting from very localized deposition of dose to skin from small (< 0.5 mm) discrete radioactive particles as produced in the work environments of nuclear reactors. Hanford mini-pigs were exposed, both on a slightly off the skin, to localized replicate doses from 0.31 to 64 Gy (averaged over 1 cm{sup 2} at 70 {mu}m depth unless noted otherwise) using Sc-46, Yb-175, Tm-170, and fissioned UC{sub 2} isotopes having maximum beta-particle energies from about 0.3 to 3 MeV. Erythema and scabs (indicating ulceration) were scored for up to 71 days post-irradiation. The responses followed normal cumulative probability distributions, and therefore, no true threshold could be defined. Hence, 10 and 50% scab incidence rates were deduced using probit analyses. The lowest dose which produced 10% incidence was about 1 Gy for Yb-175 (0.5 MeV maximum energy) beta particle exposures, and about 3 to 9 Gy for other isotopes. The histopathology of lesions was determined at several doses. Single exposures to doses as large as 1,790 Gy were also given, and results were observed for up to 144 days post-exposure. Severity of detriment was estimated by analyzing the results in terms of lesion diameter, persistence, and infection. Over 1,100 sites were exposed. Only two exposed sites became infected after doses near 5000 Gy; the lesions healed quickly on treatment. 105 refs., 145 figs., 47 tabs.

  3. Inverse association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels and non-melanoma skin cancer in elderly men

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    6):556–562 Bikle DD (2004) Vitamin D and skin cancer. J NutrSundberg JP, Welsh J (2002) Vitamin D(3) receptor ablationbetween serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels and non-melanoma skin

  4. Activated, Not Resting, Platelets Increase Leukocyte Rolling in Murine Skin Utilizing a Distinct Set of Adhesion Molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    -selectin expression was studied in 8 patients with psoriasis. A correlation between platelet P-selectin expression inflammatory skin diseases. Key words: adhesion molecules/homing/inflammation/platelets/psoriasis/skin J Invest

  5. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ? 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ? This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ? 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ? This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  6. The second skin approach : skin strain field analysis and mechanical counter pressure prototyping for advanced spacesuit design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bethke, Kristen (Kristen Ann)

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this thesis is to advance the theory of advanced locomotion mechanical counter pressure (MCP) spacesuits by studying the changes in the human body shape during joint motion. Two experiments take advantage ...

  7. Sensitivity of the electric dipole polarizability to the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Agrawal, B. K.; Colo, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Paar, N.; Piekarewicz, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Vretenar, D.

    2012-10-20

    The static dipole polarizability, {alpha}{sub D}, in {sup 208}Pb has been recently measured with highresolution via proton inelastic scattering at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) [1]. This observable is thought to be intimately connected with the neutron skin thickness, r{sub skin}, of the same nucleus and, more fundamentally, it is believed to be associated with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of r{sub skin} on {alpha}{sub D} in {sup 208}Pb is investigated and discussed on the basis of a large and representative set of relativistic and non-relativistic nuclear energy density functionals (EDF) [2].

  8. Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R.; Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D.

    2011-05-04

    The appearance of defects such as 'hollows' and 'shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a 'correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

  9. Method for preparing dosimeter for measuring skin dose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Donald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parker, DeRay (Idaho Falls, ID); Boren, Paul R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1982-01-01

    A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with neutron-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

  10. Dosimeter for measuring skin dose and more deeply penetrating radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Donald E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Parker, DeRay (Idaho Falls, ID); Boren, Paul R. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01

    A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with netruon-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

  11. Modeling in the Museum: On the Role of Remnant Models in the Work of Joseph Grinnell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , ultimately, is to characterize scientific theories, models, experiments and data in terms of types: they are models of data constructed out of the physical entities being modeled. On the other hand, they serve as elements of theoretical models, providing a bridge between base scientific practices such as skinning dead

  12. Collisional, magnetic, and nonlinear skin effect in radio-frequency plasmas Francis F. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Francis F.

    . CLASSICAL VS ANOMALOUS SKIN EFFECT Inductively coupled plasmas ICPs are commonly used in plasma processing.11 The experiments of Godyak et al.3­6,9 were performed with a spiral ``stove-top'' antenna, which

  13. IN FOCUS: FUTURE OF BIOSENSORS -ARTICLE Epidermal Differential Impedance Sensor for Conformal Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    IN FOCUS: FUTURE OF BIOSENSORS - ARTICLE Epidermal Differential Impedance Sensor for Conformal Skin requirements This article is part of the Topical Collection ``In Focus: Future of Biosensors''. X. Huang Á W

  14. Development and Construction of Bioclimatic Double Skin Active Facade for Hot and Humid Climate of UAE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karbor, R. G.; Mohamed, I.

    2010-01-01

    become still more advanced. The present paper deals with the development and construction of mechanically ventilated double skin facade with HVAC integration for hot and humid climate like UAE. A case study is presented, illustrating potential benefits...

  15. Design Considerations for Double-Skin Facades in Hot and Humid Climates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal building simulations (TRNSYS) were linked to nodal airflow network simulations (COMIS) for a ventilated double-skin facade performance calculation and overall energy consumption for office building facades. Simulation results show good...

  16. Meeting report for the 1st skin microbiota workshop, Boulder, CO October 15-16 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Jack A.

    This report details the outcome of the 1st Skin Microbiota Workshop, Boulder, CO, held on October 15th-16th 2012. The workshop was arranged to bring Department of Defense personnel together with experts in microbial ecology, ...

  17. A Systematic Study of Matrix Acidizing Treatments Using Skin Monitoring Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandya, Nimish

    2012-07-16

    The goal of this work was to evaluate matrix acidizing treatments of vertical and horizontal wells in carbonate reservoirs. Twenty field cases for acidizing treatments were analyzed by evaluating the skin factor evolution from on-site rate/pressure...

  18. REFLEXIVE COLLISION RESPONSE WITH VIRTUAL SKIN Roadmap Planning Meets Reinforcement Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Förster, Alexander

    REFLEXIVE COLLISION RESPONSE WITH VIRTUAL SKIN Roadmap Planning Meets Reinforcement Learning Svizzera italiana, CH-6928 Manno-Lugano Keywords: Roadmap Planning: Reinforcement Learning: Collision to a changing environment, but not both. This work proposes a simple integration of roadmap planning

  19. Estimation of neutrophil infiltration into hairless guinea pig skin treated with 2,2' -dichlorodiethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bongiovanni, R.; Millard, C.B.; Schulz, S.M.; Romano, J.M.

    1993-05-13

    Despite growing acceptance of the hairless guinea pig (HPG) for evaluating sulfur mustard (2,2'dichlorodiethylsulfide, HD) skin injury, there are presently few antivesicant drug assessment endpoints validated in vivo for this model. We measured the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) to characterize the dose- and time-dependence of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration during development of the HD lesion. Biopsies were obtained from the dorsal thoracic-lumbar area of HGPs at successive 3 hr time intervals for up to 24 hrs following controlled exposure to either 5, 7, 8 or 10 min HD vapor. The presence of PMNs, as judged by MPO levels, peaked at 9 hrs irrespective of total HD vapor dose. The maximum response was a 20-fold increase compared to unexposed control sites at 9 hrs following 10 min HD vapor. This time period coincides with epidermal detachment characterized previously by electron microscopy in the HGP. By 24 hrs post-exposure, the MPO levels subsided markedly (2-fold compared to controls). These results suggest that PMNs participate in the HGP cutaneous inflammatory response following exposure to HD and that MPO may be a useful biological marker for evaluating putative antivesicants.

  20. Flourishing and Discordance: On Two Modes of Human Science Engagement with Synthetic Biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavrianakis, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    just as with the Human Genome Project, dedicated researchELSI) model of the Human Genome Project and the ‘lab study’ELSI) model of the Human Genome Project. ELSI. Remediations

  1. Evaluation of the inhibition of skin matrix metalloproteinases by pothomorphe umbellata root extract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ropke, Cristina D.

    2006-10-25

    . 2003 3Ropke et al., Clin. Exp. Dermatol., 2005, 4Ropke et al., Photochem. Photobiol. 2006 in vivo results ? P. umbellata extract was able to reduce the incidence of visible and histological skin alterations in chronically UV- irradiated mice.... 2003 3Ropke et al., Clin. Exp. Dermatol., 2005, 4Ropke et al., Photochem. Photobiol. 2006 in vivo results ? P. umbellata extract was able to reduce the incidence of visible and histological skin alterations in chronically UV- irradiated mice...

  2. Dose profiles through the dermis for on and off-skin hot particle exposures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kimberly Rochelle

    1993-01-01

    reports measurements of depth-dose profiles for on- and off-skin hot particle exposures using radiochromic dye film. Dose profiles from both a "Co hot particle, and activated depleted uranium oxide microspheres were measured with the film. Exposures... 24 27 32 TABLE OF CONTENTS Icontinued) Page RESULTS 34 ' Co On-Contact Exposures 34 Co Exposures Through Protective Clothing ~Co Off-Skin Exposures Uranium Microsphere On-Contact Exposures 45 49 Uranium Microsphere Exposures Through...

  3. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-09-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

  4. Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Psychocomputational Models of Human Language Acquisition, pages 3644, Ann Arbor, June 2005. c 2005 Association for Computational Linguistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The results show that the model captures the qualitative behavior observed during the experiments, while

  5. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2012-06-27

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  6. SU-E-I-53: Variation in Measurements of Breast Skin Thickness Obtained Using Different Imaging Modalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, U; Kumaraswamy, N; Markey, M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate variation in measurements of breast skin thickness obtained using different imaging modalities, including mammography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Breast skin thicknesses as measured by mammography, CT, ultrasound, and MRI were compared. Mammographic measurements of skin thickness were obtained from published studies that utilized standard positioning (upright) and compression. CT measurements of skin thickness were obtained from a published study of a prototype breast CT scanner in which the women were in the prone position and the breast was uncompressed. Dermatological ultrasound exams of the breast skin were conducted at our institution, with the subjects in the upright position and the breast uncompressed. Breast skin thickness was calculated from breast MRI exams at our institution, with the patient in the prone position and the breast uncompressed. Results: T tests for independent samples demonstrated significant differences in the mean breast skin thickness as measured by different imaging modalities. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences in breast skin thickness across different quadrants of the breast for some modalities. Conclusion: The measurement of breast skin thickness is significantly different across different imaging modalities. Differences in the amount of compression and differences in patient positioning are possible reasons why measurements of breast skin thickness vary by modality.

  7. The Effect of the iBEAM Evo Carbon Fiber Tabletop on Skin Sparing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, John B. Godwin, Guy A.

    2011-10-01

    Replicating the attenuation properties of the treatment tabletop are of primary importance for accurate treatment planning; however, the effect of the tabletop on the skin-sparing properties of x-rays can be overlooked. Under some conditions, the reaction of skin to the radiation can be so serious as to be the dose-limiting organ for radiotherapy treatment. Hence, an understanding of the magnitude of the reduction in skin sparing is important. Because of the development of image-guided radiotherapy, modern tabletops have been developed without the use of metal supports that otherwise provided the necessary level of rigidity. Rigidity is instead provided by compressed foam within a carbon-fiber shell, which, although it provides artefact-free imaging and high levels of rigidity, has an adverse affect on the dose in the build-up region. Representative of this type is the iBEAM evo tabletop, whose effect on the skin dose was determined at 6-MV, 10-MV, and 18-MV x-rays. Skin dose was found to increase by 60-70% owing to the tabletop, with the effect increasing with field size and decreasing with energy. By considering an endpoint of erythema, a radiobiological advantage of selecting 10 MV over 6 MV for applicable treatments was demonstrated.

  8. Human Subjects Section 6. Protection of Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    Human Subjects Section 6. Protection of Human Subjects This section is required for applicants answering "yes" to the question "Are human subjects involved?" on the R&R Other Project Information form subjects applicants must provide a justification in this section for the claim that no human subjects

  9. Virtual Humans for Animation, Ergonomics, and Simulation Norman Badler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badler, Norman I.

    Virtual Humans for Animation, Ergonomics, and Simulation Norman Badler Center for Human Modeling speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for real interactive applications of Pennsylvania with the Jack system. Various aspects of real­time virtual humans are considered

  10. USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.

    2010-01-01

    characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-variation between the CFs of each model respectively. Thebeen used to calculate CFs for several thousand substances

  11. Diversities in the properties of neutron stars at a fixed neutron-skin thickness in $^{208}$Pb nucleus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, N; Agrawal, B K

    2015-01-01

    We study the diversities in the properties of the neutron stars arising due to the different choices for the cross-coupling between various mesons which governs the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy in the extended relativistic mean-field(RMF) model. For this purpose, we obtain two different families of the extended RMF model corresponding to different non-linear cross-coupling term in the isovector part of the effective Lagrangian density. The lowest order contributions for the $\\delta$ mesons are also included. The different models within the same family are so obtained that they yield wide variation in the value of neutron-skin thickness in the $^{208}$Pb nucleus. These models are employed to compute the neutron star properties such as, core-crust transition density, radius and red shift at canonical mass ($1.4M_{\\odot}$), tidal polarizability parameter, and threshold mass required for the enhanced cooling through direct Urca process. Most of the neutron star properties considered are signi...

  12. Total skin electron beam therapy using an inclinable couch on motorized table and a compensating filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuse, H.; Suzuki, K.; Shida, K.; Takahashi, H.; Kobayashi, D.; Seki, M.; Mori, Y.; Sakae, T.; Isobe, T.; Okumura, T.; Sakurai, H.

    2014-06-15

    Total skin electron beam is a specialized technique that involves irradiating the entire skin from the skin surface to only a few millimetres in depth. In the Stanford technique, the patient is in a standing position and six different directional positions are used during treatment. Our technique uses large electron beams in six directions with an inclinable couch on motorized table and a compensating filter was also used to spread the electron beam and move its intensity peak. Dose uniformity measurements were performed using Gafchromic films which indicated that the surface dose was 2.04 ± 0.05 Gy. This technique can ensure the dose reproducibility because the patient is fixed in place using an inclinable couch on a motorized table.

  13. Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 in human tumor xenograft models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Fujio, Kohsuke; Kajikawa, Shu-hei [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Uesato, Shin-ichi [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)] [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazushi [Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan)] [Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Tanimura, Susumu [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Koji, Takehiko [Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kohno, Michiaki, E-mail: kohnom@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan) [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the anticancer efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. •MEK inhibitors sensitize human tumor xenografts to HDAC inhibitor cytotoxicity. •Such the enhanced efficacy is achieved by a transient blockade of the ERK pathway. •This drug combination provides a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. -- Abstract: The ERK pathway is up-regulated in various human cancers and represents a prime target for mechanism-based approaches to cancer treatment. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway alone induces mostly cytostatic rather than pro-apoptotic effects, however, resulting in a limited therapeutic efficacy of the ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. We previously showed that MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the ability of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptosis in tumor cells with constitutive ERK pathway activation in vitro. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of such drug combinations, we administered the MEK inhibitor PD184352 or AZD6244 together with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 in nude mice harboring HT-29 or H1650 xenografts. Co-administration of the MEK inhibitor markedly sensitized the human xenografts to MS-275 cytotoxicity. A dose of MS-275 that alone showed only moderate cytotoxicity thus suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts almost completely as well as induced a marked reduction in tumor cellularity when administered with PD184352 or AZD6244. The combination of the two types of inhibitor also induced marked oxidative stress, which appeared to result in DNA damage and massive cell death, specifically in the tumor xenografts. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy of the drug combination was achieved by a relatively transient blockade of the ERK pathway. Administration of both MEK and HDAC inhibitors represents a promising chemotherapeutic strategy with improved safety for cancer patients.

  14. Human Trajectory Forecasting In Indoor Environments Using Geometric Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In addressing this problem, we have built a model to estimate the occupancy behavior of humans based enhancement in the accuracy of trajectory forecasting by incorporating the occupancy behavior model. Keywords Trajectory forecasting, human occupancy behavior, 3D ge- ometric context 1. INTRODUCTION Given a human

  15. A STUDY ON THE INCAPACITATION MECHANISM MODEL OF THE JUCHIST AND MARXIST-LENINIST ARTICLES AGAINST THE CORE IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISM MODEL OF THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS ARTICLES IN THE NORTH KOREAN CONSTITUTION: NORTH KOREA'S VIOLATIONS OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS TREATIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Woo-Suk

    2014-05-31

    OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS TREATIES By Woo-Suk Jun Submitted to the School of Law, University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Juridical Science (S...) _________________________________________ Professor Elizabeth S. Cateforis (Member) Date Defended: March 13, 2014 ii The Dissertation Committee for Woo-Suk Jun certifies that this is the approved version of the following dissertation: A STUDY ON THE INCAPACITATION MECHANISM MODEL...

  16. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    The remediation and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear waste storage tanks using telerobotics is one of the most challenging tasks faced in environmental cleanup. Since a number of tanks have reached the end of their design life and some of them have leaks, the unstructured, uncertain and radioactive environment makes the work inefficient and expensive. However, the execution time of teleoperation consumes ten to hundred times that of direct contact with an associated loss in quality. Thus, a considerable effort has been expended to improve the quality and efficiency of telerobotics by incorporating into teleoperation and robotic control functions such as planning, trajectory generation, vision, and 3-D modeling. One example is the Robot Task Space Analyzer (RTSA), which has been developed at the Robotics and Electromechanical Systems Laboratory (REMSL) at the University of Tennessee in support of the D&D robotic work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This system builds 3-D models of the area of interest in task space through automatic image processing and/or human interactive manual modeling. The RTSA generates a task plan file, which describes the execution of a task including manipulator and tooling motions. The high level controller of the manipulator interprets the task plan file and executes the task automatically. Thus, if the environment is not highly unstructured, a tooling task, which interacts with environment, will be executed in the autonomous mode. Therefore, the RTSA not only increases the system efficiency, but also improves the system reliability because the operator will act as backstop for safe operation after the 3-D models and task plan files are generated. However, unstructured conditions of environment and tasks necessitate that the telerobot operates in the teleoperation mode for successful execution of task. The inefficiency in the teleoperation mode led to the research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  17. Chronic cellular responses of rat skin to 13 Mev proton irradiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinkle, Donald King

    1966-01-01

    irradiated in a total of six rad groups as follows: Number in Grou dD 10 6 9 6 7 8 ZOO 400 700 1300 2000 2500 All sections of skin and tumor tissues were submitted to the Anatomic Pathology Section, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine...CHRONIC CELLULAR RESPONSES OF RAT SKIN TO 13 MEV PROTON IRRADIATION A Thesis by DONALD KING HINKLE, D. V. M. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AErM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  18. Human Neural Stem Cells Differentiate and Promote Locomotor Recovery in an Early Chronic Spinal coRd Injury NOD-scid Mouse Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salazar, Desiree L.; Uchida, Nobuko; Hamers, Frank T.; Cummings, Brian J.; Anderson, Aileen J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic Spinal coRd Injury NOD-scid Mouse Model Desire´e L.in C57BL/6, BUB/ BnJ, and NOD-SCID mice after contusionresistant control strain for NOD mice. Diabetes 41: 60.

  19. Human factors in software development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

  20. Effects of Diet on Resource Utilization by a Model Human Gut Microbiota Containing Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, a Symbiont with an Extensive Glycobiome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNulty, Nathan; Wu, Meng; Erickson, Alison L; Pan, Chongle; Erickson, Brian K; Martens, Eric C; Pudlo, Nicholas A; Muegge, Brian; Henrissat, Bernard; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Gordon, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The human gut microbiota is an important metabolic organ, yet little is known about how its individual species interact, establish dominant positions, and respond to changes in environmental factors such as diet. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an artificial microbiota comprising 12 sequenced human gut bacterial species and fed oscillating diets of disparate composition. Rapid, reproducible, and reversible changes in the structure of this assemblage were observed. Time-series microbial RNA-Seq analyses revealed staggered functional responses to diet shifts throughout the assemblage that were heavily focused on carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. High-resolution shotgun metaproteomics confirmed many of these responses at a protein level. One member, Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, proved exceptionally fit regardless of diet. Its genome encoded more carbohydrate active enzymes than any previously sequenced member of the Bacteroidetes. Transcriptional profiling indicated that B. cellulosilyticus WH2 is an adaptive forager that tailors its versatile carbohydrate utilization strategy to available dietary polysaccharides, with a strong emphasis on plant-derived xylans abundant in dietary staples like cereal grains. Two highly expressed, diet-specific polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) in B. cellulosilyticus WH2 were identified, one with characteristics of xylan utilization systems. Introduction of a B. cellulosilyticus WH2 library comprising .90,000 isogenic transposon mutants into gnotobiotic mice, along with the other artificial community members, confirmed that these loci represent critical diet-specific fitness determinants. Carbohydrates that trigger dramatic increases in expression of these two loci and many of the organism s 111 other predicted PULs were identified by RNA-Seq during in vitro growth on 31 distinct carbohydrate substrates, allowing us to better interpret in vivo RNA-Seq and proteomics data. These results offer insight into how gut microbes adapt to dietary perturbations at both a community level and from the perspective of a well-adapted symbiont with exceptional saccharolytic capabilities, and illustrate the value of artificial communities.

  1. Dosimetric characterization of model Cs-1 Rev2 cesium-131 brachytherapy source in water phantoms and human tissues with MCNP5 Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Jianhua; Zhang Hualin [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Department of Radiation Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    A recently developed alternative brachytherapy seed, Cs-1 Rev2 cesium-131, has begun to be used in clinical practice. The dosimetric characteristics of this source in various media, particularly in human tissues, have not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to calculate the dosimetric parameters for the Cs-1 Rev2 cesium-131 seed following the recommendations of the AAPM TG-43U1 report [Rivard et al., Med. Phys. 31, 633-674 (2004)] for new sources in brachytherapy applications. Dose rate constants, radial dose functions, and anisotropy functions of the source in water, Virtual Water, and relevant human soft tissues were calculated using MCNP5 Monte Carlo simulations following the TG-43U1 formalism. The results yielded dose rate constants of 1.048, 1.024, 1.041, and 1.044 cGy h{sup -1} U{sup -1} in water, Virtual Water, muscle, and prostate tissue, respectively. The conversion factor for this new source between water and Virtual Water was 1.02, between muscle and water was 1.006, and between prostate and water was 1.004. The authors' calculation of anisotropy functions in a Virtual Water phantom agreed closely with Murphy's measurements [Murphy et al., Med. Phys. 31, 1529-1538 (2004)]. Our calculations of the radial dose function in water and Virtual Water have good agreement with those in previous experimental and Monte Carlo studies. The TG-43U1 parameters for clinical applications in water, muscle, and prostate tissue are presented in this work.

  2. Space radiation-induced bystander signaling in 2D and 3D skin tissue models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumpkins, Sarah B

    2012-01-01

    Space radiation poses a significant hazard to astronauts on long-duration missions, and the low fluences of charged particles characteristic of this field suggest that bystander effects, the phenomenon in which a greater ...

  3. Numerical Modelling of Combined Heat Transfers in a Double Skin Faade -Full Scale Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in popularity in modern buildings and renovations. They can be found in many projects, especially in office, thermal comfort, visual comfort or energy gain [1]. In the current context of global warming, depletion of fossil fuels and increasing costs of energy consumption, the target is to obtain energy reduc- tion while

  4. P4.37 INTER-COMPARISON OF GOES-8 IMAGER AND SOUNDER SKIN TEMPERATURE RETRIEVALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haines, Stephanie L.

    * University of Alabama in Huntsville Global Hydrology and Climate Center, Huntsville, AL Ronnie J. Suggs and Gary J. Jedlovec Global Hydrology and Climate Center MSFC/NASA, Huntsville, AL 1. INTRODUCTION Skin (GOES) data at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC). The GOES Imager or Sounder data are used

  5. Characterization of Urinary Iron Loss in the fsn (flaky skin) Anemia Mouse Mutant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kress, Robert Lee

    2014-08-31

    target to treat iron overload. The flaky–skin anemia (fsn) mouse possesses a mutation in the Ttc7 gene (tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7) and had been observed to excrete elevated iron levels in its urine. We hypothesized that the mutation in fsn...

  6. ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faou, Erwan

    ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM GABRIEL CALOZ, MONIQUE DAUGE, ERWAN FAOU, VICTOR P´ERON ABSTRACT. We consider the equations of electromagnetism set on a domain made in electromagnetism. This effect describes the rapid decay of electromagnetic fields with depth inside a metallic

  7. Isolation of stem cells from adult telogen skin Elizabeth Deschene Greco Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, Valentina

    in the CO2 chamber · If you are using a transgenic fluorescent mice, verify at the dissection microscope it with a 25 ml plastic pipette for about 1 minute per skin. · Filter the trypsin fraction first with 40 micron(-) serum (chelexed serum) on a shaker. When you have filtered the trypsin fraction you can filter this 10

  8. Vessel Segmentation and Analysis in Laboratory Skin Transplant Micro-angiograms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lübeck, Universität zu

    Vessel Segmentation and Analysis in Laboratory Skin Transplant Micro-angiograms Alexandru transplantations depends on the adequate revascularization of the trans- planted dermal matrix. To induce vessel and length of newly grown vessels have to be measured in micro-angiograms (x-ray images of the blood vessels

  9. Experimental evaluation of a naturally ventilated PV double-skin building envelope in real operating conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Introduction France is undergoing an energy transition towards technologies with a lower environmental impact Fax. +33472438811 Abstract Building integrated photovoltaic systems are fast becoming a feature of a prototype naturally-ventilated photovoltaic double-skin facade, designed to maintain favourable operating

  10. Enzocide - a chemical dip for the reduction of Salmonella on chicken breast skin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianchi, Aldo

    1993-01-01

    /g) in the skin tissue of control-raw (CR,3.350?.47) and waterraw (WR,4.451?.43) were lower than in the water-cooked (WC, 8.911?.94) and Enzocide TM-cooked (EC,7.981?.09) treatments but not Enzocide TM-raw (ER, 5.71?.4). The muscle tissue exhibited no difference...

  11. Gene Expression in Skin and Lymphoblastoid Cells: Refined Statistical Method Reveals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abecasis, Goncalo

    Rajan P. Nair,2 James T. Elder,2,6 and Gonc¸alo R. Abecasis1,* Psoriasis, an immune to be associated with psoriasis than are randomly selected SNPs. To explore the tissue specificity of these e on psoriasis and other skin traits. Introduction Transcriptional regulation of gene expression is essential

  12. Suspended, Shrinkage-Free, Electrospun PLGA Nanofibrous Scaffold for Skin Tissue Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yu

    , Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Electrospinning is a technique for creating into the scaffold. KEYWORDS: electrospining, suspending scaffold, scaffold shrinkage, skin tissue engineering and self-assembly,18 electrospinning is a versatile technique for producing tissue engineering scaffolds

  13. Structural colouration of mammalian skin: convergent evolution of coherently scattering dermal collagen arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prum, Richard O.; Torres, Rodolfo H.

    2004-05-01

    fast-green. For TEM, skin samples were post-fixed in 2?4% osmium tetroxide for 1.5?h. They were then stained with 2% aqueous uranyl acetate for 1?h. Tissue pieces were then dehydrated through an ethanol series and embedded in Eponate 12. They were...

  14. Hydraulics of a finite-diameter horizontal well with wellbore storage and skin effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhan, Hongbin

    Hydraulics of a finite-diameter horizontal well with wellbore storage and skin effect Eungyu Park, hydrogeologists have studied hydraulics of hori- zontal wells in shallow ground water aquifers [5,43,50­ 52 from the aquifer. Extensive studies on hydraulics of finite or large di- ameter vertical wells

  15. Localization of Fiducial Skin Markers in MR Images using Correlation Pattern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , as is the case with MRI and PET imagery. The process of automating the detection of these markers needs moreLocalization of Fiducial Skin Markers in MR Images using Correlation Pattern Recognition for PET , Roger Easton1 1 Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science at the Rochester Institute of Technology

  16. Density slope of the nuclear symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An; Xu, Jun.

    2010-01-01

    of finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties. We find that existing data on neutron skin thickness Delta r(np) of Sn isotopes give an important constraint on the symmetry energy E(sym)(rho(0)) and its density slope L at saturation density rho(0). Combining...

  17. Regulation Of Nf=kb And Mnsod In Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Protection Of Mouse And Human Skin Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Li

    2012-11-07

    A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-κB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-κB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.

  18. Two-photon 3-D mapping of ex vivo human skin endogenous fluorescence species based on fluorescence emission spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laiho, Lily H.

    Spectral resolved tissue imaging has a broad range of biomedical applications such as the minimally invasive diagnosis of diseases and the study of wound healing and tissue engineering processes. Two-photon microscopy ...

  19. KRFTWRK – Global Human Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prohaska, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    in the generation of human power, where energy is gained byparticipant runs a virtual human power plant. Per every "by muscle-power and chemical processes of human bodies. For

  20. Boston,MassachusettsUSA* April2428,1994 HumanFactorsinComputingSysfems A Validation of the GOMS Model Methodology in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kieras, David E.

    Center for Ergonomics The University of Michigan 1205 Beal Ave. Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2117 rich.gong @ um.cc.umich.edu A formal GOMS model approach was applied to the design and evaluation of the user interface in execution time during a formal evaluation, differences predicted by the GOMS analysis. Corrections

  1. DP-WHERE: Differentially Private Modeling of Human Mobility Darakhshan J. Mir, Sibren Isaacman, Ramon Caceres, Margaret Martonosi, Rebecca N. Wright

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    no assumptions about the power or background knowledge of a potential adversary. We also present experiments of cellphone Call Detail Records (CDRs) form the basis of a mobility model that can be used to characterize. This is a strong notion of privacy that makes no assumptions about the power or background knowledge of a potential

  2. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human Resources The Human Resources team is fully integrated with Jefferson Lab's mission, committed to providing quality customer service based on expertise, innovation and...

  3. Identifying the structural discontinuities of human interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Hövel, Philipp; Simini, Filippo; Vanhoof, Maarten; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. In the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect. Here, we analyze several country-wide networks of telephone calls and uncover a systematic decrease of communication induced by borders which we identify as the missing variable in state-of-the-art models. Using this empirical evidence, we propose an alternative modeling framework that naturally stylize the damping effect of borders. We show that this new notion substantially improves the predictive power of widely used interaction models, thus increasing our ability to predict social activiti...

  4. human spaceflight and operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Mahesh

    1 human spaceflight and operations Lunar Lander human spaceflight and operations #12;2 human cooperation in exploration prim ary objective opportunity for investigations #12;3 human spaceflight No RHUs LANDING SITE South Polar Reliant on Solar Power generation + conventional thermal control LAUNCHER

  5. Energy-dependence of skin-mode fraction in $E1$ excitations of neutron-rich nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Nakada; T. Inakura; H. Sawai

    2015-02-17

    We have extensively investigated characters of the low-energy $E1$ strengths in $N>Z$ nuclei, by analyzing the transition densities obtained by the HF+RPA calculations with several effective interactions. Crossover behavior has been confirmed, from the skin mode at low energy to the $pn$ mode at higher energy. Decomposing the $E1$ strengths into the skin-mode, $pn$-mode and interference fractions, we show that the ratio of the skin-mode strength to the full strength may be regarded as a generic function of the excitation energy, insensitive to nuclides and effective interactions, particularly beyond Ni.

  6. Heat transfers in a double-skin roof ventilated by natural convection in summer time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biwole, Pascal; Pompeo, C

    2013-01-01

    The double-skin roofs investigated in this paper are formed by adding a metallic screen on an existing sheet metal roof. The system enhances passive cooling of dwellings and can help diminishing power costs for air conditioning in summer or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers are investigated. Depending on its surface properties, the screen reflects a large amount of oncoming solar radiation. Natural convection in the channel underneath drives off the residual heat. The bi-dimensional numerical simulation of the heat transfers through the double skin reveals the most important parameters for the system's efficiency. They are, by order of importance, the sheet metal surface emissivity, the screen internal and external surface emissivity, the insulation thickness and the inclination angle for a channel width over 6 cm. The influence of those parameters on Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers is also investigated. Temperature and air velocity profiles on seve...

  7. THERMAL SKIN DAMAGE AND MOBILE PHONE USE Elmountacer Billah Elabbassi(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in thé phone by thé battery currents and running of thé radiofrequency (RF) electronic circuits measured thé température of thé temporal skin due to GSM 1800 MHz MP radiated power (125 mW). To perforai a substantial part of thé radiated power is absorbed. Many epidemiological investigations of MP users [1, 2

  8. Sparse choice models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farias, Vivek F.

    Choice models, which capture popular preferences over objects of interest, play a key role in making decisions whose eventual outcome is impacted by human choice behavior. In most scenarios, the choice model, which can ...

  9. Investigation of Skin Tribology and Its Effects on Coefficient of Friction and Other Tactile Attributes Involving Polymer Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darden, Matthew Aguirre

    2012-02-14

    OF SKIN TRIBOLOGY AND ITS EFFECTS ON COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION AND OTHER TACTILE ATTRIBUTES INVOLVING POLYMER APPLICATIONS A Thesis by MATTHEW AGUIRRE DARDEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Tactile Attributes Involving Polymer Applications Copyright 2010 Matthew Aguirre Darden INVESTIGATION OF SKIN TRIBOLOGY AND ITS EFFECTS ON COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION AND OTHER TACTILE ATTRIBUTES INVOLVING POLYMER APPLICATIONS A Thesis...

  10. VERY LOW BITRATE CODING OF VIRTUAL HUMAN ANIMATION IN MPEG-4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    VERY LOW BITRATE CODING OF VIRTUAL HUMAN ANIMATION IN MPEG-4 Tolga K. Capin1 , Eric Petajan2 describe the geometrical modeling of virtual human models. 1. INTRODUCTION The MPEG-4 Version 2 standard defines a Face and Body Animation object, with the goal to define synthetic human face and body models

  11. The SACADA database for human reliability and human performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. James Chang; Dennis Bley; Lawrence Criscione; Barry Kirwan; Ali Mosleh; Todd Madary; Rodney Nowell; Robert Richards; Emilie M. Roth; Scott Sieben; Antonios Zoulis

    2014-05-01

    Lack of appropriate and sufficient human performance data has been identified as a key factor affecting human reliability analysis (HRA) quality especially in the estimation of human error probability (HEP). The Scenario Authoring, Characterization, and Debriefing Application (SACADA) database was developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to address this data need. An agreement between NRC and the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) was established to support the SACADA development with aims to make the SACADA tool suitable for implementation in the nuclear power plants' operator training program to collect operator performance information. The collected data would support the STPNOC's operator training program and be shared with the NRC for improving HRA quality. This paper discusses the SACADA data taxonomy, the theoretical foundation, the prospective data to be generated from the SACADA raw data to inform human reliability and human performance, and the considerations on the use of simulator data for HRA. Each SACADA data point consists of two information segments: context and performance results. Context is a characterization of the performance challenges to task success. The performance results are the results of performing the task. The data taxonomy uses a macrocognitive functions model for the framework. At a high level, information is classified according to the macrocognitive functions of detecting the plant abnormality, understanding the abnormality, deciding the response plan, executing the response plan, and team related aspects (i.e., communication, teamwork, and supervision). The data are expected to be useful for analyzing the relations between context, error modes and error causes in human performance.

  12. Programming with human computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Greg (Danny Greg)

    2011-01-01

    Amazon's Mechanical Turk provides a programmatically accessible micro-task market, allowing a program to hire human workers. This has opened the door to a rich field of research in human computation where programs orchestrate ...

  13. Patenting Human Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrance, Andrew W.

    2008-06-01

    to thorough analysis and debate prior to the imminent arrival of human genetic enhancement technologies. Otherwise, patent law may drive human evolution in directions either unplanned - or worse - undesired....

  14. Effects of Wnt3a on proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia Liwei; Zhou Jiaxi; Peng Sha; Li Juxue [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu-quan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Cao Yujing [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China); Duan Enkui [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: duane@ioz.ac.cn

    2008-04-11

    Epidermal stem cells maintain development and homeostasis of mammalian epidermis throughout life. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal stem cells are far from clear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Wnt3a and Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling on proliferation and differentiation of human fetal epidermal stem cells. We found both Wnt3a and active {beta}-catenin, two key members of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling, were expressed in human fetal epidermis and epidermal stem cells. In addition, Wnt3a protein can promote proliferation and inhibit differentiation of epidermal stem cells in vitro culture. Our results suggest that Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling plays important roles in human fetal skin development and homeostasis, which also provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis in human epidermis.

  15. Modeling emotion dynamics in intelligent agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seif El-Nasr, Magy

    1998-01-01

    Emotions were shown to have a leading role in the human decision-making process, and thus they play an important role in human intelligence. Intelligent agents' research produced many models of emotional agents. However, most of these models focused...

  16. Time-Varying Surface Appearance: Acquisition, Modeling and Rendering Jinwei Gu1 Chien-I Tu1,2 Ravi Ramamoorthi1 Peter Belhumeur1 Wojciech Matusik2 Shree Nayar1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    , such as burning of wood, wetting and drying of rock and fabric, decay of fruit skins, and corrosion and rusting, and corrosion. Our main technical contribution is a Space-Time Appearance Factorization (STAF). This model fac or spillage of water; the ripening and decay of fruit skins like apples or bananas; and the corrosion

  17. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

  18. Developments in Human Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    CMST 1B03 Developments in Human Communication: Part & Present Amanda Etches-Johnson Mills Research in Human Communication Session Outline 1. Finding Books Using MORRIS 2. Finding Journal Articles using: Developments in Human Communication What is MORRIS anyway? · MORRIS is McMaster's library catalogue · Shows

  19. Ideal Observers for Detecting Human Motion: Correspondence Noise.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuille, Alan L.

    purpose, models of motion. We perform more psychophysical experiments which are consistent with humansIdeal Observers for Detecting Human Motion: Correspondence Noise. HongJing Lo Department obtain Barlow and Tripathy's classic model as an approximation. Our psychophysical experiments show

  20. Sandia Energy - Human Reliability Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human Reliability Assessment Home Stationary Power Nuclear Fuel Cycle Nuclear Energy Safety Technologies Risk and Safety Assessment Human Reliability Assessment Human Reliability...

  1. Human Factors @ UB Fall 2010 Human Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    . Outsourcing aviation maintenance: Hu- man factors implications, specifically for communications. C. Drury, K. Guy, C. Wenner. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 2010, 20, 124 ­ 143. #12;2 Human Factors

  2. Analysis of Human Genetic Linkage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehnke, M.

    1991-01-01

    Linkage analysis continues in its golden age. The convergence of several factors - advances in molecular biology, advances in statistical models and algorithms, and advances in computing technology - have made possible remarkable successes in the mapping of human genetic diseases and in the construction of human genetic maps. The goals of mapping all the most important simple Mendelian disorders and constructing fine-structure genetic maps for each of the human chromosomes soon will be reached, and linkage methods promise to help us understand the etiologies of many common and complex familial diseases. With the continuing rapid advance of the field, the appearance of the revised edition of Dr. Ott's book is particularly welcome. As with the first edition, the goal of the revised edition is to provide a concise, easy-to-read introduction to human linkage analysis. The revised edition includes chapters on basic genetics and cytogenetics, genes and genetic polymorphisms, aspects of statistical inference, methods of linkage analysis, the informativeness of family data, multipoint linkage analysis, penetrance, numerical and computerized methods, the variability of the recombination fraction, inconsistencies, and linkage analysis with disease loci. The results is not an encyclopedia providing everything one could ever want to know about linkage analysis but, rather, a guide to the important methods, topics, and problems of linkage analysis today. Overall, the book achieves an excellent compromise between presenting important conclusions and working out the details.

  3. Characterization of a MOSkin detector for in vivo skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, M. J.; Wong, J. H. D.; Ng, K. H.; Jong, W. L.; Cutajar, D. L.; Rosenfeld, A. B.

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The MOSkin is a MOSFET detector designed especially for skin dose measurements. This detector has been characterized for various factors affecting its response for megavoltage photon beams and has been used for patient dose measurements during radiotherapy procedures. However, the characteristics of this detector in kilovoltage photon beams and low dose ranges have not been studied. The purpose of this study was to characterize the MOSkin detector to determine its suitability for in vivo entrance skin dose measurements during interventional radiology procedures. Methods: The calibration and reproducibility of the MOSkin detector and its dependency on different radiation beam qualities were carried out using RQR standard radiation qualities in free-in-air geometry. Studies of the other characterization parameters, such as the dose linearity and dependency on exposure angle, field size, frame rate, depth-dose, and source-to-surface distance (SSD), were carried out using a solid water phantom under a clinical x-ray unit. Results: The MOSkin detector showed good reproducibility (94%) and dose linearity (99%) for the dose range of 2 to 213 cGy. The sensitivity did not significantly change with the variation of SSD (±1%), field size (±1%), frame rate (±3%), or beam energy (±5%). The detector angular dependence was within ±5% over 360° and the dose recorded by the MOSkin detector in different depths of a solid water phantom was in good agreement with the Markus parallel plate ionization chamber to within ±3%. Conclusions: The MOSkin detector proved to be reliable when exposed to different field sizes, SSDs, depths in solid water, dose rates, frame rates, and radiation incident angles within a clinical x-ray beam. The MOSkin detector with water equivalent depth equal to 0.07 mm is a suitable detector for in vivo skin dosimetry during interventional radiology procedures.

  4. Location Update Accuracy in Human Tracking system using Zigbee modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amutha, B

    2009-01-01

    A location and tracking system becomes very important to our future world of pervasive computing. An algorithm for accurate location information is being incorporated in the human walking model and in the blind human walking model. We want to implement an accurate location tracking mechanism using Zigbee along with GPS, we have incorporated Markov chain algorithm for establishing accuracy. Normal Human and blind human walking steps were actually taken in the known environment within our campus and the Markov chain algorithm was used for smoothening the stepwise variation in location updates. A comparison module is also implemented to show the difference between normal human and blind human walking step variations. This accuracy is used for designing a blind tracking device so that the device can be used by the blind for finding the path without obstacles. We present a system level approach to localizing and tracking Human and blind users on a basis of different sources of location information [GPS plus Zigbee...

  5. Statistical models for analyzing human genetic variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sankararaman, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Sankararaman et al. , 2008] Sriram Sankararaman, SrinathSankararaman et al. , 2009] Sriram Sankararaman, Guillaumeand Sj¨olander, 2008] Sriram Sankararaman and Kimmen Sj¨

  6. Human Effects of Enhanced Privacy Management Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shehab, Mohamed

    amount of user profile data and content online. For example, on Facebook, there are over 30 billion pieces of content shared each month. New content is being added every day; an average Facebook user to disclose their personal information and their actual beha- vior [31]. Individuals voice concerns over

  7. Probing the neutron-skin thickness by photon production from reactions induced by intermediate-energy protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Gao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Photon from neutron-proton bremsstrahlung in p+Pb reactions is examined as a potential probe of the neutron-skin thickness in different centralities and at different proton incident energies. It is shown that the best choice of reaction environment is about 140MeV for the incident proton and the 95\\%-100\\% centrality for the reaction system since the incident proton mainly interacts with neutrons inside the skin of the target and thus leads to different photon production to maximal extent. Moreover, considering two main uncertainties from both photon production probability and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the reaction, I propose to use the ratio of photon production from two reactions to measure the neutron-skin thickness because of its cancellation effects on these uncertainties simultaneously, but the preserved about 13\\%-15\\% sensitivities on the varied neutron-skin thickness from 0.1 to 0.3fm within the current experimental uncertainty range of the neutron-skin size in $^{208}$Pb.

  8. Constraints on neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and density-dependent symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianmin Dong; Wei Zuo; Jianzhong Gu

    2015-04-09

    Accurate knowledge about the neutron skin thickness $\\Delta R_{np}$ in $^{208}$Pb has far-reaching implications for different communities of nuclear physics and astrophysics. Yet, the novel Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) did not yield stringent constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$ recently. We employ a more practicable strategy currently to probe the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb based on a high linear correlation between the $\\Delta R_{np}$ and $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$, where $J$ and $a_{\\text{sym}}$ are the symmetry energy (coefficient) of nuclear matter at saturation density and of $^{208}$Pb. An accurate $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ thus places a strong constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$. Compared with the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{\\text{PV}}$ in the PREX, the reliably experimental information on the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ is much more easily available attributed to a wealth of measured data on nuclear masses and on decay energies. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is also well constrained with the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$. Finally, with a `tomoscan' method, we find that one just needs to measure the nucleon densities in $^{208}$Pb starting from $R_{m} = 7.61\\pm0.04$ fm to obtain the $\\Delta R_{np}$ in hadron scattering experiments, regardless of its interior profile that is hampered by the strong absorption.

  9. Constraints on neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and density-dependent symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Jianmin; Gu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge about the neutron skin thickness $\\Delta R_{np}$ in $^{208}$Pb has far-reaching implications for different communities of nuclear physics and astrophysics. Yet, the novel Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) did not yield stringent constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$ recently. We employ a more practicable strategy currently to probe the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb based on a high linear correlation between the $\\Delta R_{np}$ and $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$, where $J$ and $a_{\\text{sym}}$ are the symmetry energy (coefficient) of nuclear matter at saturation density and of $^{208}$Pb. An accurate $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ thus places a strong constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$. Compared with the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{\\text{PV}}$ in the PREX, the reliably experimental information on the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ is much more easily available attributed to a wealth of measured data on nuclear masses and on decay energies. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is also well constrained with the $J-a_{\\...

  10. TU-F-12A-01: Quantitative Non-Linear Compartment Modeling of 89Zr- and 124I- Labeled J591 Monoclonal Antibody Kinetics Using Serial Non-Invasive Positron Emission Tomography Imaging in a Pre-Clinical Human Prostate Cancer Mouse Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, EK; Cheal, SM; Chalasani, S; Fareedy, SB; Punzalan, B; Humm, JL; Osborne, JR; Larson, SM; Zanzonico, PB; Otto, B; Bander, NH

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To examine the binding kinetics of human IgG monoclonal antibody J591 which targets prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in a pre-clinical mouse cancer model using quantitative PET compartmental analysis of two radiolabeled variants. Methods: PSMA is expressed in normal human prostate, and becomes highly upregulated in prostate cancer, making it a promising therapeutic target. Two forms of J591, radiolabeled with either {sup 89}Zr or {sup 124}I, were prepared. {sup 89}Zr is a radiometal that becomes trapped in the cell upon internalization by the antigen-antibody complex, while radioiodine leaves the cell. Mice with prostate cancer xenografts underwent non-invasive serial imaging on a Focus 120 microPET up to 144 hours post-injection of J591. A non-linear compartmental model describing the binding and internalization of antibody in tumor xenograft was developed and applied to the PET-derived time-activity curves. The antibody-antigen association rate constant (ka), total amount of antigen per gram tumor (Ag-total), internalization rate of antibody-antigen complex, and efflux rate of radioisotope from tumor were fitted using the model. The surface-bound and the internalized activity were also estimated. Results: Values for ka, Ag-total, and internalization rate were found to be similar regardless of radiolabel payload used. The efflux rate, however, was ? 9-fold higher for {sup 124}I-J591 than for {sup 89}Zr-J591. Time-dependent surface-bound and internalized radiotracer activity were similar for both radiolabels at early times post-injection, but clearly differed beyond 24 hours. Conclusion: Binding and internalization of J591 to PSMA-expressing tumor xenografts were similar when radiolabeled with either {sup 89}Zr or {sup 124}I payload. The difference in efflux of radioactivity from tumor may be attributable to differential biological fate intracellularly of the radioisotopes. This has great significance for radioimmunotherapy and antibody-drug conjugates. Further exploration using the model will examine binding and radioisotope residence as antibody dose is increased to antigen saturation. The Center for Targeted Radioimmunotherapy and Theranostics, Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK), NIH (R25-CA096945). Technical services provided by the MSK Small-Animal Imaging Core Facility were supported by the NIH (R24-CA83084, P30-CA08748, and P50-CA92629; Zanzonico). NCI, Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparity (R21 CA153177-03; Osborne)

  11. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JLab Diversity Policies 200 Human Resources 202 Equal Employment Opportunity and Affirmative Action 203 Employment 208 Employee Performance and Conduct 209 Staff Development 210...

  12. ORISE: Human Subjects Protection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human Subjects Protection The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) performs technical assessments to assist U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories involved...

  13. Prefrontal involvement in the regulation of emotion: convergence of rat and human studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    experiments designed to bridge human and rodent models of emotion regulation. Addresses 1 Department of prefrontal involvement of emotion regula- tion using rat and human models, and suggest future experimentsPrefrontal involvement in the regulation of emotion: convergence of rat and human studies Gregory J

  14. Generation of a suite of 3D computer-generated breast phantoms from a limited set of human subject data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Christina M. L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Palmeri, Mark L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, W. Paul [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Veress, Alexander I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Dobbins, James T. III [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors previously reported on a three-dimensional computer-generated breast phantom, based on empirical human image data, including a realistic finite-element based compression model that was capable of simulating multimodality imaging data. The computerized breast phantoms are a hybrid of two phantom generation techniques, combining empirical breast CT (bCT) data with flexible computer graphics techniques. However, to date, these phantoms have been based on single human subjects. In this paper, the authors report on a new method to generate multiple phantoms, simulating additional subjects from the limited set of original dedicated breast CT data. The authors developed an image morphing technique to construct new phantoms by gradually transitioning between two human subject datasets, with the potential to generate hundreds of additional pseudoindependent phantoms from the limited bCT cases. The authors conducted a preliminary subjective assessment with a limited number of observers (n= 4) to illustrate how realistic the simulated images generated with the pseudoindependent phantoms appeared. Methods: Several mesh-based geometric transformations were developed to generate distorted breast datasets from the original human subject data. Segmented bCT data from two different human subjects were used as the 'base' and 'target' for morphing. Several combinations of transformations were applied to morph between the 'base' and 'target' datasets such as changing the breast shape, rotating the glandular data, and changing the distribution of the glandular tissue. Following the morphing, regions of skin and fat were assigned to the morphed dataset in order to appropriately assign mechanical properties during the compression simulation. The resulting morphed breast was compressed using a finite element algorithm and simulated mammograms were generated using techniques described previously. Sixty-two simulated mammograms, generated from morphing three human subject datasets, were used in a preliminary observer evaluation where four board certified breast radiologists with varying amounts of experience ranked the level of realism (from 1 ='fake' to 10 ='real') of the simulated images. Results: The morphing technique was able to successfully generate new and unique morphed datasets from the original human subject data. The radiologists evaluated the realism of simulated mammograms generated from the morphed and unmorphed human subject datasets and scored the realism with an average ranking of 5.87 {+-} 1.99, confirming that overall the phantom image datasets appeared more 'real' than 'fake.' Moreover, there was not a significant difference (p > 0.1) between the realism of the unmorphed datasets (6.0 {+-} 1.95) compared to the morphed datasets (5.86 {+-} 1.99). Three of the four observers had overall average rankings of 6.89 {+-} 0.89, 6.9 {+-} 1.24, 6.76 {+-} 1.22, whereas the fourth observer ranked them noticeably lower at 2.94 {+-} 0.7. Conclusions: This work presents a technique that can be used to generate a suite of realistic computerized breast phantoms from a limited number of human subjects. This suite of flexible breast phantoms can be used for multimodality imaging research to provide a known truth while concurrently producing realistic simulated imaging data.

  15. HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    , The Role of Technology in Film, and even the History of Aeronautics-- in each case, at the request of the students. HUMANITIES & SOCIAL SCIENCES STEVENS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY www.stevens.edu MAJORS: + History in this ever- changing, fast-paced, technology-driven world. They also investigate how human in- novation

  16. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

  17. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-12-20

    The order establishes Department of Energy (DOE) procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects; and in DOE P 443.1A, Protection of Human Subjects, dated 12-20-07. Cancels DOE O 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B.

  18. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-05-15

    To establish DOE procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 CFR Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects, ad in DOE P 443.1, Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects. Cancels DOE O 1300.3. Canceled by DOE O 443.1A.

  19. Department of Humanities Program in Technology and the Humanities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; ethics in the professions; history of art and architecture; humanizing technology; information seek- ingHumanities Department of Humanities Program in Technology and the Humanities Siegel Hall 218 3301 S' Graduate Program in Technology and Humanities prepares students for careers in emerging forms of technology

  20. A Dual-Paradigm Assessment of a Model to Guide the Formulation of National Human Resource Development (NHRD) Policy for Practice: National Learning for Economic, Political, and Socio-Cultural Performance and Wellbeing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Christine A.

    2015-05-13

    ) national resources (including human resources), (c) governance and power structure amongst actors, stakeholders, and potential partners, (d) national economic, political, and socio-cultural environment, and (e) integration at the individual...

  1. On the evaluation of human error probabilities for post-initiating events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presley, Mary R

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of human error probabilities (HEPs) for the purpose of human reliability assessment (HRA) is very complex. Because of this complexity, the state of the art includes a variety of HRA models, each with its own ...

  2. Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers This article has been downloaded from to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers Shahab Akhavan1, Kivanc Gungor1, Evren Mutlugun1

  3. Evaluating self-reported pressure ulcer prevention measures in persons with1 spinal cord injury using the revised Skin Management Needs Assessment2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    using the revised Skin Management Needs Assessment2 Checklist : reliability study3 Gélis Anthony, MD 1, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de20 Bordeaux, France21 22 Corresponding author:23 Dr. Anthony GELIS, M: to translate, evaluate the reliability and cross-culturally adapt the Skin2 Management Needs Assessment

  4. Comparison of blood flow and cell function in ischemic skin flaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bean, D.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-07-01

    Cellular function and blood flow in acute, steroid-treated, and surgically delayed random skin flaps have been examined. In these studies, the period following flap elevation could be divided into early (0-2 hr), intermediate (4-6 hr), and late (12 hr) periods of ischemia, based on the cutaneous blood flow and cellular function measured by thallium-201 uptake. There was a close correlation between blood flow and cellular function during the early period of ischemia which became worse with time. Blood flow studies demonstrated a significant difference between the early and intermediate periods of ischemia which was abolished by surgical delay. Improvement in cellular function was accomplished by improved blood flow in the surgically delayed flaps, while steroid-treated flaps enhanced cellular metabolism by another mechanism. Cellular function approximated blood flow during the early and immediate period of ischemia. Steroids may augment cellular function without improving blood flow, while surgical delay improves cellular function by improving blood flow.

  5. The neutron skin in neutron-rich nuclei at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalton, Mark M.

    2013-11-01

    The Jefferson Lab program to measure the symmetry energy of neutron-rich nuclear matter, using precision electroweak methods, is progressing well. The initial measurement by the PREX experiment, leading to a 2-sigma determination of the "neutron skin" in {sup 208}Pb , has been published. Design and preparation for a further, more-precise measurement on {sup 208}Pb is progressing well and there is general acceptance of the great advantage to a further measurement on {sup 48}Ca . The surprising ancillary result that the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry for {sup 208}Pb is consistent with zero is also now in the literature. This paper will discuss the current experimental situation of the program.

  6. Method of forming a continuous polymeric skin on a cellular foam material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Barthell, Barry L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the outer surface of the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tensin of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  7. Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Stuhl, L.; Csatlos, M.; Algora, A.; and others

    2012-10-20

    The {gamma}-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) to the isobaric analog state has been measured following the p({sup 124}Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RPA) and turned out to be very sensitive to the neutronskin thickness ({Delta}R{sub pn}). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured one, the {Delta}R{sub pn} value for {sup 124}Sn was deduced to be 0.21 {+-} 0.07 fm, which agrees well with the previous results. The present method offers new possibilities for measuring the neutron-skin thicknesses of very exotic isotopes.

  8. What Do Walking Humans Want From Mechatronics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Steven H.

    What Do Walking Humans Want From Mechatronics? (Invited Presentation) Steven H. Collins Department for millions of individuals. One branch of the emerging field of bio-mechatronics seeks to meet the mobility in mechatronics. II. SIMULATIONS, ROBOTS, AND OTHER MODELS Many assistive robotic devices are designed based

  9. Exploring Paradigms of Human Resource Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurt, Andrew Christopher

    2011-10-21

    This study focused on the issue of paradigms in Human Resource Development (HRD). Its purpose was to validate the HRD Cube as a synthesized model of HRD and to explicate some of the extant paradigms of HRD. The study was carried out by examining...

  10. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  11. Dynamic Skin Triangulation HoLun Cheng y , Tamal K. Dey z , Herbert Edelsbrunner x and John Sullivan {

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Ho-lun, "Alan"

    that grow and shrink with time. An example is the boundary between the solid and the liquid portions the nu­ cleation, growth and coarsening stages [1]. Moving bound­ aries also arise naturally in mold the finite collection by convex combina­ tion and shrinking. The skin surface is the envelope of this family

  12. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 36, NO. 1, JANUARY 2000 281 Thin-Skin Eddy-Current Interaction with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowler, John R.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 36, NO. 1, JANUARY 2000 281 Thin-Skin Eddy-Current Interaction with Semielliptical and Epicyclic Cracks J. R. Bowler, Member, IEEE, and N. Harfield Abstract--Eddy-current probe current, nondestructive evaluation. I. INTRODUCTION IN EDDY-CURRENT nondestructive evaluation, cracks

  13. A Three Level Finite Difference Scheme for Solving the Pennes' Bioheat Transfer in a TripleLayered Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    . A convergence theorem is obtained by the discrete energy method, implying that the scheme is un­ conditionally the discrete energy method, we establish a convergence theorem for the finite difference scheme, which shows stable. Numerical results for thermal analysis of a skin composed of epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous

  14. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid and related nutrients on plasma lipids, and skin and hair coat condition in canines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hester, Shaleah Lynnae

    2004-11-15

    A study was performed to investigate the effect of diet modifications on skin and hair coat condition in canines. The study included 24 normal adult dogs fed a baseline diet (Ol'Roy[trademark]), during an acclimation period of 12 wk (Phase I). Nine...

  15. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and related nutrients on sebum lipids, and skin and hair coat condition in canines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Naomi Anne

    2005-02-17

    feeding period of Phase II, test results revealed statistically significant increases in both CE and CE/WD, and a prolonged growth of hair follicles in the anagen phase of diet B dogs, which are both consistent with improved skin and hair coat scores....

  16. Antagonistic effect of indigenous skin bacteria of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) against Flavobacterium columnare and F. psychrophilum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernatchez, Louis

    in aquaculture are strongly needed. The development of probiotics appears to be one of the most promising ways psychrophilum (Bernardet and Bowman, 2006). Skin microflora was targeted as a potential source of probiotics August 2011 Accepted 1 September 2011 Keywords: Probiotics Flavobacterium Salvelinus fontinalis

  17. Land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite observations for an all-weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aires, Filipe

    Land surface skin temperatures from a combined analysis of microwave and infrared satellite Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. In the absence all the expected variations with solar flux, soil characteristics, and cloudiness. During daytime

  18. In vivo imaging of immune cell dynamics in skin in response to zinc-oxide nanoparticle exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boppart, Stephen

    in cosmetic and sunscreen products which are applied topically to the skin. Despite their widespread use of nanosized particles in titanium dioxide- and zinc oxide-based sunscreens," J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 61(4), 685 by cosmetic pigments and sunscreen agents under solar exposure and artificial UV illumination," J. Oleo Sci

  19. carleton.ca Human Rights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    , including social movements, domestic legislation, international statutes, and human rights declarations the development of historical and contemporary social movements, and the effects of global capitalismcarleton.ca Human Rights #12;Human rights contribute, through theory and practice, to people

  20. Session-Key Generation using Human Passwords Only Oded Goldreich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Session-Key Generation using Human Passwords Only Oded Goldreich Department of Computer Science present session-key generation protocols in a model where the legitimate parties share only a human assumptions. Keywords: Session-key generation (authenticated key-exchange), mutual authentication proto- cols

  1. SessionKey Generation using Human Passwords Only # Oded Goldreich +

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Session­Key Generation using Human Passwords Only # Oded Goldreich + Department of Computer Science present session­key generation protocols in a model where the legitimate parties share only a human setup assumptions. Keywords: Session­key generation (authenticated key­exchange), mutual authentication

  2. Moon: the 8th continent HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT 2025

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    to be done to develop models that can accu- rately predict the likely environmental impact interest and generates the support of key stakeholders and decision makers." The vision "In 2025, Europe as preparation for the robotic and human exploration of the Solar System. Human Spaceflight: The Story So Far 11

  3. World Data Center for Human Interactions in the Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    University Conference on Climate Change and Official Statistics Oslo, Norway, 14-16 April 2008 #12;World Data of observations to climate-driven model simulations. #12;World Data Center for Human Interactions in the Environment Linking Cause to Effect 6 #12;World Data Center for Human Interactions in the Environment Climate

  4. Wire and column modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandal, Esan

    2004-09-30

    The goal of this thesis is to introduce new methods to create intricate perforated shapes in a computing environment. Modeling shapes with a large number of holes and handles, while requiring minimal human interaction, is ...

  5. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  6. KRFTWRK – Global Human Electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prohaska, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Power Network 2.1.1 Virtual Power Plants The Global Powernetwork, based on "Virtual Power Plants", called "VPP". A "participant runs a virtual human power plant. Per every "

  7. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-12-20

    The Policy is to establish DOE-specific principles for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Cancels DOE P 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B

  8. Human-spacesuit interaction :

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilbert, Alexandra Marie

    2015-01-01

    Extravehicular activities (EVA), or space walks, are a critical and complex aspect of human spaceflight missions. To prepare for safe and successful execution of the required tasks, astronauts undergo extensive training ...

  9. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-05-15

    The purpose of this Policy is to establish DOE-specific policy for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Canceled by DOE P 443.1A.

  10. Human Resource Management Delegation

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-06-28

    The notice is to clarifies and updates existing Human Resource Management Delegation Authorities and the levels to which they are delegated. Expired 6-28-97. Does not cancel any directives.

  11. Numerically Estimating Internal Models of Dynamic Virtual Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekuler, Robert

    human subjects to manipulate a computer-animated virtual object. This virtual object (vO) was a high, human cognition, human information processing, ideal performer, internal model, virtual object, virtual, specifically how humans acquire an internal model of a dynamic virtual object. Our methodology minimizes

  12. SU-E-T-68: Clinical Implementation of Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy: A New- York Presbyterian Hospital Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afghan, M; Shih, R; Chen, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Total skin electron beam therapy (TSET) is used in the treatment of rare skin diseases such as mycosis fungoides, the most common type of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We report our experience with clinical implementation of TSET. Methods: A modified six-dual-field irradiation technique was chosen to deliver TSET. A Varian Trilogy linear accelerator with a nominal 6 MeV beam using high dose rate total skin electron mode (HDTSe) was employed. The recommendations of AAPM task group report 23 were followed for the commissioning. An acrylic plate (energy degrader) of 3.2 mm depth was mounted on the HDTSe applicator. The nominal source to skin distance was set at 450 cm. The optimum tilt angle of the gantry was determined using NACP-02 ionization chamber embedded in certified therapy grade solid water. Percent depth dose measurements were performed using ionization chamber and radiochromic films embedded in solid water and anthropomorphic phantom. For absolute dose measurements, TG-51 formalism was employed. The dose distribution on the entire skin was measured by irradiating the anthropomorphic phantom, with TLDs attached, mimicking the real treatment. Results: The 3.2 mm acrylic plate mounted on the HDTSe applicator degraded the energy of the electron beam to 4.1 MeV in the treatment plane, located at an SSD of 450 cm. The optimum tilt angle was found to be ±20°. A single-dual field had a longitudinal uniformity, measured at a depth of dose maximum, of ±7% over a length of about 200 cm. For the entire treatment the multiplication factor was found to be 2.86. On the surface of the phantom, the dose varied from 108% to 93% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: We have successfully commissioned TSET meeting the guidelines of the TG report 23, and treated our first patient on February 25, 2014.

  13. The Evolution of Human Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gintis, Herbert; Doebeli, Michael; Flack, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    684 Gintis, H. 2011. The Evolution of Human Cooperation.misunderstandings about cultural evolution. Human Nat. 19,Feldman, M. , 1981. Cultural Evolution. Princeton University

  14. ORISE: Protecting Human Subjects Website

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protecting Human Subjects Website Institutions that engage in human subjects research are required by federal policy to establish an institutional review board (IRB) to ensure that...

  15. Studying Gestures: The Iconic Roots of Human Communication Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ioannou, Charis

    2011-11-23

    This paper tests the hypothesis that the iconicity inherent in human gestures can be a key element in the creation and evolution of communication systems. An interactive experiment based on playing charades was conducted modelling a situation where...

  16. Transformation of human melanocytes and mechanisms of melanoma metastasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Piyush B

    2006-01-01

    While a fundamental feature of human melanoma is its tendency to metastasize to numerous organs throughout the body, very few animal models recapitulate this essential aspect of the disease. In the work described, it is ...

  17. First Steps Toward Underactuated Human-Inspired Bipedal Robotic Walking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ames, Aaron

    human This work is supported by NSF grants CNS-0953823 and CNS-1136104, and NHARP award 00512 77843 aames@tamu.edu SolidWorks Student License Academic Use Only Fig. 1: Solidworks model (left

  18. Model’ or ‘tool’? New definitions for translational research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sive, Hazel

    The term ‘model’ often describes non-human biological systems that are used to obtain a better understanding of human disorders. According to the most stringent definition, an animal ‘model’ would display exactly the same ...

  19. The Human Genome From human genome to other

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Michal

    The Human Genome Project From human genome to other genomes and to gene function June 2000 From genome to health Structural Genomics initiative #12;What is the Human Genome Project? · U.S. govt that arise from genome research #12;The Human Genome Project Project began in 1990 as a $3 billion, 15-year

  20. Policy on Human Subjects Research Policy on Human Subjects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Human Subjects Research 10/15/2014 Policy on Human Subjects Research I. Purpose and Scope ethical standards for the protection of human subjects, consistent with the principles of the Nuremberg Code and the Belmont Report. Accordingly, the University has established the Office of Human Subject

  1. Validation of in vitro cell models used in drug metabolism and transport studies; genotyping of cytochrome P450, phase II enzymes and drug transporter polymorphisms in the human hepatoma (HepG2), ovarian carcinoma (IGROV-1) and colon carcinoma (CaCo-2, LS180) cell lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon, Esther F.A.; Bosch, Tessa M.; Deenen, Maarten J.; Levink, Rianne; Wal, Everdina van der; Meerveld, Joyce B.M. van; Bijl, Monique; Beijnen, Jos H. |; Schellens, Jan H.M. |; Meijerman, Irma . E-mail: I.Meijerman@pharm.uu.nl

    2006-02-15

    Human cell lines are often used for in vitro biotransformation and transport studies of drugs. In vivo, genetic polymorphisms have been identified in drug-metabolizing enzymes and ABC-drug transporters leading to altered enzyme activity, or a change in the inducibility of these enzymes. These genetic polymorphisms could also influence the outcome of studies using human cell lines. Therefore, the aim of our study was to pharmacogenotype four cell lines frequently used in drug metabolism and transport studies, HepG2, IGROV-1, CaCo-2 and LS180, for genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes and drug transporters. The results indicate that, despite the presence of some genetic polymorphisms, no real effects influencing the activity of metabolizing enzymes or drug transporters in the investigated cell lines are expected. However, this characterization will be an aid in the interpretation of the results of biotransformation and transport studies using these in vitro cell models.

  2. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased inflammatory cells and IgE, but the others did not. • The allergic drugs commonly induced germinal center hyperplasia in lymphoid tissues. • Some of these allergic drugs transiently increased CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells in the spleen.

  3. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh)] [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)] [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ? Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ? Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ? Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ? Study subjects with arsenic-induced skin lesions show elevated plasma Big ET-1 levels. ? Arsenic-induced hypertension and skin lesions may be linked to plasma Big ET-1 levels.

  4. CONSTRUCTING VIRTUAL HUMAN LIFE SIMULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallmann, Marcelo

    , Virtual Environments, Behavioral Animation, Object Interaction, Python. 1. INTRODUCTION Virtual humanCONSTRUCTING VIRTUAL HUMAN LIFE SIMULATIONS Marcelo Kallmann, Etienne de Sevin and Daniel Thalmann human life simulations. Our main goal is to have virtual human actors living and working autonomously

  5. Queering the Support for Trafficked Persons: LGBTQ Communities and Human Trafficking in the Heartland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, Corinne; Britton, Hannah E.

    2015-02-23

    Human trafficking justice centers on the “Three Ps” model of prevention, protection, and prosecution. While protection and prosecution efforts have been moderately successful, prevention remains elusive, as “upstream” ...

  6. Planet-scale Human Mobility Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan Hui; Richard Mortier; Tristan Henderson; Jon Crowcroft

    2009-09-18

    Research into, and design and construction of mobile systems and algorithms requires access to large-scale mobility data. Unfortunately, the wireless and mobile research community lacks such data. For instance, the largest available human contact traces contain only 100 nodes with very sparse connectivity, limited by experimental logistics. In this paper we pose a challenge to the community: how can we collect mobility data from billions of human participants? We re-assert the importance of large-scale datasets in communication network design, and claim that this could impact fundamental studies in other academic disciplines. In effect, we argue that planet-scale mobility measurements can help to save the world. For example, through understanding large-scale human mobility, we can track and model and contain the spread of epidemics of various kinds.

  7. Human MSH2 protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de la Chapelle, Albert (Helsingfors, FI); Vogelstein, Bert (Baltimore, MD); Kinzler, Kenneth W. (Baltimore, MD)

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  8. Human MSH2 protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  9. Human Genome: DOE Origins

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energyHighlandWorkshop-SummerHow is theHughHumanHuman Genome

  10. Coordination-resolved local bond contraction and electron binding-energy entrapment of Si atomic clusters and solid skins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo, Maolin; Huang, Yongli; Zhang, Ting [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: ywang8@hnust.edu.cn, E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Information and Electronic Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan 411201 (China); Zhang, Xi [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Can [Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China); Sun, Chang Q., E-mail: ywang8@hnust.edu.cn, E-mail: ecqsun@ntu.edu.sg [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials and Application Technologies, Xiangtan University, Hunan 411105 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Center for Coordination Bond Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 330018 (China)

    2014-04-14

    Consistency between x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and density-function theory calculations confirms our bond order-length-strength notation-incorporated tight-binding theory predictions on the quantum entrapment of Si solid skin and atomic clusters. It has been revealed that bond-order deficiency shortens and strengthens the Si-Si bond, which results in the local densification and quantum entrapment of the core and valence electrons. Unifying Si clusters and Si(001) and (111) skins, this mechanism has led to quantification of the 2p binding energy of 96.089?eV for an isolated Si atom, and their bulk shifts of 2.461?eV. Findings evidence the significance of atomic undercoordination that is of great importance to device performance.

  11. Human health impacts of high altitude emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eastham, Sebastian D. (Sebastian David)

    2015-01-01

    Millions of deaths worldwide are attributed annually to exposure degraded surface air quality and UV-induced skin cancer. However, the focus has been on surface emissions, and the contribution of high altitude emissions ...

  12. Evaluation of Various CFD Modelling Strategies in Predicting Airflow and Temperature in a Naturally Ventilated Double Skin Façade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasut, Wilmer; De Carli, Michele

    2011-01-01

    pdf. [12] EnergyPlus Input Output Reference.The Encyclopedic Reference to EnergyPlus Input and Output.energy simulation program “EnergyPlus” [12]. The method of

  13. A thin-skinned collisional model for the Taiwan orogenyq Zhong-Yi Dinga,*, You-Qing Yangb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Youqing "Richard"

    and the Philippine Sea plate. Taking the theoretical results into account, a new type of plate convergence boundary as the result of the late Cenozoic convergence between the Eura- sian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. This conver- gence was considered to be an arc±continent collision between the Luzon volcanic arc (Philippine

  14. TopoPlan: a topological path planner for real time human navigation under floor and ceiling constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of virtual humans. 1 Introduction One of the goal of behavioral animation is to automate the process of populating a virtual environment with au- tonomous virtual humans. Models used to describe hu- manoid meshes modeled by designers (architects, graphics de- signers...). In order to endow a virtual human

  15. Viscoelastic Analysis of Sandwich Beams Having Aluminum and Fiber-reinforced Polymer Skins with a Polystyrene Foam Core 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts-Tompkins, Altramese L.

    2010-07-14

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering VISCOELASTIC ANALYSIS OF SANDWICH BEAMS HAVING ALUMINUM AND FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER SKINS WITH A POLYSTYRENE FOAM... CORE A Thesis by ALTRAMESE LASH? ROBERTS-TOMPKINS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee...

  16. Fibre Diffraction Analysis of Skin Offers a Very Early and Extremely Accurate Diagnostic Test for Prostate Cancer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    James, Veronica J.; O’Malley Ford, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Double blind analysis of a batch of thirty skin tissue samples from potential prostate cancer sufferers correctly identified all “control” patients, patients with high and low grade prostate cancers, the presence of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), perineural invasions, and the one lymphatic invasion. Identification was by analysis of fibre diffraction patterns interpreted using a schema developed from observations in nine previous studies. The method, schema, and specific experiment results are reported in this paper, with some implications then drawn.

  17. An Experimental Comparison of Human and Automatic Music Segmentation Justin de Nooijer,*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veltkamp, Remco

    , the experiments were designed to answer the following questions: Q1. Is there enough agreement in human melodyAn Experimental Comparison of Human and Automatic Music Segmentation Justin de Nooijer,*1 Frans works need to be decomposed into segments and voices. One would expect that methods that model human

  18. Assessing the Reliability of a Human Estimator Gary D. Boetticher, Nazim Lokhandwala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boetticher, Gary D.

    than humans make [2]. Algorithmic-based estimation approaches are based on human subjectivity. The post-architecture from estimating models to current projects and organization environments in order to achieveAssessing the Reliability of a Human Estimator Gary D. Boetticher, Nazim Lokhandwala University

  19. ENGINEERING AND HUMAN HEALTH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    ENGINEERING AND HUMAN HEALTH: FROM THE INSIDE OUT Engineering research on small scales could have huge health implications College of Engineering U N I V E R S I T Y O F S A S K ATC H E WA N CO L L E G 17 Alumni accolades College of Engineering THOROUGHUNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

  20. Sampling in human cognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vul, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian Decision Theory describes optimal methods for combining sparse, noisy data with prior knowledge to build models of an uncertain world and to use those models to plan actions and make novel decisions. Bayesian ...

  1. Human Investigation Committee or by the Institutional Review Board of McGill University.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in masseter. We recorded electromyographic (EMG) responses in masseter under a range of skin stretch

  2. Ecological succession and viability of human-associated microbiota on restroom surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbons, Sean M.; Schwartz, Tara; Fouquier, Jennifer; Mitchell, Michelle; Sangwan, Naseer; Gilbert, Jack A.; Kelley, Scott T.; Elkins, C. A.

    2014-11-14

    Human-associated bacteria dominate the built environment (BE). Following decontamination of floors, toilet seats, and soap dispensers in four public restrooms, in situ bacterial communities were characterized hourly, daily, and weekly to determine their successional ecology. The viability of cultivable bacteria, following the removal of dispersal agents (humans), was also assessed hourly. A late-successional community developed within 5 to 8 h on restroom floors and showed remarkable stability over weeks to months. Despite late-successional dominance by skin- and outdoor-associated bacteria, the most ubiquitous organisms were predominantly gut-associated taxa, which persisted following exclusion of humans. Staphylococcus represented the majority of the cultivable community, even after several hours of human exclusion. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated virulence genes were found on floors but were not present in assembled Staphylococcus pan-genomes. Viral abundances, which were predominantly enterophages, human papilloma virus, and herpesviruses, were significantly correlated with bacterial abundances and showed an unexpectedly low virus-to-bacterium ratio in surface-associated samples, suggesting that bacterial hosts are mostly dormant on BE surfaces.

  3. Ecological succession and viability of human-associated microbiota on restroom surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gibbons, Sean M.; Schwartz, Tara; Fouquier, Jennifer; Mitchell, Michelle; Sangwan, Naseer; Gilbert, Jack A.; Kelley, Scott T.; Elkins, C. A.

    2014-11-14

    Human-associated bacteria dominate the built environment (BE). Following decontamination of floors, toilet seats, and soap dispensers in four public restrooms, in situ bacterial communities were characterized hourly, daily, and weekly to determine their successional ecology. The viability of cultivable bacteria, following the removal of dispersal agents (humans), was also assessed hourly. A late-successional community developed within 5 to 8 h on restroom floors and showed remarkable stability over weeks to months. Despite late-successional dominance by skin- and outdoor-associated bacteria, the most ubiquitous organisms were predominantly gut-associated taxa, which persisted following exclusion of humans. Staphylococcus represented the majority of the cultivablemore »community, even after several hours of human exclusion. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-associated virulence genes were found on floors but were not present in assembled Staphylococcus pan-genomes. Viral abundances, which were predominantly enterophages, human papilloma virus, and herpesviruses, were significantly correlated with bacterial abundances and showed an unexpectedly low virus-to-bacterium ratio in surface-associated samples, suggesting that bacterial hosts are mostly dormant on BE surfaces.« less

  4. A lumped-parameter electro-thermal model for cylindrical batteries Xinfan Lin a,*, Hector E. Perez a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    is applied to a LiFePO4/graphite battery. Comparison with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy dataA lumped-parameter electro-thermal model for cylindrical batteries Xinfan Lin a,*, Hector E. Perez i g h t s An electro-thermal model capturing battery SOC, voltage, skin and core temperature

  5. Climate and Environmental Sciences Division Strategic Plan Water is a key component of the earth and human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    , and subsurface processes, as well as climate and earth system modeling and integrated assessment modeling and plan the development of next- generation human-earth system models for improving long-term predictions

  6. Texas Tech University Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    to redevelop Texas Tech University's human resource functions into a high-performing human capital managementTexas Tech University Human Resources Strategic Plan January 1, 2014 - December 31, 2016 #12;2 Mission Texas Tech University is recognized as a premier institution and a workplace of choice. This work

  7. Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kautz, Henry

    Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz One of the earliest goals of research in artificial intelligence was to create systems that can interpret and understand day to day human experience. Early work on the goal of building systems that understand human experience. Each of the previous barriers is weakened

  8. Human Capital Management Accountability Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-08-01

    The Order establishes requirements, roles and responsibilities for the Human Capital Management Accountability Program (HCMAP) for human resources programs and personnel and ensures that human capital activities are regulatory and procedurally compliant with Federal statutes and Departmental policies. Does not cancel other directives.

  9. Sequential Causal Learning in Humans and Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R.; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan

    2008-01-01

    selection, to a human experiment that employed pretraining (group (white) in human experiment by Beckers et al. (2005).set used for the human experiments, we increased the

  10. Sequential Causal Learning in Humans and Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongjing Lu; Randall R. Rojas; Tom Beckers; Alan Yuille

    2011-01-01

    selection, to a human experiment that employed pretraining (group (white) in human experiment by Beckers et al. (2005).set used for the human experiments, we increased the

  11. Allele-specific gene regulation in humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maynard, Nathaniel David

    2008-01-01

    1 Introduction The Human Genome Project has provided thefrom clones and the human genome project have revealed thatVariation The Human Genome Project provided scientists with

  12. Project ATHENA creates surrogate human organ systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project ATHENA creates surrogate human organ systems Project ATHENA creates surrogate human organ systems The development of miniature surrogate human organs, coupled with highly...

  13. Integrated Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2012-10-31

    This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

  14. The Development of A Human Systems Simulation Laboratory: Strategic Direction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo; Katya le Blanc; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    The Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) at the Idaho National Laboratory is one of few facilities of its kind that allows human factors researchers to evaluate various aspects of human performance and human system interaction for proposed reactor designs and upgrades. A basic system architecture, physical configuration and simulation capability were established to enable human factors researchers to support multiple, simultaneous simulations and also different power plant technologies. Although still evolving in terms of its technical and functional architecture, the HSSL is already proving its worth in supporting current and future nuclear industry needs for light water reactor sustainability and small modular reactors. The evolution of the HSSL is focused on continual physical and functional refinement to make it a fully equipped, reconfigurable facility where advanced research, testing and validation studies can be conducted on a wider range of reactor technologies. This requires the implementation of additional plant models to produce empirical research data on human performance with emerging human-system interaction technologies. Additional beneficiaries of this information include system designers and HRA practitioners. To ensure that results of control room crew studies will be generalizable to the existing and evolving fleet of US reactors, future expansion of the HSSL may also include other SMR plant models, plant-specific simulators and a generic plant model aligned to the current generation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and future advanced reactor designs. Collaboration with industry partners is also proving to be a vital component of the facility as this helps to establish a formal basis for current and future human performance experiments to support nuclear industry objectives. A long-range Program Plan has been developed for the HSSL to ensure that the facility will support not only the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, but also to provide human factors guidance for all future developments of the nuclear industry.

  15. MODELING IMAGE SEQUENCES, WITH PARTICULAR APPLICATION TO FMRI DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastie, Trevor

    experiments. Such experiments com- monly consist of human subjects being exposed to a designed temporal replenishing the sites. The data collected in fMRI human brain mapping experiments consists of se- quencesMRI human brain mapping experiments. In this dissertation, we examine time-course models for fMRI human

  16. Timescales of Massive Human Entrainment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Mislove, Alan; Paxton, Alexandra; Matlock, Teenie; Dale, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an upsurge of interest in the collective behaviors of complex systems composed of many agents. In this paper, we extend concepts of entrainment to the dynamics of human collective attention. We demonstrate that large scale human entrainment may hold across a number of distinct scales, in an exquisitely time locked fashion. Using a large scale database of human communication data, we analyze and describe three different time scales of human entrainment in electronic media. We sought a distinct shared experience that provided a test bed for quantifying large scale human entrainment. We conducted a detailed investigation of the real time unfolding of human entrainment, as expressed by the content and patterns of hundreds of thousands of messages on Twitter, during the 2012 US presidential debates. By time locking these data sources, we quantify the real time impact of the debate on human attention. We show that social behavior covaries second by second to the interactional dynamics...

  17. Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  18. Human portable preconcentrator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hannum, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated.

  19. ORISE: Protecting Human Subjects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEY UNIVERSE TheForensicPerformanceProtecting Human Subjects

  20. Nitric oxide-releasing sulindac is a novel skin cancer chemopreventive agent for UVB-induced photocarcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Singh, Tripti; Kapur, Puneet; Weng, Zhiping; Arumugam, Aadithya; Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd, Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-releasing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NO-NSAIDs) which have been synthesized to reduce gastro-intestinal and cardiovascular toxicities of NSAIDs, possess anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic and anti-cancer activities. Here, we show that NO-sulindac inhibited UVB-induced skin tumorigenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice. Topical application of NO-sulindac reduced tumor incidence, number (p < 0.05) and volume (p < 0.005) as compared to UVB (alone)-irradiated vehicle-treated mice. An increase in TUNEL-positive cells in skin lesions was accompanied by the enhanced Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. The expression of pro-apoptotic Bax was increased whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 reduced. However, proliferation was identified as the major target of NO-sulindac in this study. A reduced expression of PCNA and cyclin D1 associated with the dampening of cell cycle progression was observed. The mechanism of this inhibition was related to the reduction in UVB-induced Notch signaling pathway. UVB-induced inflammatory responses were diminished by NO-sulindac as observed by a remarkable reduction in the levels of phosphorylated MAP Kinases Erk1/2, p38 and JNK1/2. In this regard, NO-sulindac also inhibited NF?B by enhancing I?B? as evidenced by the reduced expression of iNOS and COX-2, the direct NF?B transcription target proteins. NO-sulindac significantly diminished the progression of benign lesions to invasive carcinomas by suppressing the tumor aggressiveness and retarding epithelial–mesenchymal transition. A marked decrease in the expression of mesenchymal markers such as Fibronectin, N-cadherin, SNAI, Slug and Twist and an increase in epithelial cell polarity marker E-cadherin were noted in NO-sulindac-treated tumors. Our data suggest that NO-sulindac is a potent inhibitor of UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis and acts by targeting proliferation-regulatory pathways. - Highlights: ? NO-sulindac is a potent chemopreventive agent for UVB-induced skin cancer. ? NO-sulindac effectively blocks proliferation. ? NO-sulindac targets Notch and RXR-PI3k/Akt pathway to achieve anti-tumor efficacy.

  1. Biosphere Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Schmitt

    2000-05-25

    To evaluate the postclosure performance of a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, a Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) will be conducted. Nine Process Model Reports (PMRs), including this document, are being developed to summarize the technical basis for each of the process models supporting the TSPA model. These reports cover the following areas: (1) Integrated Site Model; (2) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport; (3) Near Field Environment; (4) Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport; (5) Waste Package Degradation; (6) Waste Form Degradation; (7) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport; (8) Biosphere; and (9) Disruptive Events. Analysis/Model Reports (AMRs) contain the more detailed technical information used to support TSPA and the PMRs. The AMRs consists of data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documentation that will be used to defend the applicability of each process model for evaluating the postclosure performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository system. This documentation will ensure the traceability of information from its source through its ultimate use in the TSPA-Site Recommendation (SR) and in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis processes. The objective of the Biosphere PMR is to summarize (1) the development of the biosphere model, and (2) the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) developed for use in TSPA. The Biosphere PMR does not present or summarize estimates of potential radiation doses to human receptors. Dose calculations are performed as part of TSPA and will be presented in the TSPA documentation. The biosphere model is a component of the process to evaluate postclosure repository performance and regulatory compliance for a potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The biosphere model describes those exposure pathways in the biosphere by which radionuclides released from a potential repository could reach a human receptor. Collectively, the potential human receptor and exposure pathways form the biosphere model. More detailed technical information and data about potential human receptor groups and the characteristics of exposure pathways have been developed in a series of AMRs and Calculation Reports.

  2. Numerical modeling of spray cooling-assisted dermatologic laser surgery for treatment of port wine stains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    . The objectives of this paper are: to improve the thermal modeling of skin undergoing CSC-assisted DLS for PWS that incorporate all the complexity of the problem are a valuable and fundamental research tool. Keywords: Spray Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 bBeckman Laser Institute Medical Clinic, University

  3. A parametric study of the drift-tearing mode using an extended-magnetohydrodynamic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J. R.; Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave. Suite A Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    The linear, collisional, constant-? drift-tearing mode is analyzed for different regimes of the plasma-?, ion-skin-depth parameter space with an unreduced, extended-magnetohydrodynamic model. New dispersion relations are found at moderate plasma ? and previous drift-tearing results are classified as applicable at small plasma ?.

  4. Short and ultrashort laser pulse induced bubbles on transparent and scattering tissue models.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    models that mimic biological tissue were irradiated with a Q-switched, 532 nm, 5 nanosecond, Nd cases where the treatment is not totally successful; as an example, Port Wine Stain (PWS) birthmarks are an abnormal layer of blood vessels 10 to 100µm in diameter localized 100 to 500 µm below the skin surface

  5. TLD skin dose measurements and acute and late effects after lumpectomy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy only for early breast cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perera, Francisco [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: francisco.perera@lrcc.on.ca; Chisela, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, Columbia St. Mary's Hospital, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Stitt, Larry [Department of Clinical Research Program, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Engel, Jay [Department of Surgical Oncology, London Health Sciences Centre, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Venkatesan, Varagur [Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: This report examines the relationships between measured skin doses and the acute and late skin and soft tissue changes in a pilot study of lumpectomy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy only for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-seven of 39 women enrolled in this pilot study of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (37.2 Gy in 10 fractions b.i.d.) each had thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) at 5 points on the skin of the breast overlying the implant volume. Skin changes at TLD dose points and fibrosis at the lumpectomy site were documented every 6 to 12 months posttreatment using a standardized physician-rated cosmesis questionnaire. The relationships between TLD dose and acute skin reaction, pigmentation, or telangiectasia at 5 years were analyzed using the GEE algorithm and the GENMOD procedure in the SAS statistical package. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there were any significant associations between acute skin reaction and late pigmentation or telangiectasia or between the volumes encompassed by various isodoses and fibrosis or fat necrosis. Results: The median TLD dose per fraction (185 dose points) multiplied by 10 was 9.2 Gy. In all 37 patients, acute skin reaction Grade 1 or higher was observed at 5.9% (6 of 102) of dose points receiving 10 Gy or less vs. 44.6% (37 of 83) of dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p < 0.0001). In 25 patients at 60 months, 1.5% telangiectasia was seen at dose points receiving 10 Gy or less (1 of 69) vs. 18% (10 of 56) telangiectasia at dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p 0.004). Grade 1 or more pigmentation developed at 1.5% (1 of 69) of dose points receiving less than 10 Gy vs. 25% (14 of 56) of dose points receiving more than 10 Gy (p < 0.001). A Grade 1 or more acute skin reaction was also significantly associated with development of Grade 1 or more pigmentation or telangiectasia at 60 months. This association was most significant for acute reaction and telangiectasia directly over the lumpectomy site (p < 0.001). Grade 1 or more fibrosis, in 25 patients with a 60-month follow-up, occurred in 47.4% (9 of 19) of patients with a volume of 45 cm{sup 3} or less covered by the 100% isodose vs. 83.3% (5 of 6) of patients with a larger volume (p 0.180). Asymptomatic and biopsy-proven fat necrosis occurred in 5 patients. No significant differences in fat necrosis rates according to volume were detected. Conclusions: For high-dose-rate brachytherapy to the lumpectomy site, TLD skin dose was significantly related to acute skin reaction and to pigmentation and telangiectasia at 60 months. An acute skin reaction was also significantly associated with the development of telangiectasia at 60 months. TLD skin dose measurement may allow modification of the brachytherapy implant geometry (dwell times and position) to minimize late skin toxicity.

  6. PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National...

  7. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  8. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure.

  9. MPEG-4 Body Animation Parameters (BAPs) are used for animation of MPEG-4 compliant virtual human-like characters. Distributed virtual reality applications and networked games on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Kang

    Power Aware Compression Algorithms for MPEG-4 Virtual Human Animation in Mobile Computers Siddhartha virtual human (avatar) animation is used in many applications that depict human models interacting decompression, is needed. MPEG-4 has proposed H-Anim standards to represent virtual human-like characters [7] [8

  10. Human portable preconcentrator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Puissant, James G.; Varley, Nathan R.

    2003-08-12

    A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated. The screen can be positioned directly in front of the detector prior to heating to improve detection capability.

  11. Human-computer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  12. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  13. Editorial: The Human Genome Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Michael H.; Baer, A.S.; Hall, R.; Omenn, G.S.; Thomson, G.J.; Wilson, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    iv / Editorial: The Human Genome Project Dear readers, The last few decades have seen a number of exciting developments in genetics. First, Watson and Crick broke the genetic code; since then, tech-nologic and methodologic breakthroughs have... permitted the study and direct manipulation of our DNA. Now there is an international ground swell to map and sequence the human genome. The Bush administration had originally requested $128 million in last year's budget for the Human Genome Project. However...

  14. Design of a building structural skin using multi-objective optimization techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merello, Riccardo

    2006-01-01

    Multi-disciplinary System Design Optimization was used to design the geometry and to select the materials for the structural facade of a building. A multi-objective optimization model was developed, capable of optimizing ...

  15. Side-by-side evaluation of a stressed-skin insulated-core panel house and a conventional stud-frame house. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Chandra, S.

    1994-01-14

    Side-by-side energy testing and monitoring was conducted on two houses in Louisville, KY between January--March 1993. Both houses were identical except that one house was constructed with conventional US 2 by 4 studs and a truss roof while the other house was constructed with stress-skin insulated core panels for the walls and second floor ceiling. Air-tightness testing included fan pressurization by blower door, hour long tracer tests using sulphur hexafluoride, and two-week long time-averaged tests using perfluorocarbon tracers. An average of all the air-tightness test results showed the SSIC panel house to have 22 percent less air infiltration than the frame house. Air-tightness testing resulted in a recommendation that both houses have a fresh air ventilation system installed to provide 0.35 air changes per hour continuously. Thermal insulation quality testing was by infrared imaging. Pressure differential testing resulted in recommendations to use sealed combustion appliances, and to allow for more return air flow from closed rooms. This can be accomplished by separate return ducts or transfer ducts which simply connect closed rooms to the main body with a short duct. The SSIC house UA was lower in both cases. By measurement, co-heating tests showed the SSIC panel house total UA to be 12 percent lower than the frame house. Short-term energy monitoring was also conducted for the two houses. A 17 day period of electric heating and a 14 day period of gas furnace heating was evaluated. Monitoring results showed energy savings for the panel house to be 12 percent during electric heating and 15 percent during gas heating. A comparison of the two monitoring periods showed that the lumped efficiency of the gas furnace and air distribution system for both houses was close to 80 percent. Simple regression models using Typical Meteorological Year weather data gave a preliminary prediction of seasonal energy savings between 14 and 20 percent.

  16. Protection of Human Research Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-07-20

    Changes are made to harmonize the definitions in this Order with those in the Federal regulations for the protection of human subjects (10 CFR Part 745), specifically, splitting the definition "human subject research" into "research" and "human subject," and adopting, verbatim, the definitions of "research" and "human subject" from 10 CFR Part 745 and adding the definition of "generalizable," since the determination of whether a project is "research" in 10 CFR Part 745 hinges on whether the work being conducted is generalizable. Small corrections and updates have been made to the references, links, and organization titles.

  17. Quantum physics and human values

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1989-09-01

    This report discusses the following concepts: the quantum conception of nature; the quantum conception of man; and the impact upon human values. (LSP).

  18. ORISE: Human Subjects Research Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in support of the HSRD database: Database maintenance Federal Internet server access Software development Quality assurancequality control Project assistance Human Subjects...

  19. Integrated design environment for human performance and human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1997-05-01

    Work over the last few years at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has included a major focus on applying human performance and human reliability knowledge and methods as an integral element of system design and development. This work has been pursued in programs in a wide variety of technical domains, beginning with nuclear power plant operations. Since the mid-1980`s the laboratory has transferred the methods and tools developed in the nuclear domain to military weapons systems and aircraft, offshore oil and shipping operations, and commercial aviation operations and aircraft design. Through these diverse applications the laboratory has developed an integrated approach and framework for application of human performance analysis, human reliability analysis (HRA), operational data analysis, and simulation studies of human performance to the design and development of complex systems. This approach was recently tested in the NASA Advanced Concepts Program {open_quotes}Structured Human Error Analysis for Aircraft Design.{close_quotes} This program resulted in the prototype software tool THEA (Tool for Human Error Analysis) for incorporating human error analysis in the design of commercial aircraft, focusing on airplane maintenance tasks. Current effort is directed toward applying this framework to the development of advanced Air Traffic Management (ATM) systems as part of NASA`s Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) program. This paper summarizes the approach, describes recent and current applications in commercial aviation, and provides perspectives on how the approach could be utilized in the nuclear power industry.

  20. Predicting human developmental toxicity of pharmaceuticals using human embryonic stem cells and metabolomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    West, Paul R., E-mail: pwest@stemina.co [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Weir, April M.; Smith, Alan M.; Donley, Elizabeth L.R. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); Cezar, Gabriela G. [Stemina Biomarker Discovery, Inc., 504 S. Rosa Rd., Suite 150, Madison, WI 53719 (United States); University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Animal Sciences, 1675 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Teratogens, substances that may cause fetal abnormalities during development, are responsible for a significant number of birth defects. Animal models used to predict teratogenicity often do not faithfully correlate to human response. Here, we seek to develop a more predictive developmental toxicity model based on an in vitro method that utilizes both human embryonic stem (hES) cells and metabolomics to discover biomarkers of developmental toxicity. We developed a method where hES cells were dosed with several drugs of known teratogenicity then LC-MS analysis was performed to measure changes in abundance levels of small molecules in response to drug dosing. Statistical analysis was employed to select for specific mass features that can provide a prediction of the developmental toxicity of a substance. These molecules can serve as biomarkers of developmental toxicity, leading to better prediction of teratogenicity. In particular, our work shows a correlation between teratogenicity and changes of greater than 10% in the ratio of arginine to asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. In addition, this study resulted in the establishment of a predictive model based on the most informative mass features. This model was subsequently tested for its predictive accuracy in two blinded studies using eight drugs of known teratogenicity, where it correctly predicted the teratogenicity for seven of the eight drugs. Thus, our initial data shows that this platform is a robust alternative to animal and other in vitro models for the prediction of the developmental toxicity of chemicals that may also provide invaluable information about the underlying biochemical pathways.

  1. A Research Roadmap for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boring, Ronald; Mandelli, Diego; Joe, Jeffrey; Smith, Curtis; Groth, Katrina

    2015-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research through the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to extend the life of the currently operating fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. The Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) research pathway within LWRS looks at ways to maintain and improve the safety margins of these plants. The RISMC pathway includes significant developments in the area of thermalhydraulics code modeling and the development of tools to facilitate dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). PRA is primarily concerned with the risk of hardware systems at the plant; yet, hardware reliability is often secondary in overall risk significance to human errors that can trigger or compound undesirable events at the plant. This report highlights ongoing efforts to develop a computation-based approach to human reliability analysis (HRA). This computation-based approach differs from existing static and dynamic HRA approaches in that it: (i) interfaces with a dynamic computation engine that includes a full scope plant model, and (ii) interfaces with a PRA software toolset. The computation-based HRA approach presented in this report is called the Human Unimodels for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER) and incorporates in a hybrid fashion elements of existing HRA methods to interface with new computational tools developed under the RISMC pathway. The goal of this research effort is to model human performance more accurately than existing approaches, thereby minimizing modeling uncertainty found in current plant risk models.

  2. STORAGE FUNCTION FOR PASSIVITY ANALYSIS OF PNEUMATIC ACTUATORS WITH FINITE HEAT TRANSFER IN HUMAN-INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    crawler [2], and potentially as human power amplifiers [3], [4]. There is also on going research to passive operation of hydraulic human power ampli- fier was reported. These ideas were extended to a pneumatic human power amplifier in [3], [11]. Energetic passivity analysis requires a model of the system

  3. History of Humanities Associate Editors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mateo, Jill M.

    History of Humanities Associate Editors Rick Altman, Film Studies, University of Iowa Carolyn History of Science and Humanities, Utrecht University David Cram, History of Linguistics, University, Max Planck Institute for the History of Science Caroline van Eck, Art and Architecture, Leiden

  4. The human activity of visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Griffin et al 2006 #12;Human-Computer Interaction: Software of the Mind each user has a setThe human activity of visualization cultural and psychological factors in representation; Gibbon 1998; Marcus 2000) conventions and metaphors of Westerners may not hold worldwide colors

  5. The Human Genome Diversity Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L.

    1994-12-31

    The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD Project) is an international anthropology project that seeks to study the genetic richness of the entire human species. This kind of genetic information can add a unique thread to the tapestry knowledge of humanity. Culture, environment, history, and other factors are often more important, but humanity`s genetic heritage, when analyzed with recent technology, brings another type of evidence for understanding species` past and present. The Project will deepen the understanding of this genetic richness and show both humanity`s diversity and its deep and underlying unity. The HGD Project is still largely in its planning stages, seeking the best ways to reach its goals. The continuing discussions of the Project, throughout the world, should improve the plans for the Project and their implementation. The Project is as global as humanity itself; its implementation will require the kinds of partnerships among different nations and cultures that make the involvement of UNESCO and other international organizations particularly appropriate. The author will briefly discuss the Project`s history, describe the Project, set out the core principles of the Project, and demonstrate how the Project will help combat the scourge of racism.

  6. Individual Differences in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. Joe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    While human reliability analysis (HRA) methods include uncertainty in quantification, the nominal model of human error in HRA typically assumes that operator performance does not vary significantly when they are given the same initiating event, indicators, procedures, and training, and that any differences in operator performance are simply aleatory (i.e., random). While this assumption generally holds true when performing routine actions, variability in operator response has been observed in multiple studies, especially in complex situations that go beyond training and procedures. As such, complexity can lead to differences in operator performance (e.g., operator understanding and decision-making). Furthermore, psychological research has shown that there are a number of known antecedents (i.e., attributable causes) that consistently contribute to observable and systematically measurable (i.e., not random) differences in behavior. This paper reviews examples of individual differences taken from operational experience and the psychological literature. The impact of these differences in human behavior and their implications for HRA are then discussed. We propose that individual differences should not be treated as aleatory, but rather as epistemic. Ultimately, by understanding the sources of individual differences, it is possible to remove some epistemic uncertainty from analyses.

  7. Human retinoblastoma gene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bookstein, R.; Lee, E.Y.H.P.; Peccei, A.; Lee, W.H. (Dept. of Pathology M-012 and Center for Molecular Genetics, Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (US))

    1989-04-01

    Mutational inactivation of the retinoblastoma (RB) gene is considered a fundamental event in the formation of several types of human cancer. A substantial proportion of RB gene mutations are partial or complete deletions that extend an unknown distance beyond one or both ends of the gene. To provide a framework for measuring the extent of these deletions, the authors have constructed a long-range restriction map of SfiI sites spanning 850 kilobases around the RB gene. This map was applied in a molecular analysis of RB gene deletion in breast cancer cell line MB468. A previous study of this cell line demonstrated deletion of the entire RB gene except for exons 1 and 2. Genomic clones containing the deletion junction were isolated from a library made from MB468 DNA. A probe obtained from the far side of the deletion junction was used to localize and clone the unknown 3' endpoint, demonstrating that the chromosomal mutation in this case was a simple deletion spanning 200 kilobases. Sequence analysis of the deletion junction indicated a conservative deletion with no loss or gain of nucleotides. The deletion endpoints had no sequence homology to each other or to any repetitive sequence family, such as Alu, so the recombination event was illegitimate. Structural analysis of this and other RB gene deletions is important for understanding molecular mechanisms of recessive oncogenesis.

  8. Human Reliability Analysis for Digital Human-Machine Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01

    This paper addresses the fact that existing human reliability analysis (HRA) methods do not provide guidance on digital human-machine interfaces (HMIs). Digital HMIs are becoming ubiquitous in nuclear power operations, whether through control room modernization or new-build control rooms. Legacy analog technologies like instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are costly to support, and vendors no longer develop or support analog technology, which is considered technologically obsolete. Yet, despite the inevitability of digital HMI, no current HRA method provides guidance on how to treat human reliability considerations for digital technologies.

  9. Unfolding large-scale online collaborative human dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zha, Yilong; Zhou, Changsong

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale interacting human activities underlie all social and economic phenomena, but quantitative understanding of regular patterns and mechanism is very challenging and still rare. Self-organized online collaborative activities with precise record of event timing provide unprecedented opportunity. Our empirical analysis of the history of millions of updates in Wikipedia shows a universal double power-law distribution of time intervals between consecutive updates of an article. We then propose a generic model to unfold collaborative human activities into three modules: (i) individual behavior characterized by Poissonian initiation of an action, (ii) human interaction captured by a cascading response to others with a power-law waiting time, and (iii) population growth due to increasing number of interacting individuals. This unfolding allows us to obtain analytical formula that is fully supported by the universal patterns in empirical data. Our modeling approaches reveal "simplicity" beyond complex interac...

  10. Electric dipole response of 208Pb from proton inelastic scattering: constraints on neutron skin thickness and symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Tamii; P. von Neumann-Cosel; I. Poltoratska

    2013-10-02

    The electric dipole (E1) response of 208Pb has been precisely determined by measuring Coulomb excitation induced by proton scattering at very forward angles. The electric dipole polarizability, defined as inverse energy-weighted sum rule of the E1 strength, has been extracted as 20.1+-0.6 fm^3. The data can be used to constrain the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb to 0.168(+-0.009)_expt(+-0.013)_theo(+-0.021)_est fm, where the subscript "expt" refers to the experimental uncertainty, "theor" to the theoretical confidence band and "est" to the uncertainty associated with the estimation of the symmetry energy at the saturation density. In addition, a constraint band has been extracted in the plane of the symmetry energy (J) and its slope parameter (L) at the saturation density.

  11. Laminin peptide YIGSR induces collagen synthesis in Hs27 human dermal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Jaeyoon; Lee, Hyeongjoo [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, So Young [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Hwan-Hee [Functional Food and Nutrition Division, Department of Agrofood Resources, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-853 (Korea, Republic of)] [Functional Food and Nutrition Division, Department of Agrofood Resources, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-853 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Sung Ho [Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Integrative Biosciences and Biotechnology, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Beom Joon [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Convergence Medicine and Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taehoon G., E-mail: taehoon@novacelltech.com [NovaCell Technology Inc., Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identify a function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in Hs27. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer YIGSR peptide enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis both of gene and protein levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There were no changes in cell proliferation and MMP-1 level in YIGSR treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR effect on collagen synthesis mediated activation of FAK, pyk2 and ERK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The YIGSR-induced FAK and ERK activation was modulated by FAK and MEK inhibitors. -- Abstract: The dermal ECM is synthesized from fibroblasts and is primarily compromised of fibrillar collagen and elastic fibers, which support the mechanical strength and resiliency of skin, respectively. Laminin, a major glycoprotein located in the basement membrane, promotes cell adhesion, cell growth, differentiation, and migration. The laminin tyrosine-isoleucine-glycine-serine-arginine (YIGSR) peptide, corresponding to the 929-933 sequence of the {beta}1 chain, is known to be a functional motif with effects on the inhibition of tumor metastasis, the regulation of sensory axonal response and the inhibition of angiogenesis through high affinity to the 67 kDa laminin receptor. In this study, we identified a novel function of the YIGSR peptide to enhance collagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblasts. To elucidate this novel function regarding collagen synthesis, we treated human dermal fibroblasts with YIGSR peptide in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. According to subsequent experiments, we found that the YIGSR peptide strongly enhanced collagen type 1 synthesis without changing cell proliferation or cellular MMP-1 level. This YIGSR peptide-mediated collagen type 1 synthesis was modulated by FAK inhibitor and MEK inhibitor. This study clearly reveals that YIGSR peptide plays a novel function on the collagen type 1 synthesis of dermal fibroblasts and also suggests that YIGSR is a strong candidate peptide for the treatment of skin aging and wrinkles.

  12. Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time response and inhibitor effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerecke, Donald R. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), a Joint Institute of UMDNJ-RW Johnson Medical School and Rutgers University, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu; Chen Minjun; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Gordon, Marion K.; Chang, Y.-C. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Joint Institute of UMDNJ-RW Johnson Medical School and Rutgers University, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Tong Weida [US FDA, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AK (United States); Androulakis, Ioannis P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Georgopoulos, Panos G. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Joint Institute of UMDNJ-RW Johnson Medical School and Rutgers University, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD, SM), is a chemical warfare agent that within hours causes extensive blistering at the dermal-epidermal junction of skin. To better understand the progression of SM-induced blistering, gene expression profiling for mouse skin was performed after a single high dose of SM exposure. Punch biopsies of mouse ears were collected at both early and late time periods following SM exposure (previous studies only considered early time periods). The biopsies were examined for pathological disturbances and the samples further assayed for gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix microarray analysis system. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the differently expressed genes, performed with ArrayTrack showed clear separation of the various groups. Pathway analysis employing the KEGG library and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and hematopoietic cell lineage are common pathways affected at different time points. Gene ontology analysis identified the most significantly altered biological processes as the immune response, inflammatory response, and chemotaxis; these findings are consistent with other reported results for shorter time periods. Selected genes were chosen for RT-PCR verification and showed correlations in the general trends for the microarrays. Interleukin 1 beta was checked for biological analysis to confirm the presence of protein correlated to the corresponding microarray data. The impact of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor I, against SM exposure was assessed. These results can help in understanding the molecular mechanism of SM-induced blistering, as well as to test the efficacy of different inhibitors.

  13. Human Factors Related to a Virtual Reality Surgical Simulator: The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowden, Richard

    and therefore, reductions in patient intervention costs (Banta, 1993). #12; Human Factors Related to a Virtual Training System in the light of feedback from surgeons. Initial work to produce finite element models are displayed. The training system has been well received by the surgeons and represents a new and potentially

  14. Conditional Regression Forests for Human Pose Estimation Pushmeet Kohli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohli, Pushmeet

    Conditional Regression Forests for Human Pose Estimation Min Sun Pushmeet Kohli Jamie Shotton estimation from depth images. The conditional regression model proposed in the paper is general and can body joint prediction as a regression problem which avoids intermediate body part classification

  15. Special Issue: Human Genetics The overdue promise of short tandem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queitsch, Christine

    variation to existing genetic models would considerably increase the proportion of her- itability explainedSpecial Issue: Human Genetics The overdue promise of short tandem repeat variation for heritability repeat (STR) variation has been proposed as a major explanatory factor in the heritability of com- plex

  16. TOWARD A HUMAN-CENTERED UML FOR RISK ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiochet, Jérémie

    TOWARD A HUMAN-CENTERED UML FOR RISK ANALYSIS Application to a medical robot Jérémie Guiochet1. The first and important step of this activity is risk analysis. During risk analysis, two main studies, this paper proposes to treat the risk analysis on the common expression language UML (Unified Modeling

  17. Contextual Computer Support for Human Donald J. Patterson1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kautz, Henry

    . As a result they have become intrusive in our daily lives as cell-phones ring in movie theaters, laptops computer chips embedded in a sticker the size of a postage stamp. There is no power supply associated stream, coupled with models of human activity and a powerful inference engine, to probabilistically

  18. Jonathan K. London, Ph.D. Department of Human Ecology &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    + Jonathan K. London, Ph.D. Department of Human Ecology & Eyes on the Prize: Sustainable and Jobs" (EEJ) alternative Sacramento: Formal integration into SCS Selection of TPAs Transportation just communities Focus on actual transportation and housing investments not only modeled land use

  19. Probing dietary change of the Kwaday Dan Ts'i`nchi individual, an ancient glacier body from British Columbia: II. Deconvoluting whole skin and bone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kohler, Tim A.

    British Columbia: II. Deconvoluting whole skin and bone collagen d13 C values via carbon isotope analysis Beattie e , Richard P. Evershed a,* a Organic Geochemistry Unit, Bristol Biogeochemistry Research Centre Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4910, USA d British Columbia

  20. Bioinspir. Biomim. 10 (2015) 066010 doi:10.1088/1748-3190/10/6/066010 Hydrodynamic function of biomimetic shark skin: effect of denticle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauder, George V.

    2015-01-01

    Bioinspir. Biomim. 10 (2015) 066010 doi:10.1088/1748-3190/10/6/066010 PAPER Hydrodynamic function fabricated with rigid denticles (scales) on a flexible substrate. This artificial skin can bend and generate denticle patterns on locomotion. In this paper we investigate the effect of changing the spacing