Sample records for human skin model

  1. A Probabilistic Model for the Human Skin Color T.S. Caetano and D.A.C. Barone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caetano, Tiberio

    ,barone}@inf.ufrgs.br _____________________________________________ Abstract We present a multivariate statistical model to represent the human skin color. In our approach part in a fully automated facial analysis system, the first important step in recognizing faces to detect faces [1-6]. However, it is a well-known fact that the majority of images acquired today

  2. Thermal Modeling and Experimental Validation of Human Hair and Skin Heated by Broadband Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    distribution within the hair follicle is highly non-uniform: the minimum temperature occurs at the follicle Sun, PhD,1 Alex Chaney,1 Robert Anderson, PhD,2 and Guillermo Aguilar, PhD 1 * 1 Department:(a)determinetheoveralleffectofPPxonskinhumidi- tyandassociatedskinopticalproperties,and;(b)developaPT numerical model to study the spatial and temporal hair and skin temperature

  3. Cell motility in models of wounded human skin is improved by Gap27 despite raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Catherine S.; Berends, Rebecca F. [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom); Flint, David J. [Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Martin, Patricia E.M., E-mail: Patricia.Martin@gcu.ac.uk [Department of Life Sciences, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, 70 Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Reducing Cx43 expression stimulates skin wound healing. This is mimicked in models when Cx43 function is blocked by the connexin mimetic peptide Gap27. IGF-I also stimulates wound healing with IGFBP-5 attenuating its actions. Further, the IGF-I to IGFBP-5 ratio is altered in diabetic skin, where wound closure is impaired. We investigated whether Gap27 remains effective in augmenting scrape-wound closure in human skin wound models simulating diabetes-induced changes, using culture conditions with raised glucose, insulin and IGFBP-5. Gap27 increased scrape-wound closure in normal glucose and insulin (NGI) and to a lesser extent in high glucose and insulin (HGI). IGF-I enhanced scrape-wound closure in keratinocytes whereas IGFBP-5 inhibited this response. Gap27 overcame the inhibitory effects of IGFBP-5 on IGF-I activity. Connexin-mediated communication (CMC) was reduced in HGI, despite raised Cx43, and Gap27 significantly decreased CMC in NGI and HGI. IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect CMC. IGF-I increased keratinocyte proliferation in NGI, and Gap27 increased proliferation in NGI to a greater extent than in HGI. We conclude that IGF-I and Gap27 stimulate scrape-wound closure by independent mechanisms with Gap27 inhibiting Cx43 function. Gap27 can enhance wound closure in diabetic conditions, irrespective of the IGF-I:IGFBP-5 balance. - Highlights: ? Human organotypic and keratinocyte ‘diabetic’ skin models were used to demonstrate the ability of Gap27 to improve scrape-wound closure. ? Gap27 enhanced scrape-wound closure by reducing Cx43-mediated communication, whereas IGFBP-5 retarded cell migration. ? IGF-I and IGFBP-5 did not affect connexin-mediated pathways. ? Gap27 can override altered glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 in ‘diabetic’ skin models and thus has therapeutic potential.

  4. Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

  5. Regulation of Hsp27 and Hsp70 expression in human and mouse skin construct models by caveolae following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dermal exposure to the vesicant sulfur mustard causes marked inflammation and tissue damage. Basal keratinocytes appear to be a major target of sulfur mustard. In the present studies, mechanisms mediating skin toxicity were examined using a mouse skin construct model and a full-thickness human skin equivalent (EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}). In both systems, administration of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES, 100-1000 {mu}M) at the air surface induced mRNA and protein expression of heat shock proteins 27 and 70 (Hsp27 and Hsp70). CEES treatment also resulted in increased expression of caveolin-1, the major structural component of caveolae. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Hsp27, Hsp70 and caveolin-1 were localized in basal and suprabasal layers of the epidermis. Caveolin-1 was also detected in fibroblasts in the dermal component of the full thickness human skin equivalent. Western blot analysis of caveolar membrane fractions isolated by sucrose density centrifugation demonstrated that Hsp27 and Hsp70 were localized in caveolae. Treatment of mouse keratinocytes with filipin III or methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin, which disrupt caveolar structure, markedly suppressed CEES-induced Hsp27 and Hsp70 mRNA and protein expression. CEES treatment is known to activate JNK and p38 MAP kinases; in mouse keratinocytes, inhibition of these enzymes suppressed CEES-induced expression of Hsp27 and Hsp70. These data suggest that MAP kinases regulate Hsp 27 and Hsp70; moreover, caveolae-mediated regulation of heat shock protein expression may be important in the pathophysiology of vesicant-induced skin toxicity.

  6. Real-time, Photo-realistic, Physically Based Rendering of Fine Scale Human Skin Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haro, Antonio

    structure samples, build models of fine scale structure production, and then render this detail usingReal-time, Photo-realistic, Physically Based Rendering of Fine Scale Human Skin Structure Antonio, which is clearly visible in close-up shots in a film or game. Methods that rely on simple texture

  7. In vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in human and rat skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Michael F., E-mail: hughes.michaelf@epa.go [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Edwards, Brenda C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Dermal exposure to pyrethroid pesticides can occur during manufacture and application. This study examined the in vitro dermal absorption of pyrethroids using rat and human skin. Dermatomed skin from adult male Long Evans rats or human cadavers was mounted in flow-through diffusion cells, and radiolabeled bifenthrin, deltamethrin or cis-permethrin was applied in acetone to the skin. Fractions of receptor fluid were collected every 4 h. At 24 h, the skins were washed with soap and water to remove unabsorbed chemical. The skin was then solubilized. Two additional experiments were performed after washing the skin; the first was tape-stripping the skin and the second was the collection of receptor fluid for an additional 24 h. Receptor fluid, skin washes, tape strips and skin were analyzed for radioactivity. For rat skin, the wash removed 53-71% of the dose and 26-43% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid ranged from 1 to 5%. For human skin, the wash removed 71-83% of the dose and 14-25% remained in the skin. The cumulative percentage of the dose at 24 h in the receptor fluid was 1-2%. Tape-stripping removed 50-56% and 79-95% of the dose in rat and human skin, respectively, after the wash. From 24-48 h, 1-3% and about 1% of the dose diffused into the receptor fluid of rat and human skin, respectively. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, deltamethrin and cis-permethrin penetrated rat and human skin following dermal application in vitro. However, a skin wash removed 50% or more of the dose from rat and human skin. Rat skin was more permeable to the pyrethroids than human skin. Of the dose in skin, 50% or more was removed by tape-stripping, suggesting that permeation of pyrethroids into viable tissue could be impeded. The percentage of the dose absorbed into the receptor fluid was considerably less than the dose in rat and human skin. Therefore, consideration of the skin type used and fractions analyzed are important when using in vitro dermal absorption data for risk assessment.

  8. High frequency ultrasonic characterization of human skin In vivo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raju, Balasundara I. (Balasundara Iyyavu), 1972-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High frequency (>20 MHz) ultrasound has numerous potential applications in dermatology because of its ability to penetrate several millimeters into the skin and provide information at a spatial resolution of tens of microns. ...

  9. Three-Dimensional Model on Thermal Response of Skin Subject to Laser Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jun

    in human skin [3]. The #12;rst medical lasers were continuous beam lasers such as CO 2 laser, argon laser and Jun Zhang z Laboratory for High Performance Scienti#12;c Computing and Computer Simulation, Department to investigate the transient thermal response of human skin subject to laser heating. The temperature

  10. A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography Domoina Ratovoson, Franck of this study is to be able to act quickly on body burns, to avoid propagating lesions due to heat diffusion the temperature change using an infra-red camera. Blood circulation in the veins was seen to clearly influence

  11. Confocal Microscopy for Modeling Electron Microbeam Irradiation of Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John H.; Chrisler, William B.; Wang, Xihai; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For radiation exposures employing targeted sources such as particle microbeams, the deposition of energy and dose will depend on the spatial heterogeneity of the spample. Although cell structural variations are relatively minor for two-dimensional cell cultures, they can vary significantly for fully differential tissues. Employing high-resolution confocal microscopy, we have determined the spatial distribution, size, and shape of epidermal kerantinocyte nuclei for the full-thickness EpiDerm skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). Application of these data to claculate the microdosimetry and microdistribution of energy deposition by an electron microbeam is discussed.

  12. Simulation of Electron-Beam Irradiation of Skin Tissue Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John H.; Suleiman, Atef; Chrisler, William B.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo simulation of electrons stopping in liquid water was used to model the penetration and dose distribution of electron beams incident on the full-thickness EpiDermTM skin model (MatTek, Ashland, VA). This 3D tissue model has a fully developed basement membrane separating an epidermal layer of keratinocytes in various stages of differentiation from a dermal layer of fibroblast embedded in collagen. The simulations were motivated by a desire to selectively expose the epidermal layer to low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation in the presence of a non-irradiated dermal layer. Using the variable energy electron microbeam at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as a model of device characteristics and irradiation geometry, we find that at the highest beam energy available (90 keV), the estimated 90th percentile of penetration remains in the epidermal layer. To investigate the depth-dose distribution, we calculated lineal energy spectra for 10um thick layers near the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile of penetration by the 90 keV electron beam. Biphasic spectra showed an increasing component of "stoppers" with increasing depth. Despite changes in the lineal energy spectra, the main effect on dose deposition with increasing depth is the screening effect of tissue above the layer of interest.

  13. Green tea polyphenol, (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, induces toxicity in human skin cancer cells by targeting ?-catenin signaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Tripti [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Katiyar, Santosh K., E-mail: skatiyar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The green tea polyphenol, (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), has been shown to have anti-carcinogenic effects in several skin tumor models, and efforts are continued to investigate the molecular targets responsible for its cytotoxic effects to cancer cells. Our recent observation that ?-catenin is upregulated in skin tumors suggested the possibility that the anti-skin carcinogenic effects of EGCG are mediated, at least in part, through its effects on ?-catenin signaling. We have found that treatment of the A431 and SCC13 human skin cancer cell lines with EGCG resulted in reduced cell viability and increased cell death and that these cytotoxic effects were associated with inactivation of ?-catenin signaling. Evidence of EGCG-induced inactivation of ?-catenin included: (i) reduced accumulation of nuclear ?-catenin; (ii) enhanced levels of casein kinase1?, reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3?, and increased phosphorylation of ?-catenin on critical serine{sup 45,33/37} residues; and (iii) reduced levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which are down-stream targets of ?-catenin. Treatment of cells with prostaglandin E2 (PGE{sub 2}) enhanced the accumulation of ?-catenin and enhanced ?-catenin signaling. Treatment with either EGCG or an EP2 antagonist (AH6809) reduced the PGE{sub 2}-enhanced levels of cAMP, an upstream regulator of ?-catenin. Inactivation of ?-catenin by EGCG resulted in suppression of cell survival signaling proteins. siRNA knockdown of ?-catenin in A431 and SCC13 cells reduced cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that induction of cytotoxicity in skin cancer cells by EGCG is mediated by targeting of ?-catenin signaling and that the ?-catenin signaling is upregulated by inflammatory mediators. - Highlights: • EGCG inhibits cancer cell viability through inactivation of ?-catenin signaling. • Inactivation of ?-catenin involves the downregulation of inflammatory mediators. • EGCG inactivates ?-catenin in skin cancer cells by inhibition of cAMP and PGE{sub 2}. • siRNA knockdown of ?-catenin or COX-2 reduces the viability of cancer cells.

  14. Reflective Terahertz Imaging for early diagnosis of skin burn severity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TEWARI, PRIYAMVADA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of human skin was used for hydration experiments whereby itthe human skin, was used for the hydration experiments and

  15. 06241 Abstracts Collection Human Motion -Understanding, Modeling,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    06241 Abstracts Collection Human Motion - Understanding, Modeling, Capture and Animation. 13th Summary Human Motion - Understanding, Modeling, Capture and Animation. 13th Workshop Reinhard Klette 06241 Human Motion - Understanding, Modeling, Capture and Animation. 13th Workshop "Theoretical

  16. Demonstration of tyrosinase in the vitiligo skin of human beings by a sensitive fluorometric method as well as by 14C(U)-L-tyrosine incorporation into melanin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husain, I.; Vijayan, E.; Ramaiah, A.; Pasricha, J.S.; Madan, N.C.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tyrosinase activity (Monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.14.18.1) in vitiligo and normal epidermal homogenates of skin from human beings was measured by estimating beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) by a highly sensitive fluorometric method described in this paper. The tyrosine activity in the vitiligo skin was about 4 to 37% of corresponding normal skin. The activity of tyrosinase in normal human skin from different individuals and from different regions of the body was in the range of 4 to 140 picomoles of beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine formed per min/mg protein of epidermal homogenate. The enzyme from vitiligo and normal skin was severely inhibited by substance(s) of low molecular weight. The enzyme exhibits a lag of about 4 hr in the absence of added beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 1 hr in presence of 5 microM dopa. Tyrosinase from the normal and vitiligo skin was inhibited by excess concentration of tyrosine. The homogenates from vitiligo skin could synthesize melanin from C14(U)-L-Tyrosine. The rate of tyrosine incorporation into melanin by the epidermal homogenates is increased by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) disproportionate to its effect on tyrosinase activity. Based on the data presented in this paper it is concluded that melanocytes are present in the vitiligo skin. A tentative hypothesis is put forward to explain the lack of melanin synthesis by the vitiligo skin under in vivo conditions, although melanocytes are present.

  17. Relevance of in vivo models in melanoma skin cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlow, R.B.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion of possible wavelength dependence of induction of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is provided. Strengths and weaknesses of various experimental approaches to better understanding of the prevalence of CMM in different human populations including latitude effects are compared. Further the advantages and limitations of the use of the laboratory opossum (Monodelphis domestic), transgenic mice containing SV40 ongogene sequences under tyrosinase promoter control, and a backcross hybrid fish of the genus Xenophorus are contrasted.

  18. alternative skin model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    recognition 1. Charl Van Heerden; Johan Schalkwyk; Brian Strope; Google Inc 54 A new alternative model to dark energy Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: The recent observations of...

  19. Network model of human language

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markosova, Maria

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomenon of human language is widely studied from various points of view. It is interesting not only for social scientists, antropologists or philosophers, but also for those, interesting in the network dynamics. In several recent papers word web, or language as a graph has been investigated. In this paper I revise recent studies of syntactical word web. I present a model of growing network in which such processes as node addition, edge rewiring and new link creation are taken into account. I argue, that this model is a satisfactory minimal model explaining measured data.

  20. Effects of the differentiated keratinocyte phenotype on expression levels of CYP1-4 family genes in human skin cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Liping [Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Neis, Mark M. [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, University Hospital of the RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Ladd, Patricia A. [Department of Medicine/Dermatology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Lanza, Diane L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Yost, Garold S. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Keeney, Diane S. [VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37212 (United States) and Department of Medicine/Dermatology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States) and Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)]. E-mail: diane.keeney@vanderbilt.edu

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids produced by mouse CYP2B19 have been implicated in mechanisms regulating epidermal cornification (Ladd, P.A., Du, L., Capdevila, J.H., Mernaugh, R., Keeney, D.S., 2003. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids activate transglutaminases in situ and induce cornification of epidermal keratinocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 35184-35192). In this study, we aimed to identify CYPs that are up-regulated during keratinocyte differentiation and potentially responsible for epoxyeicosatrienoic acid formation in human skin. The cellular differentiation state of human epidermal cell cultures was manipulated to resemble the basal, spinous, and granular cell phenotypes in vivo. Changes in CYP mRNA levels were measured as a function of differentiation state for a panel of 15 CYPs that included known and putative arachidonate monooxygenases. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that all of the CYPs were expressed in differentiating epidermal cell cultures and in human epidermis, with the exception of CYP2B6, which was poorly expressed in vitro. Six CYPs were strongly up-regulated at Day 6 and Day 8 of in vitro differentiation (CYP4B1, 2W1, 2C18, 3A4, 2C19, 2C9); the increase in mRNA levels ranged from 27- to 356-fold. Only CYP2U1 mRNA levels decreased (6-fold change) during cellular differentiation. Six CYPs showed little variation (<2-fold change) in mRNA levels during in vitro differentiation (CYP2S1, 2J2, 1B1, 1A1, 2E1, 2D6). No single CYP was identifiable as being a functional counterpart to CYP2B19 in mouse skin since none qualified as being mainly responsible for epidermal epoxyeicosatrienoic acid formation. Rather, the data suggest that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in human skin are formed by several CYPs expressed in different cell layers of the epidermis. This would predict that CYP-derived eicosanoids have different functions in different epidermal cell layers.

  1. Modeling, Animation, and Rendering of Human Figures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Güdükbay, Ugur

    7 Modeling, Animation, and Rendering of Human Figures Ugur G¨ud¨ukbay, B¨ulent ¨Ozg¨u¸c, Aydemir, Ankara, Turkey Human body modeling and animation has long been an important and challenging area virtual humans in action: video games, films, television, virtual reality, ergonomics, medicine

  2. Skin flicks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orth, Margaret A. (Margaret Ann), 1964-

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The written and artistic part of this thesis are both separated into the two categories of "SKIN" and "FLICKS". The Artistic part of my thesis consists of five artificial skins made on my body, and a series of video tapes ...

  3. Coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is expressed in lymphatic vessels in human skin and affects lymphatic endothelial cell function in vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigl, Benjamin; Zgraggen, Claudia; Rehman, Nadia; Banziger-Tobler, Nadia E.; Detmar, Michael [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Halin, Cornelia [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli Str. 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: cornelia.halin@pharma.ethz.ch

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lymphatic vessels play an important role in tissue fluid homeostasis, intestinal fat absorption and immunosurveillance. Furthermore, they are involved in pathologic conditions, such as tumor cell metastasis and chronic inflammation. In comparison to blood vessels, the molecular phenotype of lymphatic vessels is less well characterized. Performing comparative gene expression analysis we have recently found that coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) is significantly more highly expressed in cultured human, skin-derived lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), as compared to blood vascular endothelial cells. Here, we have confirmed these results at the protein level, using Western blot and FACS analysis. Immunofluorescence performed on human skin confirmed that CAR is expressed at detectable levels in lymphatic vessels, but not in blood vessels. To address the functional significance of CAR expression, we modulated CAR expression levels in cultured LECs in vitro by siRNA- and vector-based transfection approaches. Functional assays performed with the transfected cells revealed that CAR is involved in distinct cellular processes in LECs, such as cell adhesion, migration, tube formation and the control of vascular permeability. In contrast, no effect of CAR on LEC proliferation was observed. Overall, our data suggest that CAR stabilizes LEC-LEC interactions in the skin and may contribute to lymphatic vessel integrity.

  4. Symposium on Human Performance Modeling Wayne D. Gray (Organizer)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Wayne

    Laboratory Abstract This symposium is co-sponsored by the Human Performance Modeling Technical Group (HPM to the human factors community. For the Panel Dis- cussion, three additional members of the HPM-TG joined The Human Performance Modeling Technical Group (HPM-TG) of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES

  5. Human walking model predicts joint mechanics, electromyography and mechanical economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endo, Ken

    In this paper, we present an under-actuated model of human walking, comprising only a soleus muscle and flexion/extension monoarticular hip muscles. The remaining muscle groups of the human leg are modeled using quasi-passive, ...

  6. MODELING HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS USING MIDAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; Bruce P. Hallbert; Brian F. Gore

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes an emerging collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory and NASA Ames Research Center regarding the utilization of high-fidelity MIDAS simulations for modeling control room crew performance at nuclear power plants. The key envisioned uses for MIDAS-based control room simulations are: (i) the estimation of human error with novel control room equipment and configurations, (ii) the investigative determination of risk significance in recreating past event scenarios involving control room operating crews, and (iii) the certification of novel staffing levels in control rooms. It is proposed that MIDAS serves as a key component for the effective modeling of risk in next generation control rooms.

  7. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  8. Comparative DNA microarray analysis of human monocyte derived dendritic cells and MUTZ-3 cells exposed to the moderate skin sensitizer cinnamaldehyde

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Python, Francois [Experimental Product Safety, Procter and Gamble Co., Cosmital SA, Marly (Switzerland); Goebel, Carsten [Product Safety, Human Safety Assessment, Procter and Gamble Service GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Aeby, Pierre [Experimental Product Safety, Procter and Gamble Co., Cosmital SA, Marly (Switzerland)], E-mail: pierre_aeby@bluewin.ch

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The number of studies involved in the development of in vitro skin sensitization tests has increased since the adoption of the EU 7th amendment to the cosmetics directive proposing to ban animal testing for cosmetic ingredients by 2013. Several studies have recently demonstrated that sensitizers induce a relevant up-regulation of activation markers such as CD86, CD54, IL-8 or IL-1{beta} in human myeloid cell lines (e.g., U937, MUTZ-3, THP-1) or in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (PBMDCs). The present study aimed at the identification of new dendritic cell activation markers in order to further improve the in vitro evaluation of the sensitizing potential of chemicals. We have compared the gene expression profiles of PBMDCs and the human cell line MUTZ-3 after a 24-h exposure to the moderate sensitizer cinnamaldehyde. A list of 80 genes modulated in both cell types was obtained and a set of candidate marker genes was selected for further analysis. Cells were exposed to selected sensitizers and non-sensitizers for 24 h and gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that PIR, TRIM16 and two Nrf2-regulated genes, CES1 and NQO1, are modulated by most sensitizers. Up-regulation of these genes could also be observed in our recently published DC-activation test with U937 cells. Due to their role in DC activation, these new genes may help to further refine the in vitro approaches for the screening of the sensitizing properties of a chemical.

  9. Deformable model for 3D intramodal nonrigid breast image registration with fiducial skin markers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of FSM, finite element method (FEM) is used to distribute the markers' displacements linearly over with rigid registration technique. Keywords: Intramodal image registration, finite element method, deformable, we developed a finite element method (FEM) deformable breast model to correct motion artifacts

  10. Neutron skins and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron-skin thickness of heavy nuclei provides a fundamental link to the equation of state of neutron-rich matter, and hence to the properties of neutron stars. The Lead Radius Experiment ('PREX') at Jefferson Laboratory has recently provided the first model-independence evidence on the existence of a neutron-rich skin in {sup 208}Pb. In this contribution we examine how the increased accuracy in the determination of neutron skins expected from the commissioning of intense polarized electron beams may impact the physics of neutron stars.

  11. Friction Induced Skin Tags

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Duplantis KL, Jones BH. Friction blisters. Pathophysiology,Friction Induced Skin Tags Francisco Allegue MD 1 , Carmenetiopathogenic role for friction. Introduction Skin tags (

  12. Efficient elasticity for character skinning with contact and collisions Aleka McAdams1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liblit, Ben

    -level character skinning system. CR Categories: I.6.8 [Simulation and Modeling]: Types of Simulation--Animation aspect is the production of life-like deformations for soft tissues comprising both humans and animals Animation Studios 2 PDI/DreamWorks 3 University of California, Los Angeles 4 University of Wisconsin

  13. Human Growth and Body Weight Dynamics: An Integrative Systems Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and ...

  14. Human Muscle Fatigue Model in Dynamic Motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    into account. In this paper, each human joint is assumed to be controlled by two muscle groups to generate on motor units pattern. They demonstrated the relationship among muscle activation, fatigue and recovery fatigue trend in static working posture (elbow = 90 , shoulder = 30 ), but in dynamic working situation

  15. Modeling aspects of human memory for scientific study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Thomas P. (University of New Mexico); Watson, Patrick (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); McDaniel, Mark A. (Washington University); Eichenbaum, Howard B. (Boston University); Cohen, Neal J. (University of Illinois - Champaign-Urbana Beckman Institute); Vineyard, Craig Michael; Taylor, Shawn Ellis; Bernard, Michael Lewis; Morrow, James Dan; Verzi, Stephen J.

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Working with leading experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience and computational intelligence, SNL has developed a computational architecture that represents neurocognitive mechanisms associated with how humans remember experiences in their past. The architecture represents how knowledge is organized and updated through information from individual experiences (episodes) via the cortical-hippocampal declarative memory system. We compared the simulated behavioral characteristics with those of humans measured under well established experimental standards, controlling for unmodeled aspects of human processing, such as perception. We used this knowledge to create robust simulations of & human memory behaviors that should help move the scientific community closer to understanding how humans remember information. These behaviors were experimentally validated against actual human subjects, which was published. An important outcome of the validation process will be the joining of specific experimental testing procedures from the field of neuroscience with computational representations from the field of cognitive modeling and simulation.

  16. INTERACTIVE MODELLING OF MPEG-4 DEFORMABLE HUMAN BODY MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordier, Frederic

    years, human characters have become more and more important in computer animation, virtual reality that are immediately usable for animation. In doing so, we aim to carry out realistic deformations on the human body that encompasses addition of props, face and body animation, coordination along with stages or virtual environments

  17. Terahertz spectroscopy of intrinsic biomarkers for non-melanoma skin Cecil S. Joseph1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

    Terahertz spectroscopy of intrinsic biomarkers for non-melanoma skin cancer. Cecil S. Joseph1 of human cancers. The aim of this study was to identify intrinsic biomarkers for non-melanoma skin cancer wave terahertz imaging, skin cancer imaging 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer Non-melanoma

  18. Human Mental Models of Humanoid Robots* Sau-lai Lee Sara Kiesler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiesler, Sara

    Human Mental Models of Humanoid Robots* Sau-lai Lee Sara Kiesler Human Computer Interaction ground of understanding between the two. In two experiments modelled after human-human studies we robot emits a human's voice), their mental model of the system's behavior may approach their mental

  19. Modeling Human Metabolism of Benzene Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Modeling Human Metabolism of Benzene Following Occupational and Environmental Exposures Sungkyoon) models to investigate nonlinear relationships between levels of benzene metabolites (E,E- muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid, phenol, hydroqui- none, and catechol) and benzene exposure among 386 exposed and control workers

  20. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics :soldier fatigue.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Campbell, James E.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives as can be seen in the Department of Defense's (DoD) Defense Modeling and Simulation Office's (DMSO) Master Plan (DoD 5000.59-P 1995). To this goal, the military is currently spending millions of dollars on programs devoted to HPM in various military contexts. Examples include the Human Performance Modeling Integration (HPMI) program within the Air Force Research Laboratory, which focuses on integrating HPMs with constructive models of systems (e.g. cockpit simulations) and the Navy's Human Performance Center (HPC) established in September 2003. Nearly all of these initiatives focus on the interface between humans and a single system. This is insufficient in the era of highly complex network centric SoS. This report presents research and development in the area of HPM in a system-of-systems (SoS). Specifically, this report addresses modeling soldier fatigue and the potential impacts soldier fatigue can have on SoS performance.

  1. Science-Based Simulation Model of Human Performance for Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; Ali Mosleh; Carol Smidts

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human reliability analysis (HRA), a component of an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), is the means by which the human contribution to risk is assessed, both qualitatively and quantitatively. However, among the literally dozens of HRA methods that have been developed, most cannot fully model and quantify the types of errors that occurred at Three Mile Island. Furthermore, all of the methods lack a solid empirical basis, relying heavily on expert judgment or empirical results derived in non-reactor domains. Finally, all of the methods are essentially static, and are thus unable to capture the dynamics of an accident in progress. The objective of this work is to begin exploring a dynamic simulation approach to HRA, one whose models have a basis in psychological theories of human performance, and whose quantitative estimates have an empirical basis. This paper highlights a plan to formalize collaboration among the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), the University of Maryland, and The Ohio State University (OSU) to continue development of a simulation model initially formulated at the University of Maryland. Initial work will focus on enhancing the underlying human performance models with the most recent psychological research, and on planning follow-on studies to establish an empirical basis for the model, based on simulator experiments to be carried out at the INL and at the OSU.

  2. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cybersecurity challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral “triggers” to help focus the analyst’s attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sensemaking problems.

  3. Modeling Human Behavior from Simple Sensors in the Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canny, John

    Modeling Human Behavior from Simple Sensors in the Home Ryan Aipperspach, Elliot Cohen, and John {ryanaip, jfc}@cs.berkeley.edu, emcohen3@berkeley.edu Abstract. Pervasive sensors in the home have a variety of applications including energy minimization, activity monitoring for elders, and tutors

  4. Matching a Human Walking Sequence with a VRML Synthetic Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buades Rubio, Jose María

    animation, computer vision, medical rehabilitation, virtual reality and entertainment. There is a greatMatching a Human Walking Sequence with a VRML Synthetic Model J. M. Buades, Ramon Mas and Francisco University of the Balearic Islands 07071 Palma de Mallorca, SPAIN {josemaria,ramon,paco}@anim.uib.es Abstract

  5. Modeling and simulation of stable human locomotion using five degree-of-freedom gait model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viswanathan, Vanisri

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and format of AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control and Dynamics. our body moves step by step in the desired direction. Numerous studies from fields, such as biomechanics, robotics, and ergonomics, have provided a rich database on "normal" straight.... The mam reason for the interest in the modeling of human locomotion is the need for robots, which can operate in human oriented environments. Given complexity in human gait, the research of legged locomotion mechanisms and machines is primarily...

  6. Evaluating the Applicability of Current Models of Workload to Peer-based Human-robot Teams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Tao

    -off possibility into a reality. Human Performance Moderator Functions (HPMFs) can be used to predict human. This trend was predicted by the IMPRINT Pro models. These results are the first to indicate that existing Terms Performance, Experimentation, Human Factors Keywords human-robot peer-based teams, human-performance

  7. HISTORY OF SKIN GRAFTS and Hauben and colleagues2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    report of successful pinch grafts. Ollier in 1872 pointed out the importance of the dermis in skin grafts, Vandeput, and Olley4 gave us the technology to expand skin grafts with a machine that would cut the graft technology was published by Rheinwald and Green,5 and in 1979 cultured human keratinocytes were grown to form

  8. aallll IIrreell aanndd ccaanncceerr ssttaattiissttiiccss sseeccoonndd rreeppoorrtt 11999988--22000000 Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    --22000000 46 Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma of the skin Melanoma

  9. Automatic Modeling of Virtual Humans and Body Clothing Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Hyewon Seo, Frederic Cordier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordier, Frederic

    Automatic Modeling of Virtual Humans and Body Clothing Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann, Hyewon Seo-mail: {thalmann, seo, cordier}@miralab.unige.ch Abstract Highly realistic virtual human models are rapidly

  10. A Game Theory Based Model of Human Driving with Application to Autonomous and Mixed Driving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Je Hong

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, I consider the development of a driver model to better understand human drivers’ various behaviors in the upcoming mixed situation of human drivers and autonomous vehicles. For this, my current effort focuses on modeling the driver...

  11. Skin metastases from lung cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mollet, Todd W; Garcia, Carlos A; Koester, Glenn

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cutaneous metastases from the lung frequently indicate aof skin metastases from lung cancer. Intern Med. 1996; 35:9. Coslett LM, Katlic MR. Lung cancer with skin metastasis.

  12. Keywords: Agents, Cellular models, Discrete event simula-tion, DEVS, human agent models, Mediterranean landscape.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - plained by climate change or human-caused degradation of the landscape. Finally, by placing model villages, Mediterranean landscape. ABSTRACT The Mediterranean Landscape Dynamics (MEDLAND) pro- ject seeks to better an- other while providing flexibility for either model to be changed in a systematic fashion

  13. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  14. Virtual Human Animation Based on Movement Observation and Cognitive Behavior Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badler, Norman I.

    Virtual Human Animation Based on Movement Observation and Cognitive Behavior Models Norman I Philadelphia, PA 19104­6389 Abstract Automatically animating virtual humans with actions that reflect real for the future of real­time virtual human animation. 1 Introduction Automatically animating virtual humans

  15. Modeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of theModeling Measuring and Correcting the LCA of the Human EyeHuman Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    of the Human EyeHuman Eye Introduction The eye as an optical system suffers from both longitudinal chromatic.Software modeling of the eye and LCA corrector We designed a two-triplet air-spaced system, using glasses, WA, USA). The chromatic eye model was added to the simulation, and optimization was performed

  16. Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling of Benzene in Humans: A Bayesian Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that are now often used in risk assessment to better extrapolate from experimental animals to humans and from hPhysiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling of Benzene in Humans: A Bayesian Approach for variability among humans, the mathematical model must be integrated into a statistical framework

  17. BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF TWO SIMPLE DYNAMICAL MODELS FOR THE HUMAN GAIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llanos, Diego R.

    and expenditure energy for the human body in normal walking models. Both models allow us to adapt a vector the adaptability of the subject to the environment in a reactive way . The high complexity of biomechanical modelsBIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF TWO SIMPLE DYNAMICAL MODELS FOR THE HUMAN GAIT J.Finat1 , F.Montoya2

  18. Models and evaluation of human-machine systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayout Alvarenga, Marco Antonio

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of human-machine systems and human-machine interfaces is very multidisciplinary. We have to navigate between the knowledge waves brought by several areas of the human learning: cognitive psychology, artificial ...

  19. Sprayed skin turbine component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  20. MELANOMA OF THE SKIN 10. MELANOMA OF THE SKIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    MELANOMA OF THE SKIN 85 10. MELANOMA OF THE SKIN 10.1. SUMMARY Melanoma of the skin was the seventh most common cancer in Ireland, accounting for 4.1% of all malignant neoplasms, excluding non-melanoma at approximately 5% per annum overall. The risk of developing melanoma up to the age of 74 was 1 in 89 for women

  1. Skin friction blistering: computer model.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Malcolm; Pan, Ning; Zhong, Wen; Maibach, Howard

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. L.Jones, B. H. , Friction blisters. Pathophysiology,and M.B. Sulzberger, The friction blister. Mil Med, 1972.on blisters produced by friction. II. The blister fluid. J

  2. Skin friction blistering: computer model.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Malcolm; Pan, Ning; Zhong, Wen; Maibach, Howard

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on blisters produced by friction. I. Results of linearDuplantis KL, Jones BH. Friction blisters. Pathophysiology,WA, Sulzberger MB. The friction blister. Mil Med 6. Cortese

  3. A Joint-level Model of Fatigue for the Postural Control of Virtual Humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Inmaculada

    A Joint-level Model of Fatigue for the Postural Control of Virtual Humans Inmaculada Rodríguezb , e. Keywords: human body simulation, posture control, fatigue, computer animation. 1 Introduction Achieving specifically with humans should produce realistic animation in all the sense of the word, including fatigue

  4. A HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODEL OF COMMERCIAL JETLINER TAXIING Michael D. Byrne, Jeffrey C. Zemla

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Mike

    performance between large-scale engineering-oriented simulations and human-in-the-loop experiments. In order are limited in several ways. One common method is to employ human-in-the-loop (HITL) experiments. In orderA HUMAN PERFORMANCE MODEL OF COMMERCIAL JETLINER TAXIING Michael D. Byrne, Jeffrey C. Zemla Rice

  5. Human-robot interactions: model-based risk analysis and safety case construction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guiochet, Jérémie

    Human-robot interactions: model-based risk analysis and safety case construction Quynh Anh DO HOANG potential threats related to physical human-robot interactions and to assess the associated risks that might affect safety and dependability. Because of the complexity of human-robot interactions, rigorous

  6. Human Motion Capture Data Compression by Model-Based Indexing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhandarkar, Suchendra "Suchi" M.

    can be used for animation of virtual human-like characters in distributed virtual reality applications in virtual human animation of visually acceptable quality upon decompression. Index Terms, pocket PCs, and PDAs [1], [19]. Distributed virtual human animation is used in many applications

  7. Skin contamination dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamby, David M. (Corvallis, OR); Farsoni, Abdollah T. (Corvallis, OR); Cazalas, Edward (Corvallis, OR)

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  8. A Model for the Human Computer Interface Evaluation in Safety Critical Computer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schreiber, Fabio A.

    A Model for the Human Computer Interface Evaluation in Safety Critical Computer Applications Fabio of the IEEE International Conference and Workshop: Engineering of Computer­Based Systems March 1998, Jerusalem, Israel #12; 179 A Model for the Human Computer Interface Evaluation in Safety Critical Computer

  9. Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multi-Camera Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sankaranarayanan, Aswin C.

    of the scene. These are used to render the scene with virtual 3D human models that mimic the observed instant are then presented to a rendering engine that animates a set of virtual actors synthesizing1 Modeling and Visualization of Human Activities for Multi-Camera Networks Aswin C

  10. Modeling human risk: Cell & molecular biology in context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is anticipated that early in the next century manned missions into outer space will occur, with a mission to Mars scheduled between 2015 and 2020. However, before such missions can be undertaken, a realistic estimation of the potential risks to the flight crews is required. One of the uncertainties remaining in this risk estimation is that posed by the effects of exposure to the radiation environment of outer space. Although the composition of this environment is fairly well understood, the biological effects arising from exposure to it are not. The reasons for this are three-fold: (1) A small but highly significant component of the radiation spectrum in outer space consists of highly charged, high energy (HZE) particles which are not routinely experienced on earth, and for which there are insufficient data on biological effects; (2) Most studies on the biological effects of radiation to date have been high-dose, high dose-rate, whereas in space, with the exception of solar particle events, radiation exposures will be low-dose, low dose-rate; (3) Although it has been established that the virtual absence of gravity in space has a profound effect on human physiology, it is not clear whether these effects will act synergistically with those of radiation exposure. A select panel will evaluate the utilizing experiments and models to accurately predict the risks associated with exposure to HZE particles. Topics of research include cellular and tissue response, health effects associated with radiation damage, model animal systems, and critical markers of Radiation response.

  11. Reusable Skinning Templates Using Cage-based Deformations Qian-Yi Zhou2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Southern California, University of

    Reusable Skinning Templates Using Cage-based Deformations Tao Ju1 Qian-Yi Zhou2 Michiel van de- lows skinning solutions to be shared and reused, and they allow a user to quickly explore many possible template. Skinning templates can be shared by users because they are not represented in a model

  12. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children's of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)] [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, 6130 Executive Blvd., Suite 2114, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)] [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 ?M) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation with large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ? Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ? Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ? Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ? Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  13. A model of muscle-tendon function in human walking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Endo, Ken

    In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of leg muscles and tendons during human walking in order to motivate the design of economical robotic legs. We hypothesize that quasi-passive, series-elastic clutch units ...

  14. Predictive models of procedural human supervisory control behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boussemart, Yves, 1980-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human supervisory control systems are characterized by the computer-mediated nature of the interactions between one or more operators and a given task. Nuclear power plants, air traffic management and unmanned vehicles ...

  15. Modeling human supervisory control in heterogeneous unmanned vehicle systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nehme, Carl, 1981-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Given advanced technology that relieves the human operator of low-level tasking and the future vision for network-centric operations, operator supervisory control of Unmanned Vehicle (UV) teams is likely to be a focal point ...

  16. Emotions and Action Selection in an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryson, Joanna J.

    and Stein, 2001a,b]. Our agents are designed to model animal behaviors that humans readily describeEmotions and Action Selection in an Artificial Life Model of Social Behavior in Non-Human Primates behaviors dis- played by colonies of non-human primates. We hope to use this ALife model to support work

  17. Putting in perspective human-machine system theory and modeling: from theoretical biology to artifacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    there is a strong need of reliability and consistency from modeling, development and life cycle systems. A main and organization from human-machine systems to socio- technical systems especially for safety and life critical methodologies and ergonomics of systems design. Current and future technical developments for enhancing human

  18. Applying the Patuxent Landscape Unit Model to human dominated ecosystems: the case of agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    Applying the Patuxent Landscape Unit Model to human dominated ecosystems: the case of agriculture to be formulated in a general enough way to simulate all habitat elements within the landscape. Within the Patuxent River watershed, human dominated land uses, such as agriculture and urban land, are already 50

  19. Towards a human eye behavior model by applying Data Mining Techniques on Gaze Information from IEC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Towards a human eye behavior model by applying Data Mining Techniques on Gaze Information from IEC present what is Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) and rapidly how we have combined, Interactive Evolutionary Computation (IEC) more recently known as human computation (Ahn, Ginosar et al. 2006

  20. Image-based fluidstructure interaction model of the human mitral valve Xingshuang Ma a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Xiaoyu

    Image-based fluid­structure interaction model of the human mitral valve Xingshuang Ma a , Hao Gao Available online 15 November 2012 Keywords: Human mitral valve Clinical imaging Magnetic resonance imaging Fluid­structure interaction Immersed boundary method a b s t r a c t The mitral valve (MV) is one

  1. UNCORRECTED 2 Models of natural and human dynamics in forest landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monticino, Michael

    protected areas, though they differ in the specifics of vegetation and land 23 use. In the Texas sitesUNCORRECTED PROOF 1 2 Models of natural and human dynamics in forest landscapes: 3 Cross natural and human systems across sites and cultures through a process of simplification and 17 abstraction

  2. Adsorption of Human Papillomavirus 16 to live human sperm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribbeck, Katharina

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a diverse group of viruses that infect the skin and mucosal tissues of humans. A high-risk subgroup of HPVs is associated with virtually all cases of cervical cancer [1]–[3]. High-risk ...

  3. How-Models of Human Reaching Movements in the Context of Everyday Manipulation Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cremers, Daniel

    Nyga, Moritz Tenorth and Michael Beetz Intelligent Autonomous Systems, Technische Universit¨at M¨unchen {nyga, tenorth, beetz}@cs.tum.edu Abstract-- We present a system for learning models of human reaching

  4. A Mid-Layer Model for Human Reliability Analysis: Understanding the Cognitive Causes of Human Failure Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey M. L. Hendrickson; April M. Whaley; Ronald L. Boring; James Y. H. Chang; Song-Hua Shen; Ali Mosleh; Johanna H. Oxstrand; John A. Forester; Dana L. Kelly; Erasmia L. Lois

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method’s middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

  5. A mid-layer model for human reliability analysis : understanding the cognitive causes of human failure events.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Song-Hua (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Chang, James Y. H. (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Boring,Ronald L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Whaley, April M. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lois, Erasmia (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC); Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt; Oxstrand, Johanna H. (Vattenfall Ringhals AB, Varobacka, Sweden); Forester, John Alan; Kelly, Dana L. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Mosleh, Ali (University of Maryland, College Park, MD)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) is sponsoring work in response to a Staff Requirements Memorandum (SRM) directing an effort to establish a single human reliability analysis (HRA) method for the agency or guidance for the use of multiple methods. As part of this effort an attempt to develop a comprehensive HRA qualitative approach is being pursued. This paper presents a draft of the method's middle layer, a part of the qualitative analysis phase that links failure mechanisms to performance shaping factors. Starting with a Crew Response Tree (CRT) that has identified human failure events, analysts identify potential failure mechanisms using the mid-layer model. The mid-layer model presented in this paper traces the identification of the failure mechanisms using the Information-Diagnosis/Decision-Action (IDA) model and cognitive models from the psychological literature. Each failure mechanism is grouped according to a phase of IDA. Under each phase of IDA, the cognitive models help identify the relevant performance shaping factors for the failure mechanism. The use of IDA and cognitive models can be traced through fault trees, which provide a detailed complement to the CRT.

  6. Applying 3D Human Model in a Posture Recognition System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - ture : intrusive and non-intrusive techniques. Intrusive techniques usually track body markers to recognise the posture of a person. Non-intrusive techniques observe a person with one or several cameras is not always cooperative. So in this paper, we will focus in non-intrusive techniques to determine human

  7. A Generative Model of Human Hair for Hair Sketching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong Chen; Song Chun Zhu

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yu, ”A practical model for hair mutual interactions,” Proc.Interactive multi-resolution hair modeling and editing,”directions (?1, +1) of the hair ?ow on the two sides of the

  8. Correlation between human observer performance and model observer performance in differential phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ke; Garrett, John [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, Guang-Hong [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: With the recently expanding interest and developments in x-ray differential phase contrast CT (DPC-CT), the evaluation of its task-specific detection performance and comparison with the corresponding absorption CT under a given radiation dose constraint become increasingly important. Mathematical model observers are often used to quantify the performance of imaging systems, but their correlations with actual human observers need to be confirmed for each new imaging method. This work is an investigation of the effects of stochastic DPC-CT noise on the correlation of detection performance between model and human observers with signal-known-exactly (SKE) detection tasks.Methods: The detectabilities of different objects (five disks with different diameters and two breast lesion masses) embedded in an experimental DPC-CT noise background were assessed using both model and human observers. The detectability of the disk and lesion signals was then measured using five types of model observers including the prewhitening ideal observer, the nonprewhitening (NPW) observer, the nonprewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (NPWEi), the prewhitening observer with eye filter and internal noise (PWEi), and the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). The same objects were also evaluated by four human observers using the two-alternative forced choice method. The results from the model observer experiment were quantitatively compared to the human observer results to assess the correlation between the two techniques.Results: The contrast-to-detail (CD) curve generated by the human observers for the disk-detection experiments shows that the required contrast to detect a disk is inversely proportional to the square root of the disk size. Based on the CD curves, the ideal and NPW observers tend to systematically overestimate the performance of the human observers. The NPWEi and PWEi observers did not predict human performance well either, as the slopes of their CD curves tended to be steeper. The CHO generated the best quantitative agreement with human observers with its CD curve overlapping with that of human observer. Statistical equivalence between CHO and humans can be claimed within 11% of the human observer results, including both the disk and lesion detection experiments.Conclusions: The model observer method can be used to accurately represent human observer performance with the stochastic DPC-CT noise for SKE tasks with sizes ranging from 8 to 128 pixels. The incorporation of the anatomical noise remains to be studied.

  9. IEEE International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures, 2003. Human Body Tracking with Auxiliary Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Issac

    in interactive virtual environment, human computer interaction, motion capture for human animation and videoIEEE International Workshop on Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures, 2003. Human Body-0273 {munlee|icohen}@usc.edu Abstract This paper presents two techniques for improving human body tracking

  10. Sensitive skins and somatic processing for affective and sociable robots based upon a somatic alphabet approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stiehl, Walter Daniel, 1980-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sense of touch is one of the most important senses of the human body. This thesis describes the biologically inspired design of "sensitive skins" for two different robotic platforms: Leonardo, a high degree-of-freedom, ...

  11. S.N.A.K.E. : a dynamically reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barroeta Pérez, Gerardo

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The idea of an Artificial Sensate Skin device that mimics the characteristics and functions of its analogous living tissue whether human or animal is not new. Yet, most of the current related work has been focused in the ...

  12. Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Gerrish Chong Wang David M. Blei NIPS 2009 Dec 9th, 2009 Princeton University Identity Guidelines, Blei Reading Tea Leaves #12;Topic Models in a Nutshell From an input corpus words to topics Forget, Blei Reading Tea Leaves #12;Topic Models in a Nutshell From an input corpus words to topics computer

  13. Skinning Arbitrary Deformations Ladislav Kavan 1,2 Rachel McDonnell1 Simon Dobbyn1 Jiri Zara2 Carol O'Sullivan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    , such as moving human or animal figures. In this paper, we demonstrate how to automatically construct skinning way of representing the animation of quasi- articulated objects, such as virtual characters, is known as skinning (or matrix palette skinning). It is based on the observation that an animation of a virtual

  14. Surety of human elements of high consequence systems: An organic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FORSYTHE,JAMES C.; WENNER,CAREN A.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite extensive safety analysis and application of safety measures, there is a frequent lament, ``Why do we continue to have accidents?'' Two breakdowns are prevalent in risk management and prevention. First, accidents result from human actions that engineers, analysts and management never envisioned and second, controls, intended to preclude/mitigate accident sequences, prove inadequate. This paper addresses the first breakdown, the inability to anticipate scenarios involving human action/inaction. The failure of controls has been addressed in a previous publication (Forsythe and Grose, 1998). Specifically, this paper presents an approach referred to as surety. The objective of this approach is to provide high levels of assurance in situations where potential system failure paths cannot be fully characterized. With regard to human elements of complex systems, traditional approaches to human reliability are not sufficient to attain surety. Consequently, an Organic Model has been developed to account for the organic properties exhibited by engineered systems that result from human involvement in those systems.

  15. Modeling hematologic malignancies and their treatment in humanized mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leskov, Ilya, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approximately 10% of all cancer deaths in the United States are due to neoplasms of the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias and lymphomas. Genetically engineered mouse models of these diseases have yielded invaluable ...

  16. Human intake fraction of toxic pollutants: a model comparison between caltox and uses-lca

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Geelen, Loes M.J.; Hertwich, Edgar G.; McKone, Thomas E.; van de Meent, Dik

    2004-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In Life Cycle Assessment and Comparative Risk Assessment potential human exposure to toxic pollutants can be expressed as the human intake fraction (iF), representing the fraction of the quantity emitted that enters the human population. To assess model uncertainty in the human intake fraction, ingestion and inhalation iFs of 367 substances emitted to air and freshwater were calculated with two commonly applied multi-media fate and exposure models, CalTOX and USES-LCA. Comparison of the model outcomes reveal that uncertainty in the ingestion iFs was up to a factor of 70. The uncertainty in the inhalation iFs was up to a factor of 865,000. The comparison showed that relatively few model differences account for the uncertainties found. An optimal model structure in the calculation of human intake fractions can be achieved by including (1) rain and no-rain scenarios, (2) a continental sea water compartment, (3) drinking water purification, (4) pH-correction of chemical properties, and (5) aerosol-associated deposition on plants. Finally, vertical stratification of the soil compartment combined with a chemical-dependent soil depth may be considered in future intake fraction calculations.

  17. Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of 1,4-Dioxane in Rats, Mice, and Humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeney, Lisa M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Poet, Torka S.; Corley, Rick; Weber, Thomas J.; Locey, B. J.; Clarkson, Jacquelyn; Sager, S.; Gargas, M. L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT 1,4-Dioxane (CAS No. 123-91-1) is used primarily as a solvent or as a solvent stabilizer. It can cause lung, liver and kidney damage at sufficiently high exposure levels. Two physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of 1,4-dioxane and its major metabolite, hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), were published in 1990. These models have uncertainties and deficiencies that could be addressed and the model strengthened for use in a contemporary cancer risk assessment for 1,4-dioxane. Studies were performed to fill data gaps and reduce uncertainties pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of 1,4-dioxane and HEAA in rats, mice, and humans. Three types of studies were performed:partition coefficient measurements, blood time course in mice, and in vitro pharmacokinetics using rat, mouse, and human hepatocytes. Updated PBPK models were developed based on these new data and previously available data. The optimized rate of metabolism for the mouse was significantly higher than the value previously estimated. The optimized rat kinetic parameters were similar to those in the 1990 models. Only two human studies were identified. Model predictions were consistent with one study, but did not fit the second as well. In addition, a rat nasal exposure was completed. The results confirmed water directly contacts rat nasal tissues during drinking water under bioassays. Consistent with previous PBPK models, nasal tissues were not specifically included in the model. Use of these models will reduce the uncertainty in future 1,4-dioxane risk assessments.

  18. A critical comparison of human face rendering techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arizpe, Arturo Andrew

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human skin exhibits complex light reflectance properties that make it difficult to render realistically. In recent years, many techniques have been introduced to render skin, with varying degrees of complexity and realism. ...

  19. Modelling the human rhesus proteins: implications for structure and function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merrick, Mike

    D and RhAG using the structure of the Escherichia coli ammonia channel AmtB as a template, together, slime moulds and marine sponges (Huang & Liu, 2001). Rh proteins show sequence homology to ammonium mechanism. The E. coli AmtB protein is a homotrimer and our models provoke a reassessment of the widely

  20. 2009 IEEE 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNING 1 Compact Models of Human Reaching Motions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cremers, Daniel

    execution. Fig. 1. Translating observed human movements to robot trajectories using compact models tasks, and port these models to an articulated robot. We acquire compact models by analyzing human movement patterns [25]. There are good reasons that the motions of robots for everyday manipulation tasks

  1. Human-robot cross-training: Computational formulation, modeling and evaluation of a human team training strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaidis, Stefanos

    We design and evaluate human-robot cross-training, a strategy widely used and validated for effective human team training. Cross-training is an interactive planning method in which a human and a robot iteratively switch ...

  2. Integrating digital human modeling into virtual environment for ergonomic oriented design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Liang; Bennis, Fouad; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Virtual human simulation integrated into virtual reality applications is mainly used for virtual representation of the user in virtual environment or for interactions between the user and the virtual avatar for cognitive tasks. In this paper, in order to prevent musculoskeletal disorders, the integration of virtual human simulation and VR application is presented to facilitate physical ergonomic evaluation, especially for physical fatigue evaluation of a given population. Immersive working environments are created to avoid expensive physical mock-up in conventional evaluation methods. Peripheral motion capture systems are used to capture natural movements and then to simulate the physical operations in virtual human simulation. Physical aspects of human's movement are then analyzed to determine the effort level of each key joint using inverse kinematics. The physical fatigue level of each joint is further analyzed by integrating a fatigue and recovery model on the basis of physical task parameters. All the pr...

  3. "Skin Cancer-What to Look For" Rochester Recreation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    "Skin Cancer- What to Look For" Rochester Recreation Club for the Deaf May 20, 2010 #12;Supporters for the Deaf ("REAP") #12;Overview Skin Overview What is skin cancer? Who is at risk? How common is skin cancer? Signs of skin cancer Prevention Treatments #12;Skin Overview Skin is the largest organ in your body

  4. A revised model for radiation dosimetry in the human gastrointestinal tract 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhuiyan, Md. Nasir Uddin

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents...

  5. A COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO SIMPLIFIED DYNAMICAL MODELS FOR THE HUMAN GAIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llanos, Diego R.

    A COMPARISON BETWEEN TWO SIMPLIFIED DYNAMICAL MODELS FOR THE HUMAN GAIT A.Ortega 1 , F.Montoya 1 and J.Finat 2 , MoBiVA Group. 1 ETS Ing. Industrial, Paseo del Cauce, Univ. Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid to a passive approach to maintain the upright position and locomotion with a view to their applications

  6. A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Model for Human Interruptability: Experimental Evaluation and Automatic Estimation from Wearable Sensors Nicky Kern, Stavros Antifakos, Bernt Schiele Perceptual Computing and Computer Vision ETH Zurich sensors. It is scalable for a large number of sensors, contexts, and situations and allows for online

  7. Modeling the dynamics of human hair cycles by a follicular automaton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldbeter, Albert

    Modeling the dynamics of human hair cycles by a follicular automaton J. Halloy*, B. A. Bernard , G University of Brussels, Brussels, Belgium, May 15, 2000 (received for review December 23, 1999) The hair correspond, respectively, to hair growth, arrest, shedding, and absence before a new anagen phase

  8. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 28:113120 (2001) Inuence of Nozzle-to-Skin Distance in Cryogen Spray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of dis- tance from the nozzle tip. Results: Size of spray cones and sprayed areas vary with distanceLasers in Surgery and Medicine 28:113±120 (2001) In¯uence of Nozzle-to-Skin Distance in Cryogen, the optimal atomizing nozzle design and operating conditions for cooling human skin remain to be determined

  9. Fast Synthetic Vision, Memory, and Learning Models for Virtual Humans James J. Kuffner, Jr JeanClaude Latombe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pratt, Vaughan

    Fast Synthetic Vision, Memory, and Learning Models for Virtual Humans James J. Kuffner, Jr Jean, and learning for au­ tonomous animated characters in real­time virtual environ­ ments. The model is efficient of quickly synthesizing from navigation goals the collision­free mo­ tions for animated human figures

  10. Effects of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) on in vitro human erythrocyte membranes and molecular models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suwalsky, Mario, E-mail: msuwalsk@udec.cl [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)] [Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Zambrano, Pablo; Mennickent, Sigrid [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)] [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Villena, Fernando [Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)] [Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Sotomayor, Carlos P.; Aguilar, Luis F. [Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)] [Instituto de Quimica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Bolognin, Silvia [CNR-Institute for Biomedical Technologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)] [CNR-Institute for Biomedical Technologies, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2011-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} PPA is a common ingredient in cough-cold medication and appetite suppressants. {yields} Reports on its effects on human erythrocytes are very scarce. {yields} We found that PPA induced in vitro morphological changes to human erythrocytes. {yields} PPA interacted with isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes. {yields} PPA interacted with class of lipid present in the erythrocyte membrane outer monolayer. -- Abstract: Norephedrine, also called phenylpropanolamine (PPA), is a synthetic form of the ephedrine alkaloid. After reports of the occurrence of intracranial hemorrhage and other adverse effects, including several deaths, PPA is no longer sold in USA and Canada. Despite the extensive information about PPA toxicity, reports on its effects on cell membranes are scarce. With the aim to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the interaction of PPA with cell membranes, ranges of concentrations were incubated with intact human erythrocytes, isolated unsealed human erythrocyte membranes (IUM), and molecular models of cell membranes. The latter consisted in bilayers built-up of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DMPE), phospholipid classes present in the outer and inner monolayers of most plasmatic cell membranes, respectively. The capacity of PPA to perturb the bilayer structures of DMPC and DMPE was assessed by X-ray diffraction, DMPC large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) and IUM were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy, and intact human erythrocytes were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study presents evidence that PPA affects human red cell membranes as follows: (a) in SEM studies on human erythrocytes it was observed that 0.5 mM PPA induced shape changes; (b) in IUM PPA induced a sharp decrease in the fluorescence anisotropy in the lipid bilayer acyl chains in a concentration range lower than 100 {mu}M; (c) X-ray diffraction studies showed that PPA in the 0.1-0.5 mM range induced increasing structural perturbation to DMPC, but no effects on DMPE multibilayers were detected.

  11. Turbine vane with high temperature capable skins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrison, Jay A. (Oviedo, FL)

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine vane assembly includes an airfoil extending between an inner shroud and an outer shroud. The airfoil can include a substructure having an outer peripheral surface. At least a portion of the outer peripheral surface is covered by an external skin. The external skin can be made of a high temperature capable material, such as oxide dispersion strengthened alloys, intermetallic alloys, ceramic matrix composites or refractory alloys. The external skin can be formed, and the airfoil can be subsequently bi-cast around or onto the skin. The skin and the substructure can be attached by a plurality of attachment members extending between the skin and the substructure. The skin can be spaced from the outer peripheral surface of the substructure such that a cavity is formed therebetween. Coolant can be supplied to the cavity. Skins can also be applied to the gas path faces of the inner and outer shrouds.

  12. Concepts and Their Dynamics: A Quantum-Theoretic Modeling of Human Thought

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Diederik Aerts; Liane Gabora; Sandro Sozzo

    2013-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze different aspects of our quantum modeling approach of human concepts, and more specifically focus on the quantum effects of contextuality, interference, entanglement and emergence, illustrating how each of them makes its appearance in specific situations of the dynamics of human concepts and their combinations. We point out the relation of our approach, which is based on an ontology of a concept as an entity in a state changing under influence of a context, with the main traditional concept theories, i.e. prototype theory, exemplar theory and theory theory. We ponder about the question why quantum theory performs so well in its modeling of human concepts, and shed light on this question by analyzing the role of complex amplitudes, showing how they allow to describe interference in the statistics of measurement outcomes, while in the traditional theories statistics of outcomes originates in classical probability weights, without the possibility of interference. The relevance of complex numbers, the appearance of entanglement, and the role of Fock space in explaining contextual emergence, all as unique features of the quantum modeling, are explicitly revealed in this paper by analyzing human concepts and their dynamics.

  13. Correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging when lesion location is uncertain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Zhang, Yi; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Carter, Rickey [Department of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Toledano, Alicia Y. [Biostatistics Consulting, LLC, 10606 Wheatley Street, Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)] [Biostatistics Consulting, LLC, 10606 Wheatley Street, Kensington, Maryland 20895 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between model observer and human observer performance in CT imaging for the task of lesion detection and localization when the lesion location is uncertain.Methods: Two cylindrical rods (3-mm and 5-mm diameters) were placed in a 35 × 26 cm torso-shaped water phantom to simulate lesions with ?15 HU contrast at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times on a 128-slice CT scanner at each of four dose levels (CTDIvol = 5.7, 11.4, 17.1, and 22.8 mGy). Regions of interest (ROIs) around each lesion were extracted to generate images with signal-present, with each ROI containing 128 × 128 pixels. Corresponding ROIs of signal-absent images were generated from images without lesion mimicking rods. The location of the lesion (rod) in each ROI was randomly distributed by moving the ROIs around each lesion. Human observer studies were performed by having three trained observers identify the presence or absence of lesions, indicating the lesion location in each image and scoring confidence for the detection task on a 6-point scale. The same image data were analyzed using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO) with Gabor channels. Internal noise was added to the decision variables for the model observer study. Area under the curve (AUC) of ROC and localization ROC (LROC) curves were calculated using a nonparametric approach. The Spearman's rank order correlation between the average performance of the human observers and the model observer performance was calculated for the AUC of both ROC and LROC curves for both the 3- and 5-mm diameter lesions.Results: In both ROC and LROC analyses, AUC values for the model observer agreed well with the average values across the three human observers. The Spearman's rank order correlation values for both ROC and LROC analyses for both the 3- and 5-mm diameter lesions were all 1.0, indicating perfect rank ordering agreement of the figures of merit (AUC) between the average performance of the human observers and the model observer performance.Conclusions: In CT imaging of different sizes of low-contrast lesions (?15 HU), the performance of CHO with Gabor channels was highly correlated with human observer performance for the detection and localization tasks with uncertain lesion location in CT imaging at four clinically relevant dose levels. This suggests the ability of Gabor CHO model observers to meaningfully assess CT image quality for the purpose of optimizing scan protocols and radiation dose levels in detection and localization tasks for low-contrast lesions.

  14. The Use Of Computational Human Performance Modeling As Task Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacuqes Hugo; David Gertman

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During a review of the Advanced Test Reactor safety basis at the Idaho National Laboratory, human factors engineers identified ergonomic and human reliability risks involving the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element to the air during manual fuel movement and inspection in the canal. There were clear indications that these risks increased the probability of human error and possible severe physical outcomes to the operator. In response to this concern, a detailed study was conducted to determine the probability of the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element. Due to practical and safety constraints, the task network analysis technique was employed to study the work procedures at the canal. Discrete-event simulation software was used to model the entire procedure as well as the salient physical attributes of the task environment, such as distances walked, the effect of dropped tools, the effect of hazardous body postures, and physical exertion due to strenuous tool handling. The model also allowed analysis of the effect of cognitive processes such as visual perception demands, auditory information and verbal communication. The model made it possible to obtain reliable predictions of operator performance and workload estimates. It was also found that operator workload as well as the probability of human error in the fuel inspection and transfer task were influenced by the concurrent nature of certain phases of the task and the associated demand on cognitive and physical resources. More importantly, it was possible to determine with reasonable accuracy the stages as well as physical locations in the fuel handling task where operators would be most at risk of losing their balance and falling into the canal. The model also provided sufficient information for a human reliability analysis that indicated that the postulated fuel exposure accident was less than credible.

  15. Toward hydro-social modeling: Merging human variables and the social sciences with climate-glacier runoff models (Santa River, Peru)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    Toward hydro-social modeling: Merging human variables and the social sciences with climate mountain range, this paper provides a holistic hydro-social framework that identifies five major human of watershed dynamics. This hydro-social framework has wide- spread implications for hydrological modeling

  16. NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 3. NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paxton, Anthony T.

    NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 21 3. NON-MELANOMA SKIN CANCER 3.1. SUMMARY Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC their cancer diagnosis. Table 3.1 Summary information for non-melanoma skin cancer in Ireland, 1995 number of cases for both sexes presented in the 70­79 age group. Figure 3.1 Age distribution of non-melanoma

  17. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ? 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  18. A new muscle fatigue and recovery model and its ergonomics application in human simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Liang; Bennis, Fouad; Zhang, Wei; Guillaume, François; 10.1080/17452759.2010.504056

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although automatic techniques have been employed in manufacturing industries to increase productivity and efficiency, there are still lots of manual handling jobs, especially for assembly and maintenance jobs. In these jobs, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the major health problems due to overload and cumulative physical fatigue. With combination of conventional posture analysis techniques, digital human modelling and simulation (DHM) techniques have been developed and commercialized to evaluate the potential physical exposures. However, those ergonomics analysis tools are mainly based on posture analysis techniques, and until now there is still no fatigue index available in the commercial software to evaluate the physical fatigue easily and quickly. In this paper, a new muscle fatigue and recovery model is proposed and extended to evaluate joint fatigue level in manual handling jobs. A special application case is described and analyzed by digital human simulation technique.

  19. A new muscle fatigue and recovery model and its ergonomics application in human simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Liang; Bennis, Fouad; Zhang, Wei; Guillaume, François

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although automatic techniques have been employed in manufacturing industries to increase productivity and efficiency, there are still lots of manual handling jobs, especially for assembly and maintenance jobs. In these jobs, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the major health problems due to overload and cumulative physical fatigue. With combination of conventional posture analysis techniques, digital human modelling and simulation (DHM) techniques have been developed and commercialized to evaluate the potential physical exposures. However, those ergonomics analysis tools are mainly based on posture analysis techniques, and until now there is still no fatigue index available in the commercial software to evaluate the physical fatigue easily and quickly. In this paper, a new muscle fatigue and recovery model is proposed and extended to evaluate joint fatigue level in manual handling jobs. A special application case is described and analyzed by digital human simulation technique.

  20. A mathematical model of probability of conception in humans, and an analysis of the rhythm technique of birth control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordheim, Alan Walter

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and iii) were combined to yield a model of, probability of conception per cycle given the following user related information: a) exact rhythm method formulation, if any, used; b) pattern and frequency of intercourse used; and c) the age group (or age..., and (c) the overall menstrual cycle lengths in human females. The development of a mathematical model describing the effective human sperm and ovum longevity was the second objective. The third objective was the development of a model to estimate...

  1. Selective destruction of mouse islet beta cells by human T lymphocytes in a newly-established humanized type 1 diabetic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Yong, E-mail: yongzhao@uic.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Guo, Chengshan; Hwang, David; Lin, Brian; Dingeldein, Michael; Mihailescu, Dan; Sam, Susan; Sidhwani, Seema [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Zhang, Yongkang [Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Jain, Sumit [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Skidgel, Randal A. [Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Prabhakar, Bellur S. [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)] [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Mazzone, Theodore [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)] [Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Holterman, Mark J. [Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)] [Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2010-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} Establish a human immune-mediated type 1 diabetic model in NOD-scid IL2r{gamma}{sup null} mice. {yields} Using the irradiated diabetic NOD mouse spleen mononuclear cells as trigger. {yields} The islet {beta} cells were selectively destroyed by infiltrated human T cells. {yields} The model can facilitate translational research to find a cure for type 1 diabetes. -- Abstract: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is caused by a T cell-mediated autoimmune response that leads to the loss of insulin-producing {beta} cells. The optimal preclinical testing of promising therapies would be aided by a humanized immune-mediated T1D model. We develop this model in NOD-scid IL2r{gamma}{sup null} mice. The selective destruction of pancreatic islet {beta} cells was mediated by human T lymphocytes after an initial trigger was supplied by the injection of irradiated spleen mononuclear cells (SMC) from diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. This resulted in severe insulitis, a marked loss of total {beta}-cell mass, and other related phenotypes of T1D. The migration of human T cells to pancreatic islets was controlled by the {beta} cell-produced highly conserved chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR) 4, as demonstrated by in vivo blocking experiments using antibody to CXCR4. The specificity of humanized T cell-mediated immune responses against islet {beta} cells was generated by the local inflammatory microenvironment in pancreatic islets including human CD4{sup +} T cell infiltration and clonal expansion, and the mouse islet {beta}-cell-derived CD1d-mediated human iNKT activation. The selective destruction of mouse islet {beta} cells by a human T cell-mediated immune response in this humanized T1D model can mimic those observed in T1D patients. This model can provide a valuable tool for translational research into T1D.

  2. Motion Capture Based Animation for Virtual Human Demonstrators: Modeling, Parameterization and Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yazhou

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sive gaze animation for virtual humans. ” In Proceedings ofCapture Based Animation for Virtual Human Demonstrators:Capture Based Animation for Virtual Human Demonstrators:

  3. Stationary turbine component with laminated skin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, Allister W. (Orlando, FL)

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A stationary turbine engine component, such as a turbine vane, includes a internal spar and an external skin. The internal spar is made of a plurality of spar laminates, and the external skin is made of a plurality of skin laminates. The plurality of skin laminates interlockingly engage the plurality of spar laminates such that the external skin is located and held in place. This arrangement allows alternative high temperature materials to be used on turbine engine components in areas where their properties are needed without having to make the entire component out of such material. Thus, the manufacturing difficulties associated with making an entire component of such a material and the attendant high costs are avoided. The skin laminates can be made of advanced generation single crystal superalloys, intermetallics and refractory alloys.

  4. Development and Construction of Bioclimatic Double Skin Active Facade for Hot and Humid Climate of UAE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karbor, R. G.; Mohamed, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tracking venetian blinds, LED (light emitting diodes) lighting and Building Management system. 1.01 Modeling And Simulation Of Double Skin Active Facade The modeling and simulation of the Double Skin Fa?ade Cavity is a complicated task, since... sweating/condensation on the water coil. 3.06 LED (Light Emitting Diode) Lighting The building is illuminated using extremely energy efficient LED?s which last 5 times as long as fluorescents and 50 times longer than typical incandescent. So...

  5. Development and Construction of Bioclimatic Double Skin Active Facade for Hot and Humid Climate of UAE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karbor, R. G.; Mohamed, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tracking venetian blinds, LED (light emitting diodes) lighting and Building Management system. 1.01 Modeling And Simulation Of Double Skin Active Facade The modeling and simulation of the Double Skin Fa?ade Cavity is a complicated task, since... sweating/condensation on the water coil. 3.06 LED (Light Emitting Diode) Lighting The building is illuminated using extremely energy efficient LED?s which last 5 times as long as fluorescents and 50 times longer than typical incandescent. So...

  6. Modeling and Quantification of Team Performance in Human Reliability Analysis for Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey C. JOe; Ronald L. Boring

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) are important technical contributors to the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) risk-informed and performance based approach to regulating U.S. commercial nuclear activities. Furthermore, all currently operating commercial NPPs in the U.S. are required by federal regulation to be staffed with crews of operators. Yet, aspects of team performance are underspecified in most HRA methods that are widely used in the nuclear industry. There are a variety of "emergent" team cognition and teamwork errors (e.g., communication errors) that are 1) distinct from individual human errors, and 2) important to understand from a PRA perspective. The lack of robust models or quantification of team performance is an issue that affects the accuracy and validity of HRA methods and models, leading to significant uncertainty in estimating HEPs. This paper describes research that has the objective to model and quantify team dynamics and teamwork within NPP control room crews for risk informed applications, thereby improving the technical basis of HRA, which improves the risk-informed approach the NRC uses to regulate the U.S. commercial nuclear industry.

  7. The Cognitive Environment Simulation as a tool for modeling human performance and reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, D.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Cognitive Systems Engineering Lab.); Pople, H.E. Jr. (Seer Systems (USA)); Roth, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Science and Technology Center)

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people form intentions to act in NPP emergencies. CES provides an analytic tool for exploring plausible human responses in emergency situations. In addition a methodology called Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (CREATE) was developed that describes how CES can be used to provide input to human reliability analyses (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. This report describes the results of three activities that were performed to evaluate CES/CREATE: (1) A technical review was conducted by a panel of experts in cognitive modeling, PRA and HRA; (2) CES was exercised on steam generator tube rupture incidents for which data on operator performance exist; (3) a workshop with HRA practitioners was held to analyze a worked example'' of the CREATE methodology. The results of all three evaluations indicate that CES/CREATE is a promising approach for modeling intention formation. Volume 1 provides a summary of the results. This document, Volume 2, provides details on the three evaluations, including the CES computer outputs for the tube rupture events. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. The Cognitive Environment Simulation as a tool for modeling human performance and reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, D.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Cognitive Systems Engineering Lab.); Pople, H.E. Jr. (Seer Systems (USA)); Roth, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Science and Technology Center)

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people form intentions to act in NPP emergencies. CES provides an analytic tool for exploring plausible human response in emergency situations. In addition a methodology called Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (CREATE) was developed that describes how CES can be used to provide input to human reliability analyses (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. This report describes the results of three activities that were performed to evaluate CES/CREATE: (1) A technical review was conducted by a panel of experts in cognitive modeling, PRA and HRA; (2) CES was exercised on steam generator tube rupture incidents for which data on operator performance exist; (3) a workshop with HRA practitioners was held to analyze a worked example'' of the CREATE methodology. The results of all three evaluations indicate that CES/CREATE is a promising approach for modeling intention formation. This document, Volume 1 provides a summary of the results. Volume 2 provides details on three evaluations, including the CES computer outputs for the tube rupture events. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Has a thick neutron skin in ${}^{208}$Pb been ruled out?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fattoyev, F J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) has provided the first model-independent evidence in favor of a neutron-rich skin in ${}^{208}$Pb. Although the error bars are large, the reported large central value of 0.33\\,fm is particularly intriguing. To test whether such a thick neutron-skin in ${}^{208}$Pb is already incompatible with laboratory experiments or astrophysical observations, we employ relativistic models with neutron-skin thickness in ${}^{208}$Pb ranging from 0.16 to 0.33 fm to compute ground state properties of finite nuclei, their collective monopole and dipole response, and mass-{\\sl vs}-radius relations for neutron stars. No compelling reason was found to rule out models with large neutron skins in ${}^{208}$Pb from the set of observables considered in this work.

  10. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (NUREG-0711)Revision 3: Update Methodology and Key Revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; Fleger, S.

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. NUREG-0711 is the first document to be addressed. We present the methodology used to update NUREG-0711 and summarize the main changes made. Finally, we discuss the current status of the update program and the future plans.

  11. Bio-inspired nanocomposite assemblies as smart skin components.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montano, Gabriel A.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Allen, Amy; Brozik, Susan Marie; Edwards, Thayne L.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Wheeler, David Roger

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is national interest in the development of sophisticated materials that can automatically detect and respond to chemical and biological threats without the need for human intervention. In living systems, cell membranes perform such functions on a routine basis, detecting threats, communicating with the cell, and triggering automatic responses such as the opening and closing of ion channels. The purpose of this project was to learn how to replicate simple threat detection and response functions within artificial membrane systems. The original goals toward developing 'smart skin' assemblies included: (1) synthesizing functionalized nanoparticles to produce electrochemically responsive systems within a lipid bilayer host matrices, (2) calculating the energetics of nanoparticle-lipid interactions and pore formation, and (3) determining the mechanism of insertion of nanoparticles in lipid bilayers via imaging and electrochemistry. There are a few reports of the use of programmable materials to open and close pores in rigid hosts such as mesoporous materials using either heat or light activation. However, none of these materials can regulate themselves in response to the detection of threats. The strategies we investigated in this project involve learning how to use programmable nanomaterials to automatically eliminate open channels within a lipid bilayer host when 'threats' are detected. We generated and characterized functionalized nanoparticles that can be used to create synthetic pores through the membrane and investigated methods of eliminating the pores either through electrochemistry, change in pH, etc. We also focused on characterizing the behavior of functionalized gold NPs in different lipid membranes and lipid vesicles and coupled these results to modeling efforts designed to gain an understanding of the interaction of nanoparticles within lipid assemblies.

  12. Low-dose radiation impacts skin sensitivity | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-dose radiation impacts skin sensitivity Low-dose radiation impacts skin sensitivity Released: April 06, 2015 Systems approach suggests alterations in stability of cells and...

  13. autologous serum skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: specialized sub- classes, namely "bikini" "porn" and "skin" "non-skin", respectively. The extracted pornographic image classifiers....

  14. acute nontraumatic skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: specialized sub- classes, namely "bikini" "porn" and "skin" "non-skin", respectively. The extracted pornographic image classifiers....

  15. Detecting pornographic images by localizing skin Sotiris Karavarsamisa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blekas, Konstantinos

    specialized sub- classes, namely "bikini" / "porn" and "skin" / "non-skin", respectively. The extracted pornographic image classifiers. Index Terms convex hull calculation, multi-class classification, porn detection

  16. alter skin microcirculation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: specialized sub- classes, namely "bikini" "porn" and "skin" "non-skin", respectively. The extracted pornographic image classifiers....

  17. ameliorate genetic skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: specialized sub- classes, namely "bikini" "porn" and "skin" "non-skin", respectively. The extracted pornographic image classifiers....

  18. Beyond the skin bag: on the moral responsibility of extended agencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanson, F. Allan

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and extended agency The view of the subject as only the human individual is known as methodological individualism. This theory holds that subjects are human beings entirely contained in their “skin bags” (Clark 2003), that maintain their identity... to ride a bicycle. “Be careful not to run into people or things, don’t crash your bike or hurt yourself, and especially don’t ride into the street without looking.” Her responsibility with the bicycle is, however, considerably less momentous than...

  19. Human performance modeling for system of systems analytics: combat performance-shaping factors.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawton, Craig R.; Miller, Dwight Peter

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US military has identified Human Performance Modeling (HPM) as a significant requirement and challenge of future systems modeling and analysis initiatives. To support this goal, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has undertaken a program of HPM as an integral augmentation to its system-of-system (SoS) analytics capabilities. The previous effort, reported in SAND2005-6569, evaluated the effects of soldier cognitive fatigue on SoS performance. The current effort began with a very broad survey of any performance-shaping factors (PSFs) that also might affect soldiers performance in combat situations. The work included consideration of three different approaches to cognition modeling and how appropriate they would be for application to SoS analytics. This bulk of this report categorizes 47 PSFs into three groups (internal, external, and task-related) and provides brief descriptions of how each affects combat performance, according to the literature. The PSFs were then assembled into a matrix with 22 representative military tasks and assigned one of four levels of estimated negative impact on task performance, based on the literature. Blank versions of the matrix were then sent to two ex-military subject-matter experts to be filled out based on their personal experiences. Data analysis was performed to identify the consensus most influential PSFs. Results indicate that combat-related injury, cognitive fatigue, inadequate training, physical fatigue, thirst, stress, poor perceptual processing, and presence of chemical agents are among the PSFs with the most negative impact on combat performance.

  20. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

  1. Skin friction for steel piles in sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulaiman, Ibrahim Hikmat

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MOVEMENT 4) For dry pile tests at initial void ratio of 0. 63, the assumption of a Coulomb type failure applies and the envelope is shown in Figure 23. The skin friction computed is the total friction caused by applied load. and. the static load caused... Sand 43 22. Skin Friction-Chamber Pressure Ratio Versus Pile Movement for Dense Dry Sand 44 23 ~ 24. Mohr Envelope for Skin Friction Measured. and Assumed. Pile Deformation 49 25 ~ Computed and Actual Load-Movement Curves for Test Pile 1 26...

  2. Computational formulation, modeling and evaluation of human-robot team training techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaidis, Stefanos Z

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is focused on designing mechanisms for programming robots and training people to perform human-robot collaborative tasks, drawing upon insights from practices widely used in human teams. First, we design and ...

  3. Airflow in a Multiscale Subject-Specific Breathing Human Lung Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A; Tawhai, Merryn H; Lin, Ching-Long

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The airflow in a subject-specific breathing human lung is simulated with a multiscale computational fluid dynamics (CFD) lung model. The three-dimensional (3D) airway geometry beginning from the mouth to about 7 generations of airways is reconstructed from the multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) image at the total lung capacity (TLC). Along with the segmented lobe surfaces, we can build an anatomically-consistent one-dimensional (1D) airway tree spanning over more than 20 generations down to the terminal bronchioles, which is specific to the CT resolved airways and lobes (J Biomech 43(11): 2159-2163, 2010). We then register two lung images at TLC and the functional residual capacity (FRC) to specify subject-specific CFD flow boundary conditions and deform the airway surface mesh for a breathing lung simulation (J Comput Phys 244:168-192, 2013). The 1D airway tree bridges the 3D CT-resolved airways and the registration-derived regional ventilation in the lung parenchyma, thus a multiscale model. Larg...

  4. Integrating human and robot decision-making dynamics with feedback: Models and convergence analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard, Naomi

    , a well-studied decision-making task in behavioral experiments. The human subject chooses between two structures, the behavioral experiments show convergence to suboptimal choices. We propose a human- supervised and the kinds of decisions humans make in psychology experiments. We consider a class of sequential binary

  5. A Multi-Methods Approach to HRA and Human Performance Modeling: A Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo; David I Gertman

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a research reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory is primarily designed and used to test materials to be used in other, larger-scale and prototype reactors. The reactor offers various specialized systems and allows certain experiments to be run at their own temperature and pressure. The ATR Canal temporarily stores completed experiments and used fuel. It also has facilities to conduct underwater operations such as experiment examination or removal. In reviewing the ATR safety basis, a number of concerns were identified involving the ATR canal. A brief study identified ergonomic issues involving the manual handling of fuel elements in the canal that may increase the probability of human error and possible unwanted acute physical outcomes to the operator. In response to this concern, that refined the previous HRA scoping analysis by determining the probability of the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element to the air during fuel movement and inspection was conducted. The HRA analysis employed the SPAR-H method and was supplemented by information gained from a detailed analysis of the fuel inspection and transfer tasks. This latter analysis included ergonomics, work cycles, task duration, and workload imposed by tool and workplace characteristics, personal protective clothing, and operational practices that have the potential to increase physical and mental workload. Part of this analysis consisted of NASA-TLX analyses, combined with operational sequence analysis, computational human performance analysis (CHPA), and 3D graphical modeling to determine task failures and precursors to such failures that have safety implications. Experience in applying multiple analysis techniques in support of HRA methods is discussed.

  6. Eliciting a human understandable model of ice adhesion strength for rotor blade leading edge materials from uncertain experimental data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    Eliciting a human understandable model of ice adhesion strength for rotor blade leading edge: Genetic Fuzzy Systems Fuzzy rule-based classifiers Vague data Isotropic materials Ice-phobic materials Shear adhesion strength a b s t r a c t The published ice adhesion performance data of novel ``ice

  7. Metabolomic Response of Human Skin Tissue to Low Dose Ionizing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for IR exposure at low doses can help provide a scientific basis for establishing radiation protection standards. Little is known regarding the physiological responses to...

  8. Picropodophyllin inhibits tumor growth of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a mouse model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Shu-Cheng [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China) [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Wei [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tao, Ze-Zhang, E-mail: zezhangtao@gmail.com [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China)

    2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •We identified that PPP inhibits IGF-1R/Akt pathway in NPC cells. •PPP dose-dependently inhibits NPC cell proliferation in vitro. •PPP suppresses tumor growth of NPC in nude mice. •PPP have little effect on microtubule assembly. -- Abstract: Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a cell membrane receptor with tyrosine kinase activity and plays important roles in cell transformation, tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a selective IGF-1R inhibitor and shows promising antitumor effects for several human cancers. However, its antitumor effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antitumor activity of PPP in NPC using in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal model. We found that PPP dose-dependently decreased the IGF-induced phosphorylation and activity of IGF-1R and consequently reduced the phosphorylation of Akt, one downstream target of IGF-1R. In addition, PPP inhibited NPC cell proliferation in vitro. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PPP for NPC cell line CNE-2 was ?1 ?M at 24 h after treatment and ?0.5 ?M at 48 h after treatment, respectively. Moreover, administration of PPP by intraperitoneal injection significantly suppressed the tumor growth of xenografted NPC in nude mice. Taken together, these results suggest targeting IGF-1R by PPP may represent a new strategy for treatment of NPCs with positive IGF-1R expression.

  9. Mechanistic modeling of the interrelationships between indoor/outdoor air quality and human exposure in a GIS framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isukapalli, S.S.; Purushothaman, V.; Georgopoulos, P.G.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaluation of human exposure to atmospheric contaminants such as ozone and particulate matter (PM) is often based on measured data from fixed ambient (outdoors) Air Monitoring Stations. This results in an artificial characterization of indoor exposures, as concentrations and physicochemical attributes of indoor pollutants vary significantly and are different from corresponding outdoor values. A mechanistically-based modeling approach is presented here that aims to improve estimates for the outdoor/indoor relationships of photochemical pollutants and of associated fine particles and, subsequently, of human exposure assessments. New approaches for refining the spatial, temporal, and indoor/outdoor patterns of gas phase photochemical contaminants and PM are currently being developed and tested. These approaches are combined with information from either ambient monitoring networks or from ambient air quality models that consider aerosol physics and chemistry coupled with gas phase photochemistry (e.g. UAM-AERO). This process utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Relational Database (RD) methods, to facilitate detailed exposure scenario construction (involving e.g. the geographic location of an individual considered in time) and to aid in the estimation of population exposure over selected geographic areas. The combination of monitor data or air quality modeling with microenvironmental modeling in a GIS framework can potentially provide a useful platform for more accurate assessments of human exposure to co-occurring gas and particulate phase air pollutants.

  10. A Computational Model Incorporating Neural Stem Cell Dynamics Reproduces Glioma Incidence across the Lifespan in the Human Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Roman; Stoll, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Glioma is the most common form of primary brain tumor. Demographically, the risk of occurrence increases until old age. Here we present a novel computational model to reproduce the probability of glioma incidence across the lifespan. Previous mathematical models explaining glioma incidence are framed in a rather abstract way, and do not directly relate to empirical findings. To decrease this gap between theory and experimental observations, we incorporate recent data on cellular and molecular factors underlying gliomagenesis. Since evidence implicates the adult neural stem cell as the likely cell-of-origin of glioma, we have incorporated empirically-determined estimates of neural stem cell number, cell division rate, mutation rate and oncogenic potential into our model. We demonstrate that our model yields results which match actual demographic data in the human population. In particular, this model accounts for the observed peak incidence of glioma at approximately 80 years of age, without the need to assert...

  11. Human-machine interactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsythe, J. Chris (Sandia Park, NM); Xavier, Patrick G. (Albuquerque, NM); Abbott, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan G. (Albuquerque, NM); Bernard, Michael L. (Tijeras, NM); Speed, Ann E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  12. Influence of neutron-skin thickness on $?^{-}/?^{+}$ ratio in Pb+Pb collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao-Feng Wei; Bao-An Li; Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen

    2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Within an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model IBUU11 using as an input nucleon density profiles from Hartree-Fock calculations based on a modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we study the influence of the uncertainty of the neutron skin thickness on the $\\pi^{-}/\\pi^{+}$ ratio in both central and peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at beam energies of 400 MeV/nucleon and 1000 MeV/nucleon. Within the current experimental uncertainty range of neutron skin in $^{208}$Pb, while the neutron skin effect on the \\rpi ratio is negligible in central reactions at both energies, it increases gradually with increasing impact parameter and becomes comparable with or even larger than the symmetry energy effect in peripheral collisions especially at 400 MeV/nucleon. Moreover, we found that while the \\rpi ratio is larger with a softer \\esym in central collisions, above certain impact parameters depending on the size of the neutron skin, a stiffer \\esym can lead to a larger \\rpi ratio as most of the pions are produced at densities below the saturation density in these peripheral reactions. Thus, a clear impact parameter selection is important to extract reliable information about the \\esym at suprasaturation densities (size of neutron skin) from the $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio in central (peripheral) heavy-ion collisions.

  13. Cognitive environment simulation: An artificial intelligence system for human performance assessment: Modeling human intention formation: (Technical report, May 1986-June 1987)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.; Pople, H. Jr.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of Phase II of a three phase research program to develop and validate improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. In Phase II a dynamic simulation capability for modeling how people form intentions to act in NPP emergency situations was developed based on techniques from artificial intelligence. This modeling tool, Cognitive Environment Simulation or CES, simulates the cognitive processes that determine situation assessment and intention formation. It can be used to investigate analytically what situations and factors lead to intention failures, what actions follow from intention failures (e.g., errors of omission, errors of commission, common mode errors), the ability to recover from errors or additional machine failures, and the effects of changes in the NPP person-machine system. The Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (or CREATE) was also developed in Phase II to specify how CES can be used to enhance the measurement of the human contribution to risk in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. 43 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Active skin for turbulent drag reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mani, Raghavendran

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pursued is "micro" in the sense that only micro-scale wave amplitudes (order of 30[]m) and energy inputs are sufficient to produce significant benefits. Two actuation principles are proposed and analyzed and different skin designs based on these two...

  15. Preventive Skin Care Fact or Fiction?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Steven A.

    and colors Many are birthmarks http://www.skinsight.com/images/dx/webInfant/congenitalMelanocyticNevus_33234 by skin biopsy to make sure not cancer http://www.skinsight.com/images/dx/webInfant/congenital://www.skincancer.org/understanding-uva-and-uvb.html #12;Practice GOOD habits! · Reapply sunscreen if: ­ Sweating ­ Swimming in water ­ Doing any activity

  16. Simulation of human motion data using short-horizon model-predictive control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Marco Jorge Tome da

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many data-driven animation techniques are capable of producing high quality motions of human characters. Few techniques, however, are capable of generating motions that are consistent with physically simulated environments. ...

  17. An HMM-based boundary-flexible model of human haplotype variation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheffi, Jonathan, 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction of a meaningful and detailed description of haplotype variation holds the promise for more powerful genetic association studies. The segmentation of the human genome into blocks of limited haplotype diversity ...

  18. Vaccine delivery with microneedle skin patches in nonhuman primates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Adrienne V

    Transcutaneous drug delivery from planar skin patches is effective for small-molecule drugs and skin-permeable vaccine adjuvants. However, to achieve efficient delivery of vaccines and other macromolecular therapeutics ...

  19. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Gunawan, Rudy; Timchalk, Charles

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the development and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.

  20. Kenneth R. Fleischmann, Clay Templeton, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Modeling Diverse Standpoints in Text Classification: Learning to Be Human by Modeling Human Values. iConference, 2011.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Kenneth R. Fleischmann, Clay Templeton, and Jordan Boyd-Graber. Modeling Diverse Standpoints{Fleischmann:Templeton:Boyd-Graber-2011, Author = {Kenneth R. Fleischmann and Clay Templeton and Jordan Boyd-Graber}, Booktitle = {i Hornbake Building, South Wing College Park, MD 20742-4345 kfleisch@umd.edu Thomas Clay Templeton University

  1. A generalized self consistent model for effective elastic moduli of human dentine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    Consistent Model for cell model of fiber-reinforced composites is extended to the case of hollow cylinder model and the corresponding cell model is chosen to consist of a circular hollow cylinder filled from other models such as nano-indentation method. Ã? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords

  2. The study of skin permeation mechanism and terpene-skin lipid interaction via nuclear magnetic resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, P. F. C.; Liu, Xiang Yang; Huang, Meng; Ho, P. C. L.; Chan, S. Y.

    2006-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    , lipid extraction, etc. In our case, the interaction between a terpene and a lipid was examinedwith nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which aims to provide some insight to enhancement in skin permeation. Palmitic acid (Fig 1), a 16-carbon fatty acid... and oxides were able to producea greater ??. National University of Singapore, 2006 PS77 -The Study of Skin Permeation Mechanism and Terpene-Lipid Interaction via Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Perry Fung Chye Lim a, Xiang Yang Liu b, Meng Huang a, Paul Chi...

  3. SUPPLEMENTAL FUNDING ANNOUNCEMENT CAREER DEVELOPMENT AWARD IN MELANOMA & SKIN CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    SUPPLEMENTAL FUNDING ANNOUNCEMENT CAREER DEVELOPMENT AWARD IN MELANOMA & SKIN CANCER Sponsored by: The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Melanoma & Skin Cancer University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Purpose The overall goals of the Melanoma & Skin Cancer SPORE are to improve the detection

  4. FUNDING ANNOUNCEMENT CAREER DEVELOPMENT AWARD IN MELANOMA & SKIN CANCER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    FUNDING ANNOUNCEMENT CAREER DEVELOPMENT AWARD IN MELANOMA & SKIN CANCER Sponsored by: The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Melanoma & Skin Cancer University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) Purpose The overall goals of the Melanoma & Skin Cancer SPORE are to improve the detection

  5. absorption skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorption skin First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Healthy Skin Matters Normal Skin...

  6. Simplified methods of modeling multilayer reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryou, Sangsoo

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the boundary-dominated flow period. We also examined modeling the pressure response during pseudosteady state flow in a multilayer system with skin factors in individual layers using a single layer solution which includes an equivalent skin factor...

  7. Exact volume preserving skinning with shape control Damien Rohmer1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    skinning, perfectly fits into the usual production pipeline. It can be used whatever the desired locality the way rubber-like materials and organic shapes respectively deform can be modeled. An improved algorithm is a complex process, which needs to fit into the standard production pipe-line for efficient use by artists

  8. INTRODUCTION Skin temperature (ST) retrievals are currently made every hour from 1145 to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haines, Stephanie L.

    temperature measurements are an important input for operational meteorology applications such as model). Land skin temperature measurements have important applications in agriculture including frost detection of the urban heat island effect (Hafner and Kidder 1999; Lo et al. 1997) and the study of the earth's energy

  9. Water skin anomalies: density, elasticity, hydrophobicity, thermal stability, interface repulsivity, etc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q. Sun

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular undercoordination induced O:H-O bond relaxation and dual polarization dictates the supersolid behavior of water skins interacting with other substances such as flowing in nanochannels, dancing of water droplets, floating of insects. The BOLS-NEP notion unifies the Wenzel-Cassie-Baxter models and explains controllable transition between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity.

  10. A new cost-distance model for human accessibility and an evaluation of accessibility bias in permanent vegetation plots in Great Smoky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peet, Robert K.

    A new cost-distance model for human accessibility and an evaluation of accessibility bias-mail toddjobe@unc.edu Abstract Question: Can a new cost-distance model help us to evaluate the potential crossings, and vegeta- tion density were incorporated into a least-cost model of energetic expenditure

  11. Metabolic Rate Constants for Hydroquinone in F344 Rat and Human Liver Isolated Hepatocytes: Application to a PBPK model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Wu, Hong; English, J C.; Corley, Rick A.

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is an important industrial chemical that also occurs naturally in foods and in the leaves and bark of a number of plant species. Exposure of laboratory animals to HQ may result in a species-, sex-, and strain-specific nephrotoxicity. The sensitivity of male F344 vs. female F344 and Sprague-Dawley rats or B6C3F1 mice appears to be related to differences in the rates of formation and further metabolism of key nephrotoxic metabolites. Metabolic rate constants for the conversion of HQ through several metabolic steps to the mono-glutathione conjugate and subsequent detoxification via mercapturic acid were measured in suspension cultures of hepatocytes isolated from male F344 rats and humans. An in vitro mathematic kinetic model was used to analyze each metabolic step by simultaneously fitting the disappearance of each substrate and the appearance of subsequent metabolites. An iterative, nested approach was used whereby downstream metabolites were considered first and the model was constrained by the requirement that rate constants determined during analysis of individual metabolic steps must also satisfy the complete, integrated metabolism scheme, including competitive pathways. The results from this study indicated that the overall capacity for metabolism of HQ and its mono-glutathione conjugate is greater in hepatocytes from humans than those isolated from rats, suggesting a greater capacity for detoxification of the glutathione conjugates. Metabolic rate constants were applied to an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic model and the model was used to predict total glutathione metabolites produced in the liver. The results showed that body burdens of these metabolites will be much higher in rats than humans.

  12. Rapid generation of human B-cell lymphomas via combined expression of Myc and Bcl2 and their use as a preclinical model for biological therapies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweighofer, C D

    Although numerous mouse models of B-cell malignancy have been developed via the enforced expression of defined oncogenic lesions, the feasibility of generating lineage-defined human B-cell malignancies using mice reconstituted ...

  13. Task-Model Based Human Robot Cooperation Using Vision 3 Hiroshi Kimura and Tomoyuki Horiuchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    For the purpose of the child care and nursing care, we are developing the robot which can assist the hu- man 182 Katsushi Ikeuchi Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo 7-22-1 Roppongi, Minato-ku, Tokyo an experiment in which the human and the robotic hand assembled toy parts in cooperation. 1 Introduction

  14. Homogenization of a Multiscale Viscoelastic Model with Nonlocal Damping, Application to the Human Lungs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lungs PAUL CAZEAUX, Laboratoire J.­L. Lions, UMR 7598, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place of the deformation of the human lung tissue, called the lung parenchyma, during the respiration process bronchi and enters the lungs. It is then distributed by the bronchial tree to the acini or alveolar

  15. LINEAR COMBINATIONS OF NONLINEAR MODELS FOR PREDICTING HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE FORCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    human neuromechanical characteristics during limb movements in order to predict man-machine interactions of a planar manipulandum robot and attempted to make point-to-point reaching movements. We compared. Furthermore, this prediction should be applied during movement and not just in maintaining posture. Estimating

  16. A Benchmark of Computational Models of Saliency to Predict Human Fixations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judd, Tilke

    2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Many computational models of visual attention have been created from a wide variety of different approaches to predict where people look in images. Each model is usually introduced by demonstrating performances on new ...

  17. Essays on econometric modeling of subjective perceptions of risks in environment and human health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, To Ngoc

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    the estimator asymptotically unbiased and efficient. The third essay addresses the problem of modeling perceived mortality risks from arsenic concentrations in drinking water. I estimated a formal model that allows for ambiguity about risk. The empirical...

  18. The Application of User Modeling Techniques to Reason about the Human Contribution to Major Accidents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.W.

    Johnson,C.W. Proceedings of the Seventh International User Modelling Conference (UM'99) pp 13-22 Springer

  19. Bayesian Modeling Of An Human MMORPG Player Gabriel Synnaevea,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -run factions fighting each other but we modeled a particular domain of multiplayer RPG called players versus

  20. Modeling Reciprocal Behavior in Human Bilateral Negotiation Ya'akov Gal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeffer, Avi

    that interact with people over time. It proposes a model for predicting peo- ple's actions in multiple bilateral significantly improves the predictive power of the model, en- abling it to outperform alternative models that do that computers that interact with people need to represent and to learn the social factors that affect people

  1. In vitro model for human endothelial cell seeding of a small diameter vascular graft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent, K.C.; Oshima, A.; Ikemoto, T.; Whittemore, A.D.

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A precise system was devised to measure the kinetics of attachment of human venous endothelium to a variety of materials and substrates. Cells were labelled in a postconfluent state with tritiated thymidine, harvested, and a cell suspension seeded into a 4 mm PTFE graft. After a 90 minute incubation period, one half of the graft segment was sacrificed and the remaining portion placed in a perfusion system (225 cc/min) for 1 hour. Graft segments, effluents, and seeding suspension were assayed in a beta scintillation counter. The percentage of cells that attached pre- and postperfusion were determined, as well as the retrieval of tritium from the system. Initially, 71% of seeded cells attached to grafts coated with fibronectin, with significantly less (60%) remaining attached after perfusion. Only 10% of cells initially attached to uncoated grafts, with 4% retained postperfusion. Retrieval of tritium averaged 102 +/- 10% for all experiments. This system determines both pre- and postperfusion attachment of human endothelial cells to vascular grafts following manipulation of numerous variables, including graft material, substrate, incubation time, and seeding density. An optimal seeding protocol for human trials can thus be determined.

  2. MODELING INSTABILITY IN THE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR HUMAN RESPIRATION: APPLICATIONS TO INFANT NONREM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the ventila­ tion rate in response to the levels of CO 2 and O 2 in the body. Models of the respiratory theory of the control of ventilation in 1946 [33]. The first dynamic model of CO 2 regulation using of ventilation control and CO 2 regulation [43]. Quantitative studies began with Gray and his multiple factor

  3. Revision of the ICRP dosimetric model for the human respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bair, W.J.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract used in ICRP Publication 30 had not been shown to be seriously deficient for the purpose of calculating Annual Limits on Intake (ALIs) for workers, the availability of new information led the ICRP in 1984 to create a special Task Group to review the dosimetric model of the respiratory tract and, if justified, propose revisions or a new model. The Task Group directed its efforts toward improving the model used in Publication 30 rather than developing a completely new model. The objective was a model that would facilitate calculation of biologically meaningful doses; be consistent with morphological, physiological, and radiobiological characteristics of the respiratory tract; incorporate current knowledge; meet all radiation protection needs; be user friendly by not being unnecessarily sophisticated; be adaptable to development of computer software for calculation of relevant radiation doses from knowledge of a few readily measured exposure parameters; be equally useful for assessment purposes as for calculating ALIs; be applicable to all members of the world population; and consider the influence of smoking, air pollutants, and diseases of the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of radioactive particles from the respiratory tract. The model provides for calculation of a committed dose equivalent for each region, adjusted for the relative cancer sensitivity of that region, and for the summing of these to yield a committed dose equivalent for the entire respiratory tract. 3 figs.

  4. Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marra, John J

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.

  5. A Discriminative Key Pose Sequence Model for Recognizing Human Interactions Arash Vahdat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mori, Greg

    ] provide a recent survey, we review closely related methods below. In this paper we de- velop a temporal, ranging from template matching to probabilistic tem- poral sequence models. Template matching methods in

  6. Topical treatment of melanoma skin metastases with Imiquimod: a review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sisti, Andrea; Sisti, Giovanni; Oranges, Carlo Maria

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    locoregional recurrences of melanoma: a new therapeuticthe treatment of metastatic melanoma to skin. Arch Dermatol,High W, and Stewart L, Melanoma in situ treated successfully

  7. allotransplanted vascularized skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Optimum pulse duration and radiant exposure for vascular laser therapy of dark port-wine skin: a theoretical study Engineering Websites Summary: Optimum pulse duration and...

  8. analyzing skin conductance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    coupling between each tactile sensing chip and a ground Shinoda, Hiroyuki 8 HandWave: Design and Manufacture of a Wearable Wireless Skin Conductance Computer Technologies and...

  9. Coupling control and human factors in mathematical models of complex systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnik, Roderick

    dynamic systems Coupled field theory Systems science and cybernetics Markov chains and decision analysis process of the models for other complex dynamic systems. & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1 systems between themselves and with dynamically changing environment, coupled effects and phenomena

  10. Special Issue on Human Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    The seven articles in this special issue focus on human computing. Most focus on two challenging issues in human computing, namely, machine analysis of human behavior in group interactions and context-sensitive modeling.

  11. Modeling of Human Intrusion Scenarios at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gross, M.B.; Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Larson, K.W.; Thompson, T.W.

    1998-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a mined, geologic repository designed for permanent disposal of transuranic waste. The facility is owned by the United States Department of Energy, and licensed for operations by the Environmental Protection Agency. Compliance with license requirements dictates that the repository must comply with regulatory stipulations that performance assessment calculations include the effects of resource exploitation on probable releases. Scenarios for these releases incorporate inadvertent penetration of the repository by an exploratory drilling operation. This paper presents the scenarios and models used to predict releases from the repository to the biosphere during. an inadvertent intrusion into the waste disposal regions. A summary of model results and conclusions is also presented.

  12. Balance Maintenance for Human-Like Models with Whole-body Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    with several perturbations, we design two modes of maintaining balance: keeping the feet on the ground: IPM: Inverted Pendulum Model IK: Inverse Kinematics 3.4.1 IPM IPM 6 2 1 1 ka kb 2 IPM ml2 ¨ = mlg sin - r) renew l as l + l renew r for new l } 10: IK 3.4.4 IK ZMP u ZMP ¨u min. T u Cu u (20) st. ipx

  13. PASSAGE OF FISSION PRODUCTS THROUGH THE SKIN OF TUNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was slow. PASSAGE OF FISSION PRODUCTS THROUGH THE SKIN OF TUNA In relation to "fallout" from nuclear -bomb tests, it is of interest to measure the amounts of radioactive isotopes known to be present in mixtures of fission products which would pass through the skin of fish held under refrigera- tion on fishing vessels

  14. allergic skin test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    allergic skin test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 The Skin Microbiome in Healthy and...

  15. Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Elizabeth Brooks

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used...

  16. INVESTIGATION The Lsktm1 Locus Modulates Lung and Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Broman, Karl W.

    INVESTIGATION The Lsktm1 Locus Modulates Lung and Skin Tumorigenesis in the Mouse Antonella Galvan to both skin and lung tumorigenesis over the susceptibility of the SWR/J strain. In an effort to map tumor.93) and lung (LOD score = 8.74) tumorigenesis. Two genes, Igfbp5 and Igfbp2, residing in this locus

  17. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickey, Fred M. (Albuquerque, NM); Holswade, Scott C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  18. USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M.; Swirsky Gold, Lois; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Jolliet, Olivier; Juraske, Ronnie; Koehler, Annette; Larsen, Henrik F.; MacLeod, Matthew; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E.; Payet, Jerome; Schuhmacher, Marta; van de Meent, Dik; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2008-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe this model-comparison process and its results--in particular the scientific consensus model developed by the model developers. The main objectives of this effort were (i) to identify specific sources of differences between the models' results and structure, (ii) to detect the indispensable model components, and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified key fate, exposure and effect issues via comparison of the final characterisation factors and selected intermediate outputs for fate, human exposure and toxic effects for the test set applied to all models. Results. Through this process, we were able to reduce inter-model variation from an initial range of up to 13 orders of magnitude down to no more than 2 orders of magnitude for any substance. This led to the development of USEtox, a scientific consensus model that contains only the most influential model elements. These were, for example, process formulations accounting for intermittent rain, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude variation between the CFs of each model respectively. The achieved reduction of inter-model variability by up to 11 orders of magnitude is a significant improvement.Conclusions. USEtox provides a parsimonious and transparent tool for human health and ecosystem CF estimates. Based on a referenced database, it has now been used to calculate CFs for several thousand substances and forms the basis of the recommendations from UNEP-SETAC's Life Cycle Initiative regarding characterization of toxic impacts in Life Cycle Assessment. Recommendations and Perspectives. We provide both recommended and interim (not recommended and to be used with caution) characterisation factors for human health and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts. After a process of consensus building among stakeholders on a broad scale as well as several improvements regarding a wider and easier applicability of the model, USEtox will become available to practitioners for the calculation of further CFs.

  19. SU-E-J-107: Supervised Learning Model of Aligned Collagen for Human Breast Carcinoma Prognosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bredfeldt, J; Liu, Y; Conklin, M; Keely, P; Eliceiri, K; Mackie, T [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Our goal is to develop and apply a set of optical and computational tools to enable large-scale investigations of the interaction between collagen and tumor cells. Methods: We have built a novel imaging system for automating the capture of whole-slide second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen in registry with bright field (BF) images of hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue. To analyze our images, we have integrated a suite of supervised learning tools that semi-automatically model and score collagen interactions with tumor cells via a variety of metrics, a method we call Electronic Tumor Associated Collagen Signatures (eTACS). This group of tools first segments regions of epithelial cells and collagen fibers from BF and SHG images respectively. We then associate fibers with groups of epithelial cells and finally compute features based on the angle of interaction and density of the collagen surrounding the epithelial cell clusters. These features are then processed with a support vector machine to separate cancer patients into high and low risk groups. Results: We validated our model by showing that eTACS produces classifications that have statistically significant correlation with manual classifications. In addition, our system generated classification scores that accurately predicted breast cancer patient survival in a cohort of 196 patients. Feature rank analysis revealed that TACS positive fibers are more well aligned with each other, generally lower density, and terminate within or near groups of epithelial cells. Conclusion: We are working to apply our model to predict survival in larger cohorts of breast cancer patients with a diversity of breast cancer types, predict response to treatments such as COX2 inhibitors, and to study collagen architecture changes in other cancer types. In the future, our system may be used to provide metastatic potential information to cancer patients to augment existing clinical assays.

  20. Quantitative probabilistic modeling of environmental control and life support System resilience for long-duration human spaceflight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Andrew Charles

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The future of human space exploration will see crews travel farther and remain in space for longer durations than ever before. For the first time in the history of human spaceflight, the Environmental Control and Life ...

  1. autologous fibrin-based skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: specialized sub- classes, namely "bikini" "porn" and "skin" "non-skin", respectively. The extracted pornographic image classifiers....

  2. atopic dermatitis-like skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: specialized sub- classes, namely "bikini" "porn" and "skin" "non-skin", respectively. The extracted pornographic image classifiers....

  3. acinetobacter baumannii-associated skin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences Websites Summary: specialized sub- classes, namely "bikini" "porn" and "skin" "non-skin", respectively. The extracted pornographic image classifiers....

  4. Jonathan Chang, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Chong Wang, Sean Gerrish, and David M. Blei. Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models. Neural Information Processing Systems, 2009.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    Jonathan Chang, Jordan Boyd-Graber, Chong Wang, Sean Gerrish, and David M. Blei. Reading Tea Leaves: How Humans Interpret Topic Models. Neural Information Processing Systems, 2009. @inproceedings{Chang:Boyd-Graber:Wang:Gerrish:Blei-2009, Author = {Jonathan Chang and Jordan Boyd-Graber and Chong Wang and Sean Gerrish and David M. Blei

  5. Nuclear matter symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei RID A-2398-2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, LW; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Correlations between the thickness of the neutron skin in finite nuclei and the nuclear matter symmetry energy are studied in the Skyrme Hartree-Fock model. From the most recent analysis of the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions based...

  6. Semi-analytical methods for the analysis and interpretation of well test data distorted by wellbore storage and skin effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prachumchon, Sompong

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our objective is to develop approximations of the pressure-time behavior for use in analyzing the pressure response of a well in an infinite-acting reservoir influenced by wellbore storage and skin effects. Our resulting approximate models are semi...

  7. In-situ measurement of skin friction and point bearing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehmet, Joseph Don

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I M ? S IT U ME~c S UBEME6'T OF SKIN FRICTION PHD POINT BEARIiiG A Thesis JOS'- P':i QOij' REAMS T Suhmitted to th Gradua. e Colloa of Texas ASM Univer "it@ ln oar i! al f ul fl11ment of the requi ri ment for tha ~loc ~ ec of NP STE!3...-Situ Measurement of Skin Friction and Point Bearing (January 1970) Joseph D . Rehmet, B. S . , Texas A&M University Supervised by: Dr. Harry M. Coyle Field tests are made using several in-situ testing devices and limiting values of skin friction and point...

  8. Mpemba paradox: Hydrogen bond memory and water-skin supersolidity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang Q Sun

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical reproduction of measurements, experimental evidence for skin super-solidity and hydrogen-bond memory clarified that Mpemba paradox integrates the heat emission-conduction-dissipation dynamics in the source-path-drain cycle system.

  9. Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    Carmichael's Concise Review Microscopy is Only Skin Deep Stephen W. Carmichael Mayo Clinic. Coming Events 2011 EMAS 2011 May 15­19, 2011 Angers, France www.emas-web.net IUMAS-V May 22­27, 2011

  10. acute skin reaction: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from a complex reaction induced by plant pigments exposed to ultraviolet (UV) wave length sunlight in the skin of animals that have eaten certain plants 1-3. This reaction is...

  11. artificial skin construct: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with ultra-low density and high thermal stability. The supersolidity of skin sliperizes ice. Xi Zhang; Yongli Huang; a Zengsheng Ma; Yichun Zhou; Chang Q Sun 2013-10-03 66...

  12. attenuate skin dryness: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with ultra-low density and high thermal stability. The supersolidity of skin sliperizes ice. Xi Zhang; Yongli Huang; a Zengsheng Ma; Yichun Zhou; Chang Q Sun 2013-10-03 9 Journal...

  13. artificial skin applications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with ultra-low density and high thermal stability. The supersolidity of skin sliperizes ice. Xi Zhang; Yongli Huang; a Zengsheng Ma; Yichun Zhou; Chang Q Sun 2013-10-03 117 An...

  14. allergic skin disease: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the microbiome...The Skin Microbiome in Healthy and Allergic Dogs Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann1*, Adam P. Patterson2, Alison Diesel2, Sara D. Lawhon4, Hoai Jaclyn Ly1, Christine...

  15. allergic skin diseases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the microbiome...The Skin Microbiome in Healthy and Allergic Dogs Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann1*, Adam P. Patterson2, Alison Diesel2, Sara D. Lawhon4, Hoai Jaclyn Ly1, Christine...

  16. Involvement of TGF-beta in skin photoaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Won Seon, 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this thesis study was to understand the role of TGF-[beta] in skin photoaging, especially in solar elastosis. Solar elastosis, the accumulation of elastotic material in the dermal extracelluar matrix, is a major ...

  17. U.S. Department of Energy Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD) A model for internal oversight and external transparency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This poster introduces the Department of Energy (DOE) Human Subjects Research Database (HSRD), which contains information on all Department of Energy research projects involving human subjects that: are funded by DOE; are conducted in DOE facilities; are performed by DOE personnel; include current or former DOE or contract personnel.

  18. A Novel mouse model of enhanced proteostasis: Full-length human heat shock factor 1 transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Anson, E-mail: piercea2@uthscsa.edu [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States) [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); The Department of Veteran's Affairs, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas, 78284 (United States); Wei, Rochelle; Halade, Dipti [Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States)] [Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Yoo, Si-Eun [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States) [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Ran, Qitao; Richardson, Arlan [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States) [Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, 78229 (United States); The Department of Veteran's Affairs, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas, 78284 (United States)

    2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} Development of mouse overexpressing native human HSF1 in all tissues including CNS. {yields} HSF1 overexpression enhances heat shock response at whole-animal and cellular level. {yields} HSF1 overexpression protects from polyglutamine toxicity and favors aggresomes. {yields} HSF1 overexpression enhances proteostasis at the whole-animal and cellular level. -- Abstract: The heat shock response (HSR) is controlled by the master transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (HSF1). HSF1 maintains proteostasis and resistance to stress through production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). No transgenic model exists that overexpresses HSF1 in tissues of the central nervous system (CNS). We generated a transgenic mouse overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 and observed a 2-4-fold increase in HSF1 mRNA and protein expression in all tissues studied of HSF1 transgenic (HSF1{sup +/0}) mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, including several regions of the CNS. Basal expression of HSP70 and 90 showed only mild tissue-specific changes; however, in response to forced exercise, the skeletal muscle HSR was more elevated in HSF1{sup +/0} mice compared to WT littermates and in fibroblasts following heat shock, as indicated by levels of inducible HSP70 mRNA and protein. HSF1{sup +/0} cells elicited a significantly more robust HSR in response to expression of the 82 repeat polyglutamine-YFP fusion construct (Q82YFP) and maintained proteasome-dependent processing of Q82YFP compared to WT fibroblasts. Overexpression of HSF1 was associated with fewer, but larger Q82YFP aggregates resembling aggresomes in HSF1{sup +/0} cells, and increased viability. Therefore, our data demonstrate that tissues and cells from mice overexpressing full-length non-mutant HSF1 exhibit enhanced proteostasis.

  19. Humans, Robots and Market Crashes: A Laboratory Study ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Todd; Friedman, Daniel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based Models and Human Subject Experiments. Handbook of Com-data from our experiments combining humans and robots, usingbetween laboratory experiment with human subjects and agent

  20. Elimination of influence of neutron-skin size difference of initial colliding nuclei in Pb+Pb collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao-Feng Wei

    2015-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Within an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model using as an input nucleon density profiles from Hartree-Fock calculations based on a modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we study how to eliminate the influence of neutron-skin size difference of initial colliding nuclei in probing the nuclear symmetry energy. Within the current experimental uncertainty range of neutron-skin size of $^{208}$Pb, the Pb+Pb collisions are performed in semicentral and peripheral collisions with impact parameters of 5 and 9fm and at beam energies from 50 MeV/nucleon to 1000 MeV/nucleon, respectively. It is shown that combination of neutron and proton collective flows, i.e., neutron-proton differential elliptic flow, neutron-proton elliptic flow difference, neutron-proton differential transverse flow and neutron-proton transverse flow difference, can effectively eliminate the effects of neutron-skin size difference and thus can be as useful sensitive observables in probing nuclear matter symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions. Moreover, the combined neutron-proton stopping power including the neutron-proton differential stopping power and neutron-proton stopping power difference can also eliminate the effects of neutron-skin size difference and shows some sensitivities to symmetry energy especially at the lower beam energy.

  1. A Muscle-Reflex Model That Encodes Principles of Legged Mechanics Produces Human Walking Dynamics and Muscle Activities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Hartmut

    While neuroscientists identify increasingly complex neural circuits that control animal and human gait, biomechanists find that locomotion requires little control if principles of legged mechanics are heeded that shape and ...

  2. A Supersolid Skin Covering both Water and Ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chang Q

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mysterious nature and functionality of water and ice skins remain baffling to the community since 1859 when Farady firstly proposed liquid skin lubricating ice. Here we show the presence of supersolid phase that covers both water and ice using Raman spectroscopy measurements and quantum calculations. In the skin of two molecular layers thick, molecular undercoordination shortens the H-O bond by ~16% and lengthens the OH nonbond by ~25% through repulsion between electron pairs on adjacent O atoms, which depresses the density from 0.92 for bulk ice to 0.75 gcm-3. The O:H-O cooperative relaxation stiffens the H-O stretching phonon from 3200/3150 cm-1 to the same value of 3450 cm-1 and raises the melting temperature of both skins by up to ~310 K. Numerical derivatives on the viscosity and charge accumulation suggests that the elastic, polarized, and thermally stable supersolid phase makes the ice frictionless and water skin hydrophobic and ice like at room temperature.

  3. Simulating HumanSimulating Human AgropastoralAgropastoral ActivitiesActivities Using Hybrid AgentUsing Hybrid Agent--Landscape Modeling: A Multidisciplinary ApproachLandscape Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Households have goals, requirements based upon population, and the ability to manage some resources vulnerability and resilience, and 3.Studying the sustainability of human-maintained ecosystems. Supported · Household actions impact the surrounding landscape (e.g., deforesting to plant crop increases soil erosion

  4. Guest editorial: Special issue on human computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pantic, Maja

    The seven articles in this special issue focus on human computing. Most focus on two challenging issues in human computing, namely, machine analysis of human behavior in group interactions and context-sensitive modeling.

  5. DNA Double-Strand Breaks Form in Bystander Cells after Microbeam Irradiation of Three-dimensional Human Tissue Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Research Accelerator Facility, Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada; and 3 Radiological implications for cancer radiother- apy and diagnostic radiology as well as for human health in general

  6. The use of polarized light for skin cancer detecton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLaughter, Aimee Hill

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and subsequent biopsy of suspicious lesions. Many cancerous lesions are missed and many benign lesions are biopsied using these techniques. This process is painful and expensive. The proposed research is driven by the need for a non-invasive skin cancer...

  7. MOBILE PHONE USE AND TEMPORAL SKIN HEAT SENSATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    in the phone by the battery currents and running of the radiofrequency (RF) electronic circuits measured the temperature of the temporal skin due to GSM 1800 MHz MP radiated power (125 mW). We suppressed of the heat produced in the phone by the battery currents and running of the radiofrequency (RF) electronic

  8. In-situ measurement of skin friction and point bearing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehmet, Joseph Don

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in order to produce a specified sensitivity. The Skin FricCion Device This device (See Fig. 2a) was iabr'cated of 2. 375 in O. D. si e. . l tubing and 2 standard drill rod coupl- ings we Lded Lo Che Cube, ma). c on one &=n&l, female on Lhe other. Th...

  9. Subclonal variation and skin russeting in potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oehlke, Leslie Lashaun

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of subclonal selection for putative russet skin mutations of 'Century Russet' was conducted in Texas and Colorado to improve the russeting character in 'Century Russet'. RAPD analysis of a segregating F I family derived from a russet x white cross and of three...

  10. HandWave : design and manufacture of a wearable wireless skin conductance sensor and housing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strauss, Marc D

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis report details the design and manufacture of HandWave, a wearable wireless Bluetooth skin conductance sensor, and dedicated housing. The HandWave collects Electrodermal Activity (EDA) data by measuring skin ...

  11. A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field A Solar Re-Skin at FedEx Field August 2, 2011 - 10:40am Addthis Ramamoorthy Ramesh Former Director, SunShot Initiative & Solar Energy Technologies...

  12. Development of an in vitro model of contraction by fibroblasts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freyman, Toby M., 1974-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dermal scars in adult humans are mechanically and functionally inferior to normal skin and can be physically disfiguring. The contraction of the wound by fibroblasts has been linked to the formation of scar. The mechanical ...

  13. ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM GABRIEL CALOZ, MONIQUE DAUGE, MONIQUE DAUGE, ERWAN FAOU, VICTOR P´ERON suitable skin depth function is introduced on the interface ­ and here the sign of the curvature has a major influence, which means that the skin depth is larger

  14. The Effect of Surface Wave Propagation on Neural Responses to Vibration in Primate Glabrous Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elias, Damian Octavio

    The Effect of Surface Wave Propagation on Neural Responses to Vibration in Primate Glabrous Skin preserved as it travels across the skin. Our results suggest, then, that the propagation of surface waves of Surface Wave Propagation on Neural Responses to Vibration in Primate Glabrous Skin. PLoS ONE 7(2): e31203

  15. Skin tone of targets, lineup type, and confidence levels in cross-racial identification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williamson, Jessica Lynne

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The current experiment investigated facial recognition memory for own and other-race faces. Two variations (light-skin and dark-skin) were presented for the Black targets. The purpose of this experiment was to observe the effect of skin variations...

  16. Skin cancer is the most com-mon form of cancer in the United

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skin cancer is the most com- mon form of cancer in the United States. Excessive and unprotected exposure to the sun's ultraviolet radiation (UV light) is the primary risk factor for skin cancer. Howev- er, skin cancer is one of the most preventable types of cancer! The damaging and cumulative effects

  17. Skin Cancer: A Young Person's Disease By Lauren Duffy (B.S. Communication, Journalism '14)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Skin Cancer: A Young Person's Disease By Lauren Duffy (B.S. Communication, Journalism '14 is that this behavior is extremely unhealthy and risky for their bodies, specifically their skin. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer found in young adults and second most common cancer found in adolescents

  18. Periodic patterning stem cells and induction of skin appendages: p-ERK-dependent mes-enchymal condensation is coupled with Turing mechanism to convert stripes to spots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maini, Philip K.

    ABSTRACTS 931 Periodic patterning stem cells and induction of skin appendages: p-ERK-dependent mes patterns remains unknown. Using the feather model, here we show ERK activity-dependent mesenchymal cell chemotaxis toward initial peaks is essential for completing pattern formation. Adding ERK inhibitors produced

  19. Computational Modeling of Human Head Under Blast Shailesh Ganpule, Dr. Linxia Gu, Dr. Guoxin Cao, Dr.Namas Chandra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    pressure, - reference density 0 - reference sound speed, s - slope of U curve0 - nominal volumetric compressive strain p H c Us p Helmet and skull: Linear Elastic Isotropic Density (kg/m3) Bulk Modulus (GPa constrained Load and Boundary Conditions Material model: Brain: SLS model Instantaneous Shear Modulus (k

  20. Interpersonal traits and the technology acceptance model: applying the interpersonal circumplex model as a nomological net for understanding user perceptions within human-to-computer interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Houghton Gregory

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . If it can be said that a professor is a tour de force in the classroom, then Professor Poole deserves such recognition for his lectures, breadth of knowledge, impressive historical references, as well as his assignments. Dr. Poole is also a well... Model: NEO Five Factor Model................................. 26 2.4 Occupational Theory: RIASEC Preferred Occupations Scale....... 32 2.5 Locus of Control and Agency/Autonomy...................................... 38 2.6 Technology Acceptance Model...

  1. Autoradiographic localization of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.D.; Springall, D.R.; Wharton, J.; Polak, J.M. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, London (England))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Autoradiographic techniques and {sup 125}I-labeled endothelin-1 were used to study the distribution of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin. Specific endothelin-1 binding sites were localized to blood vessels (capillaries, deep cutaneous vascular plexus, arteries, and arterioles), the deep dermal and connective tissue sheath of hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands, and arrector pili muscle. Specific binding was inhibited by endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 as well as endothelin-1. Non-specific binding was found in the epidermis and the medulla of hair follicles. No binding was found in connective tissue or fat. These vascular binding sites may represent endothelin receptors, in keeping with the known cutaneous vasoconstrictor actions of the peptide. If all binding sites are receptors, the results suggest that endothelin could also regulate the function of sweat glands and may have trophic effects in the skin.

  2. Lithium Ion Battery Performance of Silicon Nanowires With Carbon Skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogart, Timothy D.; Oka, Daichi; Lu, Xiaotang; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Korgel, Brian A.

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon (Si) nanomaterials have emerged as a leading candidate for next generation lithium-ion battery anodes. However, the low electrical conductivity of Si requires the use of conductive additives in the anode film. Here we report a solution-based synthesis of Si nanowires with a conductive carbon skin. Without any conductive additive, the Si nanowire electrodes exhibited capacities of over 2000 mA h g-1 for 100 cycles when cycled at C/10 and over 1200 mA h g-1 when cycled more rapidly at 1C against Li metal.. In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation reveals that the carbon skin performs dual roles: it speeds lithiation of the Si nanowires significantly, while also constraining the final volume expansion. The present work sheds light on ways to optimize lithium battery performance by smartly tailoring the nanostructure of composition of materials based on silicon and carbon.

  3. Anomalous skin effects in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, G., E-mail: gohar.abbas@gcu.edu.pk; Sarfraz, M. [Department of Physics, GC University Lahore, Katchery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A. [Forman Christian College University, Farozpur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized degenerate electron plasma is presented and a graphical comparison is made with the results obtained using relativistic Maxwellian distribution function [G. Abbas, M. F. Bashir, and G. Murtaza, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102115 (2011)]. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves for degenerate case is qualitatively small in comparison with the Maxwellian plasma case. The quantitative reduction due to weak magnetic field in the skin depth in R-wave for degenerate plasma is large as compared to the non-degenerate one. By ignoring the ambient magnetic field, previous results for degenerate field free case are salvaged [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Principles of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg, 1984), p. 90].

  4. Skin effect with arbitrary specularity in Maxwellian plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anatoly V. Latyshev; Alexander A. Yushkanov

    2009-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of skin effect with arbitrary specularity in maxwellian plasma with specular--diffuse boundary conditions is solved. A new analytical method is developed that makes it possible to to obtain a solution up to an arbitrary degree of accuracy. The method is based on the idea of symmetric continuation not only the electric field, but also electron distribution function. The solution is obtained in a form of von Neumann series.

  5. Breathing, Laughing, Sneezing, Coughing: Model and Control of an Anatomically Inspired, Physically-Based Human Torso Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiLorenzo, Paul Carmen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pressure, allowing air to flow into the lungs. Whenthe elastic recoil of the lungs, as well as the passiveair to flow out of the lungs [41]. We model a synthetic

  6. Development of a combined model of tissue kinetics and radiation response of human bronchiolar epithelium with single cell resolution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ostrovskaya, Natela Grigoryevna

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Lack of accurate data for epidemiological studies of low dose radiation effects necessitates development of dosimetric models allowing prediction of cancer risks for different organs. The objective of this work is to develop ...

  7. Molecular modeling study on orphan human protein CYP4A22 for identification of potential ligand binding site

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Keun Woo

    ), Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center (EBNCRC), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology and Modelling 28 (2010) 524­532 A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 6 July 2009 Received in revised

  8. Breathing, Laughing, Sneezing, Coughing: Model and Control of an Anatomically Inspired, Physically-Based Human Torso Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DiLorenzo, Paul Carmen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cular control of the neck. ACM Transactions on Graphics (control abstraction. SIGGRAPH ’95: Proceedings of the 22nd annual conference on Computer graphics andControl for modeling anatomically inspired laughter using audio. ACM Transactions on Graphics (

  9. Towards the modeling of mucus draining from human lung: role of airways deformation on air-mucus interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauroy, Benjamin; Pelca, Dominique; Fausser, Christian; Merckx, Jacques; Mitchell, Barrett R

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chest physiotherapy is an empirical technique used to help secretions to get out of the lung whenever stagnation occurs. Although commonly used, little is known about the inner mechanisms of chest physiotherapy and controversies about its use are coming out regularly. Thus, a scientific validation of chest physiotherapy is needed to evaluate its effects on secretions. We setup a quasi-static numerical model of chest physiotherapy based on thorax and lung physiology and on their respective biophysics. We modeled the lung with an idealized deformable symmetric bifurcating tree. Bronchi and their inner fluids mechanics are assumed axisymmetric. Static data from the literature is used to build a model for the lung's mechanics. Secretions motion is the consequence of the shear constraints apply by the air flow. The input of the model is the pressure on the chest wall at each time, and the output is the bronchi geometry and air and secretions properties. In the limit of our model, we mimicked manual and mechanical ...

  10. Beliefs about Human Extinction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a web-based survey about futures issues. Among many questions, respondents were asked whether they believe humans will become extinct. Forty-five percent of the almost 600 respondents believe that humans will become extinct. Many of those holding this believe felt that humans could become extinct within 500-1000 years. Others estimated extinction 5000 or more years into the future. A logistic regression model was estimated to explore the bases for this belief. It was found that people who describe themselves a secular are more likely to hold this belief than people who describe themselves as being Protestant. Older respondents and those who believe that humans have little control over their future also hold this belief. In addition, people who are more apt to think about the future and are better able to imagine potential futures tend to also believe that humans will become extinct.

  11. The Production and Analysis of Biodiesel from Waste Chicken Skin and Pork Skin Fat and a Comparison of Fuel Properties to Petroleum Derived Diesel Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krish T Bharat; Agni Bhattacharya

    Abstract—People today are increasingly health conscious and therefore shopkeepers tend to dispose of fatty chicken and pork skin. Chicken and pork skins thus are sources of solid waste that are usually not utilized. This paper deals with the production of useful biodiesel from utilizing the waste chicken and pork skins. Fat from the waste chicken and pork skins (sourced from local shops), was first extracted and subjected to transesterification. The products of transesterification were FAME (Fatty acid methyl esters) and glycerol. The FAME produced was tested for five parameters namely calorific value, pour point and cloud point when compared to ASTM E2515-11 standard values. Comparison of the obtained values of the five parameters with the standard values for diesel was performed to determine the viability of the biodiesel produced. The results of this experiment showed that the calorific values of FAME produced from chicken skin and pork skin fat were close to that of petroleum derived diesel. However, two test parameters namely kinematic viscosity and pour point differed when compared to diesel; this problem can be circumvented by modifying an automobile’s internal combustion engine. Due to the relatively high yield value of biodiesel, it is feasible to utilize chicken skin and pork skin fat at a rural level to produce FAME that can be an alternative to diesel in this time of acute fuel scarcity.

  12. Game Theoretic Modelling of a Human Driver’s Steering Interaction with Vehicle Active Steering Collision Avoidance System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Na, Xiaoxiang; Cole, David J.

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    -Integral-Derivative (PID) control, Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). Particular attention here is given to the MPC and LQR which serve as the foundation of the distributed MPC and LQ dynamic optimization approaches to be described...

  13. Merging Models and Biomonitoring Data to Characterize Sources andPathways of Human Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides in the SalinasValley of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Castorina, Rosemary; Kuwabara, Yu; Harnly,Martha E.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By drawing on human biomonitoring data and limited environmental samples together with outputs from the CalTOX multimedia, multipathway source-to-dose model, we characterize cumulative intake of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in an agricultural region of California. We assemble regional OP pesticide use, environmental sampling, and biological tissue monitoring data for a large and geographically dispersed population cohort of 592 pregnant Latina women in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). We then use CalTOX with regional pesticide usage data to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of exposure and intake from local sources. We combine model estimates of intake from local sources with food intake based on national residue data to estimate for the CHAMACOS cohort cumulative median OP intake, which corresponds to expected levels of urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolite excretion for this cohort. From these results we develop premises about relative contributions from different sources and pathways of exposure. We evaluate these premises by comparing the magnitude and variation of DAPs in the CHAMACOS cohort with the whole U.S. population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES). This comparison supports the premise that in both populations diet is the common and dominant exposure pathway. Both the model results and biomarker comparison supports the observation that the CHAMACOS population has a statistically significant higher intake of OP pesticides that appears as an almost constant additional dose among all participants. We attribute the magnitude and small variance of this intake to non-dietary exposure in residences from local sources.

  14. Photochemical Internalization of Bleomycin Before External-Beam Radiotherapy Improves Locoregional Control in a Human Sarcoma Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norum, Ole-Jacob, E-mail: oleno@radiumhospitalet.n [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Bruland, Oyvind Sverre [Department of Oncology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Gorunova, Ludmila [Department of Medical Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Berg, Kristian [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the tumor growth response of the combination photochemical internalization and external-beam radiotherapy. Photochemical internalization is a technology to improve the utilization of therapeutic macromolecules in cancer therapy by photochemical release of endocytosed macromolecules into the cytosol. Methods and Materials: A human sarcoma xenograft TAX-1 was inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice. The photosensitizer AlPcS{sub 2a} and bleomycin were intraperitoneally administrated 48 h and 30 min, respectively, before diode laser light exposure at 670 nm (20 J/cm{sup 2}). Thirty minutes or 7 days after photochemical treatment, the animals were subjected to 4 Gy of ionizing radiation. Results: Using photochemical internalization of bleomycin as an adjunct to ionizing radiation increased the time to progression for the tumors from 17 to 33 days as compared with that observed with photodynamic therapy combined with ionizing radiation as well as for radiochemotherapy with bleomycin. The side effects observed when photochemical internalization of bleomycin was given shortly before ionizing radiation were eliminated by separating the treatment modalities in time. Conclusion: Photochemical internalization of bleomycin combined with ionizing radiation increased the time to progression and showed minimal toxicity and may therefore reduce the total radiation dose necessary to obtain local tumor control while avoiding long-term sequelae from radiotherapy.

  15. THERMAL INTERACTION OF CRYOGEN SPRAY WITH HUMAN SKIN UNDER VACUUM PRESSURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    During the treatment of port wine stain (PWS) birthmarks laser energy is irradiated at appropriate Riverside, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA. gaguilar@engr.ucr.edu Abstract. Clinical results of port wine stain of this procedure is that laser energy is also absorbed by epidermal melanin, causing localized heating therein

  16. Human and Artificial Agents in a Crash-Prone Financial Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Todd; Friedman, Daniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based models and human subject experiments. Handbook ofout that labo- ratory experiments with human subjects oftenas a laboratory experiment with human subjects, and Sect. 4

  17. A simplex model for layered niche networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Fraundorf

    2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The standing crop of correlations in metazoan communities may be assessed by an inventory of niche structures focused inward and outward from the physical boundaries of skin (self), gene-pool (family), and meme-pool (culture). We consider tracking the progression from three and four correlation layers in many animal communities, to five of six layers for the shared adaptation of most humans, with an attention-slice model that maps the niche-layer focus of individuals onto the 6-variable space of a 5-simplex. The measure puts questions about the effect, on culture and species, of policy and natural events into a common context, and may help explore the impact of electronically-mediated codes on community health.

  18. Systematics of nucleon density distributions and neutron skin of nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seif, W M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton and neutron density profiles of 760 nuclei in the mass region of A=16-304are analyzed using the Skyrme energy density for the parameter set SLy4. Simple formulae are obtained to fit the resulting radii and diffuseness data. These formulae may be useful to estimate the values of the unmeasured radii, and especially in extrapolating charge radius values for nuclei which are far from the valley of stability or to perform analytic calculations for bound and/or scattering problems. The obtained neutron and proton root-mean-square radii and the neutron skin thicknesses are in agreement with the available experimental data.

  19. Management of Pediatric Skin Abscesses in Pediatric, General Academic and Community Emergency Departments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) in skin abscesses presentingmeeting on management of MRSA in Conflicts of Interest: Byfor clinical management of MRSA in the community: Summary of

  20. Mechanisms of NDV-3 vaccine efficacy in MRSA skin versus invasive infection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 vaccine efficacy in MRSA skin versus invasive infectionFig. 1) and suppression of MRSA proliferation (Fig. 2). Eachseverity and suppression of MRSA bioluminescence (Figs. 1

  1. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  2. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  3. Nonstochastic effects of different energy beta emitters on pig skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peel, D.M.; Hopewell, J.W.; Wells, J.; Charles, M.W.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Circular areas of pig skin from 1- to 40-mm diameter were irradiated with ..beta.. emitters of high, medium, and low energies, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 170/Tm, and /sup 147/Pm, respectively. The study provides information for radiological protection problems of localized skin exposures. During the first 16 weeks after irradiation /sup 90/Sr produced a first reaction due to epithelial cell death followed by a second reaction attributable to damage to the dermal blood vessels. /sup 170/Tm and /sup 147/Pm produced the epithelial reaction only. The epithelial dose response varied as a function of ..beta.. energy. The doses required to produce moist desquamation in 50% of 15- to 22.5-mm fields (ED/sub 50/) were 30-45 Gy from/sup 90/Sr, approx.80 Gy from /sup 170/Tm, and approx.500 Gy from /sup 147/Pm. An area effect was observed in the epithelial response to /sup 90/Sr irradiation. The ED/sub 50/ for moist desquamation ranged from approx.25 Gy for a 40-mm source to approx.450 Gy for a 1-mm source. It is also suggested that the area effects could be explained by different modes of epithelial repopulation after irradiation.

  4. Non-invasive, MRI-compatible fibreoptic device for functional near-IR reflectometry of human brain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorvoja, H.S.S.; Myllylae, T S; Myllylae, Risto A [University of Oulu, Optoelectronics and Measurements Techniques Laboratory (Finland); Kirillin, M Yu; Sergeeva, Ekaterina A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Elseoud, A A; Nikkinen, J; Tervonen, O; Kiviniemi, V [MRI Research Unit, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu (Finland)

    2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-invasive device for measuring blood oxygen variations in human brain is designed, implemented, and tested for MRI compatibility. The device is based on principles of near-IR reflectometry; power LEDs serve as sources of probing radiation delivered to patient skin surface through optical fibres. Numerical Monte Carlo simulations of probing radiation propagation in a multilayer brain model are performed to evaluate signal levels at different source - detector separations at three operation wavelengths and an additional wavelength of 915 nm. It is shown that the device can be applied for brain activity studies using power LEDs operating at 830 and 915 nm, while employment of wavelength of 660 nm requires an increased probing power. Employment of the wavelength of 592 nm in the current configuration is unreasonable. (application of lasers and laser-optical methods in life sciences)

  5. Video Capture of Skin Motion using Calibrated Fabien DELLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    3D mesh can easily be integrated and adapted in a sequence of an animated virtual human. We of virtual humans remains exhaustive and tedious. For animating virtual characters, 3D animators work similarly as drawers for car- toons, that implies hundreds of hours for only few seconds of animation

  6. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The multistage theory of carcinogenesis specifies that cells progress to cancer through a series of discrete, irreversible genetic alterations, but data on radiation-induced cancer incidence in rat skin suggests that an intermediate repairable alteration may occur. Data are presented on cancer induction in rat skin exposed to an electron beam (LET=0.34 keV/[mu]), a neon ion beam (LET=45) or an argon ion beam (LET=125). The rats were observed for tumors at least 78 weeks with squamous and basal cell carcinomas observed. The total cancer yield was fitted by the quadratic equation, and the equation parameters were estimated by linear regression for each type of radiation. Analysis of the DNA from the electron-induced carcinomas indicated that K-ras and/or c-myc oncogenes were activated. In situ hybridization indicated that the cancers contain subpopulations of cells with differing amounts of c-myc and H-ras amplification. The results are consistent with the idea that ionizing radiation produces stable, carcinogenically relevant lesions via 2 repairable events at low LET and via a non-repairable linked event pathway at high LET; either pathway may advance the cell by 1 stage. The proliferative response of rat epidermis following exposure to ionizing radiation was quantified by injection of [sup 14]C-thymidine. The return of these cells to S-phase a second time was detected by a second label ([sup 3]H). When the labeled cells were in G1-phase, the dorsal skin was irradiated with X-rays. All labeling indices were determined. The [sup 14]C labeling index was constant and unaffected by the radiation. The proportion of all cells entering S-phase averaged 3.5% at 18 hr and increased after 44, 52 and 75 hr to average levels of 11.8%, 5. 3%, and 6.6% at 0, 10 and 25 Gy respectively. The proportion of S-phase cells labeled with [sup 14]C increased after 42 hr and remained relatively constant thereafter.

  7. Developing Human Performance Measures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Joe; Bruce Hallbert; Larry Blackwood; Donald Dudehoeffer; Kent Hansen

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC’s risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: 1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, 2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a framework, 3) how our use of modeling and simulation techniques could be used to develop and validate measures of human performance, and 4) what the possible outcomes are from this research as the modeling and simulation efforts generate results.

  8. Density dependence of the symmetry energy from neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinas, X.; Centelles, M.; Roca-Maza, X.; Warda, M. [Departament d'Estructura i Conastituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano , Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Katedra Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skodowskiej ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The density dependence of the symmetry energy, characterized by the parameter L, is studied using information provided by the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. An estimate of L is obtained from experimental data of antiprotonic atoms. We also discuss the ability of parity violating electron scatering to obtain information about the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb.

  9. ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dauge, Monique

    ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM GABRIEL CALOZ, MONIQUE DAUGE #12;2 GABRIEL CALOZ, MONIQUE DAUGE, ERWAN FAOU, VICTOR P´ERON electromagnetic field at high is larger ­ and here the sign of the curvature has a major influence, which means that the skin depth

  10. ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faou, Erwan

    ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM GABRIEL CALOZ, MONIQUE DAUGE conductivity are proved in [3], whereas in the note [4] a 1 #12;2 GABRIEL CALOZ, MONIQUE DAUGE, ERWAN FAOU of the curvature has a major influence, which means that the skin depth is larger in convex than in concave

  11. Theory of thin-skin eddy-current interaction with surface cracks N. Harfielda)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowler, John R.

    Theory of thin-skin eddy-current interaction with surface cracks N. Harfielda) and J. R. Bowler; accepted for publication 14 July 1997 Eddy-current non-destructive evaluation is commonly performed of a typical crack. A thin-skin analysis of eddy currents is presented in which the electromagnetic fields

  12. Antenna-based "Smart Skin" Sensors for Sustainable, Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Antenna-based "Smart Skin" Sensors for Sustainable, Wireless Sensor Networks Hoseon Leet, George-less, or sustainable, wireless sensor networks with "smart skin" sensor nodes. These sensors are highly applicable a wireless sensor network with smart sensors requires a lot of power due to the mass number of sensor nodes

  13. Assisting diagnosis of melanoma through the "noninvasive biopsy" of skin lesions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, Ela

    Assisting diagnosis of melanoma through the "noninvasive biopsy" of skin lesions Symon D-180. #12;Assisting diagnosis of melanoma through the "noninvasive biopsy" of skin lesions Symon Cotton1 to ensure a good prognosis, malignant melanoma needs to be diagnosed whilst the level of invasion

  14. Recently, doctors in Texas have been seeing an increasing number of patients with skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that kill bacteria), also called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-- "MRSA." The Texas Department this is happening and how to prevent antibiotic (drug) resistant Staph/MRSA skin infections from spreading. What is a Staph/MRSA skin infection? It can be a pimple, rash, boil, or an open wound. Staph/MRSA is often

  15. Towards a Minimal Architecture for a Printable, Modular, and Robust Sensing Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fearing, Ron

    . Bachrach, and R.S. Fearing Abstract-- This work presents a low-complexity modular sensor grid architecture to provide a smart skin to non-convex shapes, such as a robot body and legs. To configure a sensing skin shaped by arbitrary cuts and rapid changes in designs, we use a wavefront planning approach to generate

  16. Collaborators and Funding Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been proven to be effective treatment for non-melanoma skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenaway, Alan

    for non-melanoma skin cancers with excellent cosmetic outcome. PDT treatment and diagnostics apply light - solution for non-melanoma skin cancer treatment III Fluorescence imaging camera for PDT diagnostics I

  17. 8. MATERIAL MODELLING Abstract --The aim of this study consists in modelling the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to more severe operating conditions. Because of self-heating due to losses or the proximity of heat electrical application where skin effect in the material is insignificant, a macroscopic dynamical model (1

  18. 2,6-Dithiopurine, a nucleophilic scavenger, protects against mutagenesis in mouse skin treated in vivo with 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide, a mustard gas analog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulware, Stephen [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); Fields, Tammy; McIvor, Elizabeth; Powell, K. Leslie; Abel, Erika L. [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)] [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Vasquez, Karen M. [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States)] [Division of Pharmacy and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Dell Pediatric Research Institute, 1400 Barbara Jordan Blvd., Austin, TX 78723 (United States); MacLeod, Michael C., E-mail: mcmacleod@mdanderson.org [Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, SM] is a well-known DNA-damaging agent that has been used in chemical warfare since World War I, and is a weapon that could potentially be used in a terrorist attack on a civilian population. Dermal exposure to high concentrations of SM produces severe, long-lasting burns. Topical exposure to high concentrations of 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES), a monofunctional analog of SM, also produces severe skin lesions in mice. Utilizing a genetically engineered mouse strain, Big Blue, that allows measurement of mutation frequencies in mouse tissues, we now show that topical treatment with much lower concentrations of CEES induces significant dose- and time-dependent increases in mutation frequency in mouse skin; the mutagenic exposures produce minimal toxicity as determined by standard histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis for cytokeratin 6 and the DNA-damage induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (?-H2AX). We attempted to develop a therapeutic that would inhibit the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency in the skin. We observe that multi-dose, topical treatment with 2,6-dithiopurine (DTP), a known chemical scavenger of CEES, beginning 1 h post-exposure to CEES, completely abolishes the CEES-induced increase in mutation frequency. These findings suggest the possibility that DTP, previously shown to be non-toxic in mice, may be useful as a therapeutic agent in accidental or malicious human exposures to SM. -- Highlights: ? 200 mM 2-(chloroethyl) ethyl sulfide (CEES) induces mutations in mouse skin. ? This dose of CEES is not overtly toxic, as assayed by histopathology. ? 2,6-Dithiopurine (DTP), applied after CEES-treatment, abolishes CEES-mutagenesis. ? This supports the idea that sulfur mustards exhibit long biological half-lives.

  19. Human Ecology Human ecology Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Z. Jane

    Channel, Latin America. STUDIOS Architecture. #12;HUMAN ECOLOGY · APRIL 2005 1 Lisa Staiano-Coico, Ph Frey spins a green alternative for textiles. Fibers from rapidly renewable materials

  20. Genetic Background Modulates Gene Expression Profile Induced by Skin Irradiation in Ptch1 Mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galvan, Antonella; Noci, Sara [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna [ENEA Laboratories, Rome (Italy); Dragani, Tommaso A. [Department of Experimental Oncology and Laboratories, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)], E-mail: tommaso.dragani@istitutotumori.mi.it

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Ptch1 germ-line mutations in mice predispose to radiation-induced basal cell carcinoma of the skin, with tumor incidence modulated by the genetic background. Here, we examined the possible mechanisms underlying skin response to radiation in F1 progeny of Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice crossed with either skin tumor-susceptible (Car-S) or -resistant (Car-R) mice and X-irradiated (3 Gy) at 2 days of age or left untreated. Methods and Materials: We conducted a gene expression profile analysis in mRNA samples extracted from the skin of irradiated or control mice, using Affymetrix whole mouse genome expression array. Confirmation of the results was done using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Analysis of the gene expression profile of normal skin of F1 mice at 4 weeks of age revealed a similar basal profile in the nonirradiated mice, but alterations in levels of 71 transcripts in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-R cross and modulation of only eight genes in irradiated Ptch1{sup neo67/+} mice of the Car-S cross. Conclusions: These results indicate that neonatal irradiation causes a persistent change in the gene expression profile of the skin. The tendency of mice genetically resistant to skin tumorigenesis to show a more complex pattern of transcriptional response to radiation than do genetically susceptible mice suggests a role for this response in genetic resistance to basal cell tumorigenesis.

  1. The second skin approach : skin strain field analysis and mechanical counter pressure prototyping for advanced spacesuit design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bethke, Kristen (Kristen Ann)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary aim of this thesis is to advance the theory of advanced locomotion mechanical counter pressure (MCP) spacesuits by studying the changes in the human body shape during joint motion. Two experiments take advantage ...

  2. Sensitivity of the electric dipole polarizability to the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roca-Maza, X.; Agrawal, B. K.; Colo, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Paar, N.; Piekarewicz, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Vretenar, D. [INFN, sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia); Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The static dipole polarizability, {alpha}{sub D}, in {sup 208}Pb has been recently measured with highresolution via proton inelastic scattering at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) [1]. This observable is thought to be intimately connected with the neutron skin thickness, r{sub skin}, of the same nucleus and, more fundamentally, it is believed to be associated with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of r{sub skin} on {alpha}{sub D} in {sup 208}Pb is investigated and discussed on the basis of a large and representative set of relativistic and non-relativistic nuclear energy density functionals (EDF) [2].

  3. A common supersolid low-density skin sliperizing ice and toughening water surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xi Zhang; Yongli Huang; Zengsheng Ma; Yichun Zhou; Weitao Zheng; Ji Zhou; Chang Q. Sun

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Skins of water and ice share the same attribute of supersolidity characterized by the identical H-O vibration frequency of 3450 cm-1. Molecular undercoordination and inter-electron-pair repulsion shortens the H-O bond and lengthen the O:H nonbond, leading to a dual process of nonbonding electron polarization. This relaxation-polarization process enhances the dipole moment, elasticity,viscosity, thermal stability of these skins with 25% density loss, which is responsible for the hydrophobicity and toughness of water skin and for the slippery of ice.

  4. Predicting the Occurrence of Cosmetic Defects in Automotive Skin Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, S.; Williams, D.; Roy, R. [University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Aylmore, R.; Allen, M.; Hollingdale, D. [Land Rover, Banbury Rd, Gaydon, Warwick, CV35 0RR (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The appearance of defects such as 'hollows' and 'shock lines' can affect the perceived quality and attractiveness of automotive skin panels. These defects are the result of the stamping process and appear as small, localized deviations from the intended styling of the panels. Despite their size, they become visually apparent after the application of paint and the perceived quality of a panel may become unacceptable. Considerable time is then dedicated to minimizing their occurrence through tool modifications. This paper will investigate the use of the wavelet transform as a tool to analyze physically measured panels. The transform has two key aspects. The first is its ability to distinguish small scale local defects from large scale styling curvature. The second is its ability to characterize the shape of a defect in terms of its wavelength and a 'correlation value'. The two features of the transform enable it to be used as a tool for locating and predicting the severity of defects. The paper will describe the transform and illustrate its application on test cases.

  5. Digital Human Symposium 2009 March 12th, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    , resulting in autonomous pedestrian models, and (2) a comprehen- sive biomechanical model of the human body of the human body, its detailed biomechanical modeling has not received ad- equate attention. I will describe to synthesize autonomous movements for the behavioral animation of the human head and face. 2. Autonomous

  6. FRACTURE OF SKIN-STIFFENER INTERSECTIONS IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FRACTURE OF SKIN-STIFFENER INTERSECTIONS IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES by Darrin John to the other graduate students in the composite materials group for your smiles and friendships over the past Material .........................................................................................10

  7. Meeting report for the 1st skin microbiota workshop, Boulder, CO October 15-16 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Jack A

    This report details the outcome of the 1st Skin Microbiota Workshop, Boulder, CO, held on October 15th-16th 2012. The workshop was arranged to bring Department of Defense personnel together with experts in microbial ecology, ...

  8. A Systematic Study of Matrix Acidizing Treatments Using Skin Monitoring Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pandya, Nimish

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this work was to evaluate matrix acidizing treatments of vertical and horizontal wells in carbonate reservoirs. Twenty field cases for acidizing treatments were analyzed by evaluating the skin factor evolution from on-site rate...

  9. REFLEXIVE COLLISION RESPONSE WITH VIRTUAL SKIN Roadmap Planning Meets Reinforcement Learning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Förster, Alexander

    REFLEXIVE COLLISION RESPONSE WITH VIRTUAL SKIN Roadmap Planning Meets Reinforcement Learning Svizzera italiana, CH-6928 Manno-Lugano Keywords: Roadmap Planning: Reinforcement Learning: Collision to a changing environment, but not both. This work proposes a simple integration of roadmap planning

  10. In Vivo characterization of skin using a weiner nonlinear stochastic identification method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yi

    This paper describes an indentometer device used to identify the linear dynamic and nonlinear properties of skin and underlying tissue using an in vivo test. The device uses a Lorentz force actuator to apply a dynamic force ...

  11. Certain basic surgical principles of full-thickness free skin grafts in the dog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trevino, Gilberto Stephenson

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THICK GRAFT FULL THICKNESS GRAFT DERMIS ~i-/) HYPODERMIS 8 grafts 1n use todayo, . = - - Co HISTOHI QP SKIE GBAPTINQ ?' Hux earliest efforts to utilize skin for the reparation of integu- mentary defects vere undertalaen centuries ago...

  12. Depth data improves non-melanoma skin lesion segmentation and diagnosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xiang

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Examining surface shape appearance by touching and observing a lesion from different points of view is a part of the clinical process for skin lesion diagnosis. Motivated by this, we hypothesise that surface shape embodies ...

  13. Is the duration of skin disease visits decreasing in the united states?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Scott A; Feldman, Steven R; Fleischer Jr., Alan B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on fridays. J Dermatolog Treat 2013 Dec;24(6):405-7. [PMID:treatment. J Dermatolog Treat 2014 Dec;25(6):453-8. [PMID:Although non-dermatologists treat about half of all skin

  14. Design and fabrication of an optical pressure micro sensor for skin mechanics studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Siddarth

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mechanics of skin is as central to touch as optics is to vision and acoustics is to hearing. With the advent of novel imaging technologies such as the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), we are now able to view structures ...

  15. FATIGUE OF SKIN-STIFFENER INTERSECTIONS IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FATIGUE OF SKIN-STIFFENER INTERSECTIONS IN COMPOSITE WIND TURBINE BLADE STRUCTURES by Robert B in the Instron and Composite Laboratories toward the end of the experimental research. Finally, special thanks

  16. Hair follicles are required for optimal growth during lateral skin expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heath, Jack; Langton, Abigail K.; Hammond, Nigel L.; Dixon, Michael J.; Overbeek, Paul A.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The hair follicles and the interfollicular epidermis of intact mature skin are maintained by distinct stem cell populations. Upon wounding, however, emigration of hair follicle keratinocytes to the interfollicular epidermis plays a role in acute...

  17. Norathyriol Suppresses Skin Cancers Induced by Solar Ultraviolet Radiation by Targeting ERK Kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jixia; Malakhova, Margarita; Mottamal, Madhusoodanan; Reddy, Kanamata; Kurinov, Igor; Carper, Andria; Langfald, Alyssa; Oi, Naomi; Kim, Myoung Ok; Zhu, Feng; Sosa, Carlos P.; Zhou, Keyuan; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang (Cornell); (Guangdong); (UMM)

    2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the leading factor in the development of skin cancer, prompting great interest in chemopreventive agents for this disease. In this study, we report the discovery of norathyriol, a plant-derived chemopreventive compound identified through an in silico virtual screening of the Chinese Medicine Library. Norathyriol is a metabolite of mangiferin found in mango, Hypericum elegans, and Tripterospermum lanceolatum and is known to have anticancer activity. Mechanistic investigations determined that norathyriol acted as an inhibitor of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activity to attenuate UVB-induced phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinases signaling cascades. We confirmed the direct and specific binding of norathyriol with ERK2 through a cocrystal structural analysis. The xanthone moiety in norathyriol acted as an adenine mimetic to anchor the compound by hydrogen bonds to the hinge region of the protein ATP-binding site on ERK2. Norathyriol inhibited in vitro cell growth in mouse skin epidermal JB6 P+ cells at the level of G{sub 2}-M phase arrest. In mouse skin tumorigenesis assays, norathyriol significantly suppressed solar UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Further analysis indicated that norathyriol mediates its chemopreventive activity by inhibiting the ERK-dependent activity of transcriptional factors AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B during UV-induced skin carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results identify norathyriol as a safe new chemopreventive agent that is highly effective against development of UV-induced skin cancer.

  18. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, play an integral role in our daily lives. Naturally-occurring polymers include cellulose (mentioned in gun cotton demo), rubber, skin, hair,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    . Naturally- occurring polymers include cellulose (mentioned in gun cotton demo), rubber, skin, hair, DNA, etc

  19. Derivation of a human equivalent concentration for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Deisinger, P. J.; Poet, Torka S.; English, J C.; Faber, W D.; Barton, H. A.; Corley, Rick A.; Clewell, III, H. J.

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The metabolic series (family) approach for risk assessment uses a dosimetry-based analysis to develop toxicity information for a group of metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic (PK) data for each compound and toxicity data for the parent compound. An initial physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to support the implementation of the metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent metabolites, n-butanol, and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) (Barton et al. 2000). In conjunction with pilot pharmacokinetic studies, the model was used to design the definitive intravenous (i.v.) PK studies. Rats were implanted with dual indwelling cannulae and administered test compounds by i.v. bolus dose, i.v. infusion, or by inhalation in a recirculating closed chamber. Hepatic, vascular and extravascular metabolic constants for metabolism were estimated by fitting the model to the blood time course data from these experiments. The respiratory bioavailability of n-butyl acetate and n-butanol was estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting butyl series PBPK model successfully reproduces the blood time course of these compounds following i.v. administration, and inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate and n-butanol. A fully scaled human version of the model successfully reproduces arterial blood n-butanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to n-butanol. These validated i.v (rat) and inhalation route models (rat, butyl acetate, n-butanol; human, butanol only) can be used to support species and dose-route extrapolations required for risk assessment of butyl series family of compounds. Further, this work demonstrates the usefulness of i.v. kinetic data for parameterization of systemic metabolism and the value of collaboration between experimentalists and kineticists in the development of PBPK models. The product of this effort, validated rat and human PBPK models for the butyl series compounds, illustrates the effectiveness of broad multi-institutional public/private collaborations in the pursuit of developing state of the art tools for risk assessment.

  20. A BORDER IRREGULARITY MEASURE USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS AS A MALIGNANT MELANOMA PREDICTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, Ela

    A BORDER IRREGULARITY MEASURE USING HIDDEN MARKOV MODELS AS A MALIGNANT MELANOMA PREDICTOR B. S.K. ABSTRACT Malignant melanoma, a skin cancer, manifests itself as a dark lesion, most often with an irregular. The measure was tested on 98 skin lesions of which 16 were malignant melanoma. The ROC analysis showed

  1. CS 4317 Human-Computer Interaction Course Number: CS4317

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Karen

    interaction. Theory of human-computer interaction. Development methods for interfaces such as user1 CS 4317 Human-Computer Interaction Course Number: CS4317 Course Title: Human-Computer Interaction Course Instructors Nigel Ward Course Description: CS4317: Models and methods of human-computer

  2. Virtual Humans for Animation, Ergonomics, and Simulation Norman Badler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badler, Norman I.

    Virtual Humans for Animation, Ergonomics, and Simulation Norman Badler Center for Human Modeling speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for real interactive applications of Pennsylvania with the Jack system. Various aspects of real­time virtual humans are considered

  3. Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate Testimony of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate Testimony of James E. Hansen 4273 Durham Road of Representatives 26 April 2007 #12;2 Dangerous Human-Made Interference with Climate Contents 1. Summary 2. Basis for Testimony A. Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study (in press: Atmospheric

  4. CAirTOX: A compartment model for assessing the fate of and human exposure to toxic-chemical emissions to air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKone, T.E.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making a risk assessment of toxic air emissions. With CAirTOX, one can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The multimedia transport and transformation model is a steady-state, but non-equilibrium model that can be used to assess concentrations of contaminants released continuously to air. In Part 1, the authors describe the multimedia transport and transformation model used to determine the fate of air emissions. In Part 2, they describe inputs and data needs for CAirTOX and the development of a set of landscape factors, which can be used to represent regional air basin/water-shed systems in California. In Part 3, they describe the multiple-pathway exposure scenarios and exposure algorithms. In Part 4, they compare the HRA approach and results and the CAirTOX exposure equations. In Part 5, they consider model sensitivity and uncertainty to determine how variability and uncertainty in model inputs affects the precision, accuracy, and credibility of the model output.

  5. aggressive skin malignancy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    relative to the external surfaces of the vehicle. Data on physical vehicle properties by field measurement were collected for 73 distinct makes and models of vehicles for which a...

  6. Illusory Sense of Human Touch from a Warm and Soft Artificial Hand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cabibihan, John-John; Srinivasa, Yeshwin Mysore; Chan, Mark Aaron; Muruganantham, Arrchana

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To touch and be touched are vital to human development, well being, and relationships. However, to those who have lost their arms and hands due to accident or war, touching becomes a serious concern that often leads to psychosocial issues and social stigma. In this paper, we demonstrate that the touch from a warm and soft rubber hand can be perceived by another person as if the touch were coming from a human hand. We describe a three step process toward this goal. First, we made participants select artificial skin samples according to their preferred warmth and softness characteristics. At room temperature, the preferred warmth was found to be 28.4 deg C at the skin surface of a soft silicone rubber material that has a Shore durometer value of 30 at the OO scale. Second, we developed a process to create a rubber hand replica of a human hand. To compare the skin softness of a human hand and artificial hands, a robotic indenter was employed to produce a softness map by recording the displacement data when const...

  7. Skin: Major target organ of allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merk, Hans F. [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Univ.-Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: hans.merk@post.rwth-aachen.de; Baron, Jens M.; Neis, Mark M.; Obrigkeit, Daniela Hoeller [Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Univ.-Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Karlberg, Ann-Therese [Dermatochemistry and Skin Allergy, Department of Chemistry, Goeteborg University, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Skin is a major target organ for allergic reactions to small molecular weight compounds. Drug allergic reactions may be life-threatening such as in the case of anaphylactic reactions or bullous drug reactions and occur in about 5% of all hospitalized patients. Allergic contact dermatitis has an enormous influence on the social life of the patient because it is the most frequent reason for occupational skin diseases and the treatment and prevention of this disease cost approximately Euro 3 billion per year in Germany. The different proposed pathophysiological pathways leading to a drug eruption are discussed in this paper. All major enzymes which are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotica were shown to be present in skin. Evidence supporting the role of metabolism in the development of drug allergy and allergic contact dermatitis is demonstrated in the example of sulphonamides and fragrances.

  8. adult human muscle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Human Muscle Fatigue Model in Dynamic Motions Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Human Muscle...

  9. Chronic cellular responses of rat skin to 13 Mev proton irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinkle, Donald King

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHRONIC CELLULAR RESPONSES OF RAT SKIN TO 13 MEV PROTON IRRADIATION A Thesis by DONALD KING HINKLE, D. V. M. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AErM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1966 Major Subject: Laboratory Animal Medicine CHRONIC CELLULAR RESPONSES OF RAT SKIN TO 13 MEV PROTON IRRADIATION A Thesis by DONALD KING HINKLE, D. V. M. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM University in partial...

  10. Limitations of the TG-43 formalism for skin high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Granero, Domingo, E-mail: dgranero@eresa.com [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain)] [Department of Radiation Physics, ERESA, Hospital General Universitario, 46014 Valencia (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, Jose [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain)] [Radiotherapy Department, La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Valencia 46026 (Spain); Vijande, Javier [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100, Spain and IFIC (UV-CSIC), Paterna 46980 (Spain); Ballester, Facundo [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain)] [Department of Atomic, Molecular and Nuclear Physics, University of Valencia, Burjassot 46100 (Spain); Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In skin high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, sources are located outside, in contact with, or implanted at some depth below the skin surface. Most treatment planning systems use the TG-43 formalism, which is based on single-source dose superposition within an infinite water medium without accounting for the true geometry in which conditions for scattered radiation are altered by the presence of air. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dosimetric limitations of the TG-43 formalism in HDR skin brachytherapy and the potential clinical impact. Methods: Dose rate distributions of typical configurations used in skin brachytherapy were obtained: a 5 cm × 5 cm superficial mould; a source inside a catheter located at the skin surface with and without backscatter bolus; and a typical interstitial implant consisting of an HDR source in a catheter located at a depth of 0.5 cm. Commercially available HDR{sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir sources and a hypothetical {sup 169}Yb source were considered. The Geant4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code was used to estimate dose rate distributions for the configurations considered. These results were then compared to those obtained with the TG-43 dose calculation formalism. In particular, the influence of adding bolus material over the implant was studied. Results: For a 5 cm × 5 cm{sup 192}Ir superficial mould and 0.5 cm prescription depth, dose differences in comparison to the TG-43 method were about ?3%. When the source was positioned at the skin surface, dose differences were smaller than ?1% for {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir, yet ?3% for {sup 169}Yb. For the interstitial implant, dose differences at the skin surface were ?7% for {sup 60}Co, ?0.6% for {sup 192}Ir, and ?2.5% for {sup 169}Yb. Conclusions: This study indicates the following: (i) for the superficial mould, no bolus is needed; (ii) when the source is in contact with the skin surface, no bolus is needed for either {sup 60}Co and {sup 192}Ir. For lower energy radionuclides like {sup 169}Yb, bolus may be needed; and (iii) for the interstitial case, at least a 0.1 cm bolus is advised for {sup 60}Co to avoid underdosing superficial target layers. For {sup 192}Ir and {sup 169}Yb, no bolus is needed. For those cases where no bolus is needed, its use might be detrimental as the lack of radiation scatter may be beneficial to the patient, although the 2% tolerance for dose calculation accuracy recommended in the AAPM TG-56 report is not fulfilled.

  11. Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 in human tumor xenograft models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Fujio, Kohsuke; Kajikawa, Shu-hei [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Uesato, Shin-ichi [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)] [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazushi [Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan)] [Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Tanimura, Susumu [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Koji, Takehiko [Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)] [Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Kohno, Michiaki, E-mail: kohnom@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan) [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Proubase Technology Inc., Kanagawa 211-0063 (Japan); Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: •Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the anticancer efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. •MEK inhibitors sensitize human tumor xenografts to HDAC inhibitor cytotoxicity. •Such the enhanced efficacy is achieved by a transient blockade of the ERK pathway. •This drug combination provides a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. -- Abstract: The ERK pathway is up-regulated in various human cancers and represents a prime target for mechanism-based approaches to cancer treatment. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway alone induces mostly cytostatic rather than pro-apoptotic effects, however, resulting in a limited therapeutic efficacy of the ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. We previously showed that MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the ability of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptosis in tumor cells with constitutive ERK pathway activation in vitro. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of such drug combinations, we administered the MEK inhibitor PD184352 or AZD6244 together with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 in nude mice harboring HT-29 or H1650 xenografts. Co-administration of the MEK inhibitor markedly sensitized the human xenografts to MS-275 cytotoxicity. A dose of MS-275 that alone showed only moderate cytotoxicity thus suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts almost completely as well as induced a marked reduction in tumor cellularity when administered with PD184352 or AZD6244. The combination of the two types of inhibitor also induced marked oxidative stress, which appeared to result in DNA damage and massive cell death, specifically in the tumor xenografts. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy of the drug combination was achieved by a relatively transient blockade of the ERK pathway. Administration of both MEK and HDAC inhibitors represents a promising chemotherapeutic strategy with improved safety for cancer patients.

  12. New Electronic Sensors Stick to Your Skin -Heart Rate Monitors -Popular Mechanics http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/breakthroughs/new-electronic-sensors-stick-to-your-skin?click=pm_latest[8/14/2011 5:59:45 AM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    New Electronic Sensors Stick to Your Skin - Heart Rate Monitors - Popular Mechanics http://www Electronic Sensors That Stick to Your Skin Like Temporary Tattoos Nice tattoo. Or is it a heart-rate monitor to measure the electrical activity of the heart, muscles and brain. And using the same principles behind

  13. Behavioral Dynamics of Human Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson (1979) argued that "control lies not in the brain, but in the animal- environment system." To make with a structured environment guided by occurrent information. Here we attempt to model the behavioral dynam- ics of human walking and show how locomotor paths emerge "online" from simple laws for steering and obstacle

  14. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2012 Intelligent Building Skin Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    % reduction in solar heat gain The discretised polarizing sheet design is able to retrofit onto older. Additionally, we were tasked to evaluate Autodesk's software suite and its effectiveness in our design process of the prototype Used Autodesk Vasari to run solar analysis on the model of Rec Hall Fabricated a working scale

  15. Host-defense peptides isolated from the skin secretions of the Northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Carlos

    Host-defense peptides isolated from the skin secretions of the Northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora J. Michael Conlona,*, Agnes Sonnevendb , Carlos Davidsonc , Anni Demandtd , Thierry Jouennee-stimulated skin secretions of the Northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora and their primary structures

  16. Evidence from peptidomic analysis of skin secretions that the red-legged frogs, Rana aurora draytonii and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Carlos

    Evidence from peptidomic analysis of skin secretions that the red-legged frogs, Rana aurora draytonii and Rana aurora aurora, are distinct species J. Michael Conlon a, *, Nadia Al-Ghafari a , Laurent peptides Rana aurora Rana draytonii Skin secretions a b s t r a c t The northern red-legged frog Rana

  17. NON-MELANOMA SKIN LESION CLASSIFICATION USING COLOUR IMAGE DATA IN A HIERARCHICAL K-NN CLASSIFIER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Bob

    NON-MELANOMA SKIN LESION CLASSIFICATION USING COLOUR IMAGE DATA IN A HIERARCHICAL K-NN CLASSIFIER an algorithm for classification of non- melanoma skin lesions based on a novel hierarchical K- Nearest lesions, including two non-melanoma cancer types. This is the most extensive published result on non-melanoma

  18. A Prospective Study of Blood Selenium Levels and the Risk of Arsenic-2 related Premalignant Skin Lesions3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Geen, Alexander

    1 1 A Prospective Study of Blood Selenium Levels and the Risk of Arsenic-2 related Premalignant-related premalignant skin lesions and prediagnostic blood Se levels in 30357 cases of skin lesions newly-diagnosed from in the Health Effects59 of As Longitudinal Study with available baseline blood and urine samples collected in60

  19. A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin-friction drag in turbulent channel flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, John

    A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin- friction drag in turbulent;PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 25, 110815 (2013) A numerical study of the effects of superhydrophobic surface on skin; accepted 21 May 2013; published online 11 September 2013) Superhydrophobic surfaces have attracted much

  20. A subliminal manipulation of the Extended Parallel Process Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephenson, Michael Taylor

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the context of skin cancer. The goals of this study were to (1) assess the effects of subliminal embeds as fear appeals (2) within the framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model, the EPPM (Witte, 1992a). While this study demonstrated that subliminal... go unnoticed by individuals (Dixon, 1981). To extend the inquiry into subliminal message processing, this project places embedded pictures (a form of subliminal research) in the context of skin cancer This thesis uses the style of mm ni ' n...

  1. ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ON THE INFLUENCE OF THE GEOMETRY ON SKIN EFFECT IN ELECTROMAGNETISM GABRIEL CALOZ, MONIQUE DAUGE) 1053-1068" DOI : 10.1016/j.cma.2010.11.011 #12;2 GABRIEL CALOZ, MONIQUE DAUGE, ERWAN FAOU, VICTOR P of the conducting body surface is larger ­ and here the sign of the curvature has a major influence, which means

  2. Density slope of the nuclear symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An; Xu, Jun.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties. We find that existing data on neutron skin thickness Delta r(np) of Sn isotopes give an important constraint on the symmetry energy E(sym)(rho(0)) and its density slope L at saturation density rho(0). Combining...

  3. Generation of insulin-producing cells from gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sung Ho; Heo, Young Tae [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Uhm, Sang Jun [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hoon Taek, E-mail: htl3675@konkuk.ac.kr [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A major problem in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the limited availability of alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for islet transplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) treatments of gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells (gSDSCs) on their reprogramming and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We isolated SDSCs from the ear skin of a gnotobiotic pig. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed stem-cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2, and CD90; nestin expression also increased significantly. The cells could differentiate into IPCs after treatments with activin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and nicotinamide. After 15 days in the differentiation medium, controlled gSDSCs began expressing endocrine progenitor genes and proteins (Ngn3, Neuro-D, PDX-1, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, and insulin). The IPCs showed increased insulin synthesis after glucose stimulation. The results indicate that stem cells derived from the skin of gnotobiotic pigs can differentiate into IPCs under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Our three-stage induction protocol could be applied without genetic modification to source IPCs from stem cells in the skin of patients with diabetes for autologous transplantation.

  4. HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 HEAT TRANSFERS IN A DOUBLE SKIN ROOF VENTILATED BY NATURAL CONVECTION IN SUMMER TIME P. H and the sheet metal: This is ventilation by natural convection. The remaining conductive heat from the sheet or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers

  5. Evaluation and design of double-skin facades for office buildings in hot climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yellamraju, Vijaya

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    efficient strategy and also the factors that affected this efficiency. The simulations were done using the building simulation software, Ener-Win. The double skin was simulated as per an approximate and simplistic calculation of the u-value, solar heat gain...

  6. Early detection of malignant skin can-cers, in particular melanoma, is crucial as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drew, Mark S.

    MOTIVATION · Early detection of malignant skin can- cers, in particular melanoma, is crucial). EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS Melanoma Melanin Haemoglobin Geo­mean BCC Spits Nevus Task n Precision Recall F-measure AUC Segmentation 120 0.89 0.90 0.89 ­ Malignant vs. Benign 500 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.95 Melanoma vs. Benign

  7. Original Paper Skin Self-Examination Education for Early Detection of Melanoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Rex L.

    Original Paper Skin Self-Examination Education for Early Detection of Melanoma: A Randomized Background: Early detection of melanoma improves survival. Since many melanoma patients and their spouses seek the care of a physician after discovering their melanoma, an ongoing study will determine

  8. Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy Jung to noninvasively obtain three-dimensional 3-D images of subcutaneous melanomas and their surrounding vasculature in nude mice in vivo. The absorption coefficients of blood and melanin- pigmented melanomas vary greatly

  9. Detection of blood deprived regions in SIAgraph images of pigmented skin lesions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claridge, Ela

    Detection of blood deprived regions in SIAgraph images of pigmented skin lesions Francesca Sattaa for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma has shown that the presence of blood deprivation regions within the lesion of the blood deprived regions. The results of the computer method compared to the clinical assessment show very

  10. Have we observed the skin vibration of realistic strange stars (ReSS) ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monika Sinha; Jishnu Dey; Mira Dey; Subharthi Ray; Siddhartha Bhowmick

    2002-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Skin vibration of ReSS and consequent resonance absorption can account for the absorption lines in the spectrum of X-ray emission from many compact stellar objects and in particular, the stars J1210$-$5226 and RXJ1856$-$3754. Observations of the X-ray spectrum of these stars is difficult to explain, if they are neutron stars.

  11. Isolation of stem cells from adult telogen skin Elizabeth Deschene Greco Lab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greco, Valentina

    piece of skin of 1 inch wide by 2 inches long. Take a small piece for OCT embedding if necessary. · Put solution: Our SIGMA stock is 200 mg/ml. I then dilute this stock 1:80 in 37 pre-warmed HBBS media and put

  12. Data-driven human body morphing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiao

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents an efficient and biologically informed 3D human body morphing technique through data-driven alteration of standardized 3D models. The anthropometric data is derived from a large empirical database and processed using principal...

  13. The Human leading the Thermal Comfort Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Van Houten, R.; Vissers, D.; Maaijen, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007 Zhang H., 2003, Human Thermal Sensation and Comfort in Transient and Non Uniform Thermal Environments; Phd Thesis Zhang H., Arens E., Huizinga C., Han T., 2010, Thermal sensations and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments...

  14. Space radiation-induced bystander signaling in 2D and 3D skin tissue models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lumpkins, Sarah B

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Space radiation poses a significant hazard to astronauts on long-duration missions, and the low fluences of charged particles characteristic of this field suggest that bystander effects, the phenomenon in which a greater ...

  15. Numerical Modelling of Combined Heat Transfers in a Double Skin Faade -Full Scale Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , thermal comfort, visual comfort or energy gain [1]. In the current context of global warming, depletion heat transfers are also taken into account to obtain a global coupling between the different phenomena on two levels: during the winter period, the solar energy is used to heat the air in the façade [2], and

  16. Transport lattice models of heat transport in skin with spatially heterogeneous, temperature-dependent perfusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Gregory T

    Background: Investigation of bioheat transfer problems requires the evaluation of temporal and spatial distributions of temperature. This class of problems has been traditionally addressed using the Pennes bioheat equation. ...

  17. Proximity Templates for Modeling of Skin and Proximity Effects on Packages and High Frequency Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Luca

    . of California, Berkeley alberto@eecs.berkeley.edu Jacob White Massachusetts Instit. of Tech. white are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full

  18. Regulation Of Nf=kb And Mnsod In Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Protection Of Mouse And Human Skin Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Li

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-κB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-κB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.

  19. In vivo 3D modeling of the femoropopliteal artery in human subjects based on x-ray angiography: Methodology and validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Andrew J.; Casserly, Ivan P.; Messenger, John C.; Carroll, John D.; Chen, S.-Y. James [University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045 and Denver VA Medical Center, Denver, Colorado 80220 (United States); University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Endovascular revascularization of the femoropopliteal (FP) artery has been limited by high rates of restenosis and stent fracture. The unique physical forces that are applied to the FP artery during leg movement have been implicated in these phenomena. The foundation for measuring the effects of physical forces on the FP artery in a clinically relevant environment is based on the ability to develop 3D models of this vessel in different leg positions in vivo in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). By acquiring paired angiographic images of the FP artery, and using angiography-based 3D modeling algorithms previously validated in the coronary arteries, the authors generated 3D models of ten FP arteries in nine patients with PAD with the lower extremity in straight leg (SL) and crossed leg (CL) positions. Due to the length of the FP artery, overlapping paired angiographic images of the entire FP artery were required to image the entire vessel, which necessitated the development of a novel fusion process in order to generate a 3D model of the entire FP artery. The methodology of angiographic acquisition and 3D model generation of the FP artery is described. In a subset of patients, a third angiographic view (i.e., validation view) was acquired in addition to the standard paired views for the purpose of validating the 3D modeling process. The mean root-mean-square (rms) error of the point-to-point distances between the centerline of the main FP artery from the 2D validation view and the centerline from the 3D model placed in the validation view for the SL and CL positions were 0.93{+-}0.19 mm and 1.12{+-}0.25 mm, respectively. Similarly, the mean rms error of the same comparison for the main FP artery and sidebranches for the SL and CL positions were 1.09{+-}0.38 mm and 1.21{+-}0.25 mm, respectively. A separate validation of the novel fusion process was performed by comparing the 3D model of the FP artery derived from fusion of 3D models of adjacent FP segments with the 2D validation view incorporating the region of fusion. The mean rms error of vessel centerline points of the main FP artery, the main FP artery plus directly connected sidebranches, and the mean rms error of upstream, downstream, and sidebranch directional vectors at bifurcation points in the overlap region were 1.41{+-}0.79 mm, 2.13{+-}1.12 mm, 3.16{+-}3.72 deg., 3.60{+-}5.39 deg., and 8.68{+-}8.42 deg. in the SL position, respectively, and 1.29{+-}0.35 mm, 1.61{+-}0.78 mm, 4.68{+-}4.08 deg., 3.41{+-}2.23 deg., and 5.52{+-}4.41 deg. in the CL position, respectively. Inter- and intraobserver variability in the generation of 3D models of individual FP segments and the fusion of overlapping FP segments were assessed. The mean rms errors between the centerlines of nine 3D models of individual FP segments generated by two independent observers, and repeated measurement by the same observer were 2.78{+-}1.26 mm and 3.50{+-}1.15 mm, respectively. The mean rms errors between the centerline of four 3D models of fused overlapping FP segments generated by two independent observers, and repeated measurement by the same observer were 4.99{+-}0.99 mm and 5.98{+-}1.22 mm, respectively. This study documents the ability to generate 3D models of the entire FP artery in vivo in patients with PAD in both SL and CL positions using routine angiography, and validates the methodologies used.

  20. Transport Pathways and Enhancement Mechanisms within Localized and Non-Localized Transport Regions in Skin Treated with Low-Frequency Sonophoresis and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polat, Baris E.

    Recent advances in transdermal drug delivery utilizing low-frequency sonophoresis (LFS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) have revealed that skin permeability enhancement is not homogenous across the skin surface. Instead, ...

  1. 1622 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Skin-Effect Self-Heating in Air-Suspended RF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saitou, Kazuhiro "Kazu"

    1622 JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 6, DECEMBER 2006 Skin-Effect Self-Heating

  2. affect perceived human: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Case Study from3 Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, China4 Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1 1 2 Perception and Decisions in Modeling Coupled Human and...

  3. 2114 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, VOL. 18, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2009 Multicamera Tracking of Articulated Human Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sundaresan, Aravind

    of humans using image sequences obtained from multiple cameras. A detailed articulated human body model. Model estimation is the process of estimating the parameters of the human body model such as the shape of Articulated Human Motion Using Shape and Motion Cues Aravind Sundaresan and Rama Chellappa, Fellow, IEEE

  4. Anomalous skin effects in relativistic parallel propagating weakly magnetized electron plasma waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbas, Gohar; Bashir, M. F. [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, G. C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fully relativistic analysis of anomalous skin effects for parallel propagating waves in a weakly magnetized electron plasma is presented and general expressions for longitudinal and transverse permittivites are derived. It is found that the penetration depth for R- and L-waves increases as we move from non-relativistic to highly relativistic regime. The ambient magnetic field reduces/enhances the skin effects for R-wave/L-wave as the strength of the field is increased. In general, the weak magnetic field effects are pronounced for the weakly relativistic regime as compared with other relativistic cases. The results are also graphically illustrated. On switching off the magnetic field, previous results for field free case are retrieved [A. F. Alexandrov, A. S. Bogdankevich, and A. A. Rukhadze, Priniples of Plasma Electrodynamics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1984), Vol. 9, p. 106].

  5. Heat transfers in a double-skin roof ventilated by natural convection in summer time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biwole, Pascal; Pompeo, C

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The double-skin roofs investigated in this paper are formed by adding a metallic screen on an existing sheet metal roof. The system enhances passive cooling of dwellings and can help diminishing power costs for air conditioning in summer or in tropical and arid countries. In this work, radiation, convection and conduction heat transfers are investigated. Depending on its surface properties, the screen reflects a large amount of oncoming solar radiation. Natural convection in the channel underneath drives off the residual heat. The bi-dimensional numerical simulation of the heat transfers through the double skin reveals the most important parameters for the system's efficiency. They are, by order of importance, the sheet metal surface emissivity, the screen internal and external surface emissivity, the insulation thickness and the inclination angle for a channel width over 6 cm. The influence of those parameters on Rayleigh and Nusselt numbers is also investigated. Temperature and air velocity profiles on seve...

  6. VERY LOW BITRATE CODING OF VIRTUAL HUMAN ANIMATION IN MPEG-4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Albert

    VERY LOW BITRATE CODING OF VIRTUAL HUMAN ANIMATION IN MPEG-4 Tolga K. Capin1 , Eric Petajan2 describe the geometrical modeling of virtual human models. 1. INTRODUCTION The MPEG-4 Version 2 standard defines a Face and Body Animation object, with the goal to define synthetic human face and body models

  7. Dose profiles through the dermis for on and off-skin hot particle exposures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kimberly Rochelle

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reports measurements of depth-dose profiles for on- and off-skin hot particle exposures using radiochromic dye film. Dose profiles from both a "Co hot particle, and activated depleted uranium oxide microspheres were measured with the film. Exposures... Page Off-Contact of Film 13. ' Co Dose Profile Measured with 6 mm Thick Plexiglass Between Film and Hot Particle 48 14. Radial Dose Profile of Uranium Microsphere Measured at Various Depths Below the Sphere 51 15. Dose Profile of Uranium...

  8. THERMAL SKIN DAMAGE AND MOBILE PHONE USE Elmountacer Billah Elabbassi(1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in thé phone by thé battery currents and running of thé radiofrequency (RF) electronic circuits measured thé température of thé temporal skin due to GSM 1800 MHz MP radiated power (125 mW). To perforai a substantial part of thé radiated power is absorbed. Many epidemiological investigations of MP users [1, 2

  9. An evaluation of floor surfaces on the basis of skin temperature during constrained standing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monford, Leo Gabriel

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    popliteal fossa (popliteal region), and the medial side of abductor hallucis on the non-load bearing region of the foot (near the intersection of the top of the arch and the instep) or the foot region. All thermistors were located on the left leg... between an average ending temperature and an average start-up temperature. The foot skin temperature region was the only temperature region to indicate statistically significant results between the floor surfaces. The other two lower leg temperature...

  10. Culture Representation in Human Reliability Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gertman; Julie Marble; Steven Novack

    2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding human-system response is critical to being able to plan and predict mission success in the modern battlespace. Commonly, human reliability analysis has been used to predict failures of human performance in complex, critical systems. However, most human reliability methods fail to take culture into account. This paper takes an easily understood state of the art human reliability analysis method and extends that method to account for the influence of culture, including acceptance of new technology, upon performance. The cultural parameters used to modify the human reliability analysis were determined from two standard industry approaches to cultural assessment: Hofstede’s (1991) cultural factors and Davis’ (1989) technology acceptance model (TAM). The result is called the Culture Adjustment Method (CAM). An example is presented that (1) reviews human reliability assessment with and without cultural attributes for a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system attack, (2) demonstrates how country specific information can be used to increase the realism of HRA modeling, and (3) discusses the differences in human error probability estimates arising from cultural differences.

  11. Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Krasznahorkay; L. Stuhl; M. Csatlós; A. Algora; J. Gulyás; J. Timár; N. Paar; D. Vretenar; K. Boretzky; M. Heil; Yu. A. Litvinov; D. Rossi; C. Scheidenberger; H. Simon; H. Weick; A. Bracco; S. Brambilla; N. Blasi; F. Camera; A. Giaz; B. Million; L. Pellegri; S. Riboldi; O. Wieland; S. Altstadt; M. Fonseca; J. Glorius; K. Göbel; T. Heftrich; A. Koloczek; S. Kräckmann; C. Langer; R. Plag; M. Pohl; G. Rastrepina; R. Reifarth; S. Schmidt; K. Sonnabend; M. Weigand; M. N. Harakeh; N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki; C. Rigollet; S. Bagchi; M. A. Najafi; T. Aumann; L. Atar; M. Heine; M. Holl; A. Movsesyan; P. Schrock; V. Volkov; F. Wamers; E. Fiori; B. Löher; J. Marganiec; D. Savran; H. T. Johansson; P. Diaz Fernández; U. Garg; D. L. Balabanski

    2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The gamma-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) has been measured to the isobaric analog state excited in the p(124Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent random-phase approximation (RPA) and turned out to be very sensitive to the neutron-skin thickness (\\DeltaR_(pn)). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured one, the \\DeltaR_(pn) value for 124Sn was deduced to be 0.175 \\pm 0.048 fm, which agrees well with the previous results. The energy of the AGDR measured previously for ^(208)Pb was also used to determine the \\DeltaR_(pn) for ^(208)Pb. In this way a very precise \\DeltaR_(pn) = 0.181 \\pm 0.031 neutron-skin thickness has been obtained for 208Pb. The present method offers new possibilities for measuring the neutron-skin thicknesses of very exotic isotopes.

  12. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and related nutrients on sebum lipids, and skin and hair coat condition in canines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirby, Naomi Anne

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed to investigate the effect of diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and other related nutrients, in the effort to improve skin and hair coat conditions in canines. The study included 24 dogs fed a ...

  13. Investigation of Skin Tribology and Its Effects on Coefficient of Friction and Other Tactile Attributes Involving Polymer Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darden, Matthew Aguirre

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    concerning tactility, examining environmental and material properties that affect skin on fabric coefficient of friction. In this study, similar friction procedure was used to compare coefficients of friction of a fingerpad across varying polymer fabrics...

  14. Constraints on the Neutron Skin and the Symmetry Energy from the Anti-analog Giant Dipole Resonance in 208Pb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. G. Cao; X. Roca-Maza; G. Colo'; H. Sagawa

    2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the impact of the neutron-skin thickness Delta(R) on the energy difference between the anti-analog giant dipole resonance (AGDR), E(AGDR), and the isobaric analog state (IAS), E(IAS), in a heavy nucleus such as 208Pb. For guidance, we first develop a simple and analytic, yet physical, approach based on the Droplet Model that linearly connects the energy difference E(AGDR)-E(IAS) with Delta(R). To test this correlation on more fundamental grounds, we employ a family of systematically varied Skyrme energy density functionals where variations on the value of the symmetry energy at saturation density J are explored. The calculations have been performed within the fully self consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) plus charge-exchange random phase approximation (RPA) framework. We confirm the linear correlation within our microscopic apporach and, by comparing our results with available experimental data in 208Pb, we find that our analysis is consistent with Delta(R) = 0.204 \\pm 0.009 fm, J = 31.4 \\pm 0.5 MeV and a slope parameter of the symmetry energy at saturation of L = 76.4 \\pm 5.4 MeV - the attached errors correspond to a lower-limit estimate of the systematic plus experimental uncertainties. These results are in agreement with those extracted from different experimental data albeit, L and Delta(R) are somewhat large when compared to previous estimations based on giant resonance studies.

  15. Constraints on the Neutron Skin and the Symmetry Energy from the Anti-analog Giant Dipole Resonance in 208Pb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, L G; Colo', G; Sagawa, H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the impact of the neutron-skin thickness Delta(R) on the energy difference between the anti-analog giant dipole resonance (AGDR), E(AGDR), and the isobaric analog state (IAS), E(IAS), in a heavy nucleus such as 208Pb. For guidance, we first develop a simple and analytic, yet physical, approach based on the Droplet Model that linearly connects the energy difference E(AGDR)-E(IAS) with Delta(R). To test this correlation on more fundamental grounds, we employ a family of systematically varied Skyrme energy density functionals where variations on the value of the symmetry energy at saturation density J are explored. The calculations have been performed within the fully self consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) plus charge-exchange random phase approximation (RPA) framework. We confirm the linear correlation within our microscopic apporach and, by comparing our results with available experimental data in 208Pb, we find that our analysis is consistent with Delta(R) = 0.204 \\pm 0.009 fm, J = 31.4 \\pm 0.5 MeV ...

  16. Technical Note: Skin thickness measurements using high-resolution flat-panel cone-beam dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew [Department of Radiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States); O'Connell, Avice M. [Department of Radiology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642 (United States)

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the mean and range of location-averaged breast skin thickness using high-resolution dedicated breast CT for use in Monte Carlo-based estimation of normalized glandular dose coefficients. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed image data from a clinical study investigating dedicated breast CT. An algorithm similar to that described by Huang et al.['The effect of skin thickness determined using breast CT on mammographic dosimetry,' Med. Phys. 35(4), 1199-1206 (2008)] was used to determine the skin thickness in 137 dedicated breast CT volumes from 136 women. The location-averaged mean breast skin thickness for each breast was estimated and the study population mean and range were determined. Pathology results were available for 132 women, and were used to investigate if the distribution of location-averaged mean breast skin thickness varied with pathology. The effect of surface fitting to account for breast curvature was also studied. Results: The study mean ({+-} interbreast SD) for breast skin thickness was 1.44 {+-} 0.25 mm (range: 0.87-2.34 mm), which was in excellent agreement with Huang et al. Based on pathology, pair-wise statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney test) indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were no significant difference in the location-averaged mean breast skin thickness distributions between the groups: benign vs malignant (p= 0.223), benign vs hyperplasia (p= 0.651), hyperplasia vs malignant (p= 0.229), and malignant vs nonmalignant (p= 0.172). Conclusions: Considering this study used a different clinical prototype system, and the study participants were from a different geographical location, the observed agreement between the two studies suggests that the choice of 1.45 mm thick skin layer comprising the epidermis and the dermis for breast dosimetry is appropriate. While some benign and malignant conditions could cause skin thickening, in this study cohort the location-averaged mean breast skin thickness distributions did not differ significantly with pathology. The study also underscored the importance of considering breast curvature in estimating breast skin thickness.

  17. The SACADA database for human reliability and human performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. James Chang; Dennis Bley; Lawrence Criscione; Barry Kirwan; Ali Mosleh; Todd Madary; Rodney Nowell; Robert Richards; Emilie M. Roth; Scott Sieben; Antonios Zoulis

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lack of appropriate and sufficient human performance data has been identified as a key factor affecting human reliability analysis (HRA) quality especially in the estimation of human error probability (HEP). The Scenario Authoring, Characterization, and Debriefing Application (SACADA) database was developed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to address this data need. An agreement between NRC and the South Texas Project Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) was established to support the SACADA development with aims to make the SACADA tool suitable for implementation in the nuclear power plants' operator training program to collect operator performance information. The collected data would support the STPNOC's operator training program and be shared with the NRC for improving HRA quality. This paper discusses the SACADA data taxonomy, the theoretical foundation, the prospective data to be generated from the SACADA raw data to inform human reliability and human performance, and the considerations on the use of simulator data for HRA. Each SACADA data point consists of two information segments: context and performance results. Context is a characterization of the performance challenges to task success. The performance results are the results of performing the task. The data taxonomy uses a macrocognitive functions model for the framework. At a high level, information is classified according to the macrocognitive functions of detecting the plant abnormality, understanding the abnormality, deciding the response plan, executing the response plan, and team related aspects (i.e., communication, teamwork, and supervision). The data are expected to be useful for analyzing the relations between context, error modes and error causes in human performance.

  18. Human Resources Assistant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This position is located in the Headquarters (HQ) Operations Division of the Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer in Washington, DC. The Division provides a full range of human capital...

  19. Patenting Human Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torrance, Andrew W.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to thorough analysis and debate prior to the imminent arrival of human genetic enhancement technologies. Otherwise, patent law may drive human evolution in directions either unplanned - or worse - undesired....

  20. International Conference on Human-Centered Software Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    models in HCSE Social and organizational aspects in the software development lifecycle Human-centric software development tools User profiles and mental models User requirements and design constraints UserHCSE 2014 5th International Conference on Human-Centered Software Engineering Paderborn, Germany

  1. Ideal Observers for Detecting Human Motion: Correspondence Noise.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuille, Alan L.

    purpose, models of motion. We perform more psychophysical experiments which are consistent with humansIdeal Observers for Detecting Human Motion: Correspondence Noise. HongJing Lo Department obtain Barlow and Tripathy's classic model as an approximation. Our psychophysical experiments show

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: Severe Accident Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experimental Testing Phenomenological Modeling Risk and Safety Assessment Cyber-Based Vulnerability Assessments Uncertainty Analysis Transportation Safety Fire Science Human...

  3. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review #12;2 | Portfolio Review: Human Functional Brain ImagingThe Wellcome Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales, no's role in supporting human functional brain imaging and have informed `our' speculations for the future

  4. integration division Human Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    integration division Human Systems Eye-Movement Metrics: Non-Intrusive Quantitative Tools for Monitoring Human Visual Performance Objective Approach Impact A reliable quantitative yet non-intrusive methodologies that provide quantitative yet non-intrusive measures of human visual performance for use

  5. Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fatmi, Zafar, E-mail: zafar.fatmi@aku.edu [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan); Azam, Iqbal; Ahmed, Faiza; Kazi, Ambreen; Gill, Albert Bruce; Kadir, Muhmmad Masood; Ahmed, Mubashir; Ara, Naseem; Janjua, Naveed Zafar [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)] [Department of Community Health Sciences, Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, P.O. Box 3500, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant proportion of groundwater in south Asia is contaminated with arsenic. Pakistan has low levels of arsenic in groundwater compared with China, Bangladesh and India. A representative multi-stage cluster survey conducted among 3874 persons {>=}15 years of age to determine the prevalence of arsenic skin lesions, its relation with arsenic levels and cumulative arsenic dose in drinking water in a rural district (population: 1.82 million) in Pakistan. Spot-urine arsenic levels were compared among individuals with and without arsenic skin lesions. In addition, the relation of age, body mass index, smoking status with arsenic skin lesions was determined. The geographical distribution of the skin lesions and arsenic-contaminated wells in the district were ascertained using global positioning system. The total arsenic, inorganic and organic forms, in water and spot-urine samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among {>=}15-year-old persons in the district. Cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) was calculated from levels of arsenic in water and duration of use of current drinking water source. Prevalence of skin lesions increases with cumulative arsenic exposure (dose) in drinking water and arsenic levels in urine. Skin lesions were 2.5-fold among individuals with BMI <18.5 kg/m{sup 2}. Geographically, more arsenic-contaminated wells and skin lesions were alongside Indus River, suggests a strong link between arsenic contamination of groundwater with proximity to river.This is the first reported epidemiological and clinical evidence of arsenic skin lesions due to groundwater in Pakistan. Further investigations and focal mitigation measures for arsenic may be carried out alongside Indus River.

  6. Liquid RF Antennas, Electronics and Sensors: A Modeling Challenge Anya Traille and Manos M. Tentzeris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    of metal [3]. While metallic antennas are quite effective in the air, they exhibit a sharp dielectric], while inkjet-printable batteries require the deposition of semi-liquid conductive gels. Plus, many efficiency. A conventional metal antenna placed flush into human skin will induce a surface wave within

  7. Dose profiles through the dermis for on and off-skin hot particle exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kimberly Rochelle

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to gamma-rays. Gamma-rays are monoenergetic photons with energies ranging from a few keV to several MeV. Unlike beta particles, gamma-rays are indirectly ionizing radiation. Because a gamma-ray is uncharged, it undergoes no direct ionization... detailed data on dose profiles This thesis follows the format of Radiation Protection Dosimetry. through the dermis from fuel fragments or from mixed beta-gamma activation products. The effects of beta-emitting hot particles suspended above skin without...

  8. Constraining the symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of Tin isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Jun Xu; Bao-An Li

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach that unambiguous correlations exist between observables of finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties. Using this correlation analysis to existing data on the neutron skin thickness of Sn isotopes, we find important constraints on the value E_{sym}(rho_0) and density slope L of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density. Combining these constraints with those from recent analyses of isospin diffusion and double neutron/proton ratio in heavy ion collisions leads to a value of L=58\\pm 18 MeV approximately independent of E_{sym}(\\rho_0).

  9. Probing the neutron-skin thickness by photon production from reactions induced by intermediate-energy protons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Gao-Feng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photon from neutron-proton bremsstrahlung in p+Pb reactions is examined as a potential probe of the neutron-skin thickness in different centralities and at different proton incident energies. It is shown that the best choice of reaction environment is about 140MeV for the incident proton and the 95\\%-100\\% centrality for the reaction system since the incident proton mainly interacts with neutrons inside the skin of the target and thus leads to different photon production to maximal extent. Moreover, considering two main uncertainties from both photon production probability and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the reaction, I propose to use the ratio of photon production from two reactions to measure the neutron-skin thickness because of its cancellation effects on these uncertainties simultaneously, but the preserved about 13\\%-15\\% sensitivities on the varied neutron-skin thickness from 0.1 to 0.3fm within the current experimental uncertainty range of the neutron-skin size in $^{208}$Pb.

  10. Prefrontal involvement in the regulation of emotion: convergence of rat and human studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quirk, Gregory J.

    experiments designed to bridge human and rodent models of emotion regulation. Addresses 1 Department of prefrontal involvement of emotion regula- tion using rat and human models, and suggest future experimentsPrefrontal involvement in the regulation of emotion: convergence of rat and human studies Gregory J

  11. Constraints on neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and density-dependent symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianmin Dong; Wei Zuo; Jianzhong Gu

    2015-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate knowledge about the neutron skin thickness $\\Delta R_{np}$ in $^{208}$Pb has far-reaching implications for different communities of nuclear physics and astrophysics. Yet, the novel Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) did not yield stringent constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$ recently. We employ a more practicable strategy currently to probe the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb based on a high linear correlation between the $\\Delta R_{np}$ and $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$, where $J$ and $a_{\\text{sym}}$ are the symmetry energy (coefficient) of nuclear matter at saturation density and of $^{208}$Pb. An accurate $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ thus places a strong constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$. Compared with the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{\\text{PV}}$ in the PREX, the reliably experimental information on the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ is much more easily available attributed to a wealth of measured data on nuclear masses and on decay energies. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is also well constrained with the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$. Finally, with a `tomoscan' method, we find that one just needs to measure the nucleon densities in $^{208}$Pb starting from $R_{m} = 7.61\\pm0.04$ fm to obtain the $\\Delta R_{np}$ in hadron scattering experiments, regardless of its interior profile that is hampered by the strong absorption.

  12. Constraints on neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and density-dependent symmetry energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Jianmin; Gu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate knowledge about the neutron skin thickness $\\Delta R_{np}$ in $^{208}$Pb has far-reaching implications for different communities of nuclear physics and astrophysics. Yet, the novel Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) did not yield stringent constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$ recently. We employ a more practicable strategy currently to probe the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb based on a high linear correlation between the $\\Delta R_{np}$ and $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$, where $J$ and $a_{\\text{sym}}$ are the symmetry energy (coefficient) of nuclear matter at saturation density and of $^{208}$Pb. An accurate $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ thus places a strong constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$. Compared with the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{\\text{PV}}$ in the PREX, the reliably experimental information on the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ is much more easily available attributed to a wealth of measured data on nuclear masses and on decay energies. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is also well constrained with the $J-a_{\\...

  13. Symmetry energy at subsaturation densities and the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Xiaohua; Zuo, Wei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass-dependent symmetry energy coefficients $a_{sym}(A)$ has been extracted by analysing the heavy nuclear mass differences reducing the uncertainties as far as possible in our previous work. Taking advantage of the obtained symmetry energy coefficient $a_{sym}(A)$ and the density profiles obtained by switching off the Coulomb interaction in $^{208}\\text{Pb}$, we calculated the slope parameter $L_{0.11}$ of the symmetry energy at the density of $0.11\\text{fm}^{-3}$. The calculated $L_{0.11}$ ranges from 40.5 MeV to 60.3 MeV. The slope parameter $L_{0.11}$ of the symmetry energy at the density of $0.11\\text{fm}^{-3}$ is also calculated directly with Skyrme interactions for nuclear matter and is found to have a fine linear relation with the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}\\text{Pb}$, which is the difference of the neutron and proton rms radii of the nucleus. With the linear relation the neutron skin thickness $ \\Delta R_{np} $ of $^{208}\\text{Pb}$ is predicted to be 0.15 - 0.21 fm.

  14. HQ- Human Resources Operations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    HQs Human Recources Operations delivers services, including position management, recruitment, staffing and classification, and reduction in force at Headquarters.  Click the "Contacts" Link to find...

  15. Generation of a suite of 3D computer-generated breast phantoms from a limited set of human subject data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Christina M. L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Palmeri, Mark L. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Segars, W. Paul [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Veress, Alexander I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Dobbins, James T. III [Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The authors previously reported on a three-dimensional computer-generated breast phantom, based on empirical human image data, including a realistic finite-element based compression model that was capable of simulating multimodality imaging data. The computerized breast phantoms are a hybrid of two phantom generation techniques, combining empirical breast CT (bCT) data with flexible computer graphics techniques. However, to date, these phantoms have been based on single human subjects. In this paper, the authors report on a new method to generate multiple phantoms, simulating additional subjects from the limited set of original dedicated breast CT data. The authors developed an image morphing technique to construct new phantoms by gradually transitioning between two human subject datasets, with the potential to generate hundreds of additional pseudoindependent phantoms from the limited bCT cases. The authors conducted a preliminary subjective assessment with a limited number of observers (n= 4) to illustrate how realistic the simulated images generated with the pseudoindependent phantoms appeared. Methods: Several mesh-based geometric transformations were developed to generate distorted breast datasets from the original human subject data. Segmented bCT data from two different human subjects were used as the 'base' and 'target' for morphing. Several combinations of transformations were applied to morph between the 'base' and 'target' datasets such as changing the breast shape, rotating the glandular data, and changing the distribution of the glandular tissue. Following the morphing, regions of skin and fat were assigned to the morphed dataset in order to appropriately assign mechanical properties during the compression simulation. The resulting morphed breast was compressed using a finite element algorithm and simulated mammograms were generated using techniques described previously. Sixty-two simulated mammograms, generated from morphing three human subject datasets, were used in a preliminary observer evaluation where four board certified breast radiologists with varying amounts of experience ranked the level of realism (from 1 ='fake' to 10 ='real') of the simulated images. Results: The morphing technique was able to successfully generate new and unique morphed datasets from the original human subject data. The radiologists evaluated the realism of simulated mammograms generated from the morphed and unmorphed human subject datasets and scored the realism with an average ranking of 5.87 {+-} 1.99, confirming that overall the phantom image datasets appeared more 'real' than 'fake.' Moreover, there was not a significant difference (p > 0.1) between the realism of the unmorphed datasets (6.0 {+-} 1.95) compared to the morphed datasets (5.86 {+-} 1.99). Three of the four observers had overall average rankings of 6.89 {+-} 0.89, 6.9 {+-} 1.24, 6.76 {+-} 1.22, whereas the fourth observer ranked them noticeably lower at 2.94 {+-} 0.7. Conclusions: This work presents a technique that can be used to generate a suite of realistic computerized breast phantoms from a limited number of human subjects. This suite of flexible breast phantoms can be used for multimodality imaging research to provide a known truth while concurrently producing realistic simulated imaging data.

  16. Skin cancer in albinos at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asuquo, M E; Otei, O O; Omotoso, J; Bassey, E E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the human P gene in tyrosinase positive oculocutaneousJenkins T, Ramsay M. The tyrosinase positive oculocutaneousrecessive forms involves the tyrosinase gene (OCA1), whereas

  17. Human Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Indexes Hypervigilant Threat Monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whalen, Paul J.

    Human Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis Indexes Hypervigilant Threat Monitoring Leah H disorders is hypervigilant threat monitoring, its biological bases in humans remain poorly understood. Animal models suggest that anxious processes such as hypervigilant threat monitoring are distinct from

  18. On the evaluation of human error probabilities for post-initiating events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presley, Mary R

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantification of human error probabilities (HEPs) for the purpose of human reliability assessment (HRA) is very complex. Because of this complexity, the state of the art includes a variety of HRA models, each with its own ...

  19. Human Functional Brain Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Human Functional Brain Imaging 1990­2009 September 2011 Portfolio Review Summary Brain Imaging #12 Dale ­ one of our first Trustees. Understanding the brain remains one of our key strategic aims today three-fold: · to identify the key landmarks and influences on the human functional brain imaging

  20. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish DOE procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 CFR Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects, ad in DOE P 443.1, Policy on the Protection of Human Subjects. Cancels DOE O 1300.3. Canceled by DOE O 443.1A.

  1. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The order establishes Department of Energy (DOE) procedures and responsibilities for implementing the policy and requirements set forth in 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 745, Protection of Human Subjects; and in DOE P 443.1A, Protection of Human Subjects, dated 12-20-07. Cancels DOE O 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B.

  2. Modeling and Optimal Regulation of Erythropoiesis Subject to Benzene Intoxication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    humans and laboratory animals [11, 16]. Increased incidence of acute myelogenous leukemia in humans obtained in vitro [5, 6]. Since in vitro metabolic parameters are also available for humans, the model could then be extrapolated to humans for risk assessment. Since benzene is a known human leukemogen

  3. Robotic, Human, and Symbiotic Sensor Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petriu, Emil M.

    , including seismic or blast structural failure, dam failure, and water treatment failure. These sensor and their interdependencies. The downstream consequences of such failure on the rest of society will depend on human responses to the failure and on site-specific relations between infrastructure components. Powerful modeling tools

  4. Proc. 3rd International Conference on Networked Sensing Systems (INSS 2006), pp. 55-60, Rosemont, Illinois (USA), May, 2006. A Whole Body Artificial Skin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    are required to be more cautious about surrounding environments than robots in industrial factories because a tactile sensor skin as one of applications of the system. In this application, the cells are not only within its sensing area. The resulting robot skin is soft, stretchable, and able to cover a large area

  5. Melanocytes can absorb ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and survive con-siderable genotoxic stress. The skin is the main barrier to the exter-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    to the appearance of skin and provide protection from damage by ultraviolet radiation. Pigmentation mutantsMelanocytes can absorb ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and survive con- siderable genotoxic stress. Thisreviewsummarizeshowpigmentationisregulatedatthemolecu- lar level and how the tanning response provides protection against dam- age and skin cancer. We

  6. A Tactile Luminous Floor Used as a Playful Space's Skin* Tobi Delbrck, Adrian M. Whatley, Rodney Douglas, Kynan Eng, Klaus Hepp and Paul F.M.J. Verschure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delbruck, Tobi

    A Tactile Luminous Floor Used as a Playful Space's Skin* Tobi Delbrück, Adrian M. Whatley, Rodney of the novel tactile luminous floor and how the floor is used as the skin of the playful interactive space Ada--interactive space, tactile surface, luminous floor, people tracking, gamse I. INTRODUCTION Many luminous floors have

  7. Evaluating self-reported pressure ulcer prevention measures in persons with1 spinal cord injury using the revised Skin Management Needs Assessment2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    using the revised Skin Management Needs Assessment2 Checklist : reliability study3 Gélis Anthony, MD 1, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de20 Bordeaux, France21 22 Corresponding author:23 Dr. Anthony GELIS, M: to translate, evaluate the reliability and cross-culturally adapt the Skin2 Management Needs Assessment

  8. Numerically Estimating Internal Models of Dynamic Virtual Objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekuler, Robert

    human subjects to manipulate a computer-animated virtual object. This virtual object (vO) was a high, human cognition, human information processing, ideal performer, internal model, virtual object, virtual, specifically how humans acquire an internal model of a dynamic virtual object. Our methodology minimizes

  9. Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasznahorkay, A.; Stuhl, L.; Csatlos, M.; Algora, A. [Inst. of Nucl. Res. of the Hungarian Acad. of Sci. (ATOMKI), H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The {gamma}-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) to the isobaric analog state has been measured following the p({sup 124}Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RPA) and turned out to be very sensitive to the neutronskin thickness ({Delta}R{sub pn}). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured one, the {Delta}R{sub pn} value for {sup 124}Sn was deduced to be 0.21 {+-} 0.07 fm, which agrees well with the previous results. The present method offers new possibilities for measuring the neutron-skin thicknesses of very exotic isotopes.

  10. The neutron skin in neutron-rich nuclei at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalton, Mark M. [University of Virginia (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jefferson Lab program to measure the symmetry energy of neutron-rich nuclear matter, using precision electroweak methods, is progressing well. The initial measurement by the PREX experiment, leading to a 2-sigma determination of the 'neutron skin' in {sup 208}Pb, has been published. Design and preparation for a further, more-precise measurement on {sup 208}Pb is progressing well and there is general acceptance of the great advantage to a further measurement on {sup 48}Ca. The surprising ancillary result that the beam-normal single-spin asymmetry for {sup 208}Pb is consistent with zero is also now in the literature. This paper will discuss the current experimental situation of the program.

  11. Effect of temperature on the effective mass and the neutron skin of nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Yüksel; E. Khan; K. Bozkurt; G. Colò

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the finite temperature Hartree-Fock-BCS approximation for selected stable Sn nuclei with zero-range Skyrme forces. Hartree Fock BCS approximation allows for a straightforward interpretation of the results since it involves u and v's which are not matrices as in HFB. Pairing transitions from superfluid to the normal state are studied with respect to the temperature. The temperature dependence of the nuclear radii and neutron skin are also analyzed. An increase of proton and neutron radii is obtained in neutron rich nuclei especially above the critical temperature. Using different Skyrme energy functionals, it is found that the correlation between the effective mass in symmetric nuclear matter and the critical temperature depends on the pairing prescription. The temperature dependence of the nucleon effective mass is also investigated, showing that proton and neutron effective masses display different behavior below and above the critical temperature, due to the small temperature dependence of the density.

  12. Method of forming a continuous polymeric skin on a cellular foam material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Barthell, Barry L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrophobic cellular material is coated with a thin hydrophilic polymer skin which stretches tightly over the outer surface of the foam but which does not fill the cells of the foam, thus resulting in a polymer-coated foam structure having a smoothness which was not possible in the prior art. In particular, when the hydrophobic cellular material is a specially chosen hydrophobic polymer foam and is formed into arbitrarily chosen shapes prior to the coating with hydrophilic polymer, inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets of arbitrary shapes can be produced by subsequently coating the shapes with metal or with any other suitable material. New articles of manufacture are produced, including improved ICF targets, improved integrated circuits, and improved solar reflectors and solar collectors. In the coating method, the cell size of the hydrophobic cellular material, the viscosity of the polymer solution used to coat, and the surface tensin of the polymer solution used to coat are all very important to the coating.

  13. Comparison of blood flow and cell function in ischemic skin flaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bean, D.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellular function and blood flow in acute, steroid-treated, and surgically delayed random skin flaps have been examined. In these studies, the period following flap elevation could be divided into early (0-2 hr), intermediate (4-6 hr), and late (12 hr) periods of ischemia, based on the cutaneous blood flow and cellular function measured by thallium-201 uptake. There was a close correlation between blood flow and cellular function during the early period of ischemia which became worse with time. Blood flow studies demonstrated a significant difference between the early and intermediate periods of ischemia which was abolished by surgical delay. Improvement in cellular function was accomplished by improved blood flow in the surgically delayed flaps, while steroid-treated flaps enhanced cellular metabolism by another mechanism. Cellular function approximated blood flow during the early and immediate period of ischemia. Steroids may augment cellular function without improving blood flow, while surgical delay improves cellular function by improving blood flow.

  14. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ Humanities Academic Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SANTA CRUZ Humanities Academic Human Resources VOLUNTARY WORKLOAD/or Spring ____ Quarter(s) Funding Source: ________________________________________ (Salary adjustments

  15. Human Pathogen Importation Importing "Human" Pathogens from Outside Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Human Pathogen Importation Importing "Human" Pathogens from Outside Canada 1) Permits be obtained from the Public Health Agency Canada (PHAC) to facilitate customs clearance. 2) If a permit

  16. Animating Human Athletics Jessica K. Hodgins Wayne L. Wooten

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brogan, David

    Animating Human Athletics Jessica K. Hodgins Wayne L. Wooten David C. Brogan James F. O animate these behaviors using control algorithms that cause a physically realistic model to perform and biomechanical data. Key Words and Phrases: computer animation, human motion, motion control, dynamic simulation

  17. Double trisomy mosaic (47,XXX/48,XXX,+13) confirmed by FISH and skin fibroblast culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieber, E.; Grady, V.; Dosik, H. [Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A 4 lb 8 oz female was born to a 49-year-old woman (P1200G12) at 40 weeks. The baby had tetralogy of Fallot, polydactyly, microcephaly, low set simple ears, posterior cleft of the soft palate and overlapping flexion deformities of both hands. The eyes were deep set. The clinical impression was trisomy 13. The baby is not doing well and needs a gastrotomy tube for feeding. Sucking is allright but swallowing is impeded. An MRI showed an anomaly of the corpus callosum. The ophthalmological examination showed no abnormalities. A chromosome study on a 2-day peripheral blood sample resulted in poor growth and poor morphology; however, 20 Giemsa-banded cells revealed a 47,XXX karyotype. A second specimen was obtained to search for mosaicism and a blood smear revealed nuclear projections on the neutrophils. FISH analysis using whole chromosome painting probe (Life Technologies) first identified the extra chromosome number 13, the final results showing five of sixty metaphase cells (8.3%) with trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis using Giemsa-banding technique revealed four cells in fifty examined (8.0%) with a 48,XXX,+13 karyotype. In order to further evaluate the mosaicism, cytogenetic analysis of a skin fibroblast culture was performed. Twenty one of twenty three cells examined (91.3%) showed the 48,XXX,+13 karyotype. FISH analysis of the skin biopsy revealed eighteen of twenty cells (90.9%) with the trisomy 13. The FISH technique is an important enhancement to routine cytogenetic studies when they do not immediately correlate with clinical impressions.

  18. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  19. Associate Vice President Human Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Associate Vice President Human Resources Enjoy Athens! Great schools Affordable housing Eclectic Vice President for Human Resources. This position reports directly to the Vice President for Finance and Administration and provides leadership for the University's human resources programs and services

  20. Human Resources Simon Fraser University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    Human Resources Simon Fraser University Administrative and Professional Staff Job Description A. Identification Position Number: 31482 Position Title: Administrative Assistant (Human Resources Liaison) Name guidance, direction, coordination and effective management and implementation of SFU's Human Resources

  1. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid and related nutrients on plasma lipids, and skin and hair coat condition in canines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hester, Shaleah Lynnae

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed to investigate the effect of diet modifications on skin and hair coat condition in canines. The study included 24 normal adult dogs fed a baseline diet (Ol'Roy[trademark]), during an acclimation period of 12 wk (Phase I). Nine...

  2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 36, NO. 1, JANUARY 2000 281 Thin-Skin Eddy-Current Interaction with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowler, John R.

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 36, NO. 1, JANUARY 2000 281 Thin-Skin Eddy-Current Interaction with Semielliptical and Epicyclic Cracks J. R. Bowler, Member, IEEE, and N. Harfield Abstract--Eddy-current probe current, nondestructive evaluation. I. INTRODUCTION IN EDDY-CURRENT nondestructive evaluation, cracks

  3. Effect of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid and related nutrients on plasma lipids, and skin and hair coat condition in canines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hester, Shaleah Lynnae

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was performed to investigate the effect of diet modifications on skin and hair coat condition in canines. The study included 24 normal adult dogs fed a baseline diet (Ol'Roy[trademark]), during an acclimation period of 12 wk (Phase I). Nine...

  4. Surgical technique, using skin, for repair of simultaneously ruptured anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments of the canine femorotibial articulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chastain, Jamie Neal

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texan In Partial Fulfillnent of the !Iequireaents for the Degree Meeter of Science in Veterinary Medicine and Surgery by Janie Neal Chaetain January 1&359 SURGICAL TECHNI((UE ~ USIN'G SKIN ~ FOR REPAIR...

  5. A Query-by-Example Content-Based Image Retrieval System of Non-Melanoma Skin Lesions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Bob

    A Query-by-Example Content-Based Image Retrieval System of Non-Melanoma Skin Lesions Lucia classes, including two non-melanoma cancer types are used. Colour and texture features are extracted from for images acquired by epiluminescence microscopy (ELM or dermoscopy) and they focus on melanoma, which

  6. Proper Setup of HVAC System in Conjunction with Sound Building 'Skin' Design for Alleviation of IAQ and Energy Performance Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosenberg, M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    climates, not only because of the loss of energy, but also because of damage that can result to insulation, drywall, and structure in addition to promotion of mold and mildew growth. Proper setup of the HVAC system, in conjunction with sound building “skin...

  7. Global Environmental Change and Human Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunnas, Jan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with human rights, human security or environmental change ifEnvironmental Change and Human Security By Matthew, RichardChange and Human Security. Cambridge, Massachusetts &

  8. The Simulation of Humans and Lower Animals Demetri Terzopoulos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    work on the motor control of anthropomorphically articulated dynamic models, as well as the biomechanical modeling of lower animals such as fish, including motor control algorithms that enable and Simulation, Human Simulation, Musculoskeletal Modeling, Neuro- muscular Control, Motor Control Learning 1

  9. Mathematical Modeling Arnold Neumaier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    units Chemistry #15; Chemical reaction dynamics #15; Molecular modeling #15; Electronic structure Biology #15; Protein folding #15; Humane genome project 2 #12; #15; Population dynamics #15; Morphogenesis calculations Computer science #15; Image processing #15; Realistic computer graphics (ray tracing

  10. Wire and column modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandal, Esan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this thesis is to introduce new methods to create intricate perforated shapes in a computing environment. Modeling shapes with a large number of holes and handles, while requiring minimal human interaction, is an unsolved research...

  11. The Evolution of Human Cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gintis, Herbert; Doebeli, Michael; Flack, Jessica

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    684 Gintis, H. 2011. The Evolution of Human Cooperation.misunderstandings about cultural evolution. Human Nat. 19,Feldman, M. , 1981. Cultural Evolution. Princeton University

  12. Combining human and machine intelligence for making predictions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagar, Yiftach

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive literature in psychology, economics, statistics, operations research and management science has dealt with comparing forecasts based on human-expert judgment vs. (statistical) models in a variety of scenarios, ...

  13. Evaluation of Human Performance Issues for Fire Risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bley, Dennis C.; Cooper, Susan E.; Forester, John A.; Kolaczkowski, Alan M.; Ramey-Smith, Ann; Thompson, Catherine M.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Wreathall, John

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the current status of the treatment of human reliability in fire risk analyses for nuclear power plants and identifies areas that need to be addressed. A new approach is suggested to improve the modeling.

  14. Transformation of human melanocytes and mechanisms of melanoma metastasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Piyush B

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While a fundamental feature of human melanoma is its tendency to metastasize to numerous organs throughout the body, very few animal models recapitulate this essential aspect of the disease. In the work described, it is ...

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: next-generation human-earth system...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    human-earth system model New DOE Office of ScienceBER Water Cycle Report On July 23, 2013, in Climate, News, News & Events, Office of Science, Research & Capabilities, Water The...

  16. Model’ or ‘tool’? New definitions for translational research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sive, Hazel

    The term ‘model’ often describes non-human biological systems that are used to obtain a better understanding of human disorders. According to the most stringent definition, an animal ‘model’ would display exactly the same ...

  17. Human Resource Management Delegation

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The notice is to clarifies and updates existing Human Resource Management Delegation Authorities and the levels to which they are delegated. Expired 6-28-97. Does not cancel any directives.

  18. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Policy is to establish DOE-specific principles for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Cancels DOE P 443.1. Canceled by DOE O 443.1B

  19. Protection of Human Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Policy is to establish DOE-specific policy for the protection of human subjects involved in DOE research. Canceled by DOE P 443.1A.

  20. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  1. Modeling active electrolocation in weakly electric fish Habib Ammari

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garnier, Josselin

    Modeling active electrolocation in weakly electric fish Habib Ammari Thomas Boulier Josselin in weakly electric fishes. We first investigate the forward complex conductivity problem and derive the approx- imate boundary conditions on the skin of the fish. Then we provide a dipole approximation

  2. Residential agents and land use change modelling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontaine, Corentin M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Urbanisation is driven by the complex interactions of many physical and human factors where human actions and decisions, individually and collectively, ultimately shape the patterns of urban landscapes. Agentbased modelling ...

  3. Monte Carlo characterization of skin doses in 6 MV transverse field MRI-linac systems: Effect of field size, surface orientation, magnetic field strength, and exit bolus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oborn, B. M.; Metcalfe, P. E.; Butson, M. J.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia) and Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Illawarra Cancer Care Centre (ICCC), Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The main focus of this work is to continue investigations into the Monte Carlo predicted skin doses seen in MRI-guided radiotherapy. In particular, the authors aim to characterize the 70 {mu}m skin doses over a larger range of magnetic field strength and x-ray field size than in the current literature. The effect of surface orientation on both the entry and exit sides is also studied. Finally, the use of exit bolus is also investigated for minimizing the negative effects of the electron return effect (ERE) on the exit skin dose. Methods: High resolution GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations of a water phantom exposed to a 6 MV x-ray beam (Varian 2100C) have been performed. Transverse magnetic fields of strengths between 0 and 3 T have been applied to a 30x30x20 cm{sup 3} phantom. This phantom is also altered to have variable entry and exit surfaces with respect to the beam central axis and they range from -75 deg. to +75 deg. The exit bolus simulated is a 1 cm thick (water equivalent) slab located on the beam exit side. Results: On the entry side, significant skin doses at the beam central axis are reported for large positive surface angles and strong magnetic fields. However, over the entry surface angle range of -30 deg. to -60 deg., the entry skin dose is comparable to or less than the zero magnetic field skin dose, regardless of magnetic field strength and field size. On the exit side, moderate to high central axis skin dose increases are expected except at large positive surface angles. For exit bolus of 1 cm thickness, the central axis exit skin dose becomes an almost consistent value regardless of magnetic field strength or exit surface angle. This is due to the almost complete absorption of the ERE electrons by the bolus. Conclusions: There is an ideal entry angle range of -30 deg. to -60 deg. where entry skin dose is comparable to or less than the zero magnetic field skin dose. Other than this, the entry skin dose increases are significant, especially at higher magnetic fields. On the exit side there is mostly moderate to high skin dose increases for 0.2-3 T with the only exception being large positive angles. Exit bolus of 1 cm thickness will have a significant impact on lowering such exit skin dose increases that occur as a result of the ERE.

  4. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased inflammatory cells and IgE, but the others did not. • The allergic drugs commonly induced germinal center hyperplasia in lymphoid tissues. • Some of these allergic drugs transiently increased CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} T cells in the spleen.

  5. CONSTRUCTING VIRTUAL HUMAN LIFE SIMULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kallmann, Marcelo

    , Virtual Environments, Behavioral Animation, Object Interaction, Python. 1. INTRODUCTION Virtual humanCONSTRUCTING VIRTUAL HUMAN LIFE SIMULATIONS Marcelo Kallmann, Etienne de Sevin and Daniel Thalmann human life simulations. Our main goal is to have virtual human actors living and working autonomously

  6. A STUDY ON THE INCAPACITATION MECHANISM MODEL OF THE JUCHIST AND MARXIST-LENINIST ARTICLES AGAINST THE CORE IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISM MODEL OF THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS ARTICLES IN THE NORTH KOREAN CONSTITUTION: NORTH KOREA'S VIOLATIONS OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS TREATIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun, Woo-Suk

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Korean government] claims that it has a legal system in place for human rights protection and has submitted periodic reports to the UN treaty committees explaining its observance of international human rights treaties.(citation omitted)”). The United... Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office has done a similar analysis in its Annual Report on Human Rights 2009. The relevant parts of its analysis include the following statement: The DPRK [Democratic People’s Republic of Korea] consistently denies...

  7. Planet-scale Human Mobility Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan Hui; Richard Mortier; Tristan Henderson; Jon Crowcroft

    2009-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Research into, and design and construction of mobile systems and algorithms requires access to large-scale mobility data. Unfortunately, the wireless and mobile research community lacks such data. For instance, the largest available human contact traces contain only 100 nodes with very sparse connectivity, limited by experimental logistics. In this paper we pose a challenge to the community: how can we collect mobility data from billions of human participants? We re-assert the importance of large-scale datasets in communication network design, and claim that this could impact fundamental studies in other academic disciplines. In effect, we argue that planet-scale mobility measurements can help to save the world. For example, through understanding large-scale human mobility, we can track and model and contain the spread of epidemics of various kinds.

  8. TopoPlan: a topological path planner for real time human navigation under floor and ceiling constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of virtual humans. 1 Introduction One of the goal of behavioral animation is to automate the process of populating a virtual environment with au- tonomous virtual humans. Models used to describe hu- manoid meshes modeled by designers (architects, graphics de- signers...). In order to endow a virtual human

  9. Biosphere Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.W. Wu; A.J. Smith

    2004-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the biosphere model, the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), which describes radionuclide transport processes in the biosphere and associated human exposure that may arise as the result of radionuclide release from the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The biosphere model is one of the process models that support the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), TSPA-LA. The ERMYN provides the capability of performing human radiation dose assessments. This report documents the biosphere model, which includes: (1) Describing the reference biosphere, human receptor, exposure scenarios, and primary radionuclides for each exposure scenario (Section 6.1); (2) Developing a biosphere conceptual model using site-specific features, events, and processes (FEPs) (Section 6.2), the reference biosphere (Section 6.1.1), the human receptor (Section 6.1.2), and approximations (Sections 6.3.1.4 and 6.3.2.4); (3) Building a mathematical model using the biosphere conceptual model (Section 6.3) and published biosphere models (Sections 6.4 and 6.5); (4) Summarizing input parameters for the mathematical model, including the uncertainty associated with input values (Section 6.6); (5) Identifying improvements in the ERMYN compared with the model used in previous biosphere modeling (Section 6.7); (6) Constructing an ERMYN implementation tool (model) based on the biosphere mathematical model using GoldSim stochastic simulation software (Sections 6.8 and 6.9); (7) Verifying the ERMYN by comparing output from the software with hand calculations to ensure that the GoldSim implementation is correct (Section 6.10); (8) Validating the ERMYN by corroborating it with published biosphere models; comparing conceptual models, mathematical models, and numerical results (Section 7).

  10. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Karim, Md. Rezaul [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia-7003 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh); Hossain, Mostaque [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh)] [Department of Medicine, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka (Bangladesh); Haris, Parvez I. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)] [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770–8514 (Japan); Hossain, Khaled, E-mail: khossain69@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi-6205 (Bangladesh)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ? Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ? Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ? Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ? Study subjects with arsenic-induced skin lesions show elevated plasma Big ET-1 levels. ? Arsenic-induced hypertension and skin lesions may be linked to plasma Big ET-1 levels.

  11. An Experimental Comparison of Human and Automatic Music Segmentation Justin de Nooijer,*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veltkamp, Remco

    , the experiments were designed to answer the following questions: Q1. Is there enough agreement in human melodyAn Experimental Comparison of Human and Automatic Music Segmentation Justin de Nooijer,*1 Frans works need to be decomposed into segments and voices. One would expect that methods that model human

  12. automatic model based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    still far worse than that of humans. This is partly caused by the use of poor statistical models. In a general statistical pattern classification task, the probabilistic models...

  13. CANDU human performance analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, I.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of human performance is presented in this paper in the context of the operational safety management system. To focus on problems, an experience review program has been developed to establish trends, demonstrate the degree of compliance with standards, and determine the causes of poor performance. The primary method by which the experience review takes place is significant event reporting (SER). A significant event is an incident that causes an undesirable effect on safety, product quality, environmental protection, or product cost. In spite of advanced technology and the degree of automation of the Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) design, mistakes and malfunctions to occur. Considerable effort has been made to prevent or reduce the incidence of error. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations developed a system to analyze human error, called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). To encourage an open exchange of information, the system is anonymous and nonpunitive. All data gathered during HPES evaluations are kept confidential.

  14. Human MSH2 protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    de la Chapelle, Albert (Helsingfors, FI); Vogelstein, Bert (Baltimore, MD); Kinzler, Kenneth W. (Baltimore, MD)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  15. Human MSH2 protein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  16. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human Resources

  17. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human Resources

  18. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human

  19. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human print

  20. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources Human

  1. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab GroupHuman Resources HumanAppraisal

  2. Vacuum Energy and Casimir Force in a Presence of Skin-depth Dependent Boundary Condition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. L. Lebedev

    2000-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The vacuum energy-momentum tensor (EMT) and the vacuum energy corresponding to massive scalar field on $\\Re_{t}\\times [0,l] \\times \\Re^{D-2}$ space-time with boundary condition involving a dimensional parameter ($\\delta$) are found. The dependent on the cavity size $l$ Casimir energy $\\wt E_{C}$ is a uniquely determinable function of mass $m$, size $l$ and "skin-depth" $\\delta$. This energy includes the "bulk" and the surface (potential energy) contributions. The latter dominates when $l \\sim \\delta$. Taking the surface potential energy into account is crucial for the coincidence between the derivative $-\\d \\wt E_{C}/\\d l$ and the $ll$-component of the vacuum EMT. Casimir energy $\\wt E_C$ and the bulk contribution to it are interconnected through Legendre transformation, in which the quantity $\\delta^{-1}$ is conjugate to the vacuum surface energy multiplied by $\\delta$. The surface singularities of the vacuum EMT do not depend on $l$ and, for even $D$, $\\delta =0$ or $\\infty$, possess finite interpretation. The corresponding vacuum energy is finite and retains known analytical dependence on the dimension $D$.

  3. Magnetic reconnection on the ion-skin-depth scale in the dusty magnetotail of a comet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jovanovic, D.; Shukla, P.K.; Morfill, G. [Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Resistive magnetic reconnection is studied in a dusty plasma configuration without a guide magnetic field, typical for cometary tails. For a high-{beta} plasma ({beta}{approx}1) consisting of electrons, ions, and immobile dust grains that constitute a neutralizing background, a two-fluid description is used to study electromagnetic perturbations with the frequency below the ion gyrofrequency, propagating at an arbitrary angle relative to the background magnetic field and including the effects of the Hall current. The perturbations consist of both the compressional and torsional components of the magnetic field, as well as of the acoustic perturbations and the electrostatic potential. The symmetry breaking between electrons and ions, introduced by the presence of dust grains, gives rise to an E-vectorxB-vector current in the unperturbed state which can support an antiparallel magnetic field configuration even in a cold plasma. In the perturbed state, the emergence of a new electromagnetic mode in a dusty plasma, which is evanescent below the Rao cutoff frequency and has the characteristic wavelength comparable to the ion skin depth, enables the reconnection at short spatial scales. The growth rate of the tearing instability is evaluated analytically.

  4. Optical properties of metals: Infrared emissivity in the anomalous skin effect spectral region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echániz, T. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Pérez-Sáez, R. B., E-mail: raul.perez@ehu.es; Tello, M. J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, UPV/EHU, Sarriena s/n, Leioa 48940 (Spain); Instituto de Síntesis y Estudio de Materiales, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, Bilbao 48080 (Spain)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    When the penetration depth of an electromagnetic wave in a metal is similar to the mean free path of the conduction electrons, the Drude classical theory is no longer satisfied and the skin effect becomes anomalous. Physical parameters of this theory for twelve metals were calculated and analyzed. The theory predicts an emissivity peak ?{sub peak} at room temperature in the mid-infrared for smooth surface metals that moves towards larger wavelengths as temperature decreases. Furthermore, the theory states that ?{sub peak} increases with the emission angle but its position, ?{sub peak}, is constant. Copper directional emissivity measurements as well as emissivity obtained using optical constants data confirm the predictions of the theory. Considering the relationship between the specularity parameter p and the sample roughness, it is concluded that p is not the simple parameter it is usually assumed to be. Quantitative comparison between experimental data and theoretical predictions shows that the specularity parameter can be equal to one for roughness values larger than those predicted. An exhaustive analysis of the experimental optical parameters shows signs of a reflectance broad peak in Cu, Al, Au, and Mo around the wavelength predicted by the theory for p?=?1.

  5. Combining Modeling and Gaming for Predictive Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riensche, Roderick M.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2012-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of our most significant challenges involve people. While human behavior has long been studied, there are recent advances in computational modeling of human behavior. With advances in computational capabilities come increases in the volume and complexity of data that humans must understand in order to make sense of and capitalize on these modeling advances. Ultimately, models represent an encapsulation of human knowledge. One inherent challenge in modeling is efficient and accurate transfer of knowledge from humans to models, and subsequent retrieval. The simulated real-world environment of games presents one avenue for these knowledge transfers. In this paper we describe our approach of combining modeling and gaming disciplines to develop predictive capabilities, using formal models to inform game development, and using games to provide data for modeling.

  6. An exploratory study of heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response as they relate to affective rating of recorded music

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruner, Gordon Carl

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that because of the autonomic equilibrium maintained in the body, it is impossible to stimulate a system, no matter how mildly, without some evidence of the disturbance being produced. So the question faced by the researcher was not whether the body... of autonomic reactivity (heart rate, respiration, and galvanic skin response) and the level at which a person rated a song. Further, the main product of the study is a statement oi some of the salient issues and factors involved in the testing...

  7. Human Processing (Position Paper)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Edward Y.

    and describe remaining challenges in the area (Section 6). 2. MOTIVATING EXAMPLE "Priam," the editor below, we explain how Priam might go about accomplishing this task. Figure 1: Basic Buyer human. The programmer (Priam) writes a normal program. 2. That program can, in the course of execution, create HTML

  8. Human-computer interaction task learning: an empirical investigation of interface quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packebush, Sherrill Janine

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research examines learnability measures derived from the all-or-none stochastic learning model. The all-or-none model represents the paired-associate learning that occurs during the initial learning of human-computer interaction (HCI) tasks...

  9. Climate and Environmental Sciences Division Strategic Plan Water is a key component of the earth and human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    , and subsurface processes, as well as climate and earth system modeling and integrated assessment modeling and plan the development of next- generation human-earth system models for improving long-term predictions

  10. Policy on Human Subjects Research Policy on Human Subjects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Policy on Human Subjects Research 10/15/2014 Policy on Human Subjects Research I. Purpose and Scope requirements that the rights and welfare of human subjects receive adequate protection. This policy applies, except that research conducted or assigned as part of their coursework is governed by the Policy

  11. DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS FOR INFINITE DOUBLE-POROSITY SYSTEMS WITHOUT WELLBORE SKIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sageev, A.; Da Prat, G.; Ramey Jr., H.J.

    1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a transient pressure analysis method for analyzing the rate decline of a constant pressure well producing in an infinite double-porosity reservoir, without wellbore skin. This analysis method may be used to interpret well test rate data, and to compute the rate behavior of an infinitely acting reservoir that is being produced at constant pressure. The development of the pseudo steady state log-log type curve Is presented along with a hypothetical example of its use. This type curve allows the estimation of the two controlling parameters in double-porosity systems: {lambda} and {omega}. The first parameter, {lambda}, describes the interporosity flow, and the second parameter, {omega} describes the relative fracture storativity. This paper considers the estimation of these two parameters. The estimations of permeabilities and storativities have been described in the past, hence, are not considered. In a double-porosity system, with pseudo steady state interporosity flow, the initial infinite acting rate decline, representing only the fracture system, is followed by a constant rate flow period. The length of this constant rate flow period is controlled by the parameter {omega}. The beginning of this period is controlled by the interporosity flow parameter, {lambda}. Following this constant rate period, the rate resumes an infinite homogeneous decline, representing the total system, fractures and matrix. The parameters {lambda} and {omega} may be estimated from a log-log match of rate data to the type curve. A comparison between rate responses of two transient flowing matrices and the pseudo steady state matrix Is presented. Transient interporosity flow allows the matrix to increase the well flowrate in the early and transition portions of the flow. The final decline, representing the total system, is identical to the decline with a pseudo steady state matrix.

  12. Effects of PGF{sub 2{alpha}} on human melanocytes and regulation of the FP receptor by ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Glynis [Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Box 697, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)]. E-mail: Glynis_Scott@urmc.rochester.edu; Jacobs, Stacey [Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Box 697, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Leopardi, Sonya [Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Box 697, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States); Anthony, Frank A. [Schering-Plough HealthCare Products Inc., Memphis TN (United States); Learn, Doug [Charles River DDS, Argus Division, Horsham, PA (United States); Malaviya, Rama [University of Medicine and Dentistry, RWJMS, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Pentland, Alice [Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Box 697, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Rochester, NY 14642 (United States)

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prostaglandins are potent lipid hormones that activate multiple signaling pathways resulting in regulation of cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. In the skin, prostaglandins are rapidly released by keratinocytes following ultraviolet radiation and are chronically present in inflammatory skin lesions. We have shown previously that melanocytes, which provide photoprotection to keratinocytes through the production of melanin, express several receptors for prostaglandins, including the PGE{sub 2} receptors EP{sub 1} and EP{sub 3} and the PGF{sub 2{alpha}} receptor FP, and that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} stimulates melanocyte dendricity. We now show that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} stimulates the activity and expression of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. Analysis of FP receptor regulation showed that the FP receptor is regulated by ultraviolet radiation in melanocytes in vitro and in human skin in vivo. We also show that ultraviolet irradiation stimulates production of PGF{sub 2{alpha}} by melanocytes. These results show that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} binding to the FP receptor activates signals that stimulate a differentiated phenotype (dendricity and pigmentation) in melanocytes. The regulation of the FP receptor and the stimulation of production of PGF{sub 2{alpha}} in melanocytes in response to ultraviolet radiation suggest that PGF{sub 2{alpha}} could act as an autocrine factor for melanocyte differentiation.

  13. Learning Nonparametric Models for Probabilistic Imitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rao, Rajesh

    in humans and robots. A critical requirement for learning by imi- tation is the ability to handle- chanical model of the human arm and a 25-degrees-of-freedom humanoid robot. We demonstrate by the humanoid robot. 1 Introduction A fundamental and versatile mechanism for learning in humans is imitation

  14. MODELING IMAGE SEQUENCES, WITH PARTICULAR APPLICATION TO FMRI DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hastie, Trevor

    experiments. Such experiments com- monly consist of human subjects being exposed to a designed temporal replenishing the sites. The data collected in fMRI human brain mapping experiments consists of se- quencesMRI human brain mapping experiments. In this dissertation, we examine time-course models for fMRI human

  15. An Equilibrium Point based Model Unifying Movement Control in Humanoids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    the dynamics methods effectively used in robotics control, few tackle the intricacies of the human the virtual model and real humans. One of the central questions of studying human movements is how the Central in robot systems as complicated as humans in dynamic environments. The inverse dynamics calculation

  16. Study on an Information Processing Model with Psychological Memory for a Kansei Robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    robot. This model handles memory based on human psychology. We expect that on incorporating the model, a robot can exhibit human characteristics because of using psychological memory. To verify the model, we of the model are similar to the human memory functions. Second, we conduct the process of learning movement

  17. A lumped-parameter electro-thermal model for cylindrical batteries Xinfan Lin a,*, Hector E. Perez a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    is applied to a LiFePO4/graphite battery. Comparison with the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy dataA lumped-parameter electro-thermal model for cylindrical batteries Xinfan Lin a,*, Hector E. Perez i g h t s An electro-thermal model capturing battery SOC, voltage, skin and core temperature

  18. Sequential Causal Learning in Humans and Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R.; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    selection, to a human experiment that employed pretraining (group (white) in human experiment by Beckers et al. (2005).set used for the human experiments, we increased the

  19. Sequential Causal Learning in Humans and Rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hongjing Lu; Randall R. Rojas; Tom Beckers; Alan Yuille

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    selection, to a human experiment that employed pretraining (group (white) in human experiment by Beckers et al. (2005).set used for the human experiments, we increased the

  20. Human Capital Management Accountability Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order establishes requirements, roles and responsibilities for the Human Capital Management Accountability Program (HCMAP) for human resources programs and personnel and ensures that human capital activities are regulatory and procedurally compliant with Federal statutes and Departmental policies. Does not cancel other directives.

  1. Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kautz, Henry

    Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz One of the earliest goals of research in artificial intelligence was to create systems that can interpret and understand day to day human experience. Early work on the goal of building systems that understand human experience. Each of the previous barriers is weakened

  2. The Development of A Human Systems Simulation Laboratory: Strategic Direction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo; Katya le Blanc; David Gertman

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) at the Idaho National Laboratory is one of few facilities of its kind that allows human factors researchers to evaluate various aspects of human performance and human system interaction for proposed reactor designs and upgrades. A basic system architecture, physical configuration and simulation capability were established to enable human factors researchers to support multiple, simultaneous simulations and also different power plant technologies. Although still evolving in terms of its technical and functional architecture, the HSSL is already proving its worth in supporting current and future nuclear industry needs for light water reactor sustainability and small modular reactors. The evolution of the HSSL is focused on continual physical and functional refinement to make it a fully equipped, reconfigurable facility where advanced research, testing and validation studies can be conducted on a wider range of reactor technologies. This requires the implementation of additional plant models to produce empirical research data on human performance with emerging human-system interaction technologies. Additional beneficiaries of this information include system designers and HRA practitioners. To ensure that results of control room crew studies will be generalizable to the existing and evolving fleet of US reactors, future expansion of the HSSL may also include other SMR plant models, plant-specific simulators and a generic plant model aligned to the current generation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and future advanced reactor designs. Collaboration with industry partners is also proving to be a vital component of the facility as this helps to establish a formal basis for current and future human performance experiments to support nuclear industry objectives. A long-range Program Plan has been developed for the HSSL to ensure that the facility will support not only the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, but also to provide human factors guidance for all future developments of the nuclear industry.

  3. Expression of human cytokines dramatically improves reconstitution of specific human-blood lineage cells in humanized mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingfeng

    Adoptive transfer of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into mice lacking T, B and natural killer (NK) cells leads to development of human-blood lineage cells in the recipient mice (humanized mice). Although human B ...

  4. Integrated Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

  5. Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis: Benefits and Challenges of Simulating Human Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To date, there has been considerable work on dynamic event trees and other areas related to dynamic probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The counterpart to these efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) has centered on the development of specific methods to account for the dynamic nature of human performance. In this paper, the author posits that the key to dynamic HRA is not in the development of specific methods but in the utilization of cognitive modeling and simulation to produce a framework of data that may be used in quantifying the likelihood of human error. This paper provides an overview of simulation approaches to HRA; reviews differences between first, second, and dynamic generation HRA; and outlines potential benefits and challenges of this approach.

  6. Human Resources Organizational Development and Training 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennett, Daniel

    Human Resources Organizational Development and Training 1 Development Guide for Tufts Leadership Competencies Human Resources Training, Learning and Development Copyright © 2013 Tufts University Developed with Copperbeech Group Inc. #12;Human Resources Training, Learning and Development 2 #12;Human Resources Training

  7. Activity Recognition for Natural Human Robot Interaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravindran, Balaraman

    Activity Recognition for Natural Human Robot Interaction Addwiteey Chrungoo1 , SS Manimaran between humans and robots. While humans can distinguish between communicative actions and activities of daily living, robots cannot draw such inferences effectively. To allow intuitive human robot interaction

  8. Investigating impacts of natural and human-induced environmental changes on hydrological processes and flood hazards using a GIS-based hydrological/hydraulic model and remote sensing data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lei

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    a GISbased hydrological and hydraulic modeling system, which incorporates state-of-the-art remote sensing data to simulate flood under various scenarios. The conceptual framework and technical issues of incorporating multi-scale remote sensing data...

  9. MPEG-4 Body Animation Parameters (BAPs) are used for animation of MPEG-4 compliant virtual human-like characters. Distributed virtual reality applications and networked games on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Kang

    Power Aware Compression Algorithms for MPEG-4 Virtual Human Animation in Mobile Computers Siddhartha virtual human (avatar) animation is used in many applications that depict human models interacting decompression, is needed. MPEG-4 has proposed H-Anim standards to represent virtual human-like characters [7] [8

  10. Automatic history matching of dual porosity system with wellbore storage and skin constant rate case

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olarewaju, Joseph Shola

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION MATHEMATICAL MODEL HISTORY MATCHING MODEL MODEL VALIDATION Comparison with the Warren and Root Solution RESULTS Type Curves Automatic History Matching Behavior at Early... Page I Comparison of the Numerical Inversion Results with the Warren and Root Analytical Solution. 2 Comparison of the Numerical Inversion Results with the Agarwal et al. Analytical Solution. 3 Basic Type Curve Data 4 Simulated Drawdown Example...

  11. PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory PIA - Human Resources - Personal Information Change Request - Idaho National...

  12. Extending expectation propagation for graphical models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Yuan, 1974-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical models have been widely used in many applications, ranging from human behavior recognition to wireless signal detection. However, efficient inference and learning techniques for graphical models are needed to ...

  13. The Human Equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natale, Michael J.

    the smaller cloaked vessel before she had a chance to de-cloak and fire, the Enterprise had virtually disabled the scoutship. Now, the innocent people on Omnicron I could at least get a break from the barrage of disrupter fire from orbit, and the Enterprise... into destroying the Klingon vessel. But, if they were going to threaten innocents on Omnicron I, then the Enterprise could play the role of executioner adequately. "Mr. Sulu, fire main phasers!" "Locking phasers.....firing, sir!" The Human Equation Page...

  14. Human portable preconcentrator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Bouchier, Francis A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hannum, David W. (Albuquerque, NM); Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated.

  15. Human Genome Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The DOE Human Genome program has grown tremendously, as shown by the marked increase in the number of genome-funded projects since the last workshop held in 1991. The abstracts in this book describe the genome research of DOE-funded grantees and contractors and invited guests, and all projects are represented at the workshop by posters. The 3-day meeting includes plenary sessions on ethical, legal, and social issues pertaining to the availability of genetic data; sequencing techniques, informatics support; and chromosome and cDNA mapping and sequencing.

  16. Mentoring Human Performance - 12480

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geis, John A.; Haugen, Christian N. [CALIBRE Systems, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the positive effects of implementing a human performance approach to operations can be hard to quantify, many organizations and industry areas are finding tangible benefits to such a program. Recently, a unique mentoring program was established and implemented focusing on improving the performance of managers, supervisors, and work crews, using the principles of Human Performance Improvement (HPI). The goal of this mentoring was to affect behaviors and habits that reliably implement the principles of HPI to ensure continuous improvement in implementation of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) within a Conduct of Operations framework. Mentors engaged with personnel in a one-on-one, or one-on-many dialogue, which focused on what behaviors were observed, what factors underlie the behaviors, and what changes in behavior could prevent errors or events, and improve performance. A senior management sponsor was essential to gain broad management support. A clear charter and management plan describing the goals, objectives, methodology, and expected outcomes was established. Mentors were carefully selected with senior management endorsement. Mentors were assigned to projects and work teams based on the following three criteria: 1) knowledge of the work scope; 2) experience in similar project areas; and 3) perceived level of trust they would have with project management, supervision, and work teams. This program was restructured significantly when the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) and the associated funding came to an end. The program was restructured based on an understanding of the observations, attributed successes and identified shortfalls, and the consolidation of those lessons. Mentoring the application of proven methods for improving human performance was shown effective at increasing success in day-to-day activities and increasing confidence and level of skill of supervisors. While mentoring program effectiveness is difficult to measure, and return on investment is difficult to quantify, especially in complex and large organizations where the ability to directly correlate causal factors can be challenging, the evidence presented by Sydney Dekker, James Reason, and others who study the field of human factors does assert managing and reducing error is possible. Employment of key behaviors-HPI techniques and skills-can be shown to have a significant impact on error rates. Our mentoring program demonstrated reduced error rates and corresponding improvements in safety and production. Improved behaviors are the result, of providing a culture with consistent, clear expectations from leadership, and processes and methods applied consistently to error prevention. Mentoring, as envisioned and executed in this program, was effective in helping shift organizational culture and effectively improving safety and production. (authors)

  17. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab Group Gets 10JeffersonHuman Resources

  18. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab Group Gets 10JeffersonHuman

  19. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab Group Gets 10JeffersonHumanAppraisal

  20. Jefferson Lab Human Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLab Group Gets 10JeffersonHumanAppraisalHR

  1. ARM - Human Causes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006Datastreamstwrcam40m DocumentationJanuary 9, 2009 [Events, FeatureListGeneral ChangesFieldVisitorListHuman

  2. Effects of the co-carcinogen catechol on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism and DNA adduct formation in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melikian, A.A.; Leszczynska, J.M.; Hecht, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effects of the co-carcinogen catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) on the metabolic activation of (/sup 3/H) benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in mouse skin, in vivo and on the binding of BaP metabolites to DNA and protein at intervals from 0.5-24 h. Upon topical application of 0.015 mg (/sup 3/H)BaP and 0.25 or 0.5 mg catechol per mouse, catechol had little effect on the total amount of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolized in mouse skin, but it affected the relative proportions of (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites. Catechol (0.5 mg/mouse) decreased the proportion of water-soluble (/sup 3/H)BaP metabolites, ethyl acetate-soluble polar metabolites and quinones, but doubled the levels of unconjugated 3-hydroxy-BaP at all measured intervals after treatment. Catechol also caused a small increase in the levels of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydroBaP and trans-9,10-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydroBaP 0.5 h after treatment. Two hours after treatment, the levels of these metabolites subsided to those of the controls. Catechol did not affect the levels of glutathione conjugates of BaP. However, it caused a decrease in glucuronide and sulphate conjugate formation from BaP. Catechol caused an approximately 2-fold increase in the formation of anti-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydroBaP (BPDE) DNA adducts and elevated the ratio of anti-syn-BPDE-DNA adducts 1.6 to 2.9-fold. Catechol treatment increased the radioactivity associated with epidermal proteins after (/sup 3/H)BaP application. Because catechol increased levels of 3-hydroxyBaP, we considered the possibility that 3-hydroxyBaP might enhance the tumor initiating activities of BaP or BPDE in mouse skin; a bioassay demonstrated that this was not the case. The results of this study indicate that one important effect of catechol related to its co-carcinogenicity is its ability to enhance formation of anti-BPDE-DNA adducts in mouse skin.

  3. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  4. Human factors review for Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krois, P.A.; Haas, P.M.; Manning, J.J.; Bovell, C.R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper will discuss work being conducted during this human factors review including: (1) support of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program based on an assessment of operator actions, and (2) development of a descriptive model of operator severe accident management. Research by SASA analysts on the Browns Ferry Unit One (BF1) anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) was supported through a concurrent assessment of operator performance to demonstrate contributions to SASA analyses from human factors data and methods. A descriptive model was developed called the Function Oriented Accident Management (FOAM) model, which serves as a structure for bridging human factors, operations, and engineering expertise and which is useful for identifying needs/deficiencies in the area of accident management. The assessment of human factors issues related to ATWS required extensive coordination with SASA analysts. The analysis was consolidated primarily to six operator actions identified in the Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) as being the most critical to the accident sequence. These actions were assessed through simulator exercises, qualitative reviews, and quantitative human reliability analyses. The FOAM descriptive model assumes as a starting point that multiple operator/system failures exceed the scope of procedures and necessitates a knowledge-based emergency response by the operators. The FOAM model provides a functionally-oriented structure for assembling human factors, operations, and engineering data and expertise into operator guidance for unconventional emergency responses to mitigate severe accident progression and avoid/minimize core degradation. Operators must also respond to potential radiological release beyond plant protective barriers. Research needs in accident management and potential uses of the FOAM model are described. 11 references, 1 figure.

  5. NEW DATA MODEL FOR GRAPH-CUT SEGMENTATION: APPLICATION TO AUTOMATIC MELANOMA DELINEATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lezoray, Olivier

    NEW DATA MODEL FOR GRAPH-CUT SEGMENTATION: APPLICATION TO AUTOMATIC MELANOMA DELINEATION R. K but also texture and shape information. For melanoma images, we also introduce skin chromophore features- tion to melanoma delineation compares favorably to manual delineation and related graph

  6. A parametric study of the drift-tearing mode using an extended-magnetohydrodynamic model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, J. R.; Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave. Suite A Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The linear, collisional, constant-? drift-tearing mode is analyzed for different regimes of the plasma-?, ion-skin-depth parameter space with an unreduced, extended-magnetohydrodynamic model. New dispersion relations are found at moderate plasma ? and previous drift-tearing results are classified as applicable at small plasma ?.

  7. SU-E-I-22: Dependence On Calibration Phantom and Field Area of the Conversion Factor Used to Calculate Skin Dose During Neuro-Interventional Fluoroscopic Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, V K; Vijayan, S [Physiology and Biophysics, Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (State University of New York), Buffalo, NY (United States); Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R [Department of Radiology, Physiology and Biophysics, Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (State University of New York), Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different phantoms can contribute different backscatter for identical exposure parameters. Research supported in part by Toshiba Medical Systems and NIH Grants R43FD0158401, R44FD0158402 and R01EB002873.

  8. Dynamic change of histone H2AX phosphorylation independent of ATM and DNA-PK in mouse skin in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koike, Manabu [DNA Repair Gene Research, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: m_koike@nirs.go.jp; Mashino, Minako; Sugasawa, Jun; Koike, Aki [DNA Repair Gene Research, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Histone H2AX undergoes phosphorylation on Ser 139 ({gamma}-H2AX) rapidly in response to DNA double-strand breaks induced by exogenous stimuli, such as ionizing radiation. However, the endogenous phosphorylation pattern and modifier of H2AX remain unclear. Here we show that H2AX is regulated physically at the level of phosphorylation at Ser139 during a hair cycle in the mouse skin. In anagen hair follicles, {gamma}-H2AX-positive cells were observed in the outer root sheath (ORS) and hair bulb in a cycling inferior region but not in a permanent superficial region. In telogen hair follicles, {gamma}-H2AX-positive cells were only detected around the germ cell cap. In contrast, following X-irradiation, {gamma}-H2AX was observed in various cell types including the ORS cells in the permanent superficial region. Furthermore, {gamma}-H2AX-positive cells were detected in the skin of mice lacking either ATM or DNA-PK, suggesting that these kinases are not essential for phosphorylation in vivo.

  9. 2014 Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Announcing The Human Reliability Program Workshop Sponsored by Office of Security (AU-50), U.S Department of Energy In collaboration with NA, NE, EM and SC

  10. NCSU Human Resources Training & Organizational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011 NCSU Human Resources Training & Organizational Development Spring & Summer 2011 Learning to Training & Organizational Development's new eLearning Training Catalog. This catalog serves as a central

  11. Protection of Human Research Subjects

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2015-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Changes are made to harmonize the definitions in this Order with those in the Federal regulations for the protection of human subjects (10 CFR Part 745), specifically, splitting the definition "human subject research" into "research" and "human subject," and adopting, verbatim, the definitions of "research" and "human subject" from 10 CFR Part 745 and adding the definition of "generalizable," since the determination of whether a project is "research" in 10 CFR Part 745 hinges on whether the work being conducted is generalizable. Small corrections and updates have been made to the references, links, and organization titles.

  12. Design of a building structural skin using multi-objective optimization techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merello, Riccardo

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multi-disciplinary System Design Optimization was used to design the geometry and to select the materials for the structural facade of a building. A multi-objective optimization model was developed, capable of optimizing ...

  13. Side-by-side evaluation of a stressed-skin insulated-core panel house and a conventional stud-frame house. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Chandra, S.

    1994-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Side-by-side energy testing and monitoring was conducted on two houses in Louisville, KY between January--March 1993. Both houses were identical except that one house was constructed with conventional US 2 by 4 studs and a truss roof while the other house was constructed with stress-skin insulated core panels for the walls and second floor ceiling. Air-tightness testing included fan pressurization by blower door, hour long tracer tests using sulphur hexafluoride, and two-week long time-averaged tests using perfluorocarbon tracers. An average of all the air-tightness test results showed the SSIC panel house to have 22 percent less air infiltration than the frame house. Air-tightness testing resulted in a recommendation that both houses have a fresh air ventilation system installed to provide 0.35 air changes per hour continuously. Thermal insulation quality testing was by infrared imaging. Pressure differential testing resulted in recommendations to use sealed combustion appliances, and to allow for more return air flow from closed rooms. This can be accomplished by separate return ducts or transfer ducts which simply connect closed rooms to the main body with a short duct. The SSIC house UA was lower in both cases. By measurement, co-heating tests showed the SSIC panel house total UA to be 12 percent lower than the frame house. Short-term energy monitoring was also conducted for the two houses. A 17 day period of electric heating and a 14 day period of gas furnace heating was evaluated. Monitoring results showed energy savings for the panel house to be 12 percent during electric heating and 15 percent during gas heating. A comparison of the two monitoring periods showed that the lumped efficiency of the gas furnace and air distribution system for both houses was close to 80 percent. Simple regression models using Typical Meteorological Year weather data gave a preliminary prediction of seasonal energy savings between 14 and 20 percent.

  14. Human portable preconcentrator system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L.; Brusseau, Charles A.; Hannum, David W.; Puissant, James G.; Varley, Nathan R.

    2003-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A preconcentrator system and apparatus suited to human portable use wherein sample potentially containing a target chemical substance is drawn into a chamber and through a pervious screen. The screen is adapted to capture target chemicals and then, upon heating, to release those chemicals into the chamber. Chemicals captured and then released in this fashion are then carried to a portable chemical detection device such as a portable ion mobility spectrometer. In the preferred embodiment, the means for drawing sample into the chamber comprises a reversible fan which, when operated in reverse direction, creates a backpressure that facilitates evolution of captured target chemicals into the chamber when the screen is heated. The screen can be positioned directly in front of the detector prior to heating to improve detection capability.

  15. Human-computer interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2004-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing. Force feedback allows intuitive navigation and control near a boundary between regions in a computer-represented space. For example, the method allows a user to interact with a virtual craft, then push through the windshield of the craft to interact with the virtual world surrounding the craft. As another example, the method allows a user to feel transitions between different control domains of a computer representation of a space. The method can provide for force feedback that increases as a user's locus of interaction moves near a boundary, then perceptibly changes (e.g., abruptly drops or changes direction) when the boundary is traversed.

  16. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  17. Multifactor Gaussian Process Models for Style-Content Separation Jack M. Wang jmwang@dgp.toronto.edu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    novel animation from the model. 1. Introduction Using prior models of human motion to constrain independently, al- lowing nonlinear mappings from any partic- ular factor to the data. We learn models for human. This paper introduces a multifactor model for learning distributions of styles of human motion. We param

  18. 227Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty AND HUMAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dresden, Gregory

    227Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty AND HUMAN CAPABILIty StUDIeS (Pov) Core FACULty: PROFESSORS BeCKLey*, GOLDSMITH, MARGAND The Shepherd Program for the Interdisciplinary Study of Poverty studies can prepare them as future professionals and citizens to address the problems of poverty

  19. 237Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty and Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dresden, Gregory

    237Poverty and Human Capability Studies Poverty and Human CaPability StudieS (Pov) Core FaCulty: PROFESSORS beCKley*, GOLDSMITH, MARGAND The Shepherd Program for the interdisciplinary Study of Poverty and graduate studies can prepare them as futureprofessionalsandcitizenstoaddresstheproblems of poverty and how

  20. Climate Human Capital | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformation SmyrnaNewClayClearSpotYork: EnergyWitham, England,Human